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Research on the wireless power transmission system

based on coupled magnetic resonances


Qiang Wang

Hong Li

Information Science and Engineering College


Ningbo University
Ningbo Zhejiang 315211, China
wqiang1024@126.com

Information Science and Engineering College


Ningbo University
Ningbo Zhejiang 315211, China
lihong2@nbu.edu.cn

AbstractThis paper analyses and designs a kind of wireless


power transmission system via coupled magnetic resonances. It
introduces the wireless power transmission technology, and
expounds the principle of coupled magnetic resonant wireless
power transmission technology and its superiority. Then it
analyzes the influence of the related parameters such as the
transmission distance d and load resistance RL of the emitting
and receiving resonant coils on the transfer efficiency and
transfer power of the system. The experiment tests the proposed
wireless power transmission system, and the results show that the
above relevant parameters should be comprehensively considered,
in order to achieve the optimization design of the transmission
efficiency or transmission power. The experiment results also
show the validity of the theoretical analysis.
Keywords-coupled magnetic resonances; wireless power
transmission; coil resonant loop; power; efficiency

I.

INTRODUCTION

As early as in the late 19th century, Nicola Tesla had put


forward the concept of wireless power transfer, and applied for
related technology patent in 1902 [1]. Since then, though some
scientists abroad have engaged in researching on it, and gained
some achievements in induction power transmission at close
range, they have been not able to get breakthrough progress in
the mid-range. Until November 2006[2], ProfMarin Soljai
and his research team in MIT put forward mid-range wireless
power transmission technology based on magnetic coupling
resonance on the AIP forum in the United States, and
experimentally demonstrated a 60W bulb being lit up over 2m
distance in June 2007 [3].
According to the principles of wireless power transmission
technology, it can be divided into three types: the
electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic induction, coupled
magnetic resonances. The electromagnetic wave technology
technical characteristics: long transmission distance, line of
sight transmission, limited transmission direction, a large loss
in the air, low efficiency, a greater impact on its surrounding
environment. Electromagnetic induction technology features a
larger transfer power, but due to the loose coupling between the
coils, the magnetic field energy and coupling coefficient are
rapidly attenuated with the increasing distance, resulting in a
short transmission distance which is being limited to
centimeters, even millimeters level. Coupled magnetic resonant
technology combines the advantages of the above two
technologies, also overcomes their shortcomings: compared
with the induction technology, the transmission distance can be
longerby mid-range (several times the diameter of the
Zhejiang SRIP of China (2011)

978-1-4577-0321-8/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

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resonant coil); and compared with the electromagnetic wave


technology, the transmission is more efficient [4] [5].
This paper proposes a pulse driving based magnetic
coupled resonant wireless power transmission technology.
Through theory analysis by adjusting the duty cycle Don of the
pulse drive signal, wireless power transmission distance d and
the receiving load resistance RL and other related parameters,
being verified by experiments, it obtains the relationship with
the power and efficiency of wireless power transmission.
II.

PRINCIPLE OF THE MAGNETIC COUPLED RESONANT


WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY

A. Principle of coupled magnetic resonances


Magnetic coupling is a physical phenomenon between the
carrying current coils through each other's magnetic field
linked to each other. In near-field [3] [6], electromagnetic field
energy periodically flows back and forth between the radiation
sources internal and around space, and not radiates outward,
namely the non-radioactive magnetic coupling. When two
matched resonant objects resonant in a certain frequency, there
would be a strong coupling, thus the energy transfer would be
more efficient.
Coupled magnetic resonances wireless power transmission
technology is to use magnetic coupling and resonance
technology to realize the wireless transmission of power. The
theory is based on coupled mode theory [5] [6] [7] (referred to
as the CMT), whose main idea is: In the system, there would be
a strong coupling between objects at the same resonant
frequency and tend to exchange energy efficiently, while the
interaction between the objects is weak when off-resonant
frequency.

Figure 1. The emitter and receiver LC resonant coil diagram.

As shown in Fig. 1, the emitter and the receiver LC


resonant coil loops are composed of two matched LC resonant
coil circuit. The emitting resonant coil circuit is constituted by
inductance Ls and capacitance Cs, driven by high-frequency
pulse signal, and constantly sends out electromagnetic wave in
near field zone, forming a radiation alternating magnetic field,
through the strong magnetic coupling resonance, the energy is

received by the receiving resonant coil loop consisted by


inductance Lr and capacitance Cr, so as to realize the wireless
transmission of electrical energy.
B. Coupled magnetic resonant system model
Magnetic coupled resonant wireless power transmission
system based on pulse driving mainly contains the emitting and
receiving LC resonant coil loop, and the high frequency pulse
driver two modules, as the system hardware circuit structure
diagram is shown in Fig. 2: When MOS tube switches on, the
power source injects high frequency pulse current into the
emitter LC resonant coil loop; When the MOS switch is off, the
A point of emitting LC resonant loop is suspended, the current
flowing through Rs is zero, the emitting LC resonant loop can
be seen as a LC series circuit, its equivalent circuit as is shown
in Fig. 3 in emitter LC resonant coil circuit.

affects the resonant coil its self resonant frequency. When two
resonant coil closer, the greater the mutual inductance M and
the resistance, and the more obviously influence the resonant
coil.
When the system consists of emitting and receiving coil
loop is in full resonance, namely the two coil circuit are in
resonance condition, their respective reflect reactance are equal
to 0, while the two circuit reflect impedance are:
Zrs=Z2M2/(Rr+RL) 
Zsr=Z2M2/Rs

(4)

Two resonance coupling resonance loop to coil pure


resistance loop, receive and launch coil equivalent impedance
circuit Zss and Zrr for:
Zss=Rs+Z0/(Rr+RL)

 

Zrr=Rr+RL+ZM2/Rs 
III.

THE SYSTEM TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY AND


TRANSMISSION POWER ANALYSIS

Figure 2. Pulse driving wireless power transmission system circuit diagram.

To facilitate analysis and calculation, when the MOS tube


shuts off, Fig. 2 converts into the series coupled circuit model
as shown in Fig. 3 including Rs, Rr respectively as the
resistance loss of the emitting and receiving coil loop at high
frequency, the Ls, Lr respectively as self-induction, Cs, Cr
respectively as the resonance capacitance, RL as the load
resistance, M as mutual inductance between the emitting and
receiving coil loop, d as the distance between two coils.

Figure 3. Series coupling equivalent circuit model.

Set the resonant radian frequency as , Zs, Zr respectively


as the emitting and receiving coil circuit self-impedance, then
from the fig. 3 could get KVL circuit equations, and get the
equivalent circuit current of the emitting and receiving resonant
coil loop respectively are:
is=ZrUs/(ZsZr+Z2M2)

  

ir=-jZMUs/(ZsZr+Z M )
2

  

The reflected impedance Zsr and the reflected impedance Zrs


of the receiving coil loop by the emitting coil loop are:
Zrs=Z2M2/Zs  
Zsr=Z2M2/Zr 
The equivalent impedance Zss and Zrr of the receiving coil
loop and the emitting coil circuit respectively are:
Zss=Us/is=Zs+Z M /Zr 
2

Zrr=(-jMUs/Zs)/ir=Zr+Z2M2/Zs

(6)

The reflected resistance in the reflected impedance will


consume energy in the circuit, while the reflected reactance

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A. Transmission efficiency analysis


As the Fig. 3 shows, the input power Ps of the emitting coil
loop and output power Po of the receiving coil loop load
resistance RL are: Ps=Us2Zr/(ZsZr+Z2M2) Po=Us2Z2M2RL/
(ZsZr+Z2M2)2so the transmission efficiency can be obtained:

K Po/Ps*100%=Z2M2RLZr(ZsZr+Z2M2) 
From the reference [5] [8], it is known that the emitting and
receiving coil have four different resonance coupling states,
respectively are: cBoth the emitting and receiving coil loop
are not resonant; dThe emitting coil loop is in resonance,
while the receiving coil loop is not resonant; eThe emitting
coil loop is not resonant, while receive coil resonance; fBoth
the emitting and receiving coil loop are resonant. When the
emitting and receiving coil are resonant, namely the whole
coupling system is in resonance, the resonant coil circuit is
pure resistance loop and the impedance value is minimum , the
current flows through the resonant coil is the largest, when the
transmission power and efficiency are at best compared with
the other three states.
Resonant coil loop resistance loss at high frequency mainly
includes ohm resistance loss Ro = ZPV  rn/a (i.e. the
coil resistance), and radiation loss resistance [3]
Rf = PH  > S/ n2 Zrc  /S Zhc ].
To ensure that the system is in full resonance state, the
emitting and receiving coil parameters are designed the same,
the mutual inductance between the two coils is:
M=SPrG  
And in the mid-range magnetic coupling resonant wireless
power transmission system, because of Rf<<R0 [3], the
radiation loss in the coil loss is negligible, then the coil loss
Rs=Rr=Rf +R0 R0, then equation (7) can be changed into:
K ^ Z0 5L^ 5R5L >5R 5R5L  Z0 @`` 100%  

From equation (8), (9) can get the relationship among the
system transmission efficiency and distance d, the radian
frequency , the coil parameters (a, r, n, h, l) and the load
resistor RL.
The resonant coils of the emitting and receiving resonant
coil circuit are circular tightly wound hollow coils, the
parameters are: wire radius a=1.0 mm, the coil radius r= 3.5cm,
the coil turns n=15, the coil width h=10 mm, the HIOKI
3532-50 LCR analyzer measured coil inductance L=27.1 uH,
set C= 110 nF, the resonant frequency of the LC parallel coil
circuit f= 90 KHz, direct current power supply Vcc =12 V, pulse
drive signal frequency f = 90 KHz. Then the relationship curve
among the system transmission efficiency and distance d, the
load resistance RL, and the radian frequency is shown in
Figure 4:

Equation (10) is the relationship curve among transmission


power and the distance d, load resistance RL, and the radian
frequency , as is shown in Fig. 5:

Figure 5(a) Relation curves among the transmission power, distance and the
resonant frequency.

Figure 5(b) Relation curves among the transmission power, distance and the
load resistance.
Figure 5. Relation curves among the transmission power, distance, resonant
frequency and the load resistance.

Figure 4 (a) Relation curves among transmission K, d and f.

When fixed inductance coil related parameters and


transmission load of RL, get as shown in Fig. 5(a) shows the
relation curve: with the transmission distance with gradually
increasing, transmission power will be corresponding gradually
reduced. Along with the change of frequency, power will
appear a maximum value.
When fixed inductance coil related parameters and drive
pulse frequency f, it gets the relation curves as shown in Fig.
5(b): As the transmission distance increases, the transmission
power will gradually reduced correspondingly. Along with the
change of the load, the transmission power will change
correspondingly.

Figure 4 (b) Relation curves among transmission K, d and RL


Figure 4. Relation curves among transmission efficiency, transmission
distanceresonant frequency and load resistance values.

When fixed inductance coil related parameters and


transmission load RL, it gets the relation curves as shown in
Fig. 4(a): As the transmission distance increases, the
transmission efficiency will be gradually reduced accordingly.
Along with the change of frequency, there will be a maximum
of efficiency.
When fixed inductance coil related parameters and drive
pulse frequency f, it gets the relation curves as shown in Fig.
4(b): As the transmission distance increases, the transmission
efficiency will be gradually reduced correspondingly. Along
with the change of the load, there will be a maximum of
efficiency.
B. Transmission power analysis
From the receiving load transmission power calculation
formula, it can get the maximum transmission power
calculation formula when the emitting and receiving coil in full
resonance:
Po = Us2Z2M 2RL/ (ZsZr+Z2M2)2
=Us2Z2M2RL/ [Rs (Rr+RL) + (ZM)2]2 (10)

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IV.

EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS

This paper based on the above theoretical analysis and


parameter settings to achieve a resonant magnetic coupling
wireless power transmission system of 90 KHz resonant
frequency, uses experiments to verify the transmission power
and transmission efficiency analysis of the magnetic coupling
resonant wireless power transmission system is correct .
A. The relationship among the pulse drive duty circles and
transmission power and efficiency
When verifying the relationship among pulse drive duty
cycle and transmission power and efficiency, fixes the
transmission distance d= 3cm, the load resistance RL= 100,
adjust the pulse drive signal duty cycle Don in 2% -50% range,
fitting data measured by the curve, The relationship among the
pulse drive duty circles Don and transmission power and
efficiency as shown in Fig. 6.(Where the left vertical axis
corresponds to the blue curve for the transmission power curve,
and the right vertical axis corresponds to the green curve for
the transmission efficiency curve, and the same as Fig. 7.)

According to the Fig.6: 1) Power: the transfer power


gradually increases with the increase of pulse driving signal
duty cycle Don, so it can control energy supply to the system by
adjusting the duty cycle Don. 2) Efficiency: Transmission
efficiency increased first and then decreased with the
increases of drive signal duty cycle Don, there is a maximum
value points with the change in the Don.

Analysis: Fix the drive signal duty cycle Don, then the
power supply provides constant energy to the emitter resonant
coil circuit, making magnetic field of the near field strength
constant. But gradually as the transmission distance d increases,
the number of magnetic field lines of cross through the
receiving coil reduces, resulting in smaller alternating current
of the receiving coil, and drop of the parallel capacitor voltage,
eventually makes the reduction of power supply to the load.
Set dM is the corresponding distance d of the maximum
transmission efficiency , when d is less than dM, the measured
load power is still increasing, but then the transmitter coil
waveform is in distortion and in the detuning state, some power
losses in the receiver inductor coil resistance and parasitic
resistance, the inductor coil begins to heat, begins to decline.

Figure 6. The relationship schemes among impulse drive duty cycle and
transmission power and efficiency.

Analysis: The increase of the drive signal duty cycle Don


means the energy of the transmitter resonant coil circuit
supplied by the power increases, making the field strength of
near magnetic field increase, the alternating current generated
by alternating magnetic field induction in the resonant receiver
coil be larger and the rise of the parallel capacitor voltage,
eventually makes the increase of power supply to the load.
Set dM as the corresponding distance d of the maximum
transmission efficiency , when d is less than dM, although the
measured load power is still increasing, but at the moment the
transmitter coil waveform is in distortion and in the detuning
state, some power losses in the receiver inductor coil resistance
and parasitic resistance, the inductor coil begins to heat,
begins to decline.
To sum up: To achieve the optimization of the transmission
power and transmission efficiency, the two factors should be
taken into comprehensive consideration in distance adjustment.
B. The relationship among the transmission distance and
transmission power and efficiency
When verifying the relationship among the transmission
distance and transmission power and efficiency, fixes pulse
driving signal duty cycle Don=15%, the load resistance RL=
100, adjust the transmission distance d in 1-10 cm, fitting
data measured by the curve, The relationship among the
transmission distance d and transmission power and efficiency
as is shown in Fig. 7.
According to the Fig.7: 1) Power: the transmission power
gradually reduced as the transmission distance d increases
correspondingly. 2) Efficiency: when the distance d is close,
increases gradually with the decrease of d, when increases to
a certain maximum point, there was a downward trend.

To sum up: Similar to the regulation of the pulse drive duty


cycle, the transmission power and transmission efficiency two
factors should be taken into comprehensive consideration in the
distance adjustment to achieve their optimization
V.

This paper presents a magnetic coupled resonant system


circuit model, derived the expression of the system
transmission efficiency and transmission power, and got the
maximum power transmission efficiency and transmission
conditions and expressions, and further analyses the influence
of the emitting and receiving resonant coil relevant parameters
on the system transmission efficiency and power, eventually
through the corresponding experiments verifies the validity of
the theoretical analysis.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Herein, Wang Q. wants to express many thanks to associate
Prof. Wu Y.B. for his valuable advice on the details of the
design of system module, and the corrections for this
manuscript.
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Figure 7. The relationship schemes among wireless power transmission


distance and transmission power and efficiency.

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