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# ENB458 Exam Resource Sheet

## James Mount 2014

General
Controllability and Observability
= [

= 2

[1 ]

1 ]

## Will be controllable/observable if the rank of these matrices is equal to n. Rank will be n if

determinant is non-zero, other ways of determining rank as well.

Transient Characteristics

S plane poles
Sigma (real part of S Pole)

=
|| = | |

Damped Frequency

Damping Ratio

= 1 2
ln(% 0100)
=
2
+ ln2 (% 100)

Overshoot
Settling Time (2nd Order)

% = (1 ) 100
= 4

=
1 2

() = lim ()()

## FV Theorem (Z Transfer Function)

() = lim ()()

SSE
SSE of Open Loop SS (step input)
SSE of Closed Loop SS (step input)

() = 1 ()
() = 1 + 1
() = 1 + ( )1

## James Mount 2014

General
Converting from Transfer Function to State Space
() =

Phase Variable

Controller Canonical

1 1 + + 1 + 0
+ 1 1 + + 1 + 0

0
1
0

0
0
0
0
1

0
0

=
+
0
0
0

1
0
[ 1]
[0 1 2 1 ]
= [0 1 2 1 ]
1 2 1 0
1
1

0
0
0
0

+
=
0

1
0
0
0
[ 0
[ 0]

0
1
0 ]
= [1 2 1 0 ]

Observer Canonical
1 1

0
= 2
1
0
0
[ 0
= [1 0

0

1
0
0
0 0]

1
0

0 + 2
1
1
0]
[ 0 ]

() = ( )1 +

## Time Response of System

To find time response convert SS to TF, but need to consider initial conditions (0 ), so use
the following,
() = ( )1 (0 + ())
() = () + ()

## James Mount 2014

Model Development
Modelling with Transfer Functions
Electrical Systems
Component
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor

Impedance

1/

1. Apply circuit theory such as KVL and KCL around meshes and at nodes
2
a. Look at combining parallel components = 1
+
1
2
b. Look for voltage dividers
2. Put into matrix form, [] = [][]
3. Solve using Cramers rule
1 2 1
1
[
] = [ ] [
]
2
3
4 2
1 2
det ([
])
2 4
1 =
1 2
det ([ ])
3
4
4. If variable 1 is not the quantity you are interested in, sub in equation to get desired
quantity. (i.e. if variable 1, was a current but wanted the voltage through the
component, use = to manipulate it into voltage)

Translational Systems
Component
Spring
Damper
Mass

Impedance

1. Develop system of equations by holding each mass in turn and seeing the forces acting
upon it.
2. Put into matrix form
3. Solve using Cramers rule
4. Manipulate current output quantity, from Cramers rule result, to desired quantity, if
required.

Rotational Systems
Component
Spring
Damper
Mass

Impedance

## 1. If gearbox present reflect impedances and draw equivalent system

2. Perform same steps as translational systems. Remember to alter the final output quantity if
required, will need to most likely do so if a gearbox was present.

## James Mount 2014

Model Development
Modelling with State Space
Electrical Systems
Component

Voltage - Current

Resistor

Inductor
Capacitor

=
=

[ ]

1
().
0

Current - Voltage

Voltage Charge

= []

1
= ().
0
=

2
[]
2
1
=

[ ]

1. Write equations for all energy storing elements. These will be differential equations,
with the differentiated quantities been a possible set of state variables.
2. Apply circuit theory, such as KVL and KCL, to obtain the unknown variables, in the
equations from step 1, in terms of the state variables.
3. Using the information from step 2 write out the state equations, and hence the SS
matrices

Component

Translational

Rotational

Spring

Damper

[]

[]

Mass

2
[]
2

2
[]
2

## States will generally be displacement ( or ) and velocity ( or )

1. (If there is a gearbox reflect system, and draw equivalent). Write differential motion
equations similar to that when using TF modelling by holding all but one mass still and
seeing the forces acting upon it. (Generally will get two states for every mass element in
the system)

2. Knowing that parts of your states will simply be [] = , rearrange equations from
step for the remaining differentiated quantity (generally velocity)
3. Write state equations and hence find the state space model. (Be careful with the output
equations for rotational systems, if impedances had to be reflected due to a gearbox)

## James Mount 2014

Controller Design
Method 1 Using det( ( )) = 0
1. Check for controllability
2. Using original state space representation ( , , , ) find closed loop characteristic
equation using det( ( )) = 0
3. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
4. Equate coefficients from the two equations in steps 2 and 3, and solve for gains

## Method 2 Using P Transformation

1. Using original state space representation ( , , , ) find open loop characteristic
equation using det( ) = 0
2. Using open loop characteristic equation find phase variable state space form ( , , , )
3. Compute controllability matrices and
1
4. Calculate the P transform matrix =
5. Get desired closed loop characteristic equation from phase variable state space
0 = + (1 + ) 1 + + (1 + 2 ) + (0 + 1 )
6. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
7. Equate coefficients from equations in steps 5 and 6, and solve for phase variable gains
8. Transform phase variable gains to original state space gains using = 1

## Method 3 Using Ackermann Formula

1. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
0 = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0
2. Compute ( ) using original state space representation ( , , , )
( ) = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0
3. Calculate the controllability matrix
1
4. Apply Ackermann Formula = [0 0 1]
( )

PI Controller

## Need to augment the matrix

Open Loop State Space

## Closed Loop State Space

0
0
[ ]=[
] + [ ] + [ ]

0
0
1
= [ 0]

0
[ ]=[
] + [ ]

0
= [ 0]
, = +
If need to transform gains, remember to only apply transform to not

## James Mount 2014

Observer Design
Method 1 Using det( ( )) = 0
1. Check for observability
2. Using original state space representation ( , , , ) find closed loop characteristic
equation using det( ( )) = 0
3. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
4. Equate coefficients from the two equations in steps 2 and 3, and solve for gains

## Method 2 Using P Transformation

1. Using original state space representation ( , , , ) find open loop characteristic
equation using det( ) = 0
2. Using open loop characteristic equation find observer canonical state space form
( , , , )
3. Compute observability matrices and
1
4. Calculate the P transform matrix =

5. Get desired closed loop characteristic equation from phase variable state space
0 = + (1 + ) 1 + + (1 + 2 ) + (0 + 1 )
6. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
7. Equate coefficients from equations in steps 5 and 6, and solve for observer canonical gains
8. Transform observer canonical gains to original state space gains using = 1

## Method 3 Using Ackermann Formula

1. Find desired characteristic equation using pole placement
0 = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0
2. Compute ( ) using original state space representation ( , , , )
( ) = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0
3. Calculate the observability matrix
0
1 0
4. Apply Ackermann Formula = ( )
[ ]

## James Mount 2014

Optimal Control
Design Methodology

## 1. Compute Q and R weighting matrices, by using 1

, will get diagonal matrices
(max ) 2
2. Solve Riccatti equation with infinite horizon, and take the non-negative solution, remember
S will be symmetric about the diagonal
0 = + + 1
3. Compute the optimal gains
= 1

If want integral control augment to open loop state space and use new A and B matrices in
the Riccatti equation. Will also need to compute new Q matrix as there is an added element

## James Mount 2014

Discrete Systems
Z Transformation Methods
Backward Difference
=

1 1

Tustin Transform
2 1 1
=

1 + 1

## Pole Zero Mapping

=
= (cos( ) sin( ))

Z Transform Table

Courtesy of http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/LaplaceZTable/LaplaceZFuncTable.html

## James Mount 2014

Discrete Systems
Difference Equations
1. Provided with the transfer function () = ()/() cross multiply to get
()() = ()()
2. Knowing that () = 1 transform equation from step 2 into a difference equation
3. Manipulate equation from step 3 to get =

## General Form (Block Diagram)

Determining Stability
1. Get into z form. (i.e. = 201 + 602 becomes 1 = 20 1 + 60 2 which rearranges
to 0 = 2 + 20 + 60)
2. Find roots of z form equation. If magnitude of the roots are outside unit circle then the
system is unstable.

Discretising a Model
If Given Plant Model/Diagram That Does Not Include All Dynamic Aspects
1. Need to model the whole plant dynamics including elements such as Z.O.H
2. If Z.O.H need to use () = (1 1 ) {()}
3. Once found () write down discretised state space model from the discrete transfer
function, same as if it was a continuous model with a continuous transfer function

If Given Transfer Function/State Space That Does Include All Dynamic Aspects
1. If it is a continuous model:
a. Write down the continuous state space representation (, , , )
b. Compute and using
2
2
3
3
= + 2! + 3!

= ( . ) = 1 ( )
0

2. If is a discrete model:
a. Simply write down the discrete state space representation (, , , ), like you
would for a continuous system

## Topologies and Signal Flow Diagrams

Controller Topology

Observer Topology