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Qiang Wang

Hong Li

Ningbo University

Ningbo Zhejiang 315211, China

wqiang1024@126.com

Ningbo University

Ningbo Zhejiang 315211, China

lihong2@nbu.edu.cn

power transmission system via coupled magnetic resonances. It

introduces the wireless power transmission technology, and

expounds the principle of coupled magnetic resonant wireless

power transmission technology and its superiority. Then it

analyzes the influence of the related parameters such as the

transmission distance d and load resistance RL of the emitting

and receiving resonant coils on the transfer efficiency and

transfer power of the system. The experiment tests the proposed

wireless power transmission system, and the results show that the

above relevant parameters should be comprehensively considered,

in order to achieve the optimization design of the transmission

efficiency or transmission power. The experiment results also

show the validity of the theoretical analysis.

Keywords-coupled magnetic resonances; wireless power

transmission; coil resonant loop; power; efficiency

I.

INTRODUCTION

forward the concept of wireless power transfer, and applied for

related technology patent in 1902 [1]. Since then, though some

scientists abroad have engaged in researching on it, and gained

some achievements in induction power transmission at close

range, they have been not able to get breakthrough progress in

the mid-range. Until November 2006[2], ProfMarin Soljai

and his research team in MIT put forward mid-range wireless

power transmission technology based on magnetic coupling

resonance on the AIP forum in the United States, and

experimentally demonstrated a 60W bulb being lit up over 2m

distance in June 2007 [3].

According to the principles of wireless power transmission

technology, it can be divided into three types: the

electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic induction, coupled

magnetic resonances. The electromagnetic wave technology

technical characteristics: long transmission distance, line of

sight transmission, limited transmission direction, a large loss

in the air, low efficiency, a greater impact on its surrounding

environment. Electromagnetic induction technology features a

larger transfer power, but due to the loose coupling between the

coils, the magnetic field energy and coupling coefficient are

rapidly attenuated with the increasing distance, resulting in a

short transmission distance which is being limited to

centimeters, even millimeters level. Coupled magnetic resonant

technology combines the advantages of the above two

technologies, also overcomes their shortcomings: compared

with the induction technology, the transmission distance can be

longerby mid-range (several times the diameter of the

Zhejiang SRIP of China (2011)

2255

technology, the transmission is more efficient [4] [5].

This paper proposes a pulse driving based magnetic

coupled resonant wireless power transmission technology.

Through theory analysis by adjusting the duty cycle Don of the

pulse drive signal, wireless power transmission distance d and

the receiving load resistance RL and other related parameters,

being verified by experiments, it obtains the relationship with

the power and efficiency of wireless power transmission.

II.

WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY

Magnetic coupling is a physical phenomenon between the

carrying current coils through each other's magnetic field

linked to each other. In near-field [3] [6], electromagnetic field

energy periodically flows back and forth between the radiation

sources internal and around space, and not radiates outward,

namely the non-radioactive magnetic coupling. When two

matched resonant objects resonant in a certain frequency, there

would be a strong coupling, thus the energy transfer would be

more efficient.

Coupled magnetic resonances wireless power transmission

technology is to use magnetic coupling and resonance

technology to realize the wireless transmission of power. The

theory is based on coupled mode theory [5] [6] [7] (referred to

as the CMT), whose main idea is: In the system, there would be

a strong coupling between objects at the same resonant

frequency and tend to exchange energy efficiently, while the

interaction between the objects is weak when off-resonant

frequency.

resonant coil loops are composed of two matched LC resonant

coil circuit. The emitting resonant coil circuit is constituted by

inductance Ls and capacitance Cs, driven by high-frequency

pulse signal, and constantly sends out electromagnetic wave in

near field zone, forming a radiation alternating magnetic field,

through the strong magnetic coupling resonance, the energy is

inductance Lr and capacitance Cr, so as to realize the wireless

transmission of electrical energy.

B. Coupled magnetic resonant system model

Magnetic coupled resonant wireless power transmission

system based on pulse driving mainly contains the emitting and

receiving LC resonant coil loop, and the high frequency pulse

driver two modules, as the system hardware circuit structure

diagram is shown in Fig. 2: When MOS tube switches on, the

power source injects high frequency pulse current into the

emitter LC resonant coil loop; When the MOS switch is off, the

A point of emitting LC resonant loop is suspended, the current

flowing through Rs is zero, the emitting LC resonant loop can

be seen as a LC series circuit, its equivalent circuit as is shown

in Fig. 3 in emitter LC resonant coil circuit.

affects the resonant coil its self resonant frequency. When two

resonant coil closer, the greater the mutual inductance M and

the resistance, and the more obviously influence the resonant

coil.

When the system consists of emitting and receiving coil

loop is in full resonance, namely the two coil circuit are in

resonance condition, their respective reflect reactance are equal

to 0, while the two circuit reflect impedance are:

Zrs=Z2M2/(Rr+RL)

Zsr=Z2M2/Rs

(4)

resistance loop, receive and launch coil equivalent impedance

circuit Zss and Zrr for:

Zss=Rs+Z0/(Rr+RL)

Zrr=Rr+RL+ZM2/Rs

III.

TRANSMISSION POWER ANALYSIS

shuts off, Fig. 2 converts into the series coupled circuit model

as shown in Fig. 3 including Rs, Rr respectively as the

resistance loss of the emitting and receiving coil loop at high

frequency, the Ls, Lr respectively as self-induction, Cs, Cr

respectively as the resonance capacitance, RL as the load

resistance, M as mutual inductance between the emitting and

receiving coil loop, d as the distance between two coils.

as the emitting and receiving coil circuit self-impedance, then

from the fig. 3 could get KVL circuit equations, and get the

equivalent circuit current of the emitting and receiving resonant

coil loop respectively are:

is=ZrUs/(ZsZr+Z2M2)

ir=-jZMUs/(ZsZr+Z M )

2

of the receiving coil loop by the emitting coil loop are:

Zrs=Z2M2/Zs

Zsr=Z2M2/Zr

The equivalent impedance Zss and Zrr of the receiving coil

loop and the emitting coil circuit respectively are:

Zss=Us/is=Zs+Z M /Zr

2

Zrr=(-jMUs/Zs)/ir=Zr+Z2M2/Zs

(6)

consume energy in the circuit, while the reflected reactance

2256

As the Fig. 3 shows, the input power Ps of the emitting coil

loop and output power Po of the receiving coil loop load

resistance RL are: Ps=Us2Zr/(ZsZr+Z2M2) Po=Us2Z2M2RL/

(ZsZr+Z2M2)2so the transmission efficiency can be obtained:

K Po/Ps*100%=Z2M2RLZr(ZsZr+Z2M2)

From the reference [5] [8], it is known that the emitting and

receiving coil have four different resonance coupling states,

respectively are: cBoth the emitting and receiving coil loop

are not resonant; dThe emitting coil loop is in resonance,

while the receiving coil loop is not resonant; eThe emitting

coil loop is not resonant, while receive coil resonance; fBoth

the emitting and receiving coil loop are resonant. When the

emitting and receiving coil are resonant, namely the whole

coupling system is in resonance, the resonant coil circuit is

pure resistance loop and the impedance value is minimum , the

current flows through the resonant coil is the largest, when the

transmission power and efficiency are at best compared with

the other three states.

Resonant coil loop resistance loss at high frequency mainly

includes ohm resistance loss Ro =ZPV
rn/a (i.e. the

coil resistance), and radiation loss resistance [3]

Rf =PH
>S/n2Zrc/SZhc].

To ensure that the system is in full resonance state, the

emitting and receiving coil parameters are designed the same,

the mutual inductance between the two coils is:

M=SPrG

And in the mid-range magnetic coupling resonant wireless

power transmission system, because of Rf<<R0 [3], the

radiation loss in the coil loss is negligible, then the coil loss

Rs=Rr=Rf +R0 R0, then equation (7) can be changed into:

K ^Z05L^5R5L>5R5R5LZ0@``
100%

From equation (8), (9) can get the relationship among the

system transmission efficiency and distance d, the radian

frequency , the coil parameters (a, r, n, h, l) and the load

resistor RL.

The resonant coils of the emitting and receiving resonant

coil circuit are circular tightly wound hollow coils, the

parameters are: wire radius a=1.0 mm, the coil radius r= 3.5cm,

the coil turns n=15, the coil width h=10 mm, the HIOKI

3532-50 LCR analyzer measured coil inductance L=27.1 uH,

set C= 110 nF, the resonant frequency of the LC parallel coil

circuit f= 90 KHz, direct current power supply Vcc =12 V, pulse

drive signal frequency f = 90 KHz. Then the relationship curve

among the system transmission efficiency and distance d, the

load resistance RL, and the radian frequency is shown in

Figure 4:

power and the distance d, load resistance RL, and the radian

frequency , as is shown in Fig. 5:

Figure 5(a) Relation curves among the transmission power, distance and the

resonant frequency.

Figure 5(b) Relation curves among the transmission power, distance and the

load resistance.

Figure 5. Relation curves among the transmission power, distance, resonant

frequency and the load resistance.

transmission load of RL, get as shown in Fig. 5(a) shows the

relation curve: with the transmission distance with gradually

increasing, transmission power will be corresponding gradually

reduced. Along with the change of frequency, power will

appear a maximum value.

When fixed inductance coil related parameters and drive

pulse frequency f, it gets the relation curves as shown in Fig.

5(b): As the transmission distance increases, the transmission

power will gradually reduced correspondingly. Along with the

change of the load, the transmission power will change

correspondingly.

Figure 4. Relation curves among transmission efficiency, transmission

distanceresonant frequency and load resistance values.

transmission load RL, it gets the relation curves as shown in

Fig. 4(a): As the transmission distance increases, the

transmission efficiency will be gradually reduced accordingly.

Along with the change of frequency, there will be a maximum

of efficiency.

When fixed inductance coil related parameters and drive

pulse frequency f, it gets the relation curves as shown in Fig.

4(b): As the transmission distance increases, the transmission

efficiency will be gradually reduced correspondingly. Along

with the change of the load, there will be a maximum of

efficiency.

B. Transmission power analysis

From the receiving load transmission power calculation

formula, it can get the maximum transmission power

calculation formula when the emitting and receiving coil in full

resonance:

Po = Us2Z2M 2RL/ (ZsZr+Z2M2)2

=Us2Z2M2RL/ [Rs (Rr+RL) + (ZM)2]2 (10)

2257

IV.

parameter settings to achieve a resonant magnetic coupling

wireless power transmission system of 90 KHz resonant

frequency, uses experiments to verify the transmission power

and transmission efficiency analysis of the magnetic coupling

resonant wireless power transmission system is correct .

A. The relationship among the pulse drive duty circles and

transmission power and efficiency

When verifying the relationship among pulse drive duty

cycle and transmission power and efficiency, fixes the

transmission distance d= 3cm, the load resistance RL= 100,

adjust the pulse drive signal duty cycle Don in 2% -50% range,

fitting data measured by the curve, The relationship among the

pulse drive duty circles Don and transmission power and

efficiency as shown in Fig. 6.(Where the left vertical axis

corresponds to the blue curve for the transmission power curve,

and the right vertical axis corresponds to the green curve for

the transmission efficiency curve, and the same as Fig. 7.)

gradually increases with the increase of pulse driving signal

duty cycle Don, so it can control energy supply to the system by

adjusting the duty cycle Don. 2) Efficiency: Transmission

efficiency increased first and then decreased with the

increases of drive signal duty cycle Don, there is a maximum

value points with the change in the Don.

Analysis: Fix the drive signal duty cycle Don, then the

power supply provides constant energy to the emitter resonant

coil circuit, making magnetic field of the near field strength

constant. But gradually as the transmission distance d increases,

the number of magnetic field lines of cross through the

receiving coil reduces, resulting in smaller alternating current

of the receiving coil, and drop of the parallel capacitor voltage,

eventually makes the reduction of power supply to the load.

Set dM is the corresponding distance d of the maximum

transmission efficiency , when d is less than dM, the measured

load power is still increasing, but then the transmitter coil

waveform is in distortion and in the detuning state, some power

losses in the receiver inductor coil resistance and parasitic

resistance, the inductor coil begins to heat, begins to decline.

Figure 6. The relationship schemes among impulse drive duty cycle and

transmission power and efficiency.

means the energy of the transmitter resonant coil circuit

supplied by the power increases, making the field strength of

near magnetic field increase, the alternating current generated

by alternating magnetic field induction in the resonant receiver

coil be larger and the rise of the parallel capacitor voltage,

eventually makes the increase of power supply to the load.

Set dM as the corresponding distance d of the maximum

transmission efficiency , when d is less than dM, although the

measured load power is still increasing, but at the moment the

transmitter coil waveform is in distortion and in the detuning

state, some power losses in the receiver inductor coil resistance

and parasitic resistance, the inductor coil begins to heat,

begins to decline.

To sum up: To achieve the optimization of the transmission

power and transmission efficiency, the two factors should be

taken into comprehensive consideration in distance adjustment.

B. The relationship among the transmission distance and

transmission power and efficiency

When verifying the relationship among the transmission

distance and transmission power and efficiency, fixes pulse

driving signal duty cycle Don=15%, the load resistance RL=

100, adjust the transmission distance d in 1-10 cm, fitting

data measured by the curve, The relationship among the

transmission distance d and transmission power and efficiency

as is shown in Fig. 7.

According to the Fig.7: 1) Power: the transmission power

gradually reduced as the transmission distance d increases

correspondingly. 2) Efficiency: when the distance d is close,

increases gradually with the decrease of d, when increases to

a certain maximum point, there was a downward trend.

cycle, the transmission power and transmission efficiency two

factors should be taken into comprehensive consideration in the

distance adjustment to achieve their optimization

V.

circuit model, derived the expression of the system

transmission efficiency and transmission power, and got the

maximum power transmission efficiency and transmission

conditions and expressions, and further analyses the influence

of the emitting and receiving resonant coil relevant parameters

on the system transmission efficiency and power, eventually

through the corresponding experiments verifies the validity of

the theoretical analysis.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Herein, Wang Q. wants to express many thanks to associate

Prof. Wu Y.B. for his valuable advice on the details of the

design of system module, and the corrections for this

manuscript.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

distance and transmission power and efficiency.

2258

SUMMARY

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