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Multiple-choice test

11 Smoking
Click on the correct answer to each question.
1

Tar in cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and is mostly deposited in


the bronchi.
What is the effect of these carcinogens?

cause mutations in bronchial epithelial cells

destroy the cilia in the bronchi

stimulate goblet cells to produce more mucus

reduce the diameter of the bronchi

Which component of tobacco smoke binds with haemoglobin to form


carboxyhaemoglobin?

carbon monoxide

carcinogens

nicotine

tar

What is not a symptom of emphysema?

alveoli burst

alveoli lose elastic fibres

bronchi are blocked by tumours

the total surface area of the alveoli is reduced

Cambridge University Press 2013

Multiple-choice test: Chapter 11

11

Two lifelong cigarette smokers, X and Y, both have persistent coughs.


X also has difficulty breathing out and Y is getting much thinner.
From these symptoms it is possible that:

X has bronchitis and Y has emphysema.

X has emphysema and Y has chronic obstructive pulmonary


disease.

X has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Y has lung


cancer.

X has lung cancer and Y has bronchitis.

Both carbon monoxide and nicotine are absorbed into the blood from
tobacco smoke.
What describes their effects on the body?

A
B
C
D

Carbon monoxide

Nicotine

reduces the oxygen-carrying


capacity of the blood

increases the chances of blood


clots forming

stimulates the release of adrenaline

increases the heart rate

increases the heart rate

stimulates the release of adrenaline

increases the chances of blood


clots forming

reduces the oxygen-carrying


capacity of the blood

What is the sequence of events leading to atherosclerosis?

1
2
3
4
5

blood clot forms at site of plaque


phagocytes attracted to site of damage
low density lipoproteins transport cholesterol to artery
damage to the lining of an artery
atheroma builds up and breaks through the endothelium

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Multiple-choice test: Chapter 11

Cambridge University Press 2013

Which of the following explains the increased risk of stroke, caused by


smoking tobacco?

Carbon monoxide increases the blood pressure and increases


the chance of a blood vessel in the brain bursting.

Carcinogens increase the blood pressure and increase the


chance of a blood vessel in the brain bursting.

Nicotine increases the chance of a blood clot blocking a blood


vessel in the brain.

Tars increase the chance of a blood clot blocking a blood vessel


in the brain.

Which observation is experimental evidence that smoking tobacco


causes lung cancer?

Most people who develop cancer are smokers.

Death rates from lung cancer are highest in people who smoke
more than 25 cigarettes per day.

Lung cancer was a rare disease until smoking became common


in the 20th century.

When substances extracted from tar in cigarette smoke were


painted onto the skin of mice, the mice developed tumours.

Which dietary factors increase the risk of coronary heart disease?

high intake of fruit and vegetables

high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol

low intake of sodium chloride and alcohol

moderate intake of unsaturated fat

10

What would not form part of an effective screening programme for CHD?

screening for high blood pressure

screening for high cholesterol

monitoring heart rhythms

screening blood samples for bacterial infection

Cambridge University Press 2013

Multiple-choice test: Chapter 11

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