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Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka
Ysmar Vianna
Maurício Vianna
Bruno Medina
Samara Tanaka
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Recreating companies through games
Recreating companies
through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games
Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka Recreating companies through games

Gamification, Inc. Recreating companies through games

Gamification, Inc. Recreating companies through games

Ysmar Vianna

Maurício Vianna

Bruno Medina

Samara Tanaka

Gamification, Inc. Recreating companies through games Ysmar Vianna Maurício Vianna Bruno Medina Samara Tanaka

Copyright © 2014 MJV Tecnologia Ltda. All rights reserved.

Unauthorized reproduction of this publication, in whole or in part, constitutes copyright violation.

Contribution Fagner Lima Paulo Sergio Guimarães


Gláucia Machado


Glaucia Holzmann

Kyle Lazzell

Visual Design

Thiago Lacaz

Visual Thinking

João Rocha


Print Management USA

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (cip)

Gamification, Inc.: Recreating companies through games / Bruno Medina… [et al.]. – 1. ed. – Rio de Janeiro:

mjv Press, 2013, 164 pp., 16 x 23 cm, isbn 978-85-65424-08-0

1. Jogos para computador – Aspectos sociais. I. Medina, Bruno.

cdd 306.4

mjv Press Av Marechal Câmara 160, grupo 206, Centro 20020-080 Rio de Janeiro rj Phone: +55 21 2532 6423



1. First things first, what's gamification?


2. A couple of things you should know about games


3. Gamification, Inc.


4. Gamification & Companies: made for each other


5. Let’s get down to work!

6. Looking forward! What’s to come in the future?





I'm very pleased to be writing about MJV Press’ release, dedicated to the use of game mechanics in the business context. This book is written by an IT consulting team whom apply games to their customer’s work processes in an innovating and pioneering way. In 2011, Gartner predicted that by 2015 more than 50% of innovation managing organizations will insert game methods to their processes and procedures, and more than 70% of the 2,000 largest companies in the world will be using, at least, one gaming application in their business. "Gamification" is the term in English, which defines the tendency to apply these mechanics to situations that are not just pure entertainment such as: “innovation, marketing, training, employee performance, health and social changes” - says Brian Burke, one of our collaborators. The objective of game application into business context is: to obtain a high level of employee commitment, to facilitate the intro- duction of changes in the organization and stimulate innovation. According to Gartner’s analysts, games help achieve higher employee engagement through:

Speeding up performance assessment cycles, causing employees to faster adapt to changes needed in the organization;

Clarification inherent the objectives and rules of games, removing ambiguity and uncertainties in work procedures;

Submitting a more persuasive narrative to performed tasks, while generating more engagement;

Breaking down large tasks into shorter ones that can be achieved in short term, keeping employees engaged throughout the project.

In this book, you will find many examples applying these princi- ples in Brazilian cases, and a practical methodology for immediate application to business context. Gartner has been following the process of implementing games in companies worldwide, and is convinced about the emergence of a professional community dedicated to this purpose as well as in Brazil. Enjoy reading!

Márcio Krug Gartner Brazil - President



“Gamification means the use of game aspects in activities other than just pure entertainment.” The elements of this approach and its cases are the subject of this book. We aim to portray a contemporary vision of this new use of technology in companies’ environment, regardless of its size, in order to support the objectives of their development. From this point of view, the use of games as part of work inserts a social component to the corporation’s operations, consistent with the current use of technology out of the professional context. Games are a modern model of people’s self-organization to achie- ve a goal. Companies’ operational structure and models have been the same since the 19th Century, based on hierarchy, bureaucracy and specialization of labor in order to scale and achieve efficient results. This model requires clearly defined roles and responsibilities, accu- rate procedures and management based on leadership and control, like in military organizations. However, in the modern world, these models restrain individual capability, the way tasks are demanded and the commitment with professional goals. Information Technology has created the possibility to organize work in a different way – through social aspects – and games are the platform that best fits as a tool for this new trend. The common social platforms in the modern world allow people to interact, but they’re not sufficient enough to achieve the purpose of organizing work. When using games, social platforms are amplified, allowing specialized content to be shared, powered by the context of use and by the communities around it. It's possible to change companies’ tasks by introducing the social dimension of work from games that bring motivation, engagement, and personal satisfaction. Gradually, work platforms, such as software’s and websites, besides their own business models, have been changed by the introduction of games mechanisms, creating new science, which we will hear a lot about in the upcoming years. MJV is pleased to participate in this transformation as a pioneer in viewing the corporate use of games. This book has been prepared by a


team that includes experts in many different areas, as a result of years of experience with practical application on this new work platform. We sincerely hope to contribute to the rapid new development in this sector.

Ysmar Vianna

Maurício Vianna

* * *

Regardless the size or geographic location in today's world, orga- nizations are invariably ruled by the symbiotic relationship between the constant market variation and the consequent attempt to overcome them through structured procedures along the way. The most visible side of this inglorious battle is known as organizational culture. Roughly speaking, we can say that the culture of a company merges with its historic peculiarities, as well as the people who helped write it. To keep themselves profitable and overcome daily problems, companies usually need to challenge essential paradigms to its work flow which can determine not only the rhythm of the daily operations but also the directions for the coming years. Considering an extremely volatile scenario, as a result of fierce competition on conquering consumers who are even more aware of their needs, it is quite impossible to maintain a corporate strategy that is not aligned with the constant search for innovation. It’s in this context that Gamification is inserted. When it comes down to it, the more experienced readers ask themselves: Did I understand this correctly? So, the suggestion here is to use games to solve my business issues? The answer is "yes". For those who didn’t consider this answer absurd and decided to give the authors a vote of confidence, we sincerely appreciate it and can see that we are not alone. In a report published in 2012, the Gartner Group announced that by 2015 about 50% of all global innovation process will be "gamified". In 2016, according to the study, the Gamification market will be around $2.8 billion. Need more numbers? In the approach delivered by American MTV with the Y Generation (people born from 1980 to 2000) half of respondents state that people their age see real life as a video game [1]. This group now represents 25% of the economically active population worldwide. This means that a quarter of the wealth of the planet is generated by people who grew up jumping on mushrooms, fighting monsters to save princesses, taking bolides in surrealistic circuits and exchanging coins for extra lives. More than just being


familiar in the language of games, these former children, that today occupy prominent positions in large companies, certainly do not see the deadlocks imposed to their careers in the same ways as those who designed the procedures, which they need to undergo to overco- me professional obstacles. From this apparent inconsistency comes the certainty of an invisible gap between beliefs and expectations, re- garding organizations and a considerable portion of their employees. So, the challenge this book intends to face is set: considering the mechanisms originated by games, in contrast with current organizational procedures, as well as the way they influence the daily routine of the people involved, gamification can be used by companies to engage, socialize, motivate, teach and retain their contributors and customers in an efficient way. In addition to this purpose, we should consider a second ques- tion, equally or more relevant than the first one: what aspects from the world of games, could be translated into the reality of organiza- tions, in order to bring them closer to this new way of thinking which the assimilation seems essential to understand the world today?

[1] Shore, Nick. “Millen- nials Are Playing With You” Hbr Blog Network, 12 December, 2011.




Bruno Medina

Samara Tanaka



First things first, what's Gamification?

Gamification is the use of game mechanics oriented to solving practical issues or to engage specific groups or audiences. By increasing frequency, these sets of techniques have been applied by several companies and entities from many segments as alternatives to traditional approaches, especially to encourage people to adopt cer- tain behaviors, to get to know new technology, speed up their learning and training processes, and turning some tedious or repetitive tasks into pleasant ones. In recent years, game designers worldwide have dedicated their efforts to apply gaming principles in different areas such as health, education, public policies, and sports or to increase productivity. The term “Gamification” was first used in 2002 by Nick Pelling, British computer programmer and researcher. The term became popular a mare 8 years later, in a TED speech presented by Jane McGonigal, an American world-renowned game designer and author of Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. Jane’s argument grabbed the world's attention with the perception that if we sum up all hours players dedicated to World of Warcraft (traditional online game that has been running since 2001), 5.93 million years could have been spent on solving problems in a virtual world. Indeed, the number seems absurd, but it is actually correct: in the entire history of mankind on planet Earth, from the manifestation of our earliest primate human ancestors up till now, has developed itself in a shorter period of time than the total sum of hours that was spent in the fantastic world of Azeroth by its faithful admirers up until 2010. It’s worth thinking about the results that could be obtained, for example, if the same effort was applied to solve real world issues such as, the eradication of extreme poverty, global warming, mobility in big cities or research for healing a severe disease. Fact, in 2011 Washington University’s researchers were on the news because of the game “Foldit”, a crowdsourcing [2] game instructed to gather group effort from thousands of anonymous participants,


motivated by the challenge in trying to understand how specific proteins could be used against Aids. The activity attracted 46,000 participants - the majority without any connection in the medical area - which in just 10 days solved a puzzle that took scientists 15 years with no success. This kind of initiative is referred to as Serious Games. The gamification development comes from a somewhat obvious finding: human beings are strongly attracted to games. Over the centuries, most all known civilizations have been associated in a competition very important to social structuring of the community which they belonged to. Besides the most predictable examples, such as Greeks (Ancient Olympic Games), Romans (gladiator duels, chariot races) and Aztecs (Mesoamerican Ball Game), there is still a surprising amount of evidence [3] that supports these facts that occurred about 3,000 years ago in Lydia, a region located in ancient Minor Asia. In the times of climatic adversities, Atys, king at the time, established an unusual practice of food rationing: to intercalate game days – when eating wasn’t allowed – and no game days - when eating was allowed. This policy lasted 18 years and it started by chance, from the perception that: when involved in long hours of competitions group members simply lost their interest in food. Continuing on in the same theme, renowned game designer Chris Crawford [4] described an interesting theory about evolution, the act of playing inserted in the species evolution context. By observing, for example, the way croco- diles or other reptiles hunt, one can notice that in these animals this action is made by an extremely simple mechanism consisting of three well-defined milestones: first of all they choose a place to hide, then they wait for the prey of their interest and only then they attack. The procedure is considered locomotors learning, since there is almost no brain activity involved. Mammals, on the other hand, have developed a more sophisticated method, sequenced in five steps: they prowl searching for their prey and, once they find it, they keep lurking, trying to get as close as possible. When they get close enough to ponce, they attack, which invariably involves the prey’s chase and subsequent cap- ture. Note that this way of hunting demands more brain activity than the one used by reptiles because it involves some sort of strategy, the same required by these animals to prevail upon their prey, even when bigger than themselves. And how did mammals learn this? They lear- ned it through the exercise of playing. On herbivores, the relationship between playing and surviving occurs in a more visible way: because running is the best defense against predators, when they are not fighting for their lives, they are having fun jumping and kicking – which can even scare wolves, for example – running off through the field. For ancestral humans, one of the main ways of getting food was basically


[2] Crowdsourcing:

Model of collaborative production that put many people together, personally or virtually, to mitigate impasses, cre- ate content or develop solutions. [3] mcgonigal, 2012 [4] Lecture conducted in Cologne Game Lab, 2011.Source:


[5] huizinga, 2001 [6] mastrocola, 2012

consisted of throwing objects towards their targets. Maybe that’s why we still love throwing objects: stones in water, spears, hammers, basketballs, volleyballs, footballs etc. Due to this, it’s natural that not just games but the act of playing has been, for a long time, topic for many academic discussions. During the 30’s, a Dutch historian named Johan Huizinga, in his book Homo Ludens, [5] brought a significant contribution to related re- searches when stated the need of understanding the game beyond the entertainment aspect. By his theory, Huizinga shows how the act of playing is inserted in several social relationships, such as politics, work, poetry, and even nature. From the author’s concept, games are considered artifacts that build dialogical and dialectical relationships with the subjects through its singular and distinct ways of interaction. Therefore, the act of playing has a meaning beyond entertainment. It presents its importance as a cultural element when: the game is more than a physiologic phenomenon or

a psychological reflection. [6] It goes beyond physical or biological

activity. It’s a significant function. There is something in the game which transcends the immediate needs of life and gives meaning to the action. Every game means something. But how exactly can games help the understanding or even the

adaptation to changes in daily life? Also, for instance, what is the sig- nificant contribution to the business world, given that as a legitimate cultural element, games contribute to our cognitive, emotional and social development? Perhaps the first step towards understanding the phenomenon that games represent may be related to the famous “Theory of Hierarchy of Needs”, developed in 1943 by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow. According to the study, human needs can be grouped in pyramid levels suggesting that the journey to self-fulfillment of any individual

is only as successful as when the achievement of their desires

occurs in an ascending order, starting from the most basic desires to the most complex ones. At the baseline of the pyramid are the physiological demands, such as eating, breathing and drinking water; followed by the demands related to security, love, self esteem and,

finally, personal fulfillment, having a sense of morality, being creative and being spontaneous in relationships. According to the suggested logic, the act of playing would be obviously related to the top of the pyramid, since it is considered as

a desirable activity but not essential to survival. The point here is: the more individuals, societies and life itself become complex, the more the need for even more complex mechanisms becomes to experience


Self-realization morality, creativity, spontaneity, ability to solve problems, absence of prejudice, facts
ability to solve
problems, absence
of prejudice, facts
self-esteem, self-confidence, sense
of achievement, respect to others, be
respected by others
friendship, family, sexual intimacy
security towards the body, job, subsistence, morality,
family nucleus, health, prosperity
breathing, feeding, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion

the feeling of satisfaction in every day life. In our work or in personal relationships, the rules are often hazy; undefined goals, and the way to achieve them - unknown. Actions do not receive feedback, and rewards may take more time. Therefore, it is comprehensive that we have created games, as they satiate in a simpler, faster, clearer and more efficient way of constant search to conquer or achieve objectives. At the end of 70’s, Bernard Suits, in his acclaimed book The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia, defined the matter properly: “A game is a voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles.” Like in the game of life, winning and losing are quite subjective concepts; “unnecessary obstacles” assume the role of providing us some certainty among many assumptions. The relation and association between the games mechanisms with human behavior will be deeper explored when the players profiles and the motivations that sensitize them are presented. Although games are an inevitable starting point to understand gamification as a methodology, it is worth saying something that will be fundamental to absorb this book’s content in a more profitable and assertive way: although it is one of the most celebrated themes of the moment – gamification – as a concept has been systemati- cally misinterpreted. It is wrong to think that it is science that focuses on the act of creating games, but yet a methodology through which


game mechanisms are applied to solve problems or impasses in other contexts. Wikipedia definition:

gamification: use of game thinking and game mechanics in several contexts with the objective of improving participation and generating engagement and commitment from potential users.

[7] Source:

In general, gamification application indicates situations that involve creation or adaptation of user’s experience to a particular product, service or process; the intention to awake positive emo- tions, explore personal skills or engage virtual or physical rewards to complete tasks. Other than Serious Games, and according to its more acclaimed definition, to submit to a gamification process doesn’t mean to participate in a game, but yet take over its most efficient aspects (aesthetic, mechanics and dynamics) to emulate benefits that are usually reached by it. According to Yu-kai Chou, [7] probably the most respected gami- fication guru nowadays, the biggest contribution this methodology can offer to society would be human-centered design, in spite of design focused in function. According to his theory, most of the known production systems are oriented to facilitate tasks performance in the shortest time possible. The simple fact that people who perform these jobs have feelings, insecurities and opinions about what is expected of them, or about how they should achieve their professional goals, already represents a shortcut to activate their self-motivations. This way of thinking about the organizational model can, for instance, lead to a cultural change in a department, or a voluntary acceptance of a new corporate process. Also according to Chou, this is the reason for choosing the term "gamification", since, over the past four decades, the most notable brains in the gaming industry have been busy understanding how to motivate and engage people from the perspective of human behavior analysis. However, it’s wrong to think that gamifying a process is just like reproducing a recipe. People generally do not behave as lab mice, which submit themselves without questioning and working for a piece of cheese. Applying a well-succeeded gamification strategy is directly related to understanding the context where the user is inserted, and what their extrinsic (incited by the external environment) and intrinsic (self-motivated) expectations and constraints. It is also noteworthy that we only get engaged in long term with games that make sense, emphasizing the importance of creating



of Americans do not feel motivated by their work


us$ 350 bi injury [8]



active players





time to build Wikipedia knowledge




playing Angry Birds


7 days playing Call of Duty


0-2 children already playing

arguments and weave feasible narratives, i.e., related to the reality of the target audience. But, what about Candy Crush? The story of a candy factory that could not be more foolish and unrealistic, and yet it’s played by

millions of people every day, the reader may think. We must note

that games like Candy Crush, Draw Something or SongPop, are a few that became extremely popular in a very short period of time and are nothing more than entertainment for their users while they wait for the subway or at the dentist. Unlike games designed strictly for entertainment, gamification uses game mechanisms to modify or develop new behaviors. Nevertheless, this is never an easy goal to achieve. Investigating our routine and searching for new methods to apply gamification for many different purposes, each of us could create a list of initiatives that nobody cares about. You just need to think that, in theory, any game has “game elements”, but this doesn’t turn them into great games. Paraphrasing Mario Herger, another gamification guru, gami- fying a bad application only causes it to become an even worse one. [9] As the methodology achieves popularity, it is not difficult to predict a scenario in which scores, leader boards and wide badge

distribution will be omnipresent, even being little or not effective at

all, considering the real goals that were initially intended. Even before considering gamification as a possible approach to

the problem needing to be solved, it’s necessary to keep in mind

three questions, that if properly answered, often largely increases

the chances of projects to succeed. The questions are: [10]

1. Why would a gamification strategy benefit the users?

2. What are the business purposes behind this gamifica-

tion strategy? 3. How will game mechanisms enable users to reach the business purposes?

Next, we will present some examples from various areas, to mea- sure the potential benefits that could be achieved by gamification.



Duolingo is a collaborative online platform that combines free language learning and a crowdsourcing-based translation service. The system was designed so that, by studying a particular language, the student, even without being fully aware, helps translating


websites and online documents. Beginners start the course transla- ting simple sentences and, according to their progress, they receive more complex texts, and so on. The platform users are then asked to rank their colleagues translations, giving valuable feedback on understanding and learning from the work they’ve done. While evolving their knowledge, the students receive points by the completion of specific tasks, and some of them include time constraints or are mandatory to “get to a new phase”. Wrong answers results in losing points and “lives”as well as delaying the game’s progress. Since the system is adaptive, each student has

a learning experience that’s absolutely customized to their needs,

once the challenges are set according to their performance. It’s interesting to observe how efficient the model is, considering that, despite Duolingo users are technically working without compensa- tion, they don’t seem to mind.

[8] Source:

Financing Sector Rabobank [11]

According to prevailing logic, words like “Bank” and “enter- tainment” are not to be used in the same sentence, at least before Rabobank — German financing institution acting in 48 countries, with assets up to € 770 billion, adopted gamification as a tool to

boost their business. The first step on this journey was to use Se- rious Games to promote business on TV shows or to potential clients (actions geared towards 8-16 y/o audiences), but the project that really stood out from this strategy was chosen by the bank that was related to mortgage requests. The way the process was structured,

a proponent needed to submit about 30 documents to the bank

before getting access to the money. The intention of the project’s

poll/150383/majority-- developers was that the client could submit them online, without the


-engaged-jobs.aspx [9] herger, 2013 [10] Adapted from: en- terprise-gamification. com [11] For more in-

formation access enterprise-gamification. com/index.php/de/



need to deliver any paperwork to the agency. By introducing the practice of providing feedback for each upload, the released amounts were more precisely defined and brought much less risk to the institution. The loan requesters were clearer about the process milestones, which reduced anxiety levels and consequently the need for more interaction with bank’s staff. While customers witnessed this process as a type of competition for effi- ciency and quality of the data provided, its time length was reduced and became more assertive. The conclusion is that currently, 80%

of mortgage requests are made through online system, significantly

-dutch-bank-wins-with- reducing the bank’s process cost.



Health / well-being SuperBetter [12]

Developed by Jane McGonigal’s personal experience (years ago, the game designer had an accident that caused a serious concussion,

which abruptly interrupted her career and endangered her life), this is a tool created to help severe patients to progress, improving their clinical conditions. Doctors, Psychologists, Scientists and researchers were involved for almost two years on the game’s design, with the main objective to strengthen the physical and emotional condition of patients, by means of resilience. Keeping fit, changing one’s diet and including exercise are already hard tasks for people

in good health conditions. Imagine for those whom are somehow


Therefore, when starting the game, users need to establish a goal and determine how to achieve it. By completing tasks and inspiring

others with their progress, the player gains points in different areas


their profiles, such as mental, emotional, social etc. It’s possible


submit themselves to specific guides that determine tasks like:

walking around the block and dancing to your favorite song or even defeat "villains", for more than one hour, sitting on a chair or driving short routes that could be completed on foot. In any case where the player may need help, they can ask for support from their Facebook friends, or even get connected to other players from SuperBetter. Therefore, the battle against severe diseases should turn into an exciting competition where quality of life is the most valuable Prize.

Retail/e-commerce [13]

O is a retail website which shows a quite peculiar busi-

ness model: Only one daily offer available in a limited amount. The goods are updated at midnight sharp, meaning that: if customers really want to buy the website’s items, they need to submit to its difficult rules. Because each product has limited availability and its availability is unknown until the moment the offer is posted; it’s evident that these factors enforce the potential purchaser’s impulsiveness. After all, they know that staying up late on a workday can result in

a big disappointment or the possibility of purchasing the item they

always longed for, at an unbeatable price. After submitting to the process for a few nights, most visitors change their real interest for the offered product to the sensation of


finally purchasing anything. In this case, the purpose is to over value the offer and get its advantage from the customer’s impulsive nature to close the deal. Apparently, for some clients, what really matters is to win the "competition" no matter what.

Technology/social Game with a Purpose [14]

This website uses crowdsourcing and gamification to engage Internet users to train computers to answer researches in a more accurate manner. One of the available games is called Esp Game: two people look at one picture on their screens and type as many words as pos- sible to describe the image. Once the provided descriptions by both players match, they earn points and go to the next level. The matched definitions turn into tags that help players categorize pictures to facilitate future research processes. By observing these cases, and the way gamification can be ap- plied as a structured process to achieve specific goals, we continue on to the next chapter where we will dive further into the essential aspects for using game mechanics properly. So, before getting down to work, we feel it is necessary to go back to the beginning, to understand exactly what makes a game, a good game.

[12] For more informa- tion access about [13] For more informa- tion access [14] For more informa- tion access http://www. gameswithpurpose. org




A couple of things you should

know about games

The Three Faces of Games

Everyone is able to identify a game when in contact with one, even those with minimal knowledge. However, a much more complicated task would be elucidating the broad concept capable of translating all the diversity suggested by the term. After all, what is common betwe- en the traditional OnePeg and the latest shooter game released on digital platforms? When we need to comprehend more clearly what exactly characterizes a game, it’s necessary to contextualize it accor- ding to our life. This means to reflect upon how the act of playing and how games represent a way to play, by the meaning of experiencing or simulating circumstances that are more or less tangible. Playing is therefore an unstructured and spontaneous activity, a fundamental condition on people’s development of their learning processes and investigations related to the world and society. Even though this activity oversteps boundaries of pure entertainment, as mentioned in the previous chapter, its genesis includes the playful- ness concept. From this principle, it’s fundamental to pay attention to the interaction possibilities proposed by games and its possible application to our daily life, as they are currently presented through multiple genres and interfaces. Among the main existing categories, we may mention analogical, digital and pervasive games.

we may mention analogical, digital and pervasive games. analogical games History shows that the first known

analogical games History shows that the first known game formats emerged around the year 3500 BC, but are still present in the classic board games (chess, backgammon, checkers, etc.) and other classics like Mono- poly, The game of Life and Clue. Other examples to consider are:


Board Games like “Pick-up-Sticks, and RPG Games;

Card Games like Poker, Uno, and Trading Card Games (collectable card games) like Magic the Gathering Pokémon and Yu-gi-Oh;

Dice Games like Craps;

Pencil-and-paper games like Crosswords and Tic-Tac-Toe;

Sports games like basketball and soccer;

Group Dynamics and Training Games.

digital games In order to get the proper comprehension of this game category, a previous contextualization is required mainly due to the importance gained from the last three decades, from the time videogames con- soles became home appliances. In case evidence is not sufficient, proving the exponential growth of the gaming industry, which in 2009 the total revenue in the United States exceeded $ 20 billion, surpassing even the powerful movie industry. According to Gartner, Inc., the video game market is forecasted to reach $111 billion by 2015, driven by strong mobile gaming and video game console and software sales digital games [ 15 ] . The explanation to this phenomenon might be related to technological [15]. The explanation to this phenomenon might be related to technological advent, a factor that is leveraging the market improvement – nowadays representing averagely a third of the total expenditures of entertainment – by offering enough platform diversity and formats to cover all players’ profiles. In addition, it’s closely related to Internet growing and also to social networks’ popularity, especially Facebook and its large range of gamming apps, as well as the increasing number of users who play on smartphones, devices used by the vast majority of players. Besides electronic games, we must also consider an important subdivision in this category: the simulators. Ever more faithful to its proposed aims, these devices are used when the intention is to offer a high quality experience of graphic and sensory similarity reducing the chances of accidents or operational costs.

pervasive games As electronic games evolve, so does the discussion revolving around the creation of artifacts that As electronic games evolve, so does the discussion revolving around the creation of artifacts that can enable more realistic and interacti- ve interfaces, not only to meet the needs of demanding consumers that are eager for new technology, but also to transcend the expe- rience provided by the excessively virtualized relationship between player and device. From this point of view, the pervasive concept has guided launchings like Microsoft’s Kinect, and Oculus Rift from Oculus vr, among other consoles designed to physically engage


the player, forcing them, for example, to abandon their comfortable armchair in order to sweat when wielding a real racket that controls

a virtual ball in a lifelike tennis match. By definition, pervasive games are those in which there is at least one type of interaction that takes place in the physical universe, in this case, with another person, with

a particular object or in a specific place. When mixing typical elec-

tronic games challenges (enigmas, missions) with tools for mobile communication (smartphones, wireless networks) these games can determine how to accomplish challenges. Participants will have to take photos and send them to others or meet unknown people in a coffee shop to hand them an object that will serve as a key to unlock new levels; or maybe the "match" will occur from 9am to 6pm on an outlined perimeter in a city’s neighborhood where they will have to identify players in a busy crowd and tell them a code in order to form a team. The pervasive technology enables "games to be ran on heterogeneous devices, likely to be available seven days a week, 24 hours a day”. [16] Note that this interaction must be necessarily tied to a tenuous relationship between game and reality, however, without acting intrusive to the player. The offshoots of pervasive games are the ARGs (Alternate Reality Games), widely used in promotional activities, stimulating the consumers’ relationship with brands and products in a playful activity.

What characterizes a game as a game?

[15] https://www.


[16] vásquez; andrea, 2009, p. 26. [17] mcgonigal, 2012

Anything that can be considered a game has a set of indivisible ele- ments that most of the time is not explicitly structured. Age, gender and specific inclination are a few examples. However, when different addressed rules are put aside, "all games share four defining traits:

goals, rules, a feedback system, and voluntary participation."[17] The goal justifies activities performed by players and the element by which game participants focus on achieving designated purposes. The goal may be shown as victory upon a competitor, the conclusion of all challenges from a videogame (also known as “beat the game”) or promote a character’s excellence in an online game where there is no end. Goal and objective should not be confused because the first transcends the idea of completing a task, unlike the second. So, we can emphasize that the goal is not always reached and may only serve as a purpose constantly pursued by the player giving him a sense of direction during the game. The second element to consider is the rules. When combined, these rules compose a set of dispositions that condition the game’s


realization in order to promote the balance between possible challenges without being easy enough to
realization in order to promote the balance between possible challenges without being easy enough to
realization in order to promote the balance between possible challenges without being easy enough to

realization in order to promote the balance between possible challenges without being easy enough to discourage its resolution. Rules adjust player’s complexity level when facing the activity being developed, enabling creativity and encouraging strategic thinking. In some games, the players themselves are responsible for subver- ting the pre-set rules, which configures as a dynamic associated in the act of playing. Therefore, rules have the function to define the way the player will behave or how they will arrange his or her actions to meet the game’s challenges. The third characteristic common in games is the feedback system. The main function is to inform players how their relation with the various aspects that regulate their interaction to the activity is. It is also up to this system to improve motivation, keeping the players constantly aware of the achieved progress related to themselves and the goal, in some explicit manner. The fourth and, decisively, last feature shown is voluntary parti- cipation. In any type of game, digital or not, it’s necessary to have consensus among all proposed conditions and the player. In other words, the acceptance of the goals, rules and feedback model is necessary in order to enable the common conditions for games that involve multiple players. Under this perspective, games only exist when the player is able to engage with these elements as they were proposed. Therefore, this is the sought out goal when deciding to apply certain game’s mechanic to a specific purpose. Other aspects such as interactivity, graphic support, narrative, rewards, competitiveness, virtual environments or the concept of victory, among others, are common features to many games, but are not defining. These are oriented to build a closer relationship with the four previously listed characteristics, i.e., ways to consolidate and strengthen the stated elements.

Motivation, the magic word

Undoubtedly, one of the main factors that justify why games and gamification have aroused interest is the perception of the attrac- tiveness they have upon us, as well as the possibility of generating


[18] Diablo 3 Death:

Teen Dies After Playing

Game For 40 Hours Straight, The Huffington Post. 19 July 2002.




html> [19] Man chooses WoW over Childbirth. 29

January 2007. <http://


-wow-over-childbirth> [20] fleith; alencar, 2010, p. 209-230. [21] guimarães, 2001, p. 37-57.

engagement and dedication to other purposes, like in a corporate context. This perception is often reinforced by phrases that can sound quite familiar – especially to those with teenage children – such as “This kid is addicted to videogames” or “My son is so hooked on this game that he doesn’t hear a word I say.” More corroborating evidence of this behavior pattern caused the death of a Taiwanese teenager in 2012, after reportedly having spent more than 40 consecutive hours playing Diablo III [18], or the North American who left his wife in labour at the hospital [19] because he could not resist the temptation to fall back in his “saga” in “World of Warcraft”. Similar cases, unfortunately, are not rare, mainly in Asia, where there are specialized clinics to treat people addicted to electronic games. Facing these facts, the same question always comes to mind:

after all, why are games so attractive to human beings? The answer is:

because they bring satisfaction. The pleasant achievement of an activity is one of the most important elements to activate our creativity. The players’ dedication and subsequent pleasure achieved on performed tasks during the game should be a key factor to obtain positive emotion. However, we observe that motivation is a neuralgic point in discussing creative activity, and respectively, the study of gamification. From this case, we notice that it is related to a behavioral process, which leads one to act in favor of meeting certain demands. In this context, it is assumed that there are two cutouts corresponding to the definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation can be defined as the one in which the player is engaged in an activity by his own desire, i.e., "because he perceives it as interesting, engaging, challenging and enjoyable.” [20] Therefore, "an intrinsically motivated individual looks for novelty, entertainment, curiosity satisfaction, opportunity to practice new skills or gain control over something”. [21] Extrinsic motivation, in turn, suggests that the relationship between the player and the developed activity comes from the desire of achieving certain external reward, such as material goods or even recognition by success. Therefore, if the motivation concept is applied to the scope of games mechanisms, it could be defined through one person’s living experiences that are articulated in new internal and external signifi- cation perspectives that are purposed to these processes through creativity stimulation, free thinking, and providing well-being.


Several factors coexist when taking into account the development of a game and their motivation
Several factors coexist when taking into account the development of a game and their motivation

Several factors coexist when taking into account the development of a game and their motivation strategies. Broadly, these features seek to achieve the four great motivator axis: competition, learning, escaping reality and social interaction. Some of these factors are described below, as well as the most common types of players, in order to present how the mentioned motivation axis are correlated.

age, generation and gender These are the three most significant factors, when the objective is to define a really engaging game strategy. This is because, in general, the mere consideration of such aspects already provides enough subsidies for the creation and setting of a narrative, since with them, it becomes possible to carry out the identification of major hypotheses, as the pro- bable time of dedication, level of interest in the topic or the supposed platform domain on which the game will be available.

What attracts each genre in games [22]


spatial/three-dimensional puzzles

trial and error competition destruction mastery


dialog and verbal puzzles

learning by example real world situations nurturing emotion

Age-related games [23]


Toy attraction


Awake of interest in games


The age of reason: becoming very interested in game playing


The age of obsession


Plenty of free time to play and strong gender differences


Playing less than when teenagers, but have different preferences


Focused in professional/family issues, less time to play


Family oriented, casual game players


Plenty of free time, games become socializing activity


Researches [24] show, that a male audience has more tendencies to engage to competition driven games. Women prefer casual games they can play on smartphones or from social networks, with interac- tion and experience sharing with other players.

culture and social roles When thinking about ways of motivation, cultural factor is also an element to be considered. Social-economic aspects, preferences for

individual or collective activities, cooperative or competitive profiles, possibility of customizing game characters among others, are also important supporting axis to help awaken the interest in games. Understanding the real world scenario that the players are inserted in

is fundamental to conceive dynamics represented in the virtual world.

Let’s consider a corporate game example: employees who are more communicative, or who like to express themselves by writing, may, in the game context, devote themselves to create discussion forums, blo- gs, and manuals, not only narrowing their relationship with the activity but also encouraging other colleagues to join the proposal as well.

skill level Creating a difficulty system to the presented challenges during the course of a game may be a complex task, mainly when the intention

is to adjust it to the interest of the target audience. This happens

because there can be different complexity levels in the same game, whether from distinct difficulty challenges or even from building

a demand system that makes a common challenge a somewhat

[22-23] Adapted from schell, 2008 [24] Sources: blog.



-Market-Powerhouse and wiki/Women_and_video_ games

complicated one. To be motivating, a game should enable players to feel constantly stimulated, but this feat is only possible when an adequate evaluation of their skills is carried out when facing the tasks they need to comply. From levels, tutorials, practical examples, training modes, among other strategies, a game should enable both beginners and experts to have levels of interaction that shows them difficulties that are compatible with their ability to perform them. Thus, knowing and tracking a scenario from the target audience, whether through the features already mentioned, as well as others, additional and more specific - is fundamental to create a well-tied system relation between challenge and ability. A system that combines such factors, in addition to expanding the scope of target audience - since it attracts people with different levels of accuracy to perform tasks – enables a big step on esta- blishing an effective engaging environment, directly motivating and therefore, a successful game. Mario Herger, in his book Gamification at Work — Designing


Engaging Business Software, [25] proves that it is fundamental to clearly define the players initial expertise level, as well as planning how it will evolve when interacting with the proposed dynamic, keeping them constantly motivated. Among game designers, there is a notorious rule that defines that good games are those with easy first steps, but hard to become an expert.

Expert Intermediary master, creation of challenges and teachings to other players routine and habits construction
master, creation of
challenges and teachings
to other players
routine and habits
construction in the game
new participant
on the game

Players, the protagonists of the show

Now that some of the main components of the game universe are known, it’s time to get a little closer to the real protagonists of the show: the players. After all, games, gamification, and even this book, only exist from the conviction that, within each of us, in a more or less obvious way, there’s a player, avid for facing challenges. However, this is not enou- gh to believe that putting two people around a dice or a ball would solve it all. Despite our natural attraction for strategy or competition dynamics, as mentioned in the previous chapter, we become enga- ged only in games that make sense from a particular point of view. This could be a possible explanation to the fact that Dominoes, Rugby, Mario Bros., Crosswords or Bocce Ball, despite their distinct activities, share only one common definition. By following the proposed thinking, the games diversity just reflects the plurality of recognizable profiles among the players themselves. From a study conducted in 1996 by Richard Bartle, entitled Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs [26], now it is being considered that the wide range of profiles could be summarized into four broad groups of players, according to the following scheme:





people Killers Achievers environment



people Killers Achievers environment





  people Killers Achievers environment   Socializers Explores


killers This kind of player gets into competition motivated only to defeat the competitors. No matter what the reward is, they just want to be the best. During the game, they adopt an aggressive behavior, and their interventions are noted as more incisive and focused in granting their condition as leaders. They have extremely competitive profiles and, despite having relationships with other players, their interaction always occurs in an intensive manner, with the imposition that desire prevails over cooperation. They instigate other players by bragging about their triumphs, or even jeopardize them directly if they get in the way of their goals in a game. Tests conducted by Gamer dna killers [ 27 ] shows that this profile represents less than 1% of players. [27] shows that this profile represents less than 1% of players.

achievers These players appreciate the constant feeling of victory; even if the objective to be achieved These players appreciate the constant feeling of victory; even if the objective to be achieved is not so significant. Their main motivation is to carry out all the activities presented in the game, by a dedica- ted immersion in the game’s universe. They don’t care about social relationships, but establish themselves in a competitive friendly manner, even if they are not ahead on the scoreboard. Standing out from opponents through their own achievements better identifies the Achievers. They represent up to 10% of total players.

explorers The third group includes those players interested in discovering the whole game’s possibilities and why. By being curious, they can get engaged in studies or develop skills that help them solve specific challenges. In their view, other players also add positively to the experience, but are not considered essential. As a differentiation factor, they value the community’s recognition level of knowledge shown, with two parallel motivations: to escape from reality andexplorers


mainly, learning from the activity. For this profile, the most important is the journey, not the conquest. Like Achievers, the Explorers also represent about 10% of total players.

the Explorers also represent about 10% of total players. socializers The fourth and final group of

socializers The fourth and final group of the most significant players’ profiles is the socializers. As the names suggests, socializers are those whom see games as an opportunity for social interaction. More important than achieving the proposed goals or complete assigned tasks, is the occasion of the game itself and its potential to stimulate social links that interest them. Socializers tend to prefer cooperative games that require united work and collaborative personalities. According to the survey, they represent about 80% of all existing players. Does this make Facebook success a little easier to understand?

Rewards (The pot of gold at the end of the rainbow)

We have mentioned many aspects that help to define players’ profiles and determine their needs and motivation. The next key element to build a good game mechanic is the right design of a reward system. In general, rewards represent the main reason of players’ motivation to persist in a game until its completion, or even to keep them playing, when the proposal does not include the ending concept. To reach this goal, when creating a game, it’s necessary to consider the needs of developing frequent feedback models, because they are one of the most efficient paths to assure the engaging continuity during the activity. Therefore it is required to be clear about the necessary balance between reward accuracy and the difficulty level of the actions, with the risk of either making them too easy or impossible to be accomplished. Among several actions that can be mentioned as reward formats commonly found in games, five deserve special attention: status, access, influence, freebies, and gifting. Status is the most explicit type of reward attribution and can be found in leaderboards, badge distribution or by measuring the players themselves. The latter is probably the most significant for tho- se involved in a game, considering it comes from public recognition from other participants. Access is a strong ally in effective reward systems construction. After all, enabling access to strategic content, insider’s information, specific skills, among others, is a very promising way to keep players connected to their purposes. The setback is often used as punish- ment for rule breaking.


[25] herger, 2013 [26] bartle, 1996

[27] Source: gamerdna. com/quizzes/

Continuing on with the feedback systems, there is an influence given through direct or indirect game interference; direct influence is offered when it’s desirable that the player feels, somehow, in control of the game. This may occur by exclusive access or possibility of intervention in certain rules or activity, with the purpose of validating an achieved goal, for example. This option can be used when cooperative construction of the system is intended or when evaluating participants’ interests by observing their manifestations. Indirect influence is perceived when a player intercedes, voluntarily or not, in other players’ decision or destiny, by the influence achieved in the system. Finally, there are freebies and gifting. Freebies are one of the simplest reward method possible, like: benefits, items, tips, extra life etc. It could be described as positive feedback on a small scale of higher frequency. Gifting, in turn, works as a way of increasing social interaction in a game, based on the exchange of gifts among players and the consequent establishment of strong and engaged communities. Also in relation to freebies, it’s necessary to be aware of their availability, considering the reward’s unpredictability enhances its relevance within the system. This model predicts that the same task can generate more or less valuable assets, where as, in specific situations, great prizes are offered. In a broader sense, the player’s satisfaction would be in the totality of the collection and even in the random character of its acquisition. It is worth mentioning the fact that the reward aspects composing this segment were detailed in descending order of perceived im- portance, where "status" is the most relevant, and "freebies" are the less relevant. A practical example of this statement is the marketing actions that have become common among credit card companies, especially when they want to get closer to their targets. The notion of status assigned from exclusive shows, VIP areas, and advanced ticketing acquisition, notify the clients that they belong to an exclusive group, and their loyalty to the brand is reciprocated with exclusive rewards, i.e., they are not available to others, independently for their purchasing power. Going against this trend, companies from other industries prefer to distribute plastic bottles, pens, key chains and mugs containing logos or catchy phrases to their most assiduous supporters. When rewarded this way, consumers tend to think that the quality of the relationship established by the company is compatible with the low value freebies produced in thousands and distributed to anyone. Note a very inte- resting fact, the less efficient strategy - that leads to higher costs - is

bartle-test-of-gamer- favorable by most companies.



Monitoring and measurements:

Are we on the right path?

As it is common throughout any new dynamic or technology implementing process, it is also considered very important in gamification design to assess the partial results as soon as possible, in order to enable process adjustments in early stages. In this context, monitoring the adherence to the developed dynamic gives fundamental inputs to review the strategy when the game is still not established to the target audience. Adjusting missions, monitoring players’ motivation and measuring their results are the three key

initiatives to an assertive evaluation of the success level reached by the proposition. Regarding missions creation, Mario Herger defines the smart model (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bound), which is understood that the chances of adherence to missions depends on how specific, measurable, actionable, realistic and time-bound they are. Concerning motivation monitoring, it’s recommended to previously plan the players’ exhaustion regarding established goals.

It is understandable – even expected – that at the moment when the

dynamic is inserted, the interest and curiosity levels are evidenced in a higher level than during the game. Therefore, the attempt to predict possible routes and fill them with exclusive elements likely to interfere with the course of the narrative is worth trying. As an example, we can mention an initial tool set or commands available

in the beginning of the activity and accessible to all; and one other,

a very special one, which can only be incorporated from the develo-

pment of abilities that are associable to the game’s main objectives. Regarding metric creation, it is suggested to include aspects such as degrees of engagement, time spent on the activity and ROI achieved, among others. Now that you know the structural elements of the game, we can move forward by understanding how they can be employed to maximize benefits and solve impasses in the corporate context.




Gamification, Inc.

Despite being one of the main bases upon which all different kinds of corporations are structured nowadays, history shows that throughout many centuries the strategy concept was strictly linked to the military environment. It was necessary to deal with an extensive path of successive economics crises and patrimony irreparable losses, until basic objectives and goals, determined in long-term, started to take place in the mind of ancestors managers who were directly responsible for the paradigm change that made them, up to then, see on their business flexibility the main component of success reached. Only in the mid19th Century and the consequent conformation of the first mass markets – that required clear definitions about scale and scope — business planning started to be considered and planned. The trend was consolidated a little later, during World War II, when the dismantlement of the economy imposed the need for better resources while it was dimensioning due to the general goods scarcity. From the days leading up to the 20th Century, the belief in the traditio- nal model prevailed, contrasting the balance between the company’s strength and weakness with the opportunities and external threats as a secure measure to reach the best results continuously. Though this definition is considered valid in the current context, where changes seem to occur in a more and more dynamic and less predictable manner, even the most Cartesian managers shall agree that the state- ment may sound naive with what really needs to be done to achieve a prominent position in such a competitive scenario. It’s possible to state that most organizations leading the markets today assign prosperity achieved to the existence of a formula that combines processes, relationships and values, private and non- -transferable. The success obtained by this method may become the propeller on a positive cycle, suggesting the maintenance and refinement of such practices as the most likely way of expanding the achieved benefits.


Not infrequently however, a path of dreams reveals itself as a dead end, mainly due to the substitution of the thinking that enabled the initial positive results by the desire of status quo maintenance. Accor- ding to the four big indicators of the Active Inertia theory, developed by Donald N. Sull, [28] the success setback in corporate environment is due mainly to four aspects: strategic framework that becomes vision concealers, procedures that become routine, relationships that becomes stagnate and bound each other in shackles and values that become dogma.

strategic framework procedures relationships values

dogma. strategic framework procedures relationships values vision concealers routines shackles dogma Even a shallow

vision concealers routines shackles dogma

Even a shallow review of the elements already mentioned above, would show that the corporate stiffening is the most visible part of the attempt to extend winning tactics indefinitely; keeping focus on the constant search for innovation. After all, if in one hand establishing processes to frame problems corroborates to a more efficient diagnosis, then on the other hand, it leads to the mistake of thinking that such obstacles are the soul necessities. Likewise, really well established processes generate operational predictability, provide comfort and safety for those involved and extra time to per- form more tasks. However, one has to recognize that it intimidates the consideration of new alternatives for possible deadlocks and crystallizes solutions that are not always the best. Similar thinking could be applied to relationships between employees, service providers and customers. When consolidated in an overly rigid manner they turn into barriers, for example, to focus on bolder strategies to conquer other markets or developing new products. At last, when it comes to corporate values, it is always desirable for them to be a solid landmark for how employees see themselves and the place they spend most of their time; it is also required to keep constant surveillance to avoid them being seen as unusual practices, validated only by repetition. Getting closer to the referred model shows that the difficulty in establishing a management process that lasts, and that can be sufficiently prominent for innovation, is far from being resolved in a systematic way, leaving it up to each company to find the balance be- tween these variables, according to their possibilities and ambitions. Currently, there is a lot of talk of horizontalization of organizations


as a possible solution to this issue, even though this is not an easy option for large structures. In these cases, more than just a challenge presents itself while re- -designing management levels, it seems that the managers’ mindset, which is accustomed to being closely in control of their areas, is the main obstacle in the adoption of new practices. Although the advantages of the vertical model are recognized, every day it is more and more clearly imposed to companies the importance of reducing stages between decision making and its consequent im- plementation. This will only produce the desirable effects when teams and managers are truly aligned with the objectives to be achieved.

are truly aligned with the objectives to be achieved. The strength of a (bad) habit Many

The strength of a (bad) habit

Many of the tasks performed daily in companies reflect habits

[28] Donald N. Sull is assistant professor of strategic management and international at London Business School.

that, along the years, were acquired by employees, like procedural routines that started being followed with the purpose of freezing measures that were once regarded as the best way to proceed under a particular practice. There is no doubt that habits are an important way to attenuate the amount of brain processing, making

it more efficient. This mechanism constitutes as a loop, just waiting for a cue to happen; when it occurs, the correspondent routine is

accessed, creating a fast reward, that may be physical or emotional.

A consolidated habit requires less decision-making, facts that may

have positive or negative consequences. Apparently, acquired habits never disappear, being susceptible to activation when receiving a cue. It is clear that some routines are necessary, and that without habits, our brain could collapse due to a large amount of decisions that require constant processing. What occurs when the habits are simply not efficient? When a habit overlaps important decisions, actions are automatically performed


without due deliberation and questioning. Within an organization, how can we not lose efficiency when creating a proper environment for the appearance of innovative ideas?









In his book The Power of Habit, Charles Duhigg [29] describes an experience occurred in Alcoa as an example of a corporation being transformed by the determination of a single collective goal; in this case, the improvement of the company’s security. According to the author, the definition of "keystone habits" corresponds to those that, when modified, have the ability to trigger important changes. For example, physical exercise: usually, when so- meone begins to worry about their own body, the condition implies additional behavioral changes such as adopting a healthier diet or demonstrating greater productivity at work. Small victories like these cause an effect on people, making them believe that bigger victories can be conquered; putting them into action to identify other potential victory sources in their lives. At Alcoa, the change of habit related to Security has triggered many new habits, resulting in productivity and efficient improvements. The goal, designated by the company’s President, was for him to be notified in 24 hours about relevant losses. To make this possible, the communica- tion processes and accident prevention systems needed to be revised in order to provide access to those not represented in the current structure due to the hierarchical position they’ve occupied.


[29] duhigg, 2012 [30] Source:


Benefits_Gamification_ Brings_to_Your_



Productive Entertainment

What exactly does this discussion have to do with the core theme of this book? Apparently everything; just think, there is such a large amount of evidence pointing out the urgency to rethink current production models in order to motivate and retain employees that are overwhelmed by many distractions; enhancing collaboration, strea- mline dated processes that are inconsistent to the speed of events, or even promoting the information exchange to be objective, transparent and noiseless. As per the context presented, gamification comes as a set of mechanisms and tools able not only to provide tangible alternatives to deal with the issues, but somehow to suggest a new way of viewing labor relationships. A short time ago, if someone in a meeting suggested, “to gamify” the corporation’s procedures, he would probably get dirty looks. This is because the prevailing idea, at that time was that games were only for fun, like any other function related to the entertainment concept. Today however, there are many organizations that have considered adopting games mechanics as feasible strategy to engage customers or employees, mainly due to the perception that this set of methods have been shown effective as a tool to impact markets, boost sales, bring more assertiveness in recruiting and help products and service development. Let’s take the relationship sometimes troubled and volatile with the client as an example. Along with this specific audience, gamification has been considered an alternative to present new products to potential consumers. Just like the free trial model, you can allow users to test pro- ducts represented in game format, and thus sensitize them regarding a future offer, reducing their time for market assimilation. Similarly, the methodology translates into an efficient way to create connection to a certain brand, or even raise their interest in a particular product. The insurance sector is certainly a good example. [30] By using games, organizations can educate their customers about the risks, how to better manage their personal finances and invest wisely, or even educate them about the importance of having a private retirement plan, with the possi- bility of converting it into discounts on purchasing products and services. The same logic could be applied to the encouragement of better driving practices, vehicles maintenance and even healthcare – actions that could link the clients’ well-being perception to the insurance company, besides potentially reducing the accident rate recorded. Other important aspects we should mention are the possibility of using gamification with the purpose of retaining clients. Games that are able to reflect concerns, questions or aspirations that can be translated into a good way, not only to get feedback to help


companies develop products and services more assertively, but also create, throughout time, a reliable relationship that will blossom into loyalty. It is worth remembering that it is common to most gamified platforms to ask users to provide an e-mail address or Facebook login, enabling companies to have access to specific information about their customers’ likes and habits. In the suggested model, each person is associated with clicks, points, badges and achievements, generating input for Big Data. Despite the fact that costumers are, almost always, main targets of gamification initiatives when applied to corporate context, they are not the only actors in the process that, when feeling motivated and engaged, can exert positive influence to businesses. In general, collaborative employees, regardless of their hierarchical positions within the institutions, may also have their contributions leveraged from the use of game mechanics. One important example is the hiring process. This experience can be gamified as a reward distribution to possible job applicants that can experience this process in a fun, tangible way, discarding the natural anxiety caused by the accomplishment of many predicted milestones. Similarly, gamification can be used as a way to recognize employees that were more engaged in performing their tasks, serving the purpose of causing awareness throughout the organization upon the importan- ce of identifying and capturing talent. Another possible application that is worth mentioning is retaining good employees. We don’t need to mention that this is essential to any organization. After all, it is directly related to create a positive and inspirational corporate culture. In this case, gamification can be a good strategy to incentive collaboration among departments or, for instance, the internal improvement of products. Those who become more regular in relation to the suggestions given can be recognized by digital platforms, guided not only to track the ongoing activities, but also to indicate new contribution oppor- tunities, promoting intrinsic motivation through public recognition. Such platforms can also be consolidated as tools to consult and register activities, including supporting the decision making about job promotions and salary increase. This way, it becomes quite evident that Human Resources is undoubtedly one of the most benefited areas by the application of gamification. To participate in training, qualifications or other initiatives of similar nature, for example, are not on companies’ employees’ priority lists, especially when you cannot see the relationship between the suggested practice and its direct application in the professional routine clearly. Therefore, encouraging people to spend a couple of their busy hours on something else is a real challenge that, on the other hand,


may be smoothed by designating collective missions or by creating a mechanism of reward and individual recognition for completed tasks. This format can also be effective when applied with the purpose of improving the commitment of filling out forms and reports. Nobody likes to fill out records, registers or document processes in detail, especially when this task competes with more urgent or useful ones Since it is impossible to totally eliminate bureaucracy, why not turn it into fun? The idea of making similar initiatives tangible, or even allo- wing them to assume playful shapes through game elements, could cause positive competition and create spontaneous engagement on performing repetitive or less mind stimulating tasks. It is common, in large corporations, to observe a general feeling of frustration that comes from not understanding what it takes to ascend professionally. Some employees may become bothered by their colleagues’ evolution, since goals and rewards may vary from case to case - and, therefore, may give the impression of being partial - or just because they do not hold the ability to transfer the actions applied by others to their own careers. In the presented context, the use of gamification may be precious, for example, on suggesting departments to define specific clear missions and criteria to grow within the company. Let us take a top member of the sales team as a reference, traveling a week across the country, attending six pre-scheduled meetings, getting three others during the trip and in the following week, delivering five proposals as direct result of their professional skill. If the performance of this sales- man were exposed in some way to other colleagues, it would serve to parameterize the objectives of the area, or even to inspire the younger ones who have natural identification with games and similar tools. [31]

[31] Source:





-Gamification.pdf [32] herger, 2013

Games x Work [32]


In the game

At work


Repetitive, but fun

Repetitive and boring



Once a year


Well defined

Vague or contradictory

Personal evolution

Clear and tangible






Proper to immediate needs

Overused and still insufficient



Not so visible or invisible




Subjective criteria









From mid high to low


Always present

Rarely present




Rarely present Obstacles Purposeful Accidentals “Me, me and me”: Understand the Y Generation Arrogant,

“Me, me and me”: Understand the Y Generation

Arrogant, lazy, uninterested, spoiled, apathetic, narcissistic, living with their parents; undoubtedly a list of adjectives that makes any mother dig a hole in the ground to hide herself in shame, right? After all, what does the future reserve for young people like this, who live with their noses stuck in their smartphones, snooping into the lives of others and dreaming about accomplishment without any effort? Answer: recreate the society we are living in. In May 2013, the controversial matter was the cover story of Time magazine, titled "The Me Me Me Generation". The suggestive term was carved by Joel Stein, author of the article, as a more figurative way to refer to the generation that, in the United States has been called Millennials, covering everyone who was born between 1980 and 2000. In order to prevent attacks from those who see some exaggeration with the profile, describing the 21st century as the first young adult generation, Stein made sure to support their claims of the figures accurately: according to studies published at the time, more people between 18 and 29 live with their parents than with spouses. The incidence of personality disorders related to narcissism is currently about three times higher in 20-30 y/o people than previou- sly recorded in the same age group during the 1970s. As if these were not already potential incendiary data, Stein, age


[33] Source: mindflash.





41, decided to climb another step toward becoming a true Judas for those who grew up watching Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Saint Seiya and Pokémon on TV. In the magazine's website, besides a digital version of the article, you can watch a video (in a jocose tone) that recorded the journalist’s attempt to spend an entire day living as a typical repre- sentative of the Y Generation. His first challenge was to sleep with his smartphone beside the bed and check it as soon as he opens his eyes. And that’s not all. The "competition" also involved sending 30 SMS messages in 24 hours (at least one of them with sexual content), keep a conversation going on all day long through a chat window, use two electronic devices simultaneously, publish multiple photos of himself on Instagram, answer the question "what are you thinking?" at least five times on Facebook and, finally, prohibited from using any landline whatsoever. Provocations aside, among the aspects that particularly distinguish the Y Generation from preceding ones; one of the most significant concerns is the relationship they nurture with technology. Remember that we are referring to those people who literally left their cribs to integrate a world where cell phones, video games and even internet were already widespread. Regarding specifically to games, a study conducted in 2012 by Nottingham Trent University showed that some Millennials manifest the desire of pushing the fast forward button during boring classes and even showed a tendency of trying to apply the tricks used in the FIFA Soccer video game when playing in real fields. [33] This being said, there is not much to say about the game role in their routine and as well as, in their professional lives as employees, they are demanding. The lack of personal recognition interferes with their production capacity and their commitment to the work subject. They show a particular appreciation for multitasking, flexible work hours and textual communication, rather than oral. They are optimistic about the future; they demonstrate high environmental consciousness and are proud of engaging in social causes; besides just money, they look for professional growth linked with well-being. Considering that the companies have more and more employees with the mentioned characteristics, sooner or later they will be asked to apply – or at least consider – gamification into their work process conception, at the risk of irreversibly divesting themselves from the way of thinking of those who, in practice, represent the arms, legs, heart and mind of any corporation. Next, we disclose some game aspects that increase benefits, when applied to corporate context.


instant feedback In games, all performed actions receive feedback. By catching an apple, for instance, the player increases his or her health bar; when collecting 100 coins or more the player receives an extra life, and so on. Positive feedback reinforces good behavior, while negative feedback allows more efficient behavioral adjustments. In corporations, instant feedback can help reduce panic during the dreaded annual reviews, accelerating the professional growth and learning process.instant feedback

badges Just like in real life, where jobs, clothes and skills show who we are, in the games universe, badges are the way to show what we like and what we’re good at. By creating and distributing badges, businesses can have access to free and very powerful resources that stimulate techniques and specific skill development; enabling its employees not only to stand out and be recognized by their talents, but also to show other colleagues how capable they really are.badges

tangible goals In a game, there is always a main objective ex. (how to save the princess) and some secondary objectives ex. (how to pass to the next stage or collect hidden items). In business, setting tangible goals creates a sense of steady progress, reducing the perception of difficult and long-term tasks. Instead of considering a six-month project, with long-term benefits, why not break it into three smaller goals that delivery every two months?tangible goals

competitiveness and contribution Humans are competitive by nature, there is competition in every context including professional. Most companies are aware of this fact; however they use practices that soon stop being stimulating. In other cases, competition is occasional or informal, failing to fulfill the function it was truly meant for. The introduction of game me- chanics helps to make competition scalable and automated, which produces, as a direct result, maintenance of good performance in a linear way, as long as goals and objectives are constantly reviewed. It is noteworthy that, in the same way that they encourage com- petition, games also reveal themselves as an effective stimulus to collaborative work. The best way to take advantage of this aspect is from proposing collective challenges aiming, for example, to reduce procedural bureaucracy or even redefining goals to be achieved by thecompetitiveness and contribution


department. With clear missions and appropriate stimuli, a group of people can organize themselves towards a single goal, increasing the results that could be achieved by working alone.

the results that could be achieved by working alone. [ 34 ] Source: gamification. co/wp-content/uploads/

[34] Source:

gamification. co/wp-content/uploads/ getting-started/





learning by doing A fundamental difference between games and work is that games teach us the stepping stones, not with a manual, but from practice. Farmville is an example. It is considered a simple game, popular among kids, but there are different obstacles such as cropping, pets, money, and gifts you can offer to friends. Perhaps if, in this context, things were thrown from a shovel without any explanation, many players could get bored because of the initial difficulty in understanding how it works and the purpose of each element. The game’s success is linked to the fact that its cre- ators are concerned about teaching, step by step, to their potential players on how to become an expert in this universe, enabling them to get the best of it. Let’s be honest, who nowadays is patient enough to read an entire manual? People can spend hours playing, but they hardly spend a single hour training for it. Therefore, it’s fundamentally accurate that companies teach their employees what they need to know, but in a less imposing and more theoretical way yet more participative. [34]






Gamification & companies:

made for each other

This chapter is devoted to the narrative of practical experiences while using gamification methods to solve traditional business issues in large organizations. You’ll have a clearer understanding of how the proposed methodology is applicable for difficult and common challenges for most companies.

Cultural Change Case: Gamification in Change Management

[35] German company, leading the Business Management Software Industry.

Change Management processes is notoriously one of the most complex challenges faced by large corporations today. Ancient Protocols, validated by time, work as engines from a gigantic system that, once disassembled, may never match its parts again. But the pressure exerted by mindsets and market changes sentences the need of direction change, even if it determines questioning what is most valuable to a company: its culture. MJV’s Technology & Inno- vation team had a delicate mission ahead of them when leading the implementation of the SAP [35] module to a construction company with more than five thousand employees. The project lasted twelve weeks. Its purpose was to sensitize the companies’ employees in relation to the system replacement they would be submitted to, besides arousing motivation and engagement in order to reach, with no major mishaps, adjustments in the work model they were used to; therefore avoiding, from a humanistic and creative approach, the known inconveniences inherent to this type of implementation. Through gamification methods it was possible to go beyond traditional training and communication initiatives, multiplying values by influencing mindsets more efficiently and bringing a significant difference to the project.

transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles
transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles

transforming findings into ideas After the completion of dozens of interviews, identifying representa- tive profiles from the company’s employees, and a detailed analysis of their opinions and yearnings – regarding the company and the management change process – a list of questions, synthesizing the main difficulties the change management team would face, was formed. They are:

Concern that SAP would prevent – or at least, complicate - a series of practices considered essential for the maintenance of the company's major contracts.

Awareness that benefits offered to preferred customers entailed an operational onus that has never been accounted for.

Collective perception that SAP implementation would directly interfere in common procedures vital for the company’s operation.

Impression that individual cultures of each company’s division, if confronted, could imply a SAP design that, when trying to please everyone it would please no one at all.

Feeling that the recent mergers and branches proliferation in the last years, were opposed to the concept of family business in which older employees were used to, and for whom the company's growth was still unknown.

Expression of quite disparate expectations regarding benefits and damages consequent from the Change Management process.

Preconceived negative image of SAP, considered to be a very strict and overly controlled system.

Concern that SAP could promote a business operational freeze, re- sulting in the loss of its most differential marketing factor: flexibility.

transforming ideas into action From the project’s core themes identification, which are essential to the Change Management process, it was necessary to

present relevant findings for the employees, meeting the purpose of developing measurements that could help them during SAP’s implementation process. Preliminary analysis of macro themes originated from research indicated the need of caution regarding the kind of approach, since the defined categories covered topics that would be difficult to introduce, some of which indicating the need of reviewing behaviors and ideologies that would no longer be tolerated after the system’s transition. The biggest MJV’s team concern was how to spread the large amount of interesting aspects without transforming them into a tedious and arbitrary cluster of behavior lessons, directed to restrain and constrain those who would not fit in the future operational model. The search for the most optimizing work results made the people responsible for the project consider some approaching options; however, none of them seemed adequate enough to the scope in question. At this point, the challenge was clear: it was necessary to create a set of practical tools to allow simulation of problematic situations, investigate opinions and behaviors, raise discussion, deliver knowledge in an unusual manner and communi- cate effectively through the Change Management process in which the company would be submitted to.

engagement, membership and fun In the specific case of this construction company, given the possible organizational issues resulting from SAP’s implementation, to consi- der gamification as a possible approach showed numerous benefits starting from the fact that the Serious Game’s concept fit perfectly to the project’s particularities. By stimulating SAP’s disclosure and its intended application in the company’s context, the game would directly influence positive and conscious adherence to the new ERP and the changes that would come with it. In addition, to encourage such aspects, virility and social mobilization would be promoted determining that when commenting on the game - a totally unusual activity, considering the context in which they would be inserted - participants would grab other employees’ attention, increasing the people involved in the initiative. Therefore, the desired engagement would occur, once the game would stimulate the devotion to assigned tasks, allowing the cons- truction of relationships between the organization and its employees. By contributing to the resolution of issues raised during the project, gamification methods would encourage the creation of a collective commitment with SAP’s implementation. The solutions developed during this project, presented below, were structured by key points


identified in the project´s immersion stage, in order to create a playful and conducive environment.

game logic structuring On the set of games developed in order to support the implemen- tation of SAP in a company, is firstly considered the challenge element, or the need and willingness to overcome obstacles to move ahead in the game’s experience. Then, the importance of stimulating curiosity, was highlighted – food for imagination and a determinant factor to retain the player’s attention. The proposed dynamics also contemplate the need to provide meaning and value to users and to the construction company and ultimately enable the creation and strengthening of social bonds, essential to the integration of the company's employees and the consequent success of the project.

games of change The series of games to be presented has been developed to genera- te engagement and motivate participation in the process, as well as approach the sensitive topics emerged during immersion and likely to represent a bottleneck in the implementation and acceptance of the new SAP’s ERP. Games of Change were conceptualized in order to be part of a set, but can be played separately, so as to interfere as little as possible in the organization’s operational routine. Following, we describe each games features, specific objectives, the rational factor behind the concept presented and the participation rules.

behind the concept presented and the participation rules. Construction Operation challenge: facing tasks of assuming

Construction Operation

challenge: facing tasks of assuming a contractor employees’ position in this exciting one day journey in the company. When a real problem appears, do you know how to solve it?


objective: the Construction Operation invites the player to be in the place of other professional, to live under an unknown point of view: the experience of any critical situations of daily work, conside- ring procedures and habits sometimes contradictory.

how to play: on the monitor’s screen, a proposed challenging work situation similar to that experienced in day to day business, from three professionals’ perspectives: administrative assistant, offi- ce manager and plant supervisor. By choosing one of the suggested positions, the player needs to think and act according to his option, choosing one between two alternatives to move forward in the game. The story’s development depends on the choices made by the player, being his or her main objective to complete the assigned task without violating operational rules established by the company.

why does it work? This game was designed in order to address in a playful manner, delicate and incisive themes, related to cultural aspects of the company in question, as well as negative and extremely harmful habits resulted from former operational gaps. By taking another professional’s place and exercising functions that were not usual, the company’s employee had the opportunity to undergo the inherent difficulties from each step of the process, and decide how to proceed to discover a more adequate understanding of proposed situations, without bearing the consequences it should have in real life. Therefore, it was an efficient tool to promote SAP’s arrival in the company, and serve the purpose of educating or changing inade- quate mental models without creating embarrassment or coercion.


Expectra challenge: when the cards are on the table, your opinion is the starting point


challenge: when the cards are on the table, your opinion is the starting point in a discussion upon the challenges of SAP’s implementation.

objective: Expectra was designed to directly and cooperatively stimulate a discussion about many questions that made SAP’s imple- mentation a new challenge to the ones involved in the process.

how to play:

Numbers of players — from 2 to 4.

Participants first define who will be the game’s speaker. The elected is responsible for reading the problematic situations to the group as shown on the 20 numbered cards.

From the reading of each problematic situation, the participant places a card on the table corresponding to their opinion on the subject. The cards that each player has in hand shows numbers from 1 to 100. For example: “Regarding SAP, I don’t think it will have adjusting problems (adaptation).” How much do you agree with this opinion, taken from an interview? In this case, if the player agrees with the statement, he should put a card on the table with a value near 100. In case he disagrees, he should put a card on the table with a value near 1.

When all players have put their cards on the table, the group should discuss the final figures, to understand the reason why each participant chose a particular card.

After the discussion, the group is once again invited to show their cards to rate their opinion about the proposed themes, and in this second turn, having the opportunity to change or confirm the prior choice.


At the end of the second opinion round about the same theme, the speaker sums the card figures shown, and the total should be inserted to the score chart in the corresponding place of the problematic situation card’s number.

The same procedure is conducted to all problematic situation cards, so that, at the end of the game, there will be a total score figure from that group, as a result of the sum of individual numbers obtained by each problematic situation card proposed.

The winning group is the one with the sum of points that is closer to the total determined by the Change Management committee. The contest result is announced to the participants by email, as soon as all scores are counted.

why does it work? The idea of proposing a deck of cards as a platform to encourage debate on SAP’s implementation was justified by the fact that this type of game is commonly associated with relaxation and informal chat, the opposite of what could have occurred: a heated and unproductive discussion. The designed game is based - with some changes - in the rules of Planning Poker, one of the Scrum project management methodology tools. One of them corresponded to problem situation cards, developed to portray the existing contrast opinions within the company upon the benefits and losses caused by system change. More than meeting expectations and stimulating discussions for the topic, this game allowed participants to learn about SAP through each other, enabling knowledge multiplication in an agile and fun way.


SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims
SAP Marathon challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims

SAP Marathon

challenge: join your colleagues and participate in this entertai- ning contest, which aims to complete tasks, score points and share knowledge about SAP!

objective: to engage employees into SAP’s implementation process and create change through promotion agents.

how to play: SAP Marathon has been structured to unfold over a week of activities, regardless the branch’s location or division. With the objective of combining educational and recreational aspects of playful factors, SAP Marathon has been characterized as a contest where participants – company’s employees - are engaged to perform a series of missions. These missions should be carried out by groups with up to three members, promoting integration and debate and encouraging team spirit. Teams should register in ad- vance, within a previously determined deadline. Once the teams are set, the SAP marathon starts and will be implemented in the course of five days, mainly from Monday through Friday. Activities have been conceived upon two of the project’s macro-themes: “Learning about SAP” and “Promoting SAP in the Company”.

Theme 1: Learning about SAP Within this theme, activities have been proposed to lead employees to get informed about what SAP is and to share their findings with the community they belong to, bringing out a more educational and cooperative aspect. Each day of the week corresponds to an activity, only revealed on the day it occurs. Every activity being performed has a specific score, and the sum of points determines a final rating as well as the winners.


Theme 2: promoting SAP Considering the referred theme, activities are proposed to bring visibility to SAP’s project within the company, by stimulating cooperation and entertainment. On the contrary of the actions from Theme 1, the activities will be released simultaneously on a Monday, in order to give time to the teams to perform tasks. To complement theme 1, each activity has a specific score, and the sum of points determined the final rating as well as the winners.

why does it work? As important as adapting the company’s procedures to SAP’s ope- ration, it is also important to promote knowledge about the Change Management process in progress, since the successful system implementation is related to the ability of employees to absorb the proposed new model. From this point of view, it is necessary to develop a dynamic specifically focused to promoting the project, which should allow the involvement of as many people as possible and that had the potential to become viral. More than this, by proposing SAP’s marathon, the objective is also to turn members into change agents, creating the best conditions for them to multiply the knowledge acquired from performed missions, engaging colleagues who were not aware of the games or even of SAP’s implementation.

not aware of the games or even of SAP’s implementation. Sapiente challenge: become an expert while
not aware of the games or even of SAP’s implementation. Sapiente challenge: become an expert while


challenge: become an expert while unrevealing SAP’s secrets and peculiarities; a game in which strategy definition is fundamental.

objective: the Sapient has the main purpose of introducing SAP’s environment to employees and enable them to get familiar to the new platform.


how to play: the game’s rules are closely related to the content defined during the project planning phase. It is a game about strategy and reasoning based on SAP’s operational manual.

why does it work? This game fulfills the important role of allowing SAP’s users to obtain

a prior understanding - at the same time as rational and intuitive – of the functions that they would need to deal with on a daily exercise of their activities. Instead of accessing key information from the conventional method, which consists of reading robust handouts (sometimes extremely didactic, but not very functional), the Sapient participants have the opportunity to obtain a similar result, but in

a much more interesting and fun way. In practice, this game repre-

sented the Gamification of the SAP’s User Manual, a new approach to transform bored readers into engaged players. The Sapient’s concept is based on establishing a relationship between the content and its receptor, causing the receiver, for example, to understand the reason of a particular system aspect, rather than just memorizing it.

roadshow When thinking about Games of Change as a widely publicized event, the possibility of creating a real bond in favor of changes was designed, and also to establish the event as a transition ritual for a new order within the company. The goal of Games of Change launching events became the presentation and disclosure of SAP itself, introducing Change Management to employees who were not directly involved in the project. MJV’s team proposal to this Construction Company was to make Games of Change into an itinerant event, able to move, ac- cording to needs, among all active areas of the company regardless of its geographic position. This format reinforced the popular and flexible feature of the project, making it a viable alternative to obtain more significant results than those achieved with traditional models of Change Management.


Motivation/Engagement Case: Call Center Gamification As noted earlier in this book, the contemporary society, in

Motivation/Engagement Case: Call Center Gamification

As noted earlier in this book, the contemporary society, in the context of globalization, has become more and more complex in many different aspects among which corporate procedures and work relationships are included. Mainly in companies with larger structures, evidence shows that the velocity of change in interactions and communication modes, between employees and the institution, have not urgently followed the practices and specific wishes from each professional sector which, added to private aspects from the company’s routine and culture, can end up causing frustration for both parties. With this perspective, MJV Technology & Innovation had the opportu- nity to perform an extremely pioneering project aimed at improving work conditions in the Call Center of a major Brazilian insurance company to reduce the high rates of the sector’s turnover as well as increasing assertiveness and quality of service provided by agents. It should be noted that the context in which they inserted the mentioned project is quite compatible with the aforementioned gap that occurs between large companies and their employees, since, by being directly involved in communicating with customers, the area in question corresponds to the most visible part of these corporations. In practice, this means that the world's largest companies trust their public reputation to a group of extremely young professionals who are often unmotivated, underpaid and working under constant pressure. Therefore, to understand the diversity of challenges in the project, the need to develop a set of practices aimed at building a more stimulating environment for agents, where they could feel more valued by the important work that they do and more predisposed to constantly impro- ve as professionals, was observed. To reach this result, given the affinity of objectives and potential identification with the target audience, MJV’s team decided to address the proposed challenge using Gamification


mechanisms. It is noteworthy that such a choice was also related to the perusal of new demands when building unique solutions for the paradigm challenges mentioned above, especially if considering that most agents belong to a generation that has such close familiarity with the universe of games, which alone would greatly increase the chances of the proposal’s success. It is important to clarify that the Gamification approach to the project has always been linked to another that’s contemplated by MJV while carrying out innovation projects and it’s called Design Thinking. Through its set of methods and procedures organized into four iterative steps - Immersion, Ideation, Prototyping and Implementation - the multidisciplinary team formed by the company structured and executed the project. Therefore, there were repositioning stages for visualizing the situation, context mapping and exploration, data compiling and analysis, co-creation sessions, idea experimentation and testing, and finally solution implementation. Regarding CoolCenter’s (name given to the developed platform) experience, the approach of Gamification started from an immer- sion in the particular context of the insurer’s major professional groups from the Costumer Relationship Center, composed of two different teams: one of their employees and another from outsour- ced services. For this, several rounds of interviews were conducted, as well as participant observation and shadowing [36], among other Design Thinking immersive methods, in order to understand the real needs of those involved. It was also noted from immersion, the importance of knowing the available metrics and indicators for managing the operation. Therefore, besides the analysis of the tools that were used by agents, new indicators for promoting the criteria and preexisting functionalities were created. Generative sessions with managers were also carried out to design new tools and their respective validations after the prototyping stage. Besides the activities already mentioned, a focus group with the agents was created so they could have the opportunity to validate the platform that would be developed for them. After the ideas improvement phase, three prototypes were imple- mented considering tangibilization, evaluation and selection of the proposed solutions. Such prototypes consisted of a quiz -, a mechanism for prioritizing doubts and the implementation of an instant challenge routine. The first was structured in formulating questions about the agents’ working context – awarding those who obtained more correct answers in the shortest time. The second regarded the agents’ main doubts during the service, which was done only through phone calls made to supervisors, not being


possible for example, a preview of where they should act with priority. While proposing a redistribution of the logistics, the intention was to minimize the time spent waiting for help during the service, allowing more experienced agents to score when responding to doubts from their colleagues. Finally, regarding instant challenges, attempts were made to measure the impact of instant campaigns – in short term – at the insurer’s Costumer Relationship Center, through the distribution of small prizes in case of success.

productivity and self-esteem Given the context observed by MJV’s team over the six weeks of immersion held in the Costumer Relationship Center, the project’s initial hypothesis - to introduce game mechanics in the service operation – was irrefutably confirmed. When approaching the daily lives of the agents, it was not difficult to draw parallels between the process that they were already inserted in and the universe of games, especially when recognizing the benefits that can be achie- ved by legitimizing and expanding the potential of practices that, somehow, have always been in progress. Keep in mind the work methods in use already involved time constraints, predetermined goals and evaluations based on points scored, which are just three aspects that closely approach it to the rules in which players submit to in any game.

[36] Shadowing:

Learning by observation. Immersion method used in Design Thinking, whi- ch consists of observing real life situations care- fully for a set amount of time to understand how people behave within a given context. This method can help you figure out the reality of what people actually do, as opposed to what they say they do.

Why gamify the service in a Call Center?

Because it establishes a system of constant and tangible rewar- ds, which turns into greater dedication and consequently into better results.

Because the platform encourages knowledge sharing, reducing training costs.

Because more than bureaucratically achieving goals, each custo- mer well served represents an opportunity to earn points.

Because the acquired points scored and the fact that remaining in the company turns into benefits, awards and especially status before their colleagues.

Because the game is the best way to gain visibility and, in practice, it translates itself as an efficient Human Resources tool, oriented to identify the agents who present the greatest commitment to their work.

Because to stop working in the Call Center would not just be quit- ting a job, but leaving a game unfinished as well as all the status and benefits won over months.

Because the generation in which the agents are a part of


cause gaming mechanisms to be very familiar to them and even translates into a language they understand. So, why not extend affinityinto the work place?

Therefore, the desired engagement occurred, since the game stimulated dedication to the assigned tasks, allowing long-lasting relationships between the institution and its employees. By contri- buting in retaining talents, the incentive to greater engage with the subject, the provision of a more user friendly interface to perform the service, the establishment of a more motivating and challenging professional environment and the establishment of a channel to stand up and be recognized, the Gamification proposal represented the determination of new parameters for the Call Center’s segment, both nationally and internationally.

coolcenter Conceptually, instead of just proposing a dynamic game that interested the agents, MJV's team went beyond the initial scope of the project and chose to create a dashboard [37] that brought everything together all on one screen, all the tools that were used during the operation, most of which improved functionality and visualization. Therefore, besides encouraging agents to develop new behaviors, such as proactivity and cooperation, the proposed solu- tion served to speed up and ease procedures, contributing to the improvement of the service provided by the insurer to its customers. To further elaborate, CoolCenter transformed the performance of work in the CRC to a more pleasurable and stimulating task, starting with the fact that its interface is friendlier than those previously used, as well as the fact that it has eliminated the necessity of maintaining several browser tabs open, among many other benefits. The following is a brief description of the main aspects of the developed tool.




manager’s challenge: Mechanism that allows the supervisor to launch a “flash campaign” into the agent's

manager’s challenge: Mechanism that allows the supervisor to launch a “flash campaign” into the agent's terminal in order to reach in a short period of time, specific goals in the service's critical moments. This functionality was designed due to a team's insight about the inconsistencies in Costumer Relationship Centers, where a very intense and dynamic operation is observed in contrast to incentive campaigns that are extended over long periods of time (fifteen days to one month).

help button: By clicking on this button, the agent can describe in 140 characters doubts that appeared during the service. The doubt becomes part of a list, displayed not only to the supervisor as per "elite" attendants (those who have reached 100% in quality in the previous three months), which score in the game when they can satis- factorily resolve colleagues’ issues. The idea is to allow doubts to gain greater visibility and therefore be solved in less time and reducing errors recurrence. The solution becomes even more interesting due to two reasons: encouraging agents to belong to an elite group - not only by the status to be acquired but also by the extra chance to score in the game - the Help Button relieves the supervisor's responsibility


[37] Dashboard: The term dashboard is used to indicate an "indicator panel", such as an indi- cator panel from a car (speedometer indicator, engine speed, engine temperature indicator, oil level indicator etc.).

to resolve impasses in the service, freeing them to designate more strategic functions.

quiz: Multiple-choice questions created by the Quality and Training Areas, which evaluate the agent's knowledge of specific subjects, es- pecially the most recent and not yet assimilated ones. Despite being a simple-minded solution, its importance is justified by the fact that it shortens time and reduces costs while training agents, as it is already incorporated into the platform. Furthermore, the testing process changes the working subject into desirable content, since answering them correctly can even represent a way to ascend professionally.

adherence view tab: A tool to provide visibility to agents on specific adherence data as their daily attendance table, the absent days and their behavior towards the breaks taken throughout the week. Normally this information could be accompanied by paper worksheets, which were kept by supervisors, but in this case, as the data is being generated and displayed in real time on the system, there is greater awareness of the agent in relation to their professio- nal conduct. Taking, for example, absenteeism, which is one of the main offences in this sector, the eve absence impacts the player's score on the very next day, increasing the chances that the action will not be repeated.

day-off advert: Tool’s functionality that allows viewing the pro- cess of exchanging days off among employees in order to facilitate the operation and reduce the supervisors’ work. The access to this area is restricted to agents who have no absences during the month, which in practice, serves as an absence reducer.

agent's profile: Area to identify the game's participant and provide useful information to other players. Its design was oriented to simulate the interface of a true social network in order to, not only dissociate it from the concept of a production tool, but also to make the professional environment more pleasant. In the "Status" field the agent has the possibility to make their mood public or write a headline passage describing how their shift is going. The idea is to convey the feeling that the company is interested in the state of mind of its employees, and even anticipate the demonstration of potential discomforts or decreased productivity.

badges: They qualify and award the agent for their skills and are linked to their profile for everyone to see. They are distributed throughout the competition in recognition of achievements. It works as an excellent way to encourage the development of specific skills desirable to the company.


game ranking: Section designed to provide general information about the challenge. It works like a leaderboard. In this area, each agent can track their own performance in comparison to the leaders of the challenge and have access to their entire history of records and scores throughout the competition.

The use of the tools promotes a considerable improvement in the quality of service provided by the insurer’s agents, given its characteristics of flexible and expandable training methods and re- defining the information hierarchy. Besides that, the game can bring engagement to the agents’ professional activity and self-esteem from public recognition.

activity and self-esteem from public recognition. Planning/Comunication Strategic Case: Gamified Strategic

Planning/Comunication Strategic Case: Gamified Strategic Planning Whenever the topic of “strategic planning” is contemplated, the same concern appears: how an alignment in macro level, which is the result of the understandings of the brightest minds in a company, unfolds into a series of practical measures likely to be carried out by employe- es who don’t know much about the business besides what they can see over their desks. The situation for multinationals is extremely delicate due to the organizations that often have thousands of em- ployees with particular cultural aspects, acting in almost antagonistic markets; however, none of these companies are free from the need to pursue strategic definitions to guide their actions globally. Here lies the challenge faced by MJV’s team in this project: to gamify the strategic planning of a worldwide insurance organization. With the intention of developing a game method that will meet the goal of communicating and aligning specific missions among departments that should develop better synergy, the initial scope became the company’s operation in Brazil. The proposition was to create a collaborative game with the main purpose of achieving


collective goals (set by areas/departments) that could be associated by a certain vision determined by the organization’s global strategic planning. This means that, each player had to perform tasks and earn points individually to help their area/department which they belonged to by winning a total of points needed to ensure the group’s correspondent engine fit in the "Master System". The Master System was similar to a grandfather’s clock, installed at the entrance of the company's branch in São Paulo, and the systems best work only occurred when all the engines (each from a separate area/department) were positioned in the right places. This situation configures the end of the game.

entering the game To start playing, the employee had to create a profile in the game’s vir- tual platform. On their computer screens, they checked the objectives and targets set by their area/department. These goals had to be met, individually and collectively, within the period stipulated by the game, which was thirty days. With the platform, besides various statistics, players obtained specific information not only about their involvement in the game but also about other players. Through this platform it was also possible to watch videos explaining the game’s rules, get strategic tips or even plan collective tasks with colleagues.

choosing tasks To help your team achieve the goals set for the group, one player has to win points individually. He or she could:

a) Apply to receive tasks related to the company’s strategic


b) Submit to challenges that tested their knowledge about these

strategic objectives.

c) Choose to replicate other employee’s knowledge gained

through the game. With each of the above categories there were difficult levels established and different scores. The tasks were inserted gradually each week, preventing some more engaged participants to distance themselves from other players, reducing the sensation of competiti- veness in the game.

earning points By choosing to perform tasks related to the company’s strategic objectives, the player received badges (public recognition stamps) on his profile known as "Troubleshooter "; when testing his knowledge


about the company's vision for the future, badges of "Visionary"; when sharing wisdom with other employees, he got badges known as "Knowledge Builder". The individual score was still assigned even though groups conducted the tasks. Effective participation in the game determined the achievement of individual and collective tasks

from different natures, which consequently demanded different skills, some of them requiring interaction with other areas/departments. To enable the area/department to conquer their engine – which

is the main objective of the game – each member of the group

needed to perform five individual tasks, two collective ones and one interdepartmental, chosen by self-defined criteria. It is noteworthy that the managers of the areas/departments could see in real time, from the platform, each employee’s performance in the game as well as those who more effectively contributed for the achievement of the objectives in the group. The creation of the complementary goals or even to allow the demand for results that occurred due to the initiative of the team itself was completely up to the manager.

additional benefits By completing all the tasks assigned to them, players were granted access to Special Tasks, which, when completed, granted additional bonus scores. Players who performed the minimum number of distinct tasks among themselves (e.g., two missions, three challenges, one tip sharing) also received extra points. Employees who reached the highest individual scores in each of the three possible tasks (mission, challenge and tip sharing) were invited to join an elite squad, in which they dealt with the most strategic topics for the company.

how the game ends In practice, the game ended when all areas/departments got their

engines, allowing the Master System to fully function. To get to this point, all players should complete the assigned tasks: individual, collective and interdepartmental. However, there was the possibility of getting awards derived from the main game objective, for example, rewarding the department that got its first engine or which demonstrated better engagement and proactivity. The final installa- tion of the Master System coincided with a major event, highlighting the achieved goals by players and how they could be transferred to

a daily business routine. Possibly the main obstacle posed to by the

team during the project was to translate important generic goals to the organization – however, with difficult assimilation and imple- mentation by its members - in tangible missions that could unfold various hierarchical levels. The flexibility of smaller goals aligned to


large guidelines, generated empathy between staff and business objectives, particularly giving them a sense that the benefits could be achieved without total cooperation. By determining individual and collective missions’ achievement, the game suggested an inte- resting balance between personal and team commitment, providing a favorable environment to collaboration and an almost viral sharing of this engagement. The metaphor proposed by the Master System was an ingenious way to create a collective view of achievements for each designated area, which tends to exert a positive sense of competition capable of accelerating certain processes.

of competition capable of accelerating certain processes. Software Development/Project Management Case: Accelerating

Software Development/Project Management Case: Accelerating

Managing software development is often a tricky task, considering even the most experienced professionals may be surprised by the amount of obstacles and unforeseen events that sometimes needs to be overcome along the way. One way to attenuate this risk is by adopting agile methods, a model conceived in order to quickly absorb changes in planning, whether they come from increasing customer interaction - who participates actively in the project and anticipates necessary adjustments - or even from results obtained from tests of minimally viable products. Although representing a breakthrough compared to the traditional model of development - given its more dynamic character - the agile methods assume greater team integra- tion as well as the implementation of more efficient communication mechanisms and visualization tasks. Stimulated by thinking of how to attend this important demand, MJV’s team organized a brainstorming session that brought together developers, IT managers and designers in order to list the possibilities for the tangibilization of a process. From the perception of the importance of playfulness as a facilitator of communication and identification of requirements - which sometimes are not explicit in the early development - it was agreed that it was


necessary to develop a tool capable of providing those features in any project’s development, regardless of their particularities. To better understand the market for applying agile software development methods, MJV’s team met with three Scrum coaches who offered courses on the subject and who were coaching in companies of different sizes. The tool that, by analogy seemed more faithful in con- templating the demands of such a project was a board game followed by conducting a market survey to identify their different types, the languages used and what artifices were employed to engage the players. Regarding the definition of probable game’s tasks, the agile development process itself was analyzed, considering its phases and its key moments of interaction with the customers. For the game to become more efficient, it was also necessary to think of a storyline, so the idea of comparing the development of software to climbing came up, since both activities have the need for chain steps, changing plans and dealing with the unforeseen circumstances in order to achieve the objective. With the first prototype of the game in hand, MJV’s team met with some "potential" clients in order to assess the responsive- ness of the tool that was being developed. The language used was one of the most pertinent observations made about the first model. There was the impression that the board reminded them of an overly playful universe, which could bring some resistance, especially from the more conservative customers. However, many other collected opinions were essential for reaching a final version of the product in the two weeks’ time established for the project.


streamlining From the tests conducted, the assumption was that through playful activities, the team members

streamlining From the tests conducted, the assumption was that through playful activities, the team members would be more likely to become involved in determining the real business needs, resulting in a richer specification and reducing any risks to the project. In this context,

two "products" being developed were defined: the first was called "streamlining", and consisted of a board game focused on prospec- tion and oriented to provide transparency to the process, allowing the client to feel comfortable while expressing their real worries and concerns with the project. Defining the scope, monitoring groups’ performance, sizing efforts and controlling chronogram were some of the tasks that could be performed in a less complicated and more fun way with the presented solution. The second corresponded to a playful dashboard, focused on easing project’s monitoring, configured as an interface of easy to understand yet still able to stimulate interaction among managers, developers and customers, considering the following aspects:

Weekly display global monitoring graphics.

Include a team "stress meter".

Provide an evaluation opportunity that enables the client to interact with the staff.


Introduce the concept of measuring sustainable actions.

Provide a deadline monitor instrument. From another point of view, the game also provided a relaxed environment and the narrowing of relationships between the parties. The desired intent was to assist the client with understanding his own needs; and for the developers’ team to have a clear strategy that could be used while creating the project. The following is a brief description of the games created, their specific goals and which project milesto- nes they were designed for.


objective: understand the success perception the client has for the project.

proposed activity: think you're already continuously using the product you ordered. Describe the product’s features you are satis- fied with (richer, safer, smarter or any other proper adjective). The game objective is to refine the stories (requirements’ specifications for developing each specific project’s task).

Ophthalmological Test

objective: prioritize stories (project’s backlog [38]).

proposed activity: write down each story on a card and mix them on a table. Choose two of them randomly and compare: which one is more important? Set a level of priority and paste the most relevant card on the wall, positioning the other story right below. Repeat the same comparison as often as needed.

Planning Poker

objective: scale the complexity level of the stories.

proposed activity: having the stories list in hand, give one set of

cards to each team member. Participants start playing by selecting the story that represents the value 5. Then they must select another so that each player exposes the card that corresponds to the deve- lopment complexity which, in their opinion, demands that activity.

If the numbers are very discrepant, players must justify their votes.

After the explanation, the story is voted again until the team reaches

a consensus. The game ends when all the stories have received complexity attribution.


Market Stories

objective: to define the project’s budget.

proposed activity: show participants the stories’ list – together with their development cost – then distribute coins of different values for them to choose in which of them they want to "invest" the budget. It is interesting to have "expensive" stories so that team’s members have the chance to discuss with each other and join forces to invest.

[38] Backlog: Refers to a log (historical summary) of working overflow, in a period of time. Backlog is a kind of "client orders sheets collection” related to undone products Gross mode, backlog is a stock of orders waiting to be responded.

Exploratory navigation

objective: to approve the interface’s navigation.

proposed activity: select a story and try to accomplish it by browsing the interfaces, which must be sketched on sheets of paper placed on a table. If you identify inadequate or faulty elements, include on the sketch suggestions for changing. Repeat the activity with all stories.

why does it work? The design of a board that suggests an evolutionary journey that joins activities to ease the completion of specific tasks related to software development. That achieved an important demand, which seemed neglected in agile projects: the tangibilization of a process. However, the suggestion of a playful dashboard destined to generate better visualization of the steps and allow more participation from the cos- tumer, proved to be the best complement to the purpose of making a more collaborative task with fewer errors due to lack of communica- tion. From the two simple tools suggested, a bunch of paper stuck on the wall and a handful of unproductive discussions, this can turn into a more organized, creative, and why not, fun process.


Capacity/Awareness Case: Brazil 2022 If there is any certainty in a group of two hundred
Capacity/Awareness Case: Brazil 2022 If there is any certainty in a group of two hundred
Capacity/Awareness Case: Brazil 2022 If there is any certainty in a group of two hundred

Capacity/Awareness Case: Brazil 2022

If there is any certainty in a group of two hundred CEOs with the most influential Brazilian companies is that this is not an easy crowd to en- gage. Inserted in a decision making routine, almost always concomi- tant and of vital importance for the companies that command mainly, lack of time, these professionals became used to understanding their surrounding scenarios through executive reports or even the endorsement of their faithful advisors. Taking this into consideration, what are the real chances of grabbing the attention of these people for an all-day event, turning them into avid players, willing to contribute to building a collective vision for the future of the country? To meet this expectation, MJV, with the assistance of a consulting [39] company specialized in prospective scenarios, developed Brazil 2022, a pervasi- ve game applied during Brazil Summit 2011: Order and Progress? – An event organized by the British magazine ‘’The Economist’’ in 2011 in São Paulo – with the objective of promoting dialogue in the possible paths of the country's economic future until the bicentennial of its independence.

What would Brazil be like in 2022? What obstacles could prevent its growth over the next decade and how to overcome them while achieving the increasingly desired economic strength? Due to these and other questions, a guided game was created to stimulate participants to gather the ten cards that composed one of four macroeconomic scenarios that they considered the most likely to consolidate within the deadline.


brazil 2022 — the game At the event’s entrance, potential players received a kit consisting

brazil 2022 — the game At the event’s entrance, potential players received a kit consisting of an invitation - with basic operating instructions for the activity - four activated cards, each one corresponding to a group scenario (Back in the 1970s, Chinese Capitalism in a Brazilian Method, A shock for orthodox capitalism, A new economic retraction) and a blank card to be filled by guidelines. All kits summed 42 points. So, despite numerous possible combinations of the cards, all players started the competition evenly. There was a blank card in the game’s booth so that the cards could be exchanged according to each player's interest. Though they chose their favorite scenario, they didn’t know the value of the card they received, which could vary. In the booth through a video monitor, fictional news about the economy in the coming years were shown, which interfered in the probability of dominance of one or the other different scenario’s.

[39] Macroplan Prospective Strategy and Management

how to play: The policy was, each card represented the player’s company that’s invested in the scenario; however, besides the four cards received at the beginning of the event , it was possible to obtain others through direct exchange with other players (according to exchange rules stipulation) in the game’s booth. An additional way to earn cards was linked to completing a chart in which players’ guesses were gathered on specific aspects of the economy (external context, external insertion, economic adjustments, economic growth, invest- ments, leadership in investments, State’s presence, productive park innovation, Environment and Deforestation, gdp per capita). For each group of three opinions recorded in the chart, the player received three cards with random values (ranging 3-42 points) corresponding to their favorite scenario. In the second stage of the game (after the event’s second coffee-break), players could also interact with NPCs (non-player characters), or staff members who performed the func- tion of introducing new cards with new scores, making investments


and exchanges even more dynamic. These special collaborators were also responsible for collecting the players’ impressions, indicating the appreciation of one or another scenario, which impacted directly in the choice of cards by other players. At the end of the day, all the players were asked to count their points in the game’s booth. The scenario cards pointed out by the majority as the most likely to materialize had their score amplified by 25% in comparison to the other cards, being the winner defined by the higher score obtained. After submitting to the playful experience provided by the game, participants had the opportunity to know the statistical data generated by the activity, compiled with the purpose of showing the evolution of the opinions in accordance with fluctuations occurred during the game.

why does it work? By creating a game from a deck of cards that contained information backed up by experts in macroeconomics, the main objective for the project was achieved: to involve businessmen, heads of the most powerful Brazilian organizations into a dynamic atmosphere, not only capable of awakening their curiosity, but also to transmit a proposition of practical value, applicable to their professional contexts. Furthermore, Brazil 2022, served as a tool for probing into an extremely selected group about the economic future of the country, which generated, as a legacy, a solid database likely to even be referred to when discussing the topic. In the month following its accomplishment, the game earned an online version, hosted in the digital edition of the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo.




Let’s get down to work!

How to get started?

Now that the gamification concepts are understood, some doubts may still remain with how to make the methodology tangible throu- gh solid actions within a company. This chapter aims to objectively present practical tools and suggest a Step-by-Step implementation, giving an alternative approach to solving businesses problems. The Step-by-Step method doesn’t need to be followed in the proposed order, but this order was meant to serve as support in the first gami- fication implementations. Here’s our description for this process:

implementations. Here’s our description for this process: [ 40 ] A thorough overview of the Design

[40] A thorough overview of the Design Thinking techniques presented in this book can be found in the book DesignThinking:

Business Innovation, by Vianna et al., 2012.

Step 1: Understanding the issue and the context

Usually, the most appropriate way to start a gamification project is by understanding which problem you're trying to solve, as well as the context in which it is inserted. It is very likely that, at an early stage the origins of the problem are not clear: to assist in the sce- nario mapping and user’s understanding, techniques derived from Design Thinking [40] can be used to identify the impasse, as well as its causes and effects. There are three fundamental aspects that must be considered at this stage: company culture, business goals, and most importantly understanding the users. The company’s culture has great influence on how players will interact and react to the gamification initiatives. In order to achieve effective behavioral change one must first understand it well. Different cultures may be more or less open to new ideas, have rigid or flexible duties, be oriented to cooperation or competitiveness and have formal or informal environments among other characteristics. Try to identify, at the beginning of the project, which are the main aspects of the company’s culture, making sure that they will be considered in the following stages.


Gamification initiatives should also be aligned with the company’s business goals – they must serve as support for other ongoing actions. If the initiative is affecting other areas, it is important to have an understanding of their goals and specific business objectives while avoiding the incidence of conflict. To achieve an effective behavioral change, it is necessary to understand diverse human aspects of the people involved in the problem and the way they face them in their daily routine. The way users absorb new knowledge, the emotional characteristics related to work, their aesthetic perception of the world and cultural issues; are some of the elements that need to be studied very carefully to create a good gamification experience. Remember that gamification initiatives are designed for people and it is extremely important to understand them fully in order to create exciting and relevant games. By means of the following techniques, you will understand which type of behavior needs to be changed.

techniques to ease the definition of issues The information necessary for understanding the three initial questions suggested by the Step-by-Step process can be obtained through interviews, observation and the application of specific tools for the synthesis of these findings.

of specific tools for the synthesis of these findings. interviews This is the most intuitive technique.

interviews This is the most intuitive technique. Talk to people who need to have their behavior changed and try to understand the motivation behind the attitudes they express. Interviews can happen informally so that employees do not feel pressured at work. Hierarchical differences often compromise results, not only from interviews but also from several other research techniques, so it is recommended to seek a neutral person within the organizational structure to obtain this data. Some tips that may be helpful:

Ask open-ended questions (avoid Yes or No questions.)

Do not induce responses

Allow respondents to speak - do not interrupt, unless it's really important. Moments of silence can be precious in order to allow deeper topics come up. To end the discomfort of silence people eventually talk abot things they wouldn’t mention otherwise.

Ask them to tell you stories about past situations. This helps you un- derstand and illustrate more precisely what issues affect the person.

Frequently ask ‘’why’’, try to deeply understand peoples’ motivations.


Try to record in detail everything you hear and see. Records can be made through notes, drawing, photos and videos, and will assist you during analysis.

questionnaires Another common way to extract information is through questio- nnaires, which can be done via Another common way to extract information is through questio- nnaires, which can be done via online tools, paper or through a mediator asking questions. However, it’s necessary to be aware that an online questionnaire usually brings more superficial information than an interview in person, the first one being the most suitable for quantitative research and the second for qualitative research.

research and the second for qualitative research. 5 whys A good technique to acquire comprehension about

5 whys


good technique to acquire comprehension about the issues’ origin


called “5 Whys”. The approach consists of asking one question,

getting an answer and asking the second question using the given answer. For example:

q: “Why were the sales goals not achieved?” a: “Because we couldn’t motivate our sales team.”

q: “Why couldn’t you motivate your sales team?” a: “Because the supervisors didn’t agree with the sales goals’ policy.”

q: “Why didn’t the supervisors agree with sales goals’ policy?”

And so on.

Usually, by asking “why” five times, you arrive at the crucial point:

“why” five times, you arrive at the crucial point: the essence of the problem. observation Another

the essence of the problem.

observation Another recommended technique is observation, which may occur

in an intrusive or non-intrusive manner. Through this technique, it’s

possible do get more assertive information, e.g., the observation of what people really do, instead of considering just what they say they do. It’s common for respondents to say things just to please the rese- archer, or say inaccurate things because they aren’t fully aware of their own actions. This is why it is so relevant to use observation techniques. There are different ways to observe:


observing in a non-intrusive and concealed manner, i.e., without interfering with the actions done by the person.

observing in a controlled manner, i.e., asking the participant to perform an action, without interfering with it.

observing in a participative manner, being actively present in the action, to get a better perception of how the task is performed.

When observing, it’s important to understand both the individual and the context that he is inserted in:

observing the individual: What do they do? How do they do it? What they’re looking at? Which types of difficulties they’re having? What do their facial expressions indicate?

observing the environment: What is going on? What factors influence the observed context?

These techniques are useful when observing behaviors in a company, as well as observing current and potential customers.

as well as observing current and potential customers. diary or cultural probing Another way to get

diary or cultural probing Another way to get information is to ask the participants to take their own notes and records. The diary is a simple way to understand their habits and routines. The application is simple: give respondents a notebook and ask them to describe their daily routines or specific tasks they perform within a few days. Cultural probes are kits for self-registration delivered to the participant during a certain period then collected by the researcher for analysis upon completion. Kits have various tools to stimulate participant’s including diaries, activity notebooks and instructions for taking pictures or inspirational material for collages, among others. Probes generate a large amount of information when trying to understand the participants universe, as well as their inspiration to generate ideas.

Make sure you thoroughly analyze the findings from the field rese- arch in order to find patterns, project challenges and opportunities requiring action. To synthesize your findings there are some visual tools that can help you understand and communicate what you found in the field.


mind map The Mind Map is a diagram conceived to organize thoughts in a visual and textual manner, helping to view different themes, and enabling connections between them. It is very helpful during all phases of the design process, and can function as a guide for your project. Start with a central theme and keep branching it through secondary themes. From each branch, create sub-branches with related questions or themes.mind map

user’s journey The Journey is a way of understanding the actions that the user nee- ds to perform, and it can serve as a base of understanding “how” and “when” gamification can be applied. It’s a representation of all steps that a user goes through before, during and after experimenting a product or service, or while performing a task within a corporation. Besides the action’s detailing, it’s possible to overlook the tou- chpoints that make the product or service tangible, i.e., all tangible evidence from an intangible task. While on a one-day journey with a company’s employee, there are touchpoints that are not so evident, such as ID badges, computer login screens, posters they see on elevators, e-mails received, among many others. Mapping these points helps to identify opportunities for inserting gamification elements, communicating information or developing motivators. When mapping, try to discover what is more important to the user in each stage of the journey. If your gamification initiatives are in resonance with the actual needs of the player (user), the likelihood of adherence for the game becomes much higher.user’s journey

Contact Points physical evidences of the service or process

Contact Points physical evidences of the service or process
Contact Points physical evidences of the service or process
Contact Points physical evidences of the service or process
Contact Points physical evidences of the service or process






How do

users feel?


empathy map The empathy map is a synthesis of information about the user, where it is possible The empathy map is a synthesis of information about the user, where it is possible to identify what he or she says, feels and thinks. This map is a simpler manner of supporting the understanding of context, behaviors, concerns, and the user’s aspirations. To make the map effective, use sentences that represent what users listen to or say, or verbal constructions that represent what they see.

What thinks and feels What hears What sees User What does and says Difficulties Achievements
What thinks and feels
What hears
What sees
What does and says

stakeholders map [41] It is a visual representation of the various people or groups acting in the studied situation, which helps to identify relationships among individuals/groups. First of all, try to identify the agents, i.e., which individuals and groups who affect or are affected by the issue being studied. Choose one person as the central focus and start adding other agents, one at a time, always positioning them according to their relationship with the central person. Proceed by identifying existing conflicts and established alliances, since this map can sup- port to creating different roles within the game, in order to positively influence these relationships. To intensify the map’s effects, try to identify the interests and motivations of each agent, how do they relate and interact.stakeholders map [ 41 ]


Identify the relation among the stakeholders

Identify the relation among the stakeholders Identify, in the center, a person or institution that will

Identify, in the center, a person or institution that will be the starting point.

List and position people/ institutions who has a relation with the starting point

Who do people group?

What relations are there among them?

Who is closer or more distant?

Are there arguments?

After using these tools, it’s possible to obtain a clearer outlook of the issues and of the behavior that need to be changed. A full tool list is available in the book Design Thinking — Business Innovation.

is the behavior to be modified a habit? If behavior can be featured as a habit, it is necessary to identify the cue that activates it, the establishing routine details, and the reward offered in exchange for the change of habit. Charles Duhigg suggests a model of habit identification: [42]

[41] Stakeholders:

term used by Several areas such as project Management, business and Software architecture related to People involved, pursuant to corporate Governance practices Delivered by companies. In Design, it defines anyone who has an agency, i.e., Impacting or being impacted by The described context. [42] duhigg, 2012

A. The first Step is identifying the routine: what is the repetitive

behavior that we are trying to change? This is possible through interviews, diaries and cultural probes. Example: eating chocolate

every night.

B. To identify the cue and the reward, perform experiments: Ask

the person to - when feeling the urge to execute the routine - create a different routine, generating a different reward. The first thoughts of each experiment should be documented on a sheet of paper. A few minutes later the action should be repeated in order to evaluate whe- ther the urge remains. In the event a different reward fulfills the urge, the cause that generated the old habit has most likely been identified.

The experiments objective is to try to understand if the urge’s origin is really to eat the chocolate or if the increased level of sugar is compensating a feeling of loneliness, for instance.


Possible solution: every time you want to eat chocolate, go for a walk or call someone.

C. Isolate the cue: identifying the cue may not be an easy task;

therefore, try focusing on one aspect at a time, considering the excess of information can be a difficult obstacle. There are five types of cues: place (where the person is?); time (what time it is?); emotional status (how they are feeling?); other people (who is around them?); and immediately preceding the action. When the urge appears, ask the person to write the answers from this information on a piece of paper and evaluate the results a few days later.

D. The fourth step is having a plan and replacing the non-

-beneficial routine by another that brings the same reward. This can be intensified by gamification techniques.

Checkpoint After applying the techniques to define the issue, make a mission checklist [43]

[ ] gamification goals

What is the central issue that needs to be worked on?

Is the issue relevant to the company/business?

[ ] behaviors

What is the current undesirable behavior? Why do people show this behavior? To what behavior should it be changed into? Why is this behavior change needed? Who benefits from this change? How can the player benefit from this change? Is the behavior stimulated in an agreement over the business’s needs and goals?

[ ] environment/context

In which context will the game be inserted in? How this context or game is physically constituted? Is it a noisy or busy environment? What are the rules and limitations imposed by the environment?



] platform (Defines limits, spaces — even virtual – of actions.

Knowing in which environment the game will take place, one may think about which platform is more appropriate.) What is the most appropriate platform for your game? Board game, computer game, mobile game, physical activity? What is the interface between the player and the game?

What is the interface between the player and the game? [ 43 ] Adapted from herger,

[43] Adapted from herger, 2013

[44] schell, 2008

Step 2: Understanding who the players are With the problem defined, it is important to further comprehend who the players are – and how their efforts could be applied to the solution – or which of their behaviors need to be changed. Persona Personas are archetypes, fictional characters based on the analysis of observed behaviors, and represent a variety of needs, motivations, wishes and expectations from extreme profiles. It is a synthesis technique that helps the design process by giving an overview of significant users aspects that need to be considered when developing ideas for products and services focused on experiences. It is also a form of facilitating the alignment of users information among all stakeholders involved in the project, supporting decision-making. Some of the characteristics that should be included in a Persona created for a gamification project are:

genre: as defined in Chapter 2, there are gender differences with games. Men tend to prefer challenging games where they can obtain a deep command. They are stimulated by competition and can enjoy destroying things. They tend to learn by trial and error and are attracted to spatial or 3D puzzles. Women tend to prefer games that explore emotion, similar to reality. They are attracted to dialog and verbal puzzles and like to learn from examples. [44]

age: as also defined in Chapter 2, different periods of life can impact the way games are inserted into routines. Children 7-9 y/o are at the “age of reason”, they can already read and therefore become more interested in games. From 10 to 13 y/o, they move forward to the “age of obsession”, when they become passionate about their inte- rests. People from 25 to 35 y/o dedicate themselves to professional growth, and some of them have a casual relationship with games. It’s common for people from 50 on, to be interested in games they liked during childhood, and they tend to feel attracted by activities with strong social appeal.

professional information: What do they do for work? What is their job title? How are the dynamics of the department in which they work? What are the challenges involved in their daily tasks?


What are their career aspirations? When applying gamification to the corporate context, this relevant information can become crucial to finding motivation in players.

type of player: is your player a Killer, an Achiever, Explorer or a Socializer?

behavior axes: identify the relevant polarities of your project and evaluate each persona according to the polarities. An example of polarity can be introverted x extroverted.

generation: as explained in Chapter 3, different generations have different behavior patterns. The Baby Boomer Generation, for example, identifies through competition, hierarchical systems. The X Generation is pragmatic, individualistic, and does not tolerate failure. The Y Generation, who grew up living with video games and Internet, needs immediate feedback, adopts more collaborative behavior and learns by doing so.

As an activity, create a set of personas that represent various aspects identified in the field, and assign them stories, phrases and names to bring this archetype to life.


Name, age

Occupation A typical quote from the persona
A typical quote
from the persona

Persona’s description

attitudes, habits, behavior

Main attributes describe and record your accordance level


Persona’s description attitudes, habits, behavior Main attributes describe and record your accordance level – +
Persona’s description attitudes, habits, behavior Main attributes describe and record your accordance level – +
Persona’s description attitudes, habits, behavior Main attributes describe and record your accordance level – +
Persona’s description attitudes, habits, behavior Main attributes describe and record your accordance level – +
Persona’s description attitudes, habits, behavior Main attributes describe and record your accordance level – +



[ ] "players"

Who is the player? What are their demographic and behavioral characteristics? What activities the player performs? What type of player they are? Are there other people engaged in the game (ex: supervisors)?

there other people engaged in the game (ex: supervisors)? Step 3: Design principles and gamification strategy

Step 3: Design principles and gamification strategy mission

With a clearer understanding of the problem and the players, esta- blish the design principles for your game. These are guidelines that lead the project, so that critical issues are not neglected. Create a principle list from analyzing the collected data, concerning the business objectives. This will represent the principles in which to be aware of in all stages of the project, serving as a tool to analyze and select generated ideas. Examples of principles: to activate cooperation, stimulate infor- mation exchange among players; players should learn by doing.

gamification strategy mission Considering the design principles, define the mission. It is the game’s “reason to be”, the main objective of your gamification initiative. The mission consolidates needs found on previous development phases into clearly outlined actions, therefore, reachable. Defining missions is extremely significant for the game to be successful and appealing among players. Try to create well specified and measurable missions instead of suggesting generic activities such as “improving sales”. Try to be more objective and specific: “stimulating employees to share daily information about best sales practices”, for example.


[ ] mission

Are the design principles in agreement with the initial project’s challenge?

Are the design principles aligned with the business’s goals? Is the game mission clear, specific, achievable and measurable?


Step 4: Develop ideas for the game Armed with the problem definition, the context in

Step 4: Develop ideas for the game

Armed with the problem definition, the context in which it appears, the understanding of business objectives, the peculiarities of the players, and having defined a mission; the next step is to develop ideas to determine a game format. Relevant questions are: What story do you want to tell through the game? What will the game’s theme be? What will be the game aesthetics?

analogies Think of an existing game that can serve as a baseline for determining the objective and mission of your gamification initiative, considering that establishing analogies is an efficient way to generate good ideas. The "force-fitting" technique consists of combining stimuli of different symbolic universes to create new associations. This can be done throu- gh analogies, metaphors or random stimuli. For example, "tracking sales target" + "Farmville" = for each sale made, a new plant is added to the player's garden.analogies

sale made, a new plant is added to the player's garden. brainstorming It is the most


It is the most traditional technique for developing ideas, in which a group meets to suggest a greater possible amount of solutions to

a given problem. While brainstorming, ideas should not be judged

or blocked, in order to establish a comfortable environment for thought expression. Create as many ideas as you can, then discuss them with the group and make a pre-selection. After getting feedback from others, try developing the idea as thoroughly as possible before proceeding to the next step.

Some tips for developing ideas

Write down all your ideas.

Try to see the problem from different angles: conduct brainstor- ming sessions at unusual places, move to other rooms.

Try to develop ideas acting hypothetically as someone else: “If I were a millionaire, how would I solve the issue? What if I were famous? What if I were a child? What if I were a super-hero?”

When ideas are not flowing, go home, let your brain rest and think about it again the next day when you’re well rested. Set a theme and a game aesthetic, because these elements play

a major role in establishing a symbolic context that helps the player to understand rules and objectives from previous knowledge.


Aesthetics is the game’s appearance, smell, taste and sensations. [45] To create a good experience, the mechanics, the story and theme elements should be considered to reinforce it. For example, the Mario Bros. game’s aesthetics is of fantasy, colorful worlds that resemble buildings and structures full of life.

The story, however, is a series of events unfolding within the game and needs to be reinforced with mechanics. Following Mario Bros’ example, the game’s story is about saving the princess and the journey the short mustached man faces to accomplish his mission. All these elements must be combined so that the objective of providing a consistent experience to the player is achieved.


[ ] theme

Which theme represents the game’s objectives? Does the metaphor make sense for the players and the game’s


[ ] story

Does the story have the potential to engage players?

[ ] aesthetics

Which aesthetic do you want to focus on for the game? Does the aesthetic reinforce and consolidate the story?

Does the aesthetic reinforce and consolidate the story? [ 45 ] schell, 2008 Step 5: Definition

[45] schell, 2008

Step 5: Definition of the game and its mechanics

At this time, the activity mechanics are ready to begin the desig- ning process. Every game should have a clear definition regarding its goals and duration. The game may end when a player achieves an objective, it can last for a certain amount of time or it can be infinite. One way to keep players' interest for longer periods of time is with the creation of cycles or editions, as game makers do when releasing new versions from time to time. In a game with a cumu- lative score, incoming players may feel discouraged to compare their progress with what was achieved by the leaders. In this case, cycles that reset scores help bring in new players. Another way to keep engagement is thinking of the game’s drama- tic arc. This is a device derived from literary and cinematic arts, which helps the player think in an engaging experience from start to finish.


Boom wow Wow WOW BOOM Ahhh
wow Wow



Besides being a giant onomatopoeia, "Boom-Wow-Wow-WOW-


" is a theory that, if properly assimilated, can forever

change the perception that you, the reader, have of your own life. It must be clarified that this audacious assumption is not mystical or religion based, since such a theory is only an ingenious attempt to transmit to the world the backbone of one of the most popular dramatic arches in the history of art and not coincidentally, serves as an explanation of what is behind the events that will probably be the most memorable of any person’s existence.

So, in a script of a play, at lunch on Sunday afternoon, in a professional trajectory, on a trip with the family, or even in a video game, you can be sure, whatever the circumstance, if they have the vocation to become minimally significant experiences in the ordina- ry course of our routine, the "Boom-Wow-Wow-WOW-BOOM-Ahhh


will show up, in a relatively obvious way. To simplify, in practice,

each expression represents a type of emotion, at a given intensity, which, when chained together, supposedly would capture the peak of interest and human involvement. Still very complicated? Maybe it will be better illustrated by a very familiar example: the classic James Bond movie.

1 ST Boom: note that all James Bond movies always start with a chasing scene, sometimes the continuation from a previous TV Show episode. This sequence grabs the audience’s attention, and at the same time, confirms that it’s worth it to keep seated, because the best is yet to come. It is the first spark of the script, or rather the first "Boom" of the movie. After facing fierce danger, 007 goes back to his sweet routine in London and visits the laboratory where all the awe- some gadgets are being created [47] guns shoes, wristwatches with devices to climb walls etc.) and he will use them against his enemies in the next hour and a half.


[46] Freely inspired by Adam Lawrence, co-founder of Work- PlayExperience, German Consultancy On service innovation, That uses theater me- thods in their projects. [47] Gadget: is an equipment (device) With an specific purpose, practice and Daily useful. It is usual to Call Gadgets, the portable Electronic devices such as PDAs, cellphones, smartphones MP3 players, among others.

1 st wow: the triviality of daily life in the British capital is suddenly interrupted by a new mission that will put him back in action, this time untying the knots of the screenplay that will lead this particular movie. Before he knows it, Bond is involved in a frantic chase scene through the streets of Paris, not so unpredictable, but something that can make the viewer stop chewing his popcorn for a moment, look at the person beside him and say: “wow.”

2 ND Wow: The fact is that just one "Wow" doesn’t make a summer blockbuster; the sequence that makes it worth paying for the ticket and that justifies another movie in the saga has just started. Now the "Wow" needs to be a little louder, to be heard from the back row of the theater. What if Bond were being chased by ten KGB agents on top of the railroad cars of a train at dangerously high speeds on the Siberian railroad?

3 RD WOW: to avoid breaking the established electrifying rhythm and potentially cause a collective "WOW" to the audience, the formula is to engage 007 to an even more sinister threat, an even more exotic and unfamiliar place, like a motorboat chase across flaming rice plantations in Southeast Asia, while having his voodoo doll pierced by the local sorcerer who was hired by the country’s dictator.

2 ND BOOM: ok, if the movie was a roller-coaster, we would now be on the highest spot before the big drop that puts butterflies in our stomachs. In the script, it’s time to feed the critics, those that, ho- pefully, the audience will want to share with their friends, the scene that consumed half of the movie’s yearly budget: Bond takes from the inside of an alligator's mandible, the leg of an enemy soldier and uses it to stop the propellers of his motorboat, which explodes producing such an intense fire ball that it ends up also inflaming the dictator’s helicopter, who had ordered Bond’s death and who was watching the chase from the above.

Ahhhh…: but what now, what else could possibly be thought of to overcome so much adrenaline? Is this the way the movie really ends? With everyone thinking that James Bond is a demigod endowed with unparalleled sagacity and so therefore his story is completely implausible and disconnected from audiences reality?

Of course not! The very instant the British agent sails off the coast of Greece celebrating the amazing victory, he realizes that his Hungarian girlfriend is actually a double agent, and that he is the victim of an ambush: the champagne is poisoned! Ahhh…, he also makes a mistake, he is like any one of us, thinks the relieved audience. Apparently, evil still remains unpunished, at least until


the next movie. So, if the above example was not didactic enough,

evidence of "Boom-Wow-Wow-WOW-BOOM-Ahhh

found in the way the experience is thought by the audience of Magic Kingdom, Disney's premier theme park. In this case, the problem that was identified was that each visitor

goes through their own journey and there is a likely chance that the visitor leaves the forgotten attractions that never has a line, for the entire day, which could contribute to a negative perception of the whole experience. What did Disney marketers do about it? Created the Electrical Parade (super illuminated parade that occurs on the Main Street and stops all the park’s attractions) and fireworks, just to make sure that everyone would go home after a legitimate "BOOM" followed by an

" can even be



Need more examples? How about the core rituals of the Catholic

Church? Birth, baptism, first communion, confirmation, marriage,

extreme unction: "Boom-Wow-Wow-WOW-BOOM-Ahhh

how about the traditional relationship journey? Flirting, first kiss, da- ting, engagement, marriage, sex, although the order of these steps may vary. Now I think that at the very least it must have been easier to understand why you cannot eat dessert before the meal, watch Return of the Jedi before The Empire Strikes Back, learn to skate before riding a bike, listen to the Beatles before the Rolling Stones According to the participants’ profile and the context, try to define what player’s interaction frequency are with the platform. If the dynamic conducted inside a company is running smoothly, the player can have more interactions a week, once a day, or even many times a day. The frequency needs to be well-defined to keep engagement without making the game boring, and without distur- bing all other activities performed by the player. Mechanics are designed to clarify to the player what objectives should be pursued and what happens after performing each action. Although there is no definite classification, there are several mechanics that can be used for a game. Objects are all things that can be seen or handled: characters, records, scores. Each object has attributes (object characteristics or what an object can perform, such as "maximum speed") and states (variable momentary charac- teristics, such as "current speed"). Actions correspond to what the players do, and always involve consequences. Rules lead the game from how it should be played to how the player should behave.

". And


Mechanics list [48]



Achievements (for example, badges, score, rewards)

Comments, followers, ratings

Dynamic commitment: the player needs to go back to a specific time to perform certain action (for example, Farmville)

To avoid punishment (the player needs to perform the action to avoid being punished)

Happy productivity (participating in a game is such a pleasant activity that it makes people happier when playing than when doing nothing)


Disincentives (lose points as punishment to stimulate behavior changes)

Significant results (epic meaning): motivation from the perception that the effort applied is to achieve something important, significant


Modifiers: items influencing other actions (e.g., multiply points in the next action)

Dynamic progression: progress bar

Reward Programming: wins reward X, when action Y is performed, within Z period of time


Viral mechanic: game element that requires many players (for example: Farmville [49]: you become more popular if you have more people playing with you)

List of motivators considered fun [50]

Recognizing patterns


Finding random treasures

Achieving a sense of completion

Gaining recognition for achievements

Creating order out of chaos

[48] Source: techcrunch.

Customizing virtual worlds


Gathering knowledge

Organizing groups of people


[49] FarmVille is a farming simulation

Noting insider references

social network game

Being the center of attention

developed by Zynga in

Experiencing beauty and culture


Exchanging gifts

[50] radoff, 2011

Imagining yourself as a character (hero, villain, wise old man, rebel,


magician, ruler)

Pretending to live in a magical place

Listening to a story

Predicting the future


Psychoanalyzing (understanding others motivation)


Mastering a skill

Exacting justice and revenge


Triumph over conflict


Experiencing the Freakish or bizarre behavior

Being silly


Being scared

Strengthening a family’s relationship

Improving one’s health

Imagining a connection with the past

Explore a world

Improving society


[ ] game duration

What are the game’s duration rules? How is the player’s experience curve?

[ ] interaction frequency

How often will the player interact with the platform?

[ ] game mechanic

What are the mechanics that lead the game? Are the mechanics engaging for the players? Do the mechanics help reach the game’s initial objectives?

[ ] scoring

Is the score balanced? Is it fair? What do players feel when they lose?

[ ] rewards

Are there any rewards in the game? Are there risks that the rewards are destroying intrinsic interests?


Step 6: Low, Medium and/or High Fidelity Test Prototyping’s objective is to validate the idea

Step 6: Low, Medium and/or High Fidelity Test

Prototyping’s objective is to validate the idea that has ben develo- ped, as well as to obtain input to improve it. A prototype is anything tangible that allows you to incorporate learning. By doing so, the team that produces the game learns about it when simulating concepts and actions with future users, a process that involves, as a consequence, input to improve the proposal. This is the concept of iteration: continuous improvement of an idea for it to develop accor- ding to the user’s needs, before more time and money are invested. Therefore, prototypes help to reduce the project’s uncertainties and the risks essential to its implementation. These tests do not necessarily need to occur only when the game is completely designed; they can be conducted at an earlier time, in order to validate the concept. There are different ways to make a prototype: high or low fidelity (object similarity accuracy and real interactions) and contextuality (public similarity accuracy and real interaction contexts). It usually starts with low-fidelity and low-contextuality prototypes and as the game is improved and iterated, the prototype’s fidelity can increase. There is no pre-set or recommended duration in the prototyping phase, since each project presents different complexities and questions that need to be clarified in different moments.

storyboard It is a sequential representation of a story or action, performed visu- ally. Several techniques It is a sequential representation of a story or action, performed visu- ally. Several techniques can be used, such as drawing, photography or collages. Storyboards are useful to enable the viewing of the game's narrative, or the experience the user will have when playing.

paper prototyping Representations of graphic or product interfaces made on paper. It may have different fidelity levels, Representations of graphic or product interfaces made on paper. It may have different fidelity levels, since the sketch of a freehand wi- reframe [51] to the printed drawing of an interface with all its details, colors and final proportions. These schemes are both to enable designers to visualize and optimize their work in a tangible way and to conduct interaction tests with users, simulating a functional interface. It is a low cost prototype, and serves very well as a first validation of the score mechanics.


volumetric modeling Volumetric representations of the interface or game, which vary in levels of fidelity

volumetric modeling Volumetric representations of the interface or game, which vary in levels of fidelity according to the stipulated purpose, can be built with simple materials (paper, cardboard, modeling clay etc.), or more elaborated - composed of various materials and painted to simulate the color and finishing of the product that will be manu- factured - are useful to test the mechanics without the high cost of implementation.

To test the game’s dynamics, it is possible to simulate its functions by using low fidelity prototypes. As an example, prototype software developed by MJV was created to assist sales teams to adapt their sales pitch according to the client’s profile and track transactions. An analogical game board was used to represent the system’s dash- board. For every sale, new information was manually added to the dashboard. To check the Quiz feature (questions that automatically appear in the system with the objective of training), a member of the innovation team simply printed the questions on a sheet of paper and tested them with the sales team. Each correct answer granted an element on the board. Thus, it was possible to test the concept, the interactions, the feedback and the game’s scores.


Prototyping Tips

Conduct tests quickly and early in the process

Initially, do not think about improving the prototype quality: any tangibilization attempt will likely help you clarify issues and impro- ve the concept

Do not stick to ideas: if during the prototyping phase better solu- tions appear, do not hesitate on embracing them.

Checkpoint Prototyping serves to evaluate all defined points so far: concept, engagement, mechanics, aesthetics, and story, as well as getting participants’ feedback upon what needs to be improved.

[ ] evaluation Evaluate the game’s mechanics: Did it work with the participants? Evaluate the score: Is the score attribution model fair? Evaluate the game’s concept: Did the mechanics make sense for the players? Did players have fun with the game?

sense for the players? Did players have fun with the game? [ 51 ] Wireframe :
sense for the players? Did players have fun with the game? [ 51 ] Wireframe :

[51] Wireframe: The

website Wireframe is

a basic visual guide

Used in Interface Design, in order To suggest a web site structure and the relationships among its pages. Usually, wireframes are

part of the first stages of

a website development. [52] Adapted from herger, 2013

Step 7: Implementation and monitoring

After the game’s implementation, it’s necessary to constantly manage and evaluate the need for implementing changes. So, it is important to have well-established metrics to validate the players’ actions, motivation and engagement.

Step 8: Measuring and evaluation

Some suggestions on measurements related to metric evaluation, have affinity with the purposes commonly associated to corporate games: [52]

Regarding engagement

Average/Median number of actions

Number of users performing actions

Number of times users return

Progression of users throughout the experience

Level of satisfaction shown by players


Regarding time spent • Players’ retention • Frequency of visits to the platform • Response

Regarding time spent

Players’ retention

Frequency of visits to the platform

Response time to proposed challenges


About the achieved ROI

Number of active participants

Productivity increase

Cost reduction

Sales figures increase

Regarding Quality


Completion of task

What can go wrong? [53]

Even after carefully planning the gamification initiative, it is possible for something not to work out as expected. The following items as- sist identification of possible impasses that may appear and should be considered during the planning stage:

Inadequacy to business goals. It is always important to emphasi- ze: if the gamification initiative is not appropriate for the company’s objectives as a whole, or to some stakeholders involved, it may prevent the game’s adherence and implementation process.

Inadequacy to the company’s culture. The game inadequacy to the company’s culture can cause estrangement and low engage- ment of players

Lack of clarity on the players’ value proposition. A score without value proposition simply will not engage players for long periods of time.

Lack of engagement in short term. This can occur due to lack of communication from the initiative, or even the players’ demand for the adaptation time. If there is little initial engagement, try to identify the people who are motivated and try to discover how to turn them into disseminators for this behavior. Often, it is enough for a small group to start engaging in the game in order to have a cascading effect.

Lack of long-term engagement. It is likely that the game has


become monotonous, i.e., the flow between challenge and difficulty level is not appropriate. A game needs to be challenging but achievable, and this balance is difficult to obtain. For long lasting games, we recommend the inclusion of cycles, renewing the subject or resetting the score.

Game’s Obsolescence (lack of management). Like any product or service, it is important to monitor and update objectives to adapt them to new parameters that can show up. To keep the game alive, plan to insert new cycles from time to time. Players are stimulated by continuous change because it helps bring freshness to the game’s experience.

Lack of dynamics. The game can be inserted into the players’ habits when considering the dynamics, frequency of interaction and status updates. Social networks are a good example of frequently updated content that arouses curiosity and recurrent visits by users.

Unfair scoring. Cheating is common in games, so get used to the idea that players will try to break the rules or seek loopholes that grant them advantages. When the other participants perceive such behavior, they relate it to the game mechanics permissiveness. So, try to pre simulate all possible interactions in order to avoid jeopardi- zing the project’s credibility.

Lack of management involvement. The support and involvement of senior staff are fundamental for the game to succeed and to promote changes in the corporation. To facilitate this adherence, you can assign specific roles for managers in the game, so they perceive themselves indispensable to the process or even allow their expe- rience to contribute to the elimination of possible planning mistakes.

Lack of encouragement in moments of fatigue. After some time, it is quite common for some players to experience moments of fatigue. This can happen due to various reasons, like poorly defined mechanics, or by external pressures, as exceptionally troubled times in the department. Given this situation, incentive campaigns can help reversing this condition. Some possibilities are: give visibility to the players’ achievements, send stimulating emails, and schedule meetings between players to share experiences, among others.

Poorly planned scoring system. The player should always believe that progressing and reaching the top ranking position is possible. If there are players with extremely high score, the task of reaching the [53] Source: hrexaminer. top may seem unfeasible, reducing the motivation when playing.





Tasks that do not make sense with player’s routine. This can impair adherence for the game if the tasks represent an increased amount or the duplication of work.

In addition to the Step-by-Step process, an interesting alternative in developing corporate games, especially when you do not have much time, is through workshops. From a collaborative and pretty straightforward dynamic system, it becomes possible to organize ideas and concepts that, in the following moment will serve as resources for game’s development. The following is a suggested format that has been used by MJV’s Technology & Innovation team to make the gamification process tangible with executives from various segments.


Game Design Thinking Workshop Expected length: 2hr | number of participants: from 8 to 15 Graphic Material used available for download at

used available for download at Activity 1: Warm up 1) Perfect World (group activity —

Activity 1: Warm up

1) Perfect World (group activity — expected length: 10 minutes)

objective: to facilitate abstract thinking for problems, relativizing possibilities of resolution.

proposal: participants describe in a few words how it works according to their company or their department.

2) One Word Story (group activity — expected length: 10 minutes)

objective: motivate players to practice solving issues in a collabo- rative way.

proposal: participants stand up in a circle and tell a collective story where each persons part continues by what was told by the prede- cessor. Depending on the number of participants, and how funny the story is, going around the circle numerous times can be considered. Example:

participant 1: Yesterday I went to the beach and I saw something that shocked me… participant 2: Indeed, I saw a talking fish… Initial suggested theme: When arriving at the company, I met the director, who with a scared look told me: “A misfortune has just happened…”

Capture: Understanding the problem

has just happened…” Capture: Understanding the problem Activity 2: What is the problem? (individual activity—

Activity 2: What is the problem? (individual activity— expected length: 15 minutes)

required material: adhesive dots; 10 problem cards

objective: create a strategic mapping of problems that can be approached by the game being developed.


proposal: participants are invited to write down, for five minutes, what the key problems are (one per card) related to the area where the game will be applied. Following, among the problems listed by them, the more relevant one should be chosen, and pinned to the wall. When all suggested problems are shown, everybody shall stand up and fix the adhesive dots (two per person) from the two problems they consider more critical.

Transformation: approaching the problem from new angles

Transformation: approaching the problem from new angles Activity 3: Stop and Go Ideation (group activity —
Transformation: approaching the problem from new angles Activity 3: Stop and Go Ideation (group activity —

Activity 3: Stop and Go Ideation (group activity — expected length: 10 minutes)

objective: switch moments of ideation and reflection, in order to allow full exploitation of ideas generated by brainstorming.

required material: ideation cards (one per group) containing a space to stick the problem removed from the wall and space to transcribe possible solutions

proposal: after a collective evaluation, the top rated problems (one per group) should be put aside to be used in the next step of the Activity. The remaining problems are to be distributed to the groups (one for each), which will be invited to conduct a brainstorming session to solve them. Each series will have three minutes time, followed by a one-minute silent break and reflection about what has just been proposed. This module is repeated a total of two times. It is recommended that the ideas shown during the activity should be considered when designing the game.

Activity 4: Superhero (Group activity— expected length: 15 minutes)

objective: from an abstract proposition, this activity aims to expand the horizon of possible solutions to generate narratives and more creative concepts for the game that will be developed by the team.

required material: superheroe cards – Super Man, Iron Man, Batman, Spider Man


a) Each group receives a card with a specific superhero and needs to list their super powers within 5 minutes,. Online research using smartphones are welcome, once it is funda- mental to begin a well-done list, considering the risk of jeopardizing the next step.


b) Once the super heroes’ characteristics are defined, each group re- ceives one of the top rated problems in activity 1, devoting 10 minutes to determine how the superhero could use his super powers to solve the challenge.

Pause: 10 minutes

Implementation: convert ideas into reality

Pause: 10 minutes Implementation: convert ideas into reality Activity 5: Gamify the solution (Group activity— expected

Activity 5: Gamify the solution (Group activity— expected length: 30 minutes)

objective: with the supposed solution to the problem, the groups are challenged to create a game that helps them to translate the developed solution to practice.

required material: playing cards; challenge/actions; rules/ limitations.

proposal: By fulfilling cards with definitions for the main aspects to create a game (Who is the player?; What are their challenges/ actions?; What are the rules/limitations?), each group will develop an itinerary for the game they intend to create. The records corres- ponding to each aspect are fulfilled, one by one, in agreement to the suggested order and pause:

Card 1: The player (10 minutes)

Card 2: Challenges and Actions (10 minutes)

Card 3: Rules and Limitations (10 minutes)

(10 minutes) • Card 3: Rules and Limitations (10 minutes) Activity 6: Results Presentation (Group activity—
(10 minutes) • Card 3: Rules and Limitations (10 minutes) Activity 6: Results Presentation (Group activity—

Activity 6: Results Presentation (Group activity— expected length: 20 minutes)

proposal: each group will have five minutes to explain how the game they created works.

Activity 7: Final Considerations (collective activity — expected length: 15 minutes)

objective: brainstorm among participants the perception about the activity and understand how it can be extended in the professio- nal routine of each one of them.


Gamification Canvas

If you don’t have much time or you are alone, it’s ok, there is still one last trick hidden up our sleeve:



Are there other people to engage on the game (for example, supervisors)?

What departments within the company should support the game? In what way?

Games aspects definition

Which is the most adequate platform for the game (board, computer, physical activity)?

What criteria defines the game’ s length?

How often will the player interact with the platform?

What are the game’s rules?

Which activities the player should do in the game?

Scores and rewards

How does the score mechanics work?

What awards are offered to the player?

Costs, difficulties, obstacles

What are the costs of implemen- tation and maintenance foreseen in the game?

Which difficulty and obstacles can influence implementation or success of the game?


Business objectives

What are the business objectives that have to be reached through the game?

Which behavior should be modified through the game?

game? Which behavior should be modified through the game? Game’s objectives What is the game’s mission

Game’s objectives

What is the game’s mission (what achievements should be reached by the player)?

The game’s mission should be clear, specific, reachable and measurable and in agreement with the business objectives.

Expected benefits

What results are expected to be reached at the game’s implementation?

How would the game’s results be measured?

Game’s environment

What is the story/topic of the game? How will it engage the player?

To create the game’s environment, consider the real context where the player is inserted.


Player’s characteristics

Who is the player of this game? (Behavior characteristics, demographics, habits and activities he accomplishes).

What kind of a player is he and how does this shape the game (predator, conquistador, explorer, socializer)?





Looking forward! What’s to

come in the future?

Experience indicates that weaving conjectures for what's yet to come is an often unappreciative job, but in what other way is there to end a book then throwing ourselves in the assumptions field, particularly when seeking answers to a possible question: after all, what does the future hold for gamification? Although there is no pretension in knowing, nowadays, the answer, some evidence sho- ws that composing the current scenario of the application for this methodology indicates possible paths that can be followed. In fact, while the use of game mechanics gradually increases as a subject of interest, it is natural to expect higher sophistication as a result of the proposed use of such mechanics as well as a broader objective scope, which can be achieved with the method. A trend that definitely has a good chance to prevail is self-de- velopment through games. Considering the likely improvement of Game Design as science, emergent technologies and higher incidence of professionals working in this area, it’s not difficult to foresee that in the upcoming years a proliferation of applications designed to gamify any process of objective achievement will occur. From augmented reality, less artificial interfaces, the remote control by gesture or devices that recognizes emotion; it will be common, for example, to find physical exercise programs able to "read" the true condition of its users and recommend possibly another sequence of activities, adapting them to the circumstances in the same moment. Still on the health field, it is also expected that there is an exponential increase in the use of applied gamification to prevent the incidence of chronic diseases or monitor higher efficiency and practicality of the patients that require special attention. With detailed and real-time monitoring of biometric data, customization of metrics and rewards related to the well-being,


health professionals might be more easily involved in the care of their patients, bringing more assertiveness for treatments or even

increasing the adherence index especially for long treatments. There are already discussions about the possibility of applica- tions with these features potentially reducing the need for hospita- lization, considering that more precise monitoring of the patient’s condition, in some circumstances, could allow them to remain at home, making hospital beds more available for severe cases. Maybe education could be one of the areas with bigger expec- tations regarding the extension of benefits that can be achieved through gamification. In the opinion of renowned experts, it is only

a matter of time until the schools include games aspects in learning,

making the universal education curriculum more flexible towards

a better adaptation to each student’s individuality. To illustrate this

hypothesis, a language teaching program whose content is directly associated with particular experiences and expectations of the student in question may be quoted, providing classes created from their personal interests or practical experiences they may have had on the previous days. In the public sphere, it is expected that the data extraction from Big Data in higher flow and better defined purposes will provide an extremely conducive climate to gamification, since there will be numerous opportunities to produce metrics and performance indicators conditioned to any interactions between citizens and go- vernments. You can imagine, for example, a taxation model linking tax rates to the amount of garbage generated by a person over a year, or even to their contribution to a criminal mapping program on their neighborhood. We must also mention that the paradigm change is likely to occur related to how virtual simulators are used today. The technological advent expected for the coming years can effectively make them so believable that the concept of experimenting could be replaced by "experiencing", since the evidence to attest the non-veracity of the proposed situation tends to be despicable. Simulations, therefore, would not be limited only to reproducing risky circumstances or promoting training, but creating factual in- teraction environments, with entertainment or socializing purposes, for example. In corporate context, we can witness a systematic transition from “marketing oriented” model to “game oriented” model, due to the diversification of purposes being reached within corporations, and from its subsequent application to areas that, under the current point of view, seem to have low familiarity with the theme. It is also

possible to obtain a look into the near future, where work and enter- tainment become inextricably linked, binding personal satisfaction to productivity increase, as suggested by some studies that already refer to this new professional reality as “Playbor” (play+labor) or “Weisure” (work+pleasure). The simple consideration of these terms incites the imagination of this environmental preponderance that suggests a more symbio- tic relationship between individuals and corporations, consolidating in a management and production model without paradigms that were brought on by the 21st century. According to this scenario, the absolute value of a company would not be restricted only to the sum of the monetary patrimony of its shareholders, but it would also be an important indicator that, despite it almost never comes out in trading proceedings, it is es- sential for any organization’s future: Social Capital corresponding to its employees’ satisfaction. Under this aspect, which narrows the gap between personal and professional goals, gamification would be a natural complement to the established order, forming teams of individual development oriented towards collective goals and managers identified as orchestra conductors rather than lion tamers. When rules and goals are to be perfectly achieved, the result most frequently observed is of players engaged in seeking out innovative solutions for the challenges they face and feel more confident while achieving them. It is likely that the vast majority of today’s corporations are not yet ready to get into this game, but at this stage in the book, who would dare disagree that the first ones who know how to do it would obtain the laurels of victory? Are these daydreams or prediction of a new era? We soon shall know.



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about the authors

Ysmar Vianna Electrical Engineer from ITA (1966), masters in electrical engineering and computer science from UCB - Electrical Engineer from ITA (1966), masters in electrical engineering and computer science from UCB - University of California at Berke- ley (1969), PhD in computer science from UCB (1972). With extensive academic career, he was a pioneer in computing in Brazil, and participated as an instructor to Coppe / UFRJ to the first computer facility at the University, in 1967. He created the course Informatics UFRJ, and was Head and Director of the Department of Computer Science at NCF / UFRJ. He coordinated innovation projects for MJV’s clients such as Coca-Cola, BR Distribuidora, Itaú, Porto Seguro, Dufry, Icatu Seguros and Government of Rio de Janeiro.

Maurício Vianna Computer Engineer from PUC-RJ (1990), masters in computer science at ITT- Illinois Institute of Technology (1992) and a PHD in computer science at ITT (1995). He has worked as a Consultant for the Chicago Board of Trade Clearing Co. (USA) Performance Computing Inc. (USA), Fairchild & Miller Inc. (USA), R & R Donnelley (USA), Banco Boavista, Secretaria Municipal de Finanças do Rio de Janeiro, Telefonia Celular Claro, Vivo and Oracle. He has participa- ted in the development of Case (PCCase) tool in IBPI. He has several technical papers published in international conferences IEEE and ACM, in the object orientation and database area. He is currently developing projects in the areas of Mobile Vas, innovation in auto insurance / health and social systems. At MJV, he has worked with clients such as Vivo, Zurich, Government of Minas Gerais, Claro, Mapfre, SulAmérica Seguros and Mills.Maurício Vianna

Minas Gerais, Claro, Mapfre, SulAmérica Seguros and Mills. Bruno Medina Graduated in Marketing from PUC-RJ, he

Bruno Medina Graduated in Marketing from PUC-RJ, he was a member of the musical band Los Hermanos from 1997 to 2006. He has worked with the channel Multishow developing new TV formats and has worked with various print publications such as O Globo, Jornal do Brasil and Trip magazine. Since 2007 he is a columnist with the Pop & Arts section in the G1 portal. Since 2009, he has acted as an innovation consultant for MJV, integrating projects performed for companies like Icatu Seguros, Itaú, and Mills. More recently, he became the Head of the Gamification Initiative.

Samara Tanaka Integrated Design Masters from Köln International School of Design (2011), graduated in design by ESDI Integrated Design Masters from Köln International School of Design (2011), graduated in design by ESDI / Uerj (2004), worked with design graphic design, information publishing and interaction in Tecnopop, OEstudio, / Osklen, Flashpoint (USA). She is currently a consultant for strategic innovation to MJV where she applies Gamification to stimulate behavior changing in several contexts, including companies such as Petrobras BR, Porto Seguro and Icatu Seguros. She is an independent researcher in social innovation, a Design Research lecturer at PUC-RJ, and has spent many sleepless nights due to her fascination with games.

about the illustrator

João Rocha Integrated Product Design Masters from TU Delft (2010), graduated in Design from the University of Integrated Product Design Masters from TU Delft (2010), graduated in Design from the University of Aveiro (2008). He has worked at Guerrilla advertising for brands such as Diesel, O'Neill, Philips and Greenpeace. With a visual facilitation, he has worked with Roche and Adobe, and in events such as Ignite technology conferences and lectures. After a short stay in the startups world, he moved to Brazil, where he is currently an innovation designer for MJV, deve- loping projects to help companies plan strategies for innovation, having also done visual facilitation for companies like Coca-Cola and SAP.


about mjv With more than 17 years of experience in consulting, MJV has helped some of the most renowned companies in the world with their techno- logy and innovation challenges. Focusing on people and using Design Thinking and Gamification Methods, we strive to discover smart and actionable opportunities for businesses to grow, adapt and develop in the face of change. With offices in Europe and America, the company has a multidisciplinary team of over 300 employees graduated from internationally renowned universities. Among the projects undertaken in the Gamification area, we highlight the Change Management system to implement SAP in a construction company and the gamification of strategic planning for a multinational insurance company. MJV also has a technological area, focused on systems develop- ment, performance management BI /DW and customer relationship management (CRM). In addition to the mentioned services, we can also mention the startups incubator designed to identify and create prototype models of promising business with our lean startup methods. There is still our Mobile Integrator, connected to major Brazilian mobile operators, bringing opportunities for companies that want to access more than 250 million mobile phone users in the country. These assets enable MJV to deliver end-to-end solutions to business challenges.

MJV to deliver end-to-end solutions to business challenges. London 9 Devonshire Square ec2m4yf London, UK Phone:

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