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e

h i e 1 I1 -&gineering Data Analysis

Phase I Report
c
,c

I
.
.

23 June 1965

.
a

Westbghozse 3:lectric Gcrpcratlcn

Aerospace- Division
Baltimore, Maryland

Ariel I1 Engineering Data Analysis

Phase I Report
Volume I o f Two Volumes

23 June 1965

Contract No. NAS5-9104

Prepared by
Westinghouse E l e c t r i c Corporatlon

Aerospace Division

Baltimore, Maryland

for

Goddard Space F l i g h t Center


Greenbelt, Maryland

This report treats of t h e r e s u l t s of Phase I of a three-phase postlaunch evaluation of A r i e l I1 s a t e l l i t e engineering performance.

Phase I i s

t h e portion of t h e evaluation devoted t o t h e reduction of telemetered d a t a


and t h e preparation of p l o t s , of s a t e l l i t e performance i n engineering u n i t s
and of experiment performance i n frequency u n i t s . . Three major a r e a s of
i n t e r e s t a r e covered i n graphical form, i.e.,

dynamical performance i n terms

of s p i n r a t e decline, power system perfomance,and thermal performance.

Ex-

periment performance i s a l s o displayed i n t h e graphs, both f o r i t s own sake


and because it provides t h e b a s i s f o r assessing dynamical performance.
The graphs t r u l y represent t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t of t h e Phase I e f f o r t

which had no a n a l y t i c findings as a goal,

Thus, conclusions, i n t h e normal

sense, cannot be s t a t e d ; however, it has been concluded t h a t i n s p i t e of d a t a


0

d e f i c i e n c i e s , t h e graphs provide a s u i t a b l e base f o r Phase I1 and Phase I11


work io ioiivw.

ualra

- -.

*
2 - UGLALAGllLLG9

----

n----I----

A-11-

a =A u A u C Y I I Y I A Y L L I + ,

ness of records of telemetered data.

+..-.

Is
+ h P -inmnmn1*fa,
--__ __.. - -

Le

J7--

Many passes of A r i e l I1 over t h e ground

s t a t i o n s were not recorded, and, i n addition, on many o r b i t s f e w ground s t a t i o n s


were i n t h e f i e l d of view of t h e communications system.

The other deficiency

i s t h e absence of d i r e c t measuring sensors on t h e s a t e l l i t e t o provide information about s o l a r aspect and s a t e l l i t e o r i e n t a t i o n .


The next two phases begin a t t h i s point.

These W i l l be (1) Phase I1

which i s t h e e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n of spacecraft performance with i n t e r p r e t a t i o n


of t h e graphs, and (2) Phase I11 which is t h e analysis of why t h e performance
assumed t h e p a t t e r n revealed by Phases I and 11.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME I

T i tl e
Abstract

Page

,.

,.

Introduction..

Description of Data

. ,.

Data Presentation P l a n
Dataprocessing

.,

,.

.
. . ,.

,.

*..

,.

,.

e .

... . .
e

,.

ii

. ... .. .
Program For Phase I1
., .
. . . . .,
Conclusions and Recommendations
. . . ..
Appendix I - Proposal for Ariel I1 International S a t e l l i t e , Post
LaunchEvaluation. .,.,. .
* . . .. . . . .
Appendix I1 - Data Presentation Plan
. . . . ., . . . . . .
Considerations of Data U t i l i t y ,
e

21

40

42

1-1
11-1

.
VOLUME I1

Description of Graphs

.. . .
e

Composite Orbit Graphs (378)

200-Day Graphs (16)

Special Purpose Graphs (63)

.
,

. . ., . . . . . .
..
e

,. .,
e

,.

.,

,.

Percent Sunlight Graphs (25)

.,

.,

. .
...
e

5
383
409
427

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
No,

1
2

3
4

5
6
7
8

9
10

11
12

13

14
15
16
17
18

Illustration

Page
No
D

.................
Example of Printout of High Speed Mode I Telemetry
Data from GSFC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Printout of Low Speed Modes I and I1 of
Telemetry Data from GSFC. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Printout of Telemetry Data from t h e
.........
United Kingdom (Channel 8 on*)
Ariel I1 Housekeeping Data. . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Inputs t o Orbit Preciction Program f o r
Predicted World Map and Refined World Hap . . . .
Example of Predicted S a t e l l i t e Map - Provided Ety
Predicted World Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Encoder Format.

Example of S a t e l l i t e Orbital Data Relative t o a


P a r t i c u l a r S t a t i o n - Provided by Predicted World
Map..

.....................
Example of Interim Definitive O r b i t a l Elements Refined World Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Special Points and Some O r b i t a l Data Refined World l a p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Intermediate Accounting Sheet Used I n
P l o t t i n g Performance Parameters . . . . . . . . .
Ozone Nonitor C e l l Temperature. . . . . . . . . .
Ozone C e l l Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spectrometer '!Af1 Temperature. . . . . . . . . . .
+15VoltS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape Recorder Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unregulated Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i V

lJ.

I2

15

16

17

18
19
20
22
23

24
25
26
2'7
28
29

.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)
Figure
No

Page
No

Illustration

~~

19
20
21
22

23

2k
25

26

................
Solar Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Charge/Discharge. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery "A" Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solar Paddle Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upper Shelf Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lower Shelf Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GN Sweep Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GEJBattery o r +UV.

30

31
32

33
34

35
36

37

LIST OF TABLES

Table
No.

Inventory of 5-52 Telemetry Data from Blossom Point

VOlUm@

I1

Page
No.

Table

I1

Cornposite Orbit Idst i n g

vi

Introduction
This report i s c r i b e s t h e e f f o r t expended and t h e r e s u l t s achieved
under Phase I of t h e subject contract which i s c o n s t i t u t e d under t h r e e phases.
Reference t o Appendix I Proposal f o r A r i e l I1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l S a t e l l i t e Post
Launch Evaluation w i l l serve t o explain t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e t h r e e phases
t o t h e t o t a l undertaking.

The p r o p o s a l i s a u s e f u l reference inasmuch as it

was recognized by t h e contract as t h e governing work statement f o r t h e programs.


B r i e f l y s t a t e d , t h e scope of Phase I c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of d a t a reduction, t h a t

i s , t h e conversion of t h e quantized frequency d a t a i n t o engineering units, and


t h e p l o t t i n g of t h e parameters versus time.

Preliminary a n a l y s i s of t h e type

and q u a n t i t y of d a t a and of t h e anticipated s c a l e of t h e v a r i a t i o n was a l s o required, under t h e scope of Phase I, t o e s t a b l i s h both t h e frequency of points
chosen f o r d a t a reduction and t h e format of presentation.

Results of t h e pre-

liminary analysis were summarized i n a l e t t e r t o t h e Technical Director.

En-

closure I of t h a t l e t t e r was adopted, with concurrence of t h e Technical Director,

-- .
,
e

e
_ -_ ~_ _i f_-_h_l -y n P e d i i v n f n r

d n t n reduction and m e s e n t a t i o n .

Enclosure I is

included 5n t h i s report as Appendix 11. As s t a t e d i n t h e referenced l e t t e r ,


t h e scope of Phase I i m p l i c i t i n t h e adopted plan exceeded t h a t outlined i n t h e
proposal; consequently, downward adjustments i n t h e scope of Phases I1 and I11
have been anticipated as a means o f compensating.
;,The g r e a t bulk o f t h e information conveyed by t h i s r e p o r t i s contained
i n t h e s e c t i o n c a l l e d !Reduced Data.

The graphs found t h e r e f i t t h e t h r e e

c a t e g o r i e s c i t e d i n t h e l e t t e r of Appendix 11. These categories a r e (1) s i n g l e


o r b i t graphs ( 2 ) 200-day graphs and (3) s p e c i a l purpose graphs.

Single-orbit

and ZOO-day graphs m e plotted f o r t h e fourteen parameters l i s t e d i n Table I

i n t h e l e t t e r and, i n addition, percent sunlight and spin rate are p l o t t e d f o r

.
t h e longer period.

The p l o t t h g of s o l a r aspect angle as a function of time i s

properly a r e s u l t of Phase I1

since t h e rendering of t h i s graph involves

Special purpose graphs are i n 3 subdivisions:

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e data.

(1)thermal s t a b i l i z a t i o n graphs of thermistor d a t a , (2) thermal gradient


graphs constructed from various combinations of thermistor data, and ( 3 )
t y p i c a l experiment responses e
A t t h e i n i t i a l commencement of Phase I e f f o r t , t h e s t a t e of d a t a

a v a i l a b i l i t y was unknown.

It soon became evident t h a t d a t a would have t o be

requested from t h e United Kingdom.

This new r e q u i r m e n t t o process d a t a i n t h e

United Kingdom has r e s u l t e d in a program stretch-out by a f a c t o r of approximately six i n time.

Consequently t h e completion of Phase I and t h e Phase I

r e p o r t h a s been extended by approximately

5 months beyond

t h e o r i g i n a l schedule.

Description of Data
The d a t a reduced under t h e subject contract had f o u r sources which
were :
(11
1-6

n
L-----m.intn?:-ts

nf + . e l e m e t r p

d a t a from t h e Goddard Space F l i g h t Center

having t h e format described as "Encoder Format" h t h e "Handbook f o r UK-2/S-52


I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sat e l l i t elr;
(2) p r i n t o u t s of telemetry d a t a requested by t h e Goddard Space F l i g h t

Center from t h e United Kingdom, involving only channel 8 ( S a t e l l i t e performance


parameters) of t h e encoder format;

(3) c a l i b r a t i o n and conversion curves provided by t h e Goddard Space


F l i g h t Center and i n a few cases by Westinghouse;

(4) Refined and Predicted World Kaps of t h e UK-2/S-52 o r b i t a l path


which were u s e f u l f o r providing t k e , percent s u n l i g h t , o r b i t a l elements, and
I

o r b i t a l reference points.

I t e m (1) of t h e d a t a existed p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n of t h e contract

and was t h e source of information f o r parameters such as spin r a t e , t y p i c a l


experiment responses and t h e l i k e .

It w a s a l s o t h e b a s i s f o r developing thermal

s t a b i l i z a t i o n curves f o r t h e first 10 o r b i t s .

I t e m (1)d i d not provide good

c o n t i n u i t y of information f o r any o r b i t but, r a t h e r , was characterized by gaps.


Contrariwise, item (2) was t h e source which yielded continuous o r b i t

It had become obvious e a r l y i n t h e program t h a t incomplete real-

information.

time coverage f o r any given o r b i t would render impossible t h e p l o t t i n g of a


continuous record of any of t h e performance parameters.

Consequently t h e use

of ficompositeffo r b i t s was introduced, wherein d a t a from a f e w (usually 3 t o 4 )

contiguous

o r b i t s a r e used t o provide a reasonably continuous c l u s t e r of per-

formance data.

The United Kingdom people a t Radio and Space Research S t a t i o n

were requested t o s e l e c t continuous o r b i t s approximately on a weekly i n t e r v a l


basis.

The a c t u a l o r b i t s chosen were s e l e c t e d t o achieve groupings affording

t h e most complete d a t a around t h e o r b i t .


u r n p i e s o i t h e &La

Li L e -;;;;:

c ~ $ : g : ~ 5 :2~ ~ TJiy1?;7pd
9
in the

s e c t i o n on Data Processing.
Data Presentation P l a n
The b a s i c rate of performance and experiment response d a t a from t h e
s a t e l l i t e t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s w a s high.

I n t h e so-called high speed mode,

which was a r e a l time transmission of experimental and performance d a t a from


t h e s a t e l l i t e t o t h e ground s t a t i o n , t h e d a t a fromat was repeated every 4.654
seconds.

Thus, it wasneither f e a s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e t o p l o t a l l d a t a points.

A d a t a plan was formulated based on t h e anticipated a n a l y t i c a l require-

ments and upon t h e expected rate-of-change

of parameters.

Normally, p o i n t s have

been taken from t h e d a t a a t t h e rate of one every f i v e minutes.

This frequency

of d a t a sampling was thought sufficient f o r a l l parameters except currents,


which have a modulation due t o s a t e l l i t e spin.

Since t h e s p i n modulated

v a r i a t i o n normally i s f a s t e r than f i v e minutes, t h e m&um

and minimum values

f o r t h e four-minute i n t e r v a l surrounding each f i v e minute point were plotted.

To show t h e v a r i a t i o n , complete data f o r one five-minute i n t e r v a l are p l o t t e d


f o r each composite o r b i t .

A s might be expected, overlapping of t h e d a t a of

t h e c o n s t i t u e n t o r b i t s i n a composite o r b i t presented some d i f f i c u l t y .


Occassionally, t h e corresponding points i n successive constituent o r b i t s would
differ.

If t h i s d i f f e r e n c e exceeded one telemetry b i t , which i s t h e ultimate

r e s o l u t i o n of t h e d a t a v a r i a t i o n s , each point was p l o t t e d and i d e n t i f i e d as t o


t h e source o r b i t .
Typical experiment responses were requested t o be p l o t t e d by Goddard
Space F l i g h t Center.

I n t h e case of t h e ozone spectrometer d a t a , t h e graphs

p l o t t e d t o show spin and sun angle v a r i a t i o n s a l s o provide a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s


f o r showing t h e assumed degradation of t h e ozone spectrometer mirrors.

aaaiLion,

scictitiv,

+tz

k . - z beer! m d -

nf

In

s n e a t r o m e t e r and broadband ozone

d a t a showing t y p i c a l responses at sunrise, a t sunset, and i n a period of f u l l


sunlight.

For g a l a c t i c noise, data are p l o t t e d a t apogee, at perigee and at

an intermediate a l t i t u d e .

Also, one e n t i r e o r b i t of 100 minutes of low speed

These a r e d a t a which were recorded on

g a l a c t i c n o i s e d a t a has been plotted.

t h e s a t e l l i t e t a p e recorder and played back t o t h e ground s t a t i o n at a higher

r a t e (48:l).

By t h i s means continuous o r b i t coverage i s obtained on t h e re-

corded GN data.

The term f$low-speed" Bs derived from t h e f a c t t h a t i n i t i a l

recording of t h e d a t a took place a t a slower speed (l/48) than t h e f i n a l playback.


P.:icrometeorite d a t a were also plotted.

These d a t a serve as auxiliary

i n p u t s f o r s p i n rate and t o some l i m i t e d extent, sun angle, by v i r t u e of t h e

.
f a c t t h a t t h e height of t h e cal5bration pulse v a r i e s with sun angle.

All d a t a

a r e p l o t t e d on t r a n s l u c e n t s h e e t s t o permit easy combinations of graphs by


means of l i g h t t a b l e ,

Equal time scales on t h e a b s c i s s a of a l l graphs were

maintained f o r t h i s reason a l s o .
Combinations are anticipated t o be made during Phase I1 t o reveal t h e
interdependence of parameLers.

The xx)-day graphs and t h e weekly composite-

o r b i t graphs aford means f o r observing both short and long term v a r i a t i o n s .


Data Processing
The b a s i c key t o d a t a reduction was t h e Encoder Format, Figure 2-2
of t h e Handbook f o r UK-2/S-52

I n t e r n a t i o n a l S a t e l l i t e , reproduced here as

Figure 1. Both t h e GSFC p r i n t o u t s and t h e UK p r i n t o u t s w e r e based upon t h i s


format.

A t t h e o u t s e t , telemetry d a t a taken at Blossom Point and other s t a t i o n s


and both refined and predicted world map d a t a were supplied by GSFC.
ventory of t h e s e d a t a was compiled and i s included k-i Table I.
a l a u llLdl;G
Ti-vL ",;
SEFC -r ;-n + n-~--~ + sf.0 s h o w

when

An in-

A record was

ozone d a t a were a v a i l a b l e and

when broadband ozone and g a l a c t i c n o i s e d a t a w e r e available.

Times were

c o r r e l a t e d between t h e world maps and t h e GSFC p r i n t o u t s t o e s t a b l i s h on what


pass numbers s p e c i f i c kinds of data were available.
Examples of telemetry data pointouts received from GSFC are provided
by Figure 2 which i l l u s t r a t e s High Speed Node I operation, and Figure 3 which
p o r t r a y s Low Speed ?.';ode I and Kode I1 operation.

Each t h r e e - d i g i t d a t a group

i s converted t o frequency (kc) by dividing by 10 and adding 4.

Thus a d a t a

group of 0% i n t h e p r i n t o u t fyom GSFC would be equivalent t o an a c t u a l frequency of 9.4 kc.

Both e x p e r h e n t a l and performance parameter d a t a are pro-

vided by t h e t a b u l a r p r i n t o u t s from GSFC.

0
D

A
GR

LOW SPEED MODE ONE

SYNC

QALACTIC NOISE

SYNC

LOW SPEED MODE TWO


SYNC

4.5 KC
SYNC= 222.2NS
Ls

%'

15.4 KC
RAqNQ

01

02

01

02

01

02

01

02

01

02

01

02

01

02

01

01: 0 2 PHOTOCELL

02: MON PHOTOCELL


352968-VB-25

Figure 1

Inventory o f

5-52 Telemetry Data


from Blossom Point

U.K.

I
I

1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
9.

Ch.

8 Data i n Parentheses

(1, stations SOL, SIP)


(2, sta. SNP, NOJ, LII?, SOL)
7, 8 (6, s t a . Sa)
7, 8 (7, s t a . W!!K)
9 ( 10, s t a . FlOJ, IDJ, WIK, BPO)

12

9, 1 2 9 13, 23

a.

23.
24-

25.

628,
653,
667
670,
758,
768,
782,

80/0008

3/30/6b

08/1139
80h324
67/1918
89/065 5
88/1517
93/0808

3/30/64
3/2 8-2 9/64

011

013
017
010
019

--

H.S.

28.
29.

30.

31.

08/00i4

-=:-67/2l09

4/7

6/64

05/35i3
18,/23;

1;/2~/61*

19/102C

5/11/6ij

16 0 00:
;3 #'-I

5/28/64

22P
---;-*
5c4
24i1939
29/21:!,
31/202 1

25

S/10/64
?/2 1/64

26

42/1F;SC

5/27/64

54/1355
54/1L34
56/12 06

6/11/64
( 3/64

23

5/20/64

L.J.

1r.s.

L.S.

26.
27-

3/30/61:
L/1L/64

33/19 9
34/llr55
3b/19lC
llo/2352

24
26

604
768, 770, 772
770
783, 810
787. 010

L/9/6L

16 6

021
22

642, 6 5
654, 650

Cover Date

002

600

19-

Start
Date/Time

001

010
011

10.
11. 224
12
13. 21, 22
44 (100, s t a . JOB, SCL, SIT, Q U I IIOJ
15.
(191, st,a. FTII, 0014, NlK, KFI.3
16. 421, 431, 1132, kb(243,
m,mc,:rm, r:w)
17. 653, 661, 667, 681
H.S.
667, 681
L.S.
20.
2122.

No.

003
00 7

18- 528; 533, 542, 572, 586,

Buffer

979, 1007, 1000


979
1011, 1040, 1049
1011, 1049
1109, 1137, 1147
1109, 1137
--1179, 1207, 1218, 1235

H.S.
L.S.
H.S.
L.S.

1179, 1207
1249, 1274

32.
33. 1291, 1316
1358,
C , 1372, 135'32 1490,
31~- U ~ L ~

29

---

t,

/10/64

58/102 0

H.S.

65,'152 0

G/i?,/64

L.S.
H.S.
L.S.

70/132 5

5/2 3/64

32
Y1.S.

Table I

75/112

79,'1011
L2 /93 10

7/7/64

Buffer
No.

Pass No.

42.

43.

44.

1923
1866,
1895,
1935,
1977
1935,
2036,
2074,

L.S.

1952,
2046,
2075
2093,
2135,
2186,

1966

L.S.

2050, 2060, 2 0 6 1 ,

H.S.

H.S.

2107, 2117, 2 l 2 i
2149, 2162, 2163
2202, 2206,
H.S.
2233
2206, 2229
L.S.
2
2
7
1
H.S.
2251,
2261,
47. 2245, 2247,
48. 2277, 2285, 2289, 2314, 2317,
Has.
2329, 2332
2272, 2317, 2329
L.S.
by. 2342, 2344, &ti,
L$U,
~jiu,
~ . b .
2371
L.S.
2342, 2370, 2371
50. 23849 2385, 2398, 2399, 243-2
H.S.
23811, 33 8g. 2398, 2399. 2412
L.S.
51- 2426, 2430, 2444, 2b55, 2458,
2469, 2472, 2473
L*S*
2426, 2430, 2444, 2455, 2458,
2469, 2472, 2473
52. 2483, 2485, 2486, 2487, 2511,
H.S.

h<.
46.

2088,
2131,
2177,

1880, 1881, 1916, 1892,


1923
1936, 1948, 1952, 1966,

2103,
2148,
2188,
2215, 2217, 2219,
2177, 2188, 2202,

254, 2515, 2525

Start
Date/l'ime

Cover Date

91/062 6

7/13/64

94/0510
99/0304

7/28/64

43

23/lkU

Val64

45

30/1632

8/21/64

46

34/3?34
37/0806
40;13J S

3/25/6b
8128/64
9/4/64

50

45/3606
47/0511

i&/&
'1/l0/64

51

jq'm j2

y/'il/m;

52

55/0U 9

9/ 15/61:

53

58/0007

9/25/64

54

62/0002

9./2 2 /6L

55

6/0540

9/2 5/64

56

67/2 113

9/2 8/6b

47

8
49

L-S.

2483, 2405, 2486, 2487, 2511,

2514, 2515, 2525

53. 4 f i l e s

H.S.
L.S.

2 files

54.

Table I (Continued)

.)

Pass No.

55. 2653, 2656, 2669, 2639, 2642,

H.S.

26g3, 2656, 2639, 26k2, 26h3


2670, 2671, 2605, 2695, 2709,
2712, 2713, 2726, 2727
2670, 2685, 2712, 2713
3
2783, 2798, 2822
2825, 2839, 2854, 2855, 2G64,
2865, 28668
289, 2893, 2896, 2911
2920, 2323, 2934, 2937, 29k7,
2951, 2965, 2967

L.S.

Buffer

Start

30.

Date/Time

57

73/2008

10/2/64

58

75/057

10/7/6h

59
60

10/I2/61;
l0/1?/64
10/IC,
/6b

10/23/6L

Cover Date

26L1

56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

61.

11.s.
L.S.
H.S.
H.S.

61

79/1719
8212259
85/2I25

H.S.

62
63

90/13hO
92/1427

6L

96/1223
9911057
03/0&7

l0/2 9/6b
11/2/6L

ll/1342

11/i2,SL

I1.S.

62.

63. 3018, 3032, 3060


64. 3074, 3078, 3088, 3092, 3103
65.
66.

H.S.

H.S.

65
66
67
68

Table I (Continued)

JJt59

10/20/6h

11/3/6h

_-

Inventory of d o r l d Ihps

-1964Refined Idaps
-

Predicted Flaps

Nont h/Dat e / T i me

I lonth/Date/Tiine

Start

End

Start
03/2 7/1733
0~~/91/0000
04/07/0000
04/32 /l800
04/20/0003
04/2 8/9000

05/l!l/rnOO
05/2 l/9000
05/2 6/9000
06/02 /OOOO
06/09/0000

06/15',/0000

he-Launch
-

06/2 2/0000
06/2 9/0000
06/2 6/1900
06/25/0000
( c o r r e ct ions )
07/06/0000
07/13/0000
0 7/2 O/oooo
o 8/04/0000
08/11/0000
nR/i R/nnnn
08j2 $/oom
09/ O l/OOOO
09/08/0000
09/15/0000

Prediction

PIonth/Da te/Time

Table I (Continued)

10

End

12

The telemetry d a t a received from t h e United Kingdom, however, provides only s a t e l l i t e performance parameter information.

The d a t a comes in t h e

form of t h r e e - d i g f t graups which may be converted t o a c t u a l frequency by dividing t h e d a t a group by 10 and subtracting

5.

UK i s equivalent t o a frequency of 9.4 kc.

Thus a d a t a group of

I,$.& from t h e

An example of t h e telemetry p r i n t -

out received from t h e United Kingdom is shown by Figure 4 with t h e accompanying


d e s c r i p t i v e sheet of Figure

5.

The two types of world maps generated by t h e computing f a c i l i t i e s at


GSFC provide s a t e l l i t e o r b i t a l information.

An example of t h e inputs t o t h e

o r b i t prediction program i s shown in Figure 6,

The Predicted World Map includes

t h e following information:

a,

t h e S a t e l l i t e Map which provides three-dimensional geographic

p o s i t i o n d a t a f o r each minute of time as shown by Figure 7.


b.

s a t e l l i t e o r b i t a l data r e l a t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l s t a t i o n s a t roughly

one-second i n t e r v a l s as i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 8.

m e l a t t e r b-ormaiion is useiui Li G G L G L u L I L ~ ~A
expected from a p a r t i c u l a r station.

tGleie.ti->-

&tii CGZ

The Refined World Map furnishes t h e follow-

i n g i n f o m a t i on :

a.
one week--

interim d e f i n i t i v e o r b i t a l elements at i n t e r v a l s of approximately

i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 9.
b.

a three-dimensional geographic p o s i t i o n at one minute intervals

s i m i l a r t o t h a t provided by t h e Predicted World Map.


c.

a weekly s a t e l l i t e map of s p e c i a l points and some o r b i t a l d a t a

as i n d i c a t e d by Figure PO.
The mechanics of d a t a processing were g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by using
masks of stiff paper t o read t h e printouts.

13

Rectangular apertures were cut i n

DEPARTMEKC OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH


RADIO RESEARCH STATION

Ariel I1 Housekeeping Data

A s from 26th June 1964 t h e Radio Research S t a t i o n will send at regular


i n t e r v a l s t o Goddard Space Flight Center, sat e n i t e perf oI11Lance parameter
data reduced from t h e most recent Winkfield tapes.
This information w i l l be presented in long printed s t r i p s , one f o r
each pass d i g i t i s e d .

The following notes w i l l be of a s s i s t a n c e i n i n t e r -

preting t h e s e records.

1. The date, time of t h e day in hours, pass (revolution) number and recording
s t a t i o n a r e entered i n t h e rubber stamped t i t l e block on each record.
2.

Sync and data tone b u r s t s a r e detected i n t h e R.R.S.

equipment between
one and two milliseconds before t h e end of t h e burst. The time a t
which each frame sync burst is detected i s printed out in minutes ,
seconds and milliseconds in t h e 7 figure group which appears on t h e
l e f t of each l i n e of t h e print out.

3 . The occasional a s t e r i s k i n column 8 indicates t h a t t h e time on t h i s l i n e


is t h a t of t h e first sync burst i n t h e 1 6 frame sequence, i.e. o c t a l
nwnhar 000.

4.

Channel 8 performance parameter data a r e printed out i n columns 9 t o 11.


The group of f i g u r e s immediately on t h e r i g h t of an a s t e r i s k is
t h e r e f o r e parameter No. 0 ozone temperature No. 1.

5.

To convert t h e s e 3 f i g u r e groups t o t h e corresponding tone burst


frequency i n kc/s, subtract 50 and divide by 10, e.g. 179 becomes
12.9 kc/s.

6.

888 i n columns 9 t o 11means t h a t t h i s burst of tone could not be


digitised.

7.

A cross (+) appearing in place of any d i g i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a parity

e r r o r occurred.

7th July, 1964


DFM/ESB
Figure 5

15

;'I CI

16

Y N

z
2
Ia
c
v)

a
a

w v

..

d
Y

0
P
0

m
N

L7

N
P

D
Y
.

..

I,

1..

18

_.

19

4
Fr

t h e masks at location corresponding t o t h e parameter being read.

The a p e r t u r e s

were arranged i n a v e r t i c a l column f o r reading performance parameters which


appear in t h e v e r t i c a l column in t h e encoder format, t h e number of apertures
corresponding t o t h e frequency of occurrence of a p a r t i c u l a r parameter i n
channel 8.

The mask enabled rapid scanning t o determine t h e maximum and

minimum values of current a t 5-minute i n t e r v a l s .

The apertures

were arranged

i n a h o r i z o n t a l row f o r experiment responses and corresponded i n number t o t h e


occurrences of t h e p a r t i c u l a r parameter i n a frame.
Inasmuch as no conversion c h a r t s were a v a i l a b l e t o convert frequency
e n t r i e s t o engineering u n i t s f o r t h e experiment responses, experiment d a t a
p o i n t s were p l o t t e d d i r e c t l y a s frequencies on t h e graphs,

This method of

p l o t t i n g was consistent with t h e i n t e n t of t h e program i n t h a t experiment performance was not t o be studied

-- only

I n t h e case of performance

recorded.

d a t a parameters, t h e frequency values were read from t h e p r i n t o u t s and transf e r r e d t o an accounting sheet, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 11, where t h e U, performance
----

--------l

YCaI E i i l i G U G I 0

---+<,--

-1 - - - A

-----<A-

&:-A

Am-<

Y*GbWA

vpyvY'"\.

Y
V
I

u..Y"o'-~'~""y

",
L
*I

Vhm

m-7.r

--*.a

A.

W..

An+..

----

R ~ T \ . . ~
C,,-,c

-u-u

t h e telemetry p r i n t o u t s were converted t o frequency (kc) u n i t s as previously


indicated.

I n t h e column adjacent t o t h e frequency d a t a on t h e accounting

s h e e t , t h e corresponding engineering u n i t values f o r each performance parameter


were subsequently entered.

These l a t t e r values w e r e derived from t h e l4 con-

v e r s i o n c h a r t s supplied by GSFC and are i l l u s t r a t e d by Figures 1 2 through 26.

Auxiliary conversion t a b l e s were constructed from t h e graphs t o f a c i l i t a t e


d a t a conversion and reduce t h e likelihood of graph reading errors.
Considerations of Data U t i l i t g
During t h e i n i t i a l phases of t h e work on d a t a reduction, t h e a n a l y t i c a l
phase requirements were considered t o d i r e c t t h e e f f o r t toward achievement of

-J

I
c3
W
v,

t-

W
W

& F

v)

4! -9
0

t-

..

]$
22
..

--__

J:
I

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c

g .

In

1
a

2
0

0
+

n
0

N
0

0
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Ln
0

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ID
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0
0

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8
P

8
0

8
c!

8
0
0
(0

25

u
Y
m

R+

EVCO-PP6

-- 088

AMPS

16.57019

--OB6

2.5

--OB4

ARIEL II NOMOGRAPH
OF DUMP CURRENT

-082
1.5 -. 080

-- 078

02 I

- - 076

022
024

--074

2.0

-- 072

026
2.0

-- 070

030

--068

032

--066

-- 064

0 34

-- 062

1.5

035

2.5--060

1.0INSTRUCTIONS:
I . DRAW STRAIGHT LINE BETWEEN

E u ~ON L E F T AND EVCO ON RIGHT.


~ p
2. READ I D U M p ON 1 ~ " SCALE.

054
14.5--055

e.5

--.066

-- 068

Y,

--OS6

&

--OS4

--OS2

--044

-1-

Y-"

--038

-- 036

-- 034
-- 032
0.0

4.0-

030

-- 028
-- 026

13.5-- 074

4.5--- 020

-- 018
-- 016
-*

044

081

-.012

1 083

010

a-

ez

- - --042 !?

J..d

-- 024
-- 022

13

-- 072

-- 077
-- 079

3P-050
--048
--046

-- 070
-- 076

v)

-- 057
-- 059
-- 061
-- 063

14-- 065

--OS

55296A-V8-6

'

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w n
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I-3

a m

m
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w +

0
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31)VllOA

A M 3 1 1 9 8 NE) a0 A Z I t

.
I

e
l

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0

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8
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(.

t
I

*+

crt

r8

s+

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I
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e
1

35

0
+

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CTlC NOISE SENSOR SEO


CHANNEL O/FRAME I5

2 nc

I8t

105
14.5 KC

100
14 KC

095
13.5 KC

090
13 KC

085
12.5 KC

1
080
12 KC

95296A-VB-26

t h e most u s e f u l r e s u l t s .

It i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o review here some of t h e s e con-

s i d e r a t ions.
F i r s t i n importance are t h e f a c t o r s bearing on primary o b j e c t i v e s

l ( a ) and l ( b ) as described i n t h e proposal, included here as Appendix I.


o b j e c t i v e s are:

These

l ( a ) t h e unexpectedly r a p i d decrease i+s a t e l l i t e s p i n r a t e ,

and l ( b ) t h e s a t e l l i t e spin &s/sun

l i n e angle variation. 'It was concluded

t h a t t h e following d a t a would be required from t h e reduction e f f o r t .

a.

The curve of a c t u a l vehicle spin rate versus days from launch

(0 t o 200 days).
b.

Time p l o t s of r a w ozone spectrometer d a t a f o r one s p i n revolution

as a v a i l a b i l i t y permits :

1. on nominal weekly b a s i s
2.

a t s e l e c t e d days corresponding t o maximum, minimum, and

90 degree points.
c.

Time p l o t s of raw DROD and IROD d a t a f o r one s p i n revolution at

s e l e c t e d times corresponding t o d i s c r e t e aspect


d.

algl~a.

A t i m e p l o t of r a w s o l a r c e l l current, Is, f o r one spin r e v o h t i o r ,

a t t h e point where t h e s o l a r aspect angle approaches 180 degrees.


Spin rate information was derived mainly from t h e ozone spectrometer
d a t a wherein t h e c y c l i c p a t t e r n of t h e experiment response produced by s a t e l l i t e
r o t a t i o n could be c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e .

By t h i s m e a n s s p i n rate could be deduced.

An auxiliary means of determining s p i n r a t e was provided by t h e IROD and DROD


micrometeorite experiments.

Observable pulses in t h e d a t a were i d e n t i f i e d a s

t h e r e s u l t of t h e scanning action prodwed on t h e IROD and DROD d e t e c t o r s by

sat e l l i t e spin.

Pulses were produced as t h e sunline swept past t h e holes i n t h e

aluminum f o i l s t r i p s and momentarily illuminated t h e detector.

Sunlight

passing through c a l i b r a t i n g s l i t s gave rise t o other observable pulses.


The establishment of s a t e l l i t e sunline angle v a r i a t i o n s was regarded as a n output of Phase I1 but it was f e l t t h a t time p l o t s of t h e r a w
ozone spectrometer data, of t h e raw IROD and DROD micrometeorite data, and
of t h e s o l a r c e l l current would provide t h e key t o an assessment; t h e r e f o r e ,
f o r e f f i c i e n c y t h e s e d a t a were processed i n Phase I.

Those p l o t s of t h e s e

d a t a which were s p e c i f i c a l l y requested by t h e Technical Director are included


herein, but not a l l p l o t s serving t h e sun angle determination are included.
Secondly, t h e Ariel I1 power system was studied from t h e standpoint
of d e s i r a b l e d a t a f o r analysis under Phases I1 and 111.

In t h e case of t h e

power system, t h e parameters possess an interdependence which i s b e n e f i c i a l


i n t h e assessment of anomalous behavior.

Since space environmental changes

a r e a periodic function of o r b i t position over t h e s h o r t term, t h e composite


o r b i t p l o t s were u s e f u l ana s a t i s f a e i u r y .

Tu a a ~ g cthz :ffc:tz

c_P ? n T r i T n n m n n t . a l

changes over t h e longer period, t h e 200-day composite graph was regarded as


satisfactory.
solar cells.

The l a t t e r graphs were expected t o show aging degradation i n


The power parameters p l o t t e d i n Phase I are tabulated below:
voltage on +l5 regulated
d u p e d current
t h e unregulated bus voltage
voltage on +12 regulated

solar current
b a t t e q current
b a t t e r y A temperature

39

#4 temperature

(8)

paddle

(9)

lower shelf temperature

The +15 and +12 regulated DC voltages have been p l o t t e d t o determine

It

i f they performed within design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e space environment.

i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s e p l o t s will be of u t i l i t y i n explaining t h e performance


anomaly i n t h e 12-volt supply.

I n conjunction with t h e l a t t e r problem, t h e

temperature and unregulated bus voltage p l o t s w i l l have value.


The solar current, b a t t e r y current and dumped current are a l g e b r a i c a l l y
r e l a t e d i n t h e sense t h a t solar current i n excess of t h a t needed t o power t h e
load and charge t h e b a t t e r y i s dissipated o r dumped.

The p l o t s displaying t h e s e

d a t a w i l l be t h e foundation of a graphical a n a l y s i s i n l a t e r phases of t h e


effort.

Lastly, considerations are presented which r e l a t e t o thermal behavior,


a secondary i n t e r e s t as presented i n 2(a) of t h e proposal i n Appendix I.

It has been f e l t t h a t the adopted scheme of weekly composite o r b i t


graphs plus t h e 200-day graphs mi2 p e r u i i

Guiipariauii

formance with predicted performance a s developed by GSFC.

b ~ t i it k~zlr z z l

--

r
n-w-

P l o t s of t h e r m a l

d a t a covering t h e first t e n o r b i t s w e r e made t o i n d i c a t e t h e thermal s t a b i l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s a t e l l i t e .

Unfortunately t h e d a t a i s not n e a r l y as

complete during t h e s e o r b i t s as would be desired f o r t h e purpose; however, no


improvement could be effected by any a l t e r n a t e method of processing t h e data.
Program f o r Phase I1
Phase I1 i s aimed a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n of spacecraft performance, and
t h i s w i l l be done under t h e t h r e e t o p i c s previously discussed, namely, dynamical
performance i n terms of spin r a t e and s u r l i n e

and thermal performance.

40

angle; power system performance;

Insofar as dynamical performance i s concerned

Phase I1 e f f o r t w i l l

be devoted t o defining t h e a c t u a l spacecraft performance and then comparing

it with t h e pre-launch predictions of performance f o r t h e following parameters:


a.

v a r i a t i o n in s a t e l l i k e spin r a t e

b.

v a r i a t i o n s i n s p i n axis/sunline angle

The p r i n c i p a l e f f o r t during t h i s phase of t h e program w i l l be t o


develop a p l o t of solar aspect angle versus days from launch.

The ozone spec-

trometer W i l l furnish t h e p r i n c i p a l evidence f o r t h i s angle s i n c e it i s b a s i c a l l y


more s e n s i t i v e t o s o l a r aspect than are t h e o t h e r sensors.

It had been assumed, p r i o r t o launch, t h a t t h e angular momentum

vector, h, of Ariel I1 would be established at o r b i t a l injection and would remain


substantially invariant thereafter.

Thus, it had been presumed t h a t t h e satel-

l i t e spin a x i s would be i n i t i a l l y aligned with t h e v e l o c i t y vector a t i n j e c t i o n ,

and t h e B r i t i s h team assumed t h a t t h i s spin a x i s o r i e n t a t i o n would be approxiAlso, it had been presumed t h a t when a l l yo-yo

mately maintained i n space.


weights, booms, and antennas

basil d G P l u y ~ d%k.$
,
$kc " z t ; > l i ~ h - d

s p i n r a t e would not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y over one year.

TrPhiPle

For t h e case where t h e

s p i n a x i s i s presumed fixed, t h e angle between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e assumed spin


a x i s and t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e sunline--obtainable

and Nautical Almanac, 1964


from launch.

--

from The American Ephemeris

can be r e a d i l y calculated as a function of time

However, preliminary examination of spin r a t e p l o t s and ozone d a t a

i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e assumption of a f i x e d spin a x i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s i n v a l i d f o r
A r i e l 11. For t h i s reason it i s f e l t t h a t a necessary i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n Phase

I1 will d e a l with t h i s orientation problem.


The time p l o t of s o l a r aspect angle, when obtained by various measurements and c a l c u l a t i o n s , w i l l be compared with t h e comparable p l o t of solar aspect

41

angle f o r t h e assumed f i x e d spin d s orientation.

I n addition, t h e time p l o t

of a c t u a l vehicle s p i n r a t e obtained from t h e data, w i l l be compared with pred i c t e d performance.


Phase I1 of t h e program as it p e r t a i n s t o power system performance

i s n e a r l y accomplished when t h e Phase I p l o t s are complete inasmuch as l i t t l e

analysis i s required t o i n f e r performance from a v a i l a b l e d a t a as i s t h e case


with dynamical performance.

It may develop, however, t h a t a graphical analysis

of power system operation i n terms of s o l a r current, b a t t e r y current and dumped


current i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n providing a c l e a r e r i n s i g h t i n t o system operation.
Phase I1 in t h e t h e r m a l performance area w i l l c o n s i s t of reviewing
combinations of graphs o f :

(1) both ozone temperatures


(2)

spectrometer and upper shelf temperatures

(3) lower shelf and b a t t e r y temperatures


I

(4) spectrometer A and lower shelf temperatures


The purpose here i s t o a f f o r a some i n a i c a i i u n oi

LiioL-uie

--.-2 --I6AauI~IIvu

i n t h e s a t e l l i t e s o t h a t t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e of Ariel I1 thermal performance

will be evident.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The a v a i l a b l e d a t a i s inadequate f o r complete a n a l y s i s of t h e A r i e l

I1 performance on two major counts.

F i r s t , t h e d a t a on t h e first 10 o r b i t s

has t o o many gaps t o provide a good b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e character of


thermal s t a b i l i z a t i o n .

Secondly, i n d i r e c t methods must be employed t o infer

s p i n a x i s t o sunline angle.

The f i r s t case i s t h e r e s u l t of not recording

a v a i l a b l e s a t e l l i t e transmission a t every s t a t i o n pass on t h e first 10 o r b i t s .


O f course, t h e post launch evaluation and i t s s p e c i f i c goals were not anticipated

42

o r provided f o r i n what was primarily t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of experimental data.


On t h e second count, it i s seen t h a t t h e lack of d i r e c t d a t a i s t h e r e s u l t of

not placing solar aspect sensors on t h e S-52, but here again, such instrumentation had no function i n t h e fundamental experimental purpose of t h e
spacecraft.
I n s p i t e of t h e d a t a d e f i c i e n c i e s it appears t h a t u s e f u l hypotheses
may be advanced and t o some extent proved as a r e s u l t of a n a l y t i c a l study of
Phase I p l o t s .

Phases I1 and I11 w i l l proceed immediately and will be reported.

43

APPENDIX I

Proposal
for

ARIEL I1 INTERNATIONAL SATELLITE

Post Launch Evaluation


Negotiation 50160-2
21 September 1964

Presented to

GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER


National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Greenbelt, Maryland

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION

1625 K S t r e e t , N. W.
Washington 6, D. C.

I-i

Proposal f o r Conductinn t h e ARIEL I1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l


Sat e l l i t e Post Launch Evaluation

I.

INTRODUCTION
This proposal describes t h e data reduction, d a t a analysis, and t h e o r e t i c a l

review of t h e ARlEL I1 telemetered f u g h t results.

In accordance with t h e

statement of work which has been prepared f o r t h i s program by GSFC t h e


objectives have been considered in two categories.

They are:

1. Primary Objectives

2.

a.

The unexpectedly rapid decrease in s a t e l l i t e s p i n rate.

b.

The s a t e l l i t e spin aXis/sun l b e angle variation.

C.

Power system performance analysis.

Secondary Objectives
a.

S a t e l l i t e thermal behavior.

b.

Analysis of other subsystem perforname as derived from t e l e -

- .L -.._
_I
2-AI U G k G A G U UCLVU.

Westinghouse, as t h e o r i g i n a l prime contractor t o Goddard Space F l i g h t Center


on t h i s s a t e l l i t e program, i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o perform t h i s work.

Key

personnel assigned will be drawn from former contributors t o t h e design and


i n t e g r a t i o n e f f o r t conducted on t h e prototype and f l i g h t satellites of t h e
Westinghouse &IEL I1 program.

11.

PIZCGRAX DESCRIPTION
The b a s i c d a t a source f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n will be o r b i t a l d a t a p r i n t -

o u t s supplied by t h e Goddard Space F l i g h t Center Program Office.

These p r i n t -

o u t s contain u n i v e r s a l time information and l o c a t i o n of t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n

as w e l l as telemetry frequencies.

The Frogram Office w i l l a l s o supply required

ephemeral information, and W i l l make a v a i l a b l e such d a t a as has already been


reduced.

The program objectives w 5 1 1 be pursued in a t h r e e phase d i v i s i o n of e f f o r t


as described in t h e following paragraphs.
Phase I
Using GSFC d i g i t i z e d d a t a printouts, convert t h e performance parameter

words t o engineering u n i t s and plot as appropriate f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r para-

meter being observed (graphs, charts, curves, etc.) as d i r e c t e d by t h e ARIEL

I1 P r o j e c t Manager.
Phase I1
The second phase will be t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a c t u a l spacecraft performance.
Using information derived f r m Phase I, prepare a r e p o r t showing by use of
curves, c h a r t s o r t a b l e s t h e a c t u a l s p a c r c r a f t performance as compared t o
prelaunch predictions.
Phase I11
Phase I11 ell c o n s i s t of an e f f o r t t o aeveiop i n a u r a i i c a l
defining t h e departure of a c t u a l spacecraft performance from prelaunch predictions.

An engineering r e p o r t dll be prepared on t h e information developed

during Phase I11 and including information previously developed in Phase I, 11.
Phase I
During Phase I e f f o r t s t h e data coordinates w i l l be p l o t t e d f o r s h o r t

intervals taken at an internal-to-interval

rate of change of t h e variable in question.

spacing d i c t a t e d by t h e indicated
For example, in t h e case of t h e

IROD d a t a it i s suggested t h a t one-minute i n t e r v a l s w i l l be p l o t t e d with an


average i n t e r v a l spacing of one week.

These preliminary choices have been made

in consideration of t h e anticipated u t i l i t y of t h e data, which i s t h e i n d i c a t i o n

of spin rate.

If t h e r a t e of change of s p i n r t e f o r a given weekly interval

seems high, o r i f p a r t i c u l a r o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e s appear t o be of major interest,


a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s w i l l be picked up.
shallow, weekly points m a y be skipped.

Conversely, if t h e rate of change is


The a t t e n t i o n given t h e problem of

how much d a t a t o p l o t is v i t a l t o an economical performance of t h e program.


The i n t e r v a l s p l o t t e d w i l l be as widespread as possible and t h e d a t a p l o t t e d
per i n t e r v a l w i l l be minimized.

Data checkpoints w i l l be taken from t h e delayed read-out micrometeorite


experiment f o r a d d i t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e IROD d a t a conclusions.
Ozone spectrometer d a t a w i l l be p l o t t e d i n s i m i l a r fashion t o t h a t from
t h e micrometeorite experiments.

Somewhat longer i n t e r v a l s may be chosen f o r

t h i s d a t a inasmuch as modulation caused by coning w i l l be sought f o r in addit i o n t o t h a t caused by s a t e l l i t e spin.

It i s a l s o hoped t h a t under c e r t a i n

conditions t h e aspect angle o f t h e sun l i n e versus t h e s a t e l l i t e s p i n axis can


be deduced from t h i s data.

It i s understood t h a t broadband ozone scanner has sone aspeci

YenaiiiviLy

s o t h a t modulation of i t s output can be r e l a t e d t o coning; t h e r e f o r e , it i s


a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s d a t a would be p l o t t e d t o a schedule s i m i l a r t o t h a t of
t h e micrometeorite experiments.
The g a l a c t i c n o i s e d a t a i s not expected t o be u s e f u l i n connection with
t h i s evaluation program and w i l l not be plotted.
Ground r e c e i v e r AGC may prove t o be of value, ef it i s a v a i l a b l e , from
t h e standpoint of telemetry antenna aspect angle change.

This may prove t o

be redundant information, however, and d e f i n i t e conclusions as t o t h e advis-

a b i l i t y of using it will be deferred u n t i l a c t u a l d a t a reduction commences.

Thermistor

d a t a Nil1 be plotted on a schedule t o be developed on t h e

b a s i s of t h e observed r a t e s of change.

The thermal p a t t e r n f o r an orbit w i l l

be e s t a b l i s h e d and then redetermined a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of a number of o r b i t s .


S i m i l a r considerations apply t o power system data, which Will be u s e f u l f o r
t h e secondary objective (b), and also f o r t h e primary o b j e c t i v e s ( a ) , (b),

and perhaps even (c).


Phase I1
Phase I1 a s applied t o t h e dynamical s a t e l l i t e behavior primary o b j e c t i v e s
(a) and (b) will involve surveying t h e reduced d a t a from Phase I and checking
f o r c o r r e l a t i o n between it and GSFC conclusions previously drawn about spacec r a f t behavior.

Attempts w i l l be made t o support conclusions about spacecraft

performance by means of more than one d a t a i n p u t wherever p o s s i b l e but exhaustive c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l not be c a r r i e d out.

Phase I1 will be more c l e a r -

cut i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e remaining objectives and w i l l amount t o a t a s k of


concise d a t a presentation.

It should be noted, however, t h a t f o r performance

of Phase I1 in t h e a r e a of secondary objective ( a ) a r e v i e w of t h e

ARIEL I1

t h e r m a l a n a l y s i s done by GSFC w i l l be required before comparison can be drawn

between predicted and a c t u a l performance.


Phase I11
Phase I11 as applied t o primary objectives ( a ) and (b) will consist of
checking hypotheses which have been advanced by GSFC.

For example preliminary

consideration of t h e despin question has l e d t o t h e hypothesis t h a t t h e ARIEL


I1 can be likened t o an ~ * af l ol w f a n on which a v e l o c i t y component along t h e
f

s p i n axis will manifest itself i n a torque about t h e s p i n a x i s .

To check such

a hypothesis r e q u i r e s c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e a c t u a l performance with t h a t predicted


by a computation based on t h e hypothesis.

Comparisons a r e necessary in terms

of magnitudes, frequencies, and phase angles of t h e functions where appEcable.


Only t h e most l i k e l y hypotheses W i l l be examined.
The ARIEL I1 power system analysis w i l l include comparing t h e a c t u a l sys-

tem o p e r a t h g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y predicted performance.

The

areas which it i s proposed t o be s p e c i f i c a l l y investigated are:

1. Anomalous behavior of t h e s o l a r paddle current, t h e regulated +12


v o l t bus and t h e regulated +15 v o l t bus.
2.

Battery voltage a s a function of b a t t e r y current and b a t t e r y t a p e r a t u r e .

3.

S o l a r paddle current-time p r o f i l e c o r r e l a t e d with t h e sun l i n e a x i s

and s p i n r a t e .

4.

Regulated bus goltages as a function of environmental conditions

(temperature, load, t h e ) .
The purpose of i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e anomalous behavior cf t h e power system

i s t o determine whether o r not a f a u l t did occur, and i f so, what t h e most


probable f a i l u r e was.
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e b a t t e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l attempt t o r e l a t e
t h e predicted b a t t e r y voltage a s a f u z t i o n of time wTth t h e a c t u a l performance.
include d e t e m h h g whether o r not t h e redundant
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n ~517.
b a t t e r y charge was used, an estimate of t h e maximum b a t t e r y discharge l e v e l ,

and t h e b a t t e r y charge efficiency.

These d a t a would be compared t o t h e cal-

c u l a t ed b a t t e r y operat Son.
Information on t h e available s o l a r c e l l power p r o f i l e
check t h e assumed solar c e l l e f f i c i e n c y and aspect r a t i o .
*

s o l a r cell degradation w i t h t j m e w i l l be determined.

h5ll

be used t o

In addition t h e

Data regarding a c t u a l

s o l a r c e l l degradation w i l l be q u i t s u s f u l h predicting f u t u r e s o l a r paddle


requirements e

The purpose of determining the v a r i a t i o n i n regulated bus voltage i s t o


compare a c t u a l r e g u l a t i o n w i t h t h a t expected from t h e acceptance t e s t data.

An a t t m p t will be made t o explain unexpected v a r i a t i o n s in regulated bus


voltage i n order t o improve regulator p r e c i s i o n in future applications.

111.

scmm
The proposed schedule of e f f o r t i s shown in Figure 111-1, inmonths from

go-ahead.

Changes i n t h i s schedule, and in s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n of i n v e s t i g a t i o n

taken, may be d e s i r a b l e from time t o t h e .

Such changes, a s long a s they are

within t h e scope of t h e t o t a l effort and cost, may be d i r e c t e d at any time by


t h e Goddard Space F l i g h t Center Program Manager.

Westinghouse will f u r t h e r be

pleased t o n e g c t i a t e changes in t h e scope of work at t h e pleasure of t h e

Program O f f i c e .

IV. REPORTS
Monthly r e p o r t s describing the s t a t u s of progress on t h e program w i l l be
prepared i n accordance with Specification TD-S-100, Argust, 1962, Type I with
t h e exception t h a t point ( c ) of paragraph 3.1 i s regarded as n o t appucaDie.
This i s a reference t o t h e Ecnievement of r e l i a b i l i t y .
A monthly f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t prepared i n t h e format of NASA from 7-16 w i l l

be prepared and submitted at t h e same time a s each monthly Type I, TD-S-100


report.

In addition t o t h e monthly reports, Phase r e p o r t s w i l l be submitted upon


t h e completion of each phase.

The Phase IT1 r e p o r t will be prepared as a f i n a l

r e p o r t and will contain a s m a r y of t h e e n t i r e program.

A s d i r e c t e d by t h e

Mark Statement rough drafts of the phase r e p o r t s W i l l be submitted t o t h e

ARIEL I1 Project Office f o r approval p r i o r t o p r i n t i n g .

v.

PrnSOmEL
The key personnel designated f o r t h e ARIEL I1 post launch evaluation are

l i s t e d below.

The s p e c i a l a r e a i n which each w511work i s given along with a

statement of t h e i r applicable qualifications.


Ralph I. Hauser, Fellow Engineer. Mechanical Design and Developnent
Engineering Section
I"*.

Hauser W i l l coordinate t h e program and a l s o Will p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e

dynamical analyses.
cation.

H i s experience includes 10 years of gyro design and appli-

H s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e ARIEL I1 work at Westinghouse i n t h e area

of design i n e r t i a control.
Frank C. Rushing, Advisory

EnR ineer , Equipnent

rnineering P r o j e c t

14r. Rushing w i l l contribute t o t h e dynamical analysis.

H i s 36-yeas career

as an engineer includes experience i n dynamics of machinery.

He holds 13

p a t e n t s r e l a t i n g t o v i b r a t i o n and balancing machinery and has been studying


a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l of s a t e l l i t e s f o r t h e p a s t year.
Arthur Simmons, Engineer, Analysis and Control Section

I%. Simmons has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n design study contracts on s a t e l l i t e i n e r t i a l


c o n t r o l mechanisms and on a n t i m i s s i l e s s a t e l l i t e studies.

H e w 5 l l work in t h e

area of ARIEL I1 Dynamical behavior.


Henry B. Airth, Jr., Senior - b e e r ,
I!>.

Magnetic Devices Section

Airth had design r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in t h e regulated power supplies f o r t h e

ARIEL I1 power system and d1l analyze power system performance.

N. Keith Stahlman, Ergineer", Data Acquisttion Section

KD.

S t a h h a n has performed mathematical a n a l y s i s of d a t a gathered from

e l e c t r o n i c systems.

He has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f n t e r p r e t a t i o n of water v e l o c i t y

and i n e r t i a l i n s t m - e n t d a t a t o describe dynamical behavior of submarines,


c o n t r i b u t i o n Will be 5n t h e area of d a t a reduction and c o r r e l a t i o n .

1-7

His

APPENDIX I1

DATA PRESENTATION PIAN

11-i

DATA PRESENTATION PLAN


The f i n a l product of t h e Phase I e f f o r t w i l l be t h r e e sets of graphs
t o be used i n t h e Phase I1 and Phase 111 studies.

Copies of t h e graphs w
n
i

be submitted t o t h e Ariel I1 program coordinator i n t h e Phase I f i n a l report.


The t h r e e sets of graphs are:

a.

Each graph w i l l contain one parameter only

Single Orbit Graphs.

and w i l l be p l o t t e d over an i n t e r v a l from an a r b i t r a r y 0 t o 100 minutes.


Table I lists t h e parameters f o r which graphs w i l l be made.

l.4 are sample graphs of a c t u a l data.

Figures 1 through

Each graph W i l l be p l o t t e d on t r a c i n g

paper, w i t h l i k e time s c a l e s , s o t h a t s e v e r a l may be overlaid on a l i g h t t a b l e


f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes.

These graphs will be constructed with d a t a p r i n c i p a l l y

from o r b i t s 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and t h e weekly o r b i t s (b from paragraph 1). The


performance parameters will be read a t 5 minute i n t e r v a l s , except f o r t h e
c u r r e n t s modulated by t h e s a t e l l i t e spin.

I n these cases, maximum and minimum

values will be read every 5 minutes from approxjmately 30 second i n t e r v a l s about


t h e 5 minute point.

Also, on these graphs, s e v e r a l cycles of t h e s i g n a l will

be p l o t t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e modulation of t h e signal.
b.

XX)-Day Graphs.

The p r i n c i p a l inputs of t h e s e graphs w i l l be

average values read from t h e graphs from paragraph (a) above.


p o i n t s may be f i l l e d i n using Blossom Point data,
show l a r g e s c a l e trends.
a day.

Where necessary,

These graphs will be used t o

For t h i s reason, t h e time s c a l e w i l l be no f i n e r than

Graphs will be made f o r t h e same parameters as above (Table I).

Ordinates w i l l agree f o r l i k e parameters.

Figure 15 i s a sample p l o t of assumed

data.
c.

S p e c i a l Purpose Graphs.

be made:

11-1

A number of s p e c i a l purpose graphs w i l l

(1) A graph of t h e f i r s t t e n o r b i t s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e thermal s t a b i l i zation of t h e s a t e l l i t e .

It will include t h e eight temperatures monitored,

aspect angle, and periods of sunlight and darkness.

(2)

Graphs showing combinations of thermistor data.

The follow-

ing combinations will be studied:


(a)

both ozone temperatures

(b)

spectrometer A and upper deck temperatures

(c)

lower deck and battery temperatures

(d)

spectrometer A and lower deck temperatures

Graphs will be p l o t t e d f o r t h e day of maximum sunlight, t h e day


of minimum sunlight, t h e h o t t e s t day, and t h e coldest day.

( 3 ) Graphs necessary t o show t y p i c a l experiment responses t o changing conditions.

These Will include:


(a)

Ozone Plots.

Ozone spectrometer graphs showing a sunset

and a s u n r i s e from t h e first week of f l i g h t .

Additional ozone spectrometer graphs

over t h e 200-day graphs showing a sunset, a sunrisB, ana a lull suniignt perioa.
(b)

Micromsteorite P l o t s .

Micrometeorite graphs over t h e 200-

(c)

Galactic Noise P l o t s .

Galactic noise graphs over t h e 200-

day period.

day period from t h e s when t h e s a t e l l i t e was a t apogee and perigee and at intere s t i n g p o i n t s shown with respect t o apogee and perigee.
graph from an e n t i r e 100 minute o r b i t .

One g a l a c t i c noise

TABLE I
PAF?AJETERS FOR SINGU ORBIT

AND 190-DAY GRAPHS

Uses
P.P.
No.

Parameter

1-

Spin rate

4-

02 Temp. 1, Eon. Cell

OZ Temp. 2, OZ C e l l

OZ Temp.

+15 v

Tape Rec. Temp.

Dumped Current

Unreg. Bus

-3

12 v

Solar Current

2
2

. Current

3 , Spect. A

Thermal Behavior

10

Batt

11

Batt. A Temp.

2 9

It

12

Paddle 4 Tenp.

2 9

13

Upper Shelf Temp.

u,

Lower Shelf Temp.

19

$ Sunlight/Time i n
and out of sunlight

L4

Spin r a t e

1,

Sun Angle

Remarks

- s p i n axis/sun
j - Power supply
2

2 9

2 9

2 9

Obtained from world


maps. S t r a i g h t l i n e s
f o r s i n g l e o r b i t graphs.

94

1
I

Obtained from ozone


and/or micrometeorite
experiments
e