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IEA

STATISTICS

COAL

INFORMATION

2011

International
Energy Agency

COAL

INFORMATION

2011
with 2010 data

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY


The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November1974.
Its primary mandate was and is two-fold: to promote energy security amongst its member
countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative
research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member
countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among
its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports.
The Agencys aims include the following objectives:
n Secure member countries access to reliable and ample supplies of all forms of energy; in particular,
through maintaining effective emergency response capabilities in case of oil supply disruptions.
n Promote sustainable energy policies that spur economic growth and environmental protection
in a global context particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions that contribute
to climate change.
n Improve transparency of international markets through collection and analysis of
energy data.
n Support global collaboration on energy technology to secure future energy supplies
and mitigate their environmental impact, including through improved energy
efficiency and development and deployment of low-carbon technologies.
n Find solutions to global energy challenges through engagement and
dialogue with non-member countries, industry, international
organisations and other stakeholders.

OECD/IEA, 2011
International Energy Agency
9 rue de la Fdration
75739 Paris Cedex 15, France

www.iea.org

IEA member countries:


Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea (Republic of)
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

Please note that this publication


is subject to specific restrictions
that limit its use and distribution.
The terms and conditions are available
online at www.iea.org/about/copyright.asp

The European Commission


also participates in
the work of the IEA.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... I.9
2. Definitions ............................................................................................................................................... I.11

Energy sources ................................................................................................................................................. I.11


Flows: energy balance...I.13
Units and conversions ....................................................................................................................................... I.16
3. Sources and notes .................................................................................................................................. I.17

General notes .................................................................................................................................................... I.17


Price data .......................................................................................................................................................... I.17
Quarterly energy statistics ................................................................................................................................ I.19
Data sources ...................................................................................................................................................... I.19
4. Country notes .......................................................................................................................................... I.21
5. Geographical coverage .......................................................................................................................... I.29
6. Abbreviations, conversion factors and calorific values ..................................................................... I.31

PART II: WORLD COAL OVERVIEW


1. Summary ................................................................................................................................................... II.3
2. Production ................................................................................................................................................ II.3
3. Consumption ............................................................................................................................................ II.6
4. Trade ......................................................................................................................................................... II.8
5. CO2 emissions (2008) ............................................................................................................................ II.14
6. Efficiency Outlook for Power Generation from Coal:
[An extract from an IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) Report] ........................................... II.17

PART III: WORLD COAL OVERVIEW


1. Production

Table 1.1:
Table 1.2:
Table 1.3:
Table 1.4:
Table 1.5:

World hard coal production ......................................................................................................... III.5


World coking coal production ...................................................................................................... III.7
World steam coal production........................................................................................................ III.8
World brown coal production ..................................................................................................... III.10
OECD production of coke oven coke ......................................................................................... III.12

2. Consumption

Table 2.1:
Table 2.2:
Table 2.3:
Table 2.4:
Table 2.5:
Table 2.6:

World hard coal consumption..................................................................................................... III.15


World coking coal consumption ................................................................................................. III.18
World steam coal consumption .................................................................................................. III.20
World brown coal consumption ................................................................................................. III.23
OECD consumption of coke oven coke...................................................................................... III.25
Key energy and CO2 emissions data for OECD countries (2009) .............................................. III.26
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.4 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

3. Trade

Table 3.1: World and seaborne coal trade ................................................................................................... III.29


Table 3.2: World total hard coal trade ......................................................................................................... III.29
Table 3.3: World steam coal trade ............................................................................................................... III.30
Table 3.4: World coking coal trade ............................................................................................................. III.30
Table 3.5: World hard coal imports - regional aggregates........................................................................... III.31
Table 3.6: World brown coal imports - regional aggregates ....................................................................... III.31
Table 3.7: World hard coal imports - selected countries ............................................................................. III.32
Table 3.8: World brown coal imports - selected countries .......................................................................... III.32
Table 3.9: World coking coal imports - regional aggregates ....................................................................... III.33
Table 3.10: World steam coal imports - regional aggregates ........................................................................ III.33
Table 3.11: World coking coal imports - selected countries.......................................................................... III.34
Table 3.12: World steam coal imports - selected countries ........................................................................... III.34
Table 3.13: OECD coke oven coke imports ................................................................................................. III.35
Table 3.14: World hard coal exports - regional aggregates .......................................................................... III.36
Table 3.15: World brown coal exports - regional aggregates ........................................................................ III.36
Table 3.16: World hard coal exports - selected countries .............................................................................. III.37
Table 3.17: World brown coal exports - selected countries........................................................................... III.37
Table 3.18: World coking coal exports - regional aggregates ....................................................................... III.38
Table 3.19: World steam coal exports - regional aggregates ......................................................................... III.38
Table 3.20: World coking coal exports - selected countries .......................................................................... III.39
Table 3.21: World steam coal exports - selected countries ........................................................................... III.39
Table 3.22: OECD coke oven coke exports .................................................................................................. III.40
4. Prices

Table 4.1:
Table 4.2:
Table 4.3:
Table 4.4:
Table 4.5:
Table 4.6:
Table 4.7:
Table 4.8:
Table 4.9:

Japan coking coal import costs ................................................................................................... III.43


EU coking coal import costs from selected countries................................................................. III.43
Japan steam coal import costs ................................................................................................... III.44
EU steam coal import costs from selected countries .................................................................. III.44
Steam coal export costs .............................................................................................................. III.45
Coking coal export costs ............................................................................................................ III.45
Coking coal prices for industry .................................................................................................. III.46
Steam coal prices for industry .................................................................................................... III.47
Steam coal prices for electricity generation................................................................................ III.48

5. Coal for other uses

Table 5.1:
Table 5.2:
Table 5.3:
Table 5.4:

OECD coal-fired and total electricity generating capacity ......................................................... III.51


OECD coal and peat use for electricity production and heat sold .............................................. III.52
OECD coal use in coke ovens .................................................................................................... III.53
World consumption of pulverised coal injection (PCI) coals ..................................................... III.53

6. Figures

Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:
Figure 9:
Figure 10:
Figure 11:
Figure 12:
Figure 13:
Figure 14:

World steam and coking coal production ................................................................................... III.57


World steam and coking coal trade ............................................................................................ III.57
Coking coal price CIF Japan and CIF EU member states (US$/t) ............................................. III.58
Steam coal price CIF Japan and CIF EU member states (US$/t) ............................................... III.58
Steam coal price US FOB vs. US domestic (US$/t) ................................................................... III.59
Steam coal price CIF EU member states (US$/t) and US exports (mt) ...................................... III.59
OECD total primary energy supply ............................................................................................ III.60
OECD coal consumption and indicators..................................................................................... III.60
Japan steam coal supply, imports, GDP annual growth rates ..................................................... III.61
EU member states steam coal supply, imports, GDP annual growth rates ................................. III.61
Hard coal production by region .................................................................................................. III.62
Hard coal consumption by region ............................................................................................... III.62
Hard coal imports by region ....................................................................................................... III.63
Hard coal exports by region........................................................................................................ III.63

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.5

PART IV: DETAILED OECD COAL DATA


Directory of part IV figures and tables ............. IV.3
OECD Total .......................................................... IV.5
OECD Americas.................................................. IV.15
OECD Asia Oceania ........................................... IV.24
OECD Europe ..................................................... IV.33
IEA Total............................................................. IV.43
IEA Americas ...................................................... IV.52
IEA Asia Oceania.................................................IV.61
IEA Europe.......................................................... IV.70
Australia .............................................................. IV.79
Austria ................................................................. IV.88
Belgium ............................................................... IV.96
Canada ............................................................... IV.105
Chile .................................................................. IV.114
Czech Republic ................................................. IV.122
Denmark ............................................................ IV.131
Estonia................................................................IV.140
Finland .............................................................. IV.148
France ................................................................ IV.156
Germany ............................................................ IV.165
Greece ............................................................... IV.175

Hungary ............................................................. IV.183


Iceland ............................................................... IV.190
Ireland ................................................................ IV.197
Israel .................................................................. IV.205
Italy .................................................................... IV.212
Japan .................................................................. IV.220
Korea ................................................................. IV.228
Luxembourg ...................................................... IV.236
Mexico ............................................................... IV.243
Netherlands ........................................................ IV.250
New Zealand ...................................................... IV.260
Norway .............................................................. IV.269
Poland ................................................................ IV.277
Portugal.............................................................. IV.286
Slovak Republic................................................. IV.294
Slovenia..............................................................IV.301
Spain .................................................................. IV.311
Sweden .............................................................. IV.319
Switzerland ........................................................ IV.327
Turkey................................................................ IV.334
United Kingdom ................................................ IV.341
United States ...................................................... IV.350

PART V: NON-OECD COAL DATA


General notes .........................................................V.3
World coal supply and end-use statistics 1980,
1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2007 to 2009... ....V.5
National coal balances and trade statistics:
Brazil .....................................................................V.14
Bulgaria .................................................................V.16
China, Peoples Republic of ..................................V.18
Chinese Taipei.......................................................V.22

Colombia .............................................................. V.24


Hong Kong, China ................................................ V.27
India ...................................................................... V.29
Indonesia............................................................... V.31
Kazakhstan ........................................................... V.34
Romania ................................................................ V.38
Russian Federation ............................................... V.40
South Africa.......................................................... V.43
Ukraine ................................................................. V.46
Venezuela ............................................................. V.50
Vietnam ................................................................ V.52

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.7

PART I
INTRODUCTION

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.9

1. INTRODUCTION
IEA Coal Information 2011 is the latest edition of an
annual publication intended to provide sound market
information on coal to policy and market analysts and
those employed in all sectors of the coal industry.
This monitoring and reporting of historical trends and
current energy market situation provides a strong
foundation for policy and market analysis to better
inform the policy decision process toward selecting
policy instruments that are best suited to meet domestic and/or international objectives.
IEA Coal Information 2011 brings together in one
volume the basic statistics compiled by the IEA on
coal supply, consumption, trade and prices. It also
includes information on coal by-products.
Part I provides important documentation that will assist the reader in correctly using the data in this publication and to understand the details of the statistical
methodology and collection practices related to the
coal data.
Part II of the publication provides a review of world
coal market developments in 2010. It covers world
coal production and coal reserves, coal consumption
by type (hard, steam, coking), hard coal trade and
prices.
Part III provides the reference tables to the Part II review on coal production, consumption, trade and
prices.
Part IV provides, in tabular and graphic form, a more
detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal
developments in the 34 OECD member countries, by
region and individually. In addition, calorific values
used for preparing national energy balances and exchange rates used for the reporting of prices in US
dollars are presented.
Part V provides for selected non-OECD countries
summary statistics on hard coal supply and end-use
statistics for about 40 countries and regions

worldwide. Complete coal balances and coal trade


data for selected years are presented for 15 major nonOECD coal-producing and consuming countries.
OECD data are taken from IEA/OECD databases of
Energy Statistics that are based on annual and quarterly submissions from OECD Member countries to
the Secretariat. The Energy Statistics Division of the
IEA Secretariat works closely with national administration to secure consistency in all time series with
particular regard for IEA product definitions and reporting conventions. This effort is supplemented by
surveys of energy industry publications, national statistics reports and other material. The finalized data
provide the basis for IEA/OECD Energy Balances of
OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD
Countries.
The non-OECD data are based upon information
collected by the IEA Secretariat, official national
submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and
New York, and national energy publications. The
resulting synthesis is published in Energy Balances of
Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of NonOECD Countries. Users of this publication are
directed to the Methodology Section of those
publications for more detail on individual nonMember countries covered in the publication.
Price data in Parts II, III and IV are derived from the
quarterly publication Energy Prices and Taxes. Readers should consult this IEA/OECD publication for
detailed information on methodology, data coverage
and data sources.
OECD coal balances and statistics, including itemized
import and export data, are available on a CD-ROM,
along with world supply data. Information on ordering
the CD-ROM and other energy statistics publications
is available at the end of this book and on the IEA
website at www.iea.org.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.10 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

In addition, a data service is available on the internet,


which provides unlimited access through an annual
subscription, as well as the possibility to obtain data
on a pay-per-view basis. Details are available at
http://data.iea.org.
Further information on reporting methodologies is
also available on the IEA Web site.
Annual energy data are collected by the Energy Statistics Division (ESD) of the IEA Secretariat, headed by
Mr. Jean-Yves Garnier. The IEA would like to thank
and acknowledge the dedication and professionalism
of the statisticians working on energy data in the
countries. OECD coal statistics in the ESD were the
responsibility of Mr. Tomasz Tru. Ms. Rachael
Hackney and Mr. Frdric Genest contributed to
Part II, Part III and Part V and Mr. Julian Smith contributed to all Parts of the book. Mr. Robert Schnapp
had overall responsibility for this publication.

Also in the IEA Secretariat, thanks are due to the


non-OECD Member countries section headed by
Mr. Pierre Boileau and to the OECD Balances section
headed by Ms. Karen Tranton.
Editorial and desktop publishing support from Ms. Sharon
Burghgraeve is also gratefully acknowledged.
Enquiries, comments and suggestions are welcome
and should be addressed to:
Robert Schnapp or Tomasz Tru
Energy Statistics Division,
International Energy Agency
9, rue de la Fdration
75739 Paris Cedex 15
France
Telephone: (33) (1) 40 57 66 31 or 40 57 65 41
Telefax:
(33) (1) 40 57 66 49
E-mail:
coalaq@iea.org

Whats New?
Starting with this years edition, the countries Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which joined the OECD in
2010, have been incorporated into this publication. All are included in OECD totals. The regional aggregate
OECD North America has been changed to OECD Americas and now includes Chile. OECD Pacific has been
changed to OECD Asia Oceania and now includes Israel. OECD Europe now includes Estonia and Slovenia
starting in 1990. Prior to 1990, data for Estonia are included in Former Soviet Union and data for Slovenia in
Former Yugoslavia in the publication Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Following the inclusion of
Estonia and Slovenia in OECD totals, the regions Former Soviet Union and Non-OECD Europe were merged
and renamed Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia. This new regional aggregate includes data for Former Soviet
Union and for Former Yugoslavia prior to 1990.
The IEA is currently working with a group of 24 international organisations that collect or use energy statistics.
The purpose of this group, called InterEnerStat, is to improve the quality of energy data and reduce the reporting burden by harmonising definitions for energy sources and flows. As a result of this work, the IEA will now
include gas works gas with coal instead of including it with natural gas.
In line with the InterEnerStat work, the IEA has also made some small changes in the terminology that do not
affect the definitions. A few examples include:
combustible renewables and waste becomes biofuels and waste
solid biomass becomes solid biofuels
liquid biomass becomes liquid biofuels
biogas becomes biogases

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.11

2. DEFINITIONS
Energy sources
Coal
Coal is a family name for a variety of solid organic
fuels and refers to a whole range of combustible
sedimentary rock materials spanning a continuous
quality scale. For convenience, this continuous series
is often divided into two main categories, which are
themselves divided into two subcategories:
Hard coal
Anthracite
Bituminous coal
- Coking coal
- Other bituminous coal
Brown coal
Sub-bituminous coal
Lignite
In cases where data are presented in Mtoe or Mtce in
this book and sourced to OECD/IEA Energy Balances, the term Coal includes all primary coal types
(including hard coal and brown coal) and coal products (including patent fuel, coke oven coke, gas coke,
coal tar, BKB, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast
furnace gas, and oxygen steel furnace gas).
Classifying different types of coal into practical categories for use at an international level is difficult for
two reasons:
Divisions between coal categories vary between classification systems, both national and international,
based on calorific value, volatile matter content, fixed
carbon content, caking and coking properties, or some
combination of two or more of these criteria.
Although the relative value of the coals within a particular category depends on the degree of dilution by
moisture and ash and contamination by sulphur,

chlorine, phosphorous and certain trace elements, these


factors do not affect the divisions between categories.
Coal quality can vary and it is not always possible to
ensure that the available descriptive and analytical
information is truly representative of the body of coal
to which it refers.
The International Coal Classification of the Economic
Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) recognises two
broad categories of coal:
i) Hard coal - Coal of gross calorific value not less
than 5 700 kcal/kg (23.9 GJ/t) on an ash-free but
moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of
vitrinite of at least 0.6.
ii) Brown coal - Non-agglomerating coal with a gross
calorific value less than 5 700 kcal/kg (23.9 GJ/t)
containing more than 31 per cent volatile matter on
a dry mineral matter free basis.
The IEA has adopted these definitions of hard coal
and brown coal in this book and in other publications
for presenting statistics relating to coal production,
trade and consumption.
It should be stressed that this classification system is
based on the inherent qualities of the coal in question
and not on the final use of the coal. In this way the
classification system attempts to be objective and
simple to apply.
Primary coal used in pulverised (or granular) coal
injection in blast furnaces is commonly abbreviated to
PCI (or GCI) coal. (In this book PCI includes GCI).
The IEA does not have a separate category for PCI as
the term defines a particular end-use for coal. In IEA
statistics, PCI is included in steam coal, except for
Japan, where it is included with coking coal.
Data presented in this book may be different from that
presented in the national publications of individual
countries because the countries may have adopted a
different coal classification and reporting system that
better suits their particular national needs. As far as
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.12 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

possible, national coal statistics reported by the IEA in


this book and in other publications have been adjusted
to be consistent with the IEA definitions noted above.
Furthermore, in order to improve the information base
for coal market analysis and projections, these two
categories of coal have been further sub-divided in
IEA/OECD Coal Statistics from 1978 as follows:

Hard coal
Hard coal is calculated as the sum of anthracite and
bituminous coal.
Anthracite is a high-rank, hard coal used mainly
for industrial and residential heat raising.
Bituminous coal is a medium-rank coal used for
industrial coking and heat raising and residential
heat raising. Bituminous coal that can be used in
the production of a coke capable of supporting a
blast furnace charge is known as coking coal.
Other bituminous coal, not included under coking
coal, is also commonly known as thermal or steam
coal. Also included are recovered slurries, middlings and other low-grade coal products not further classified by type.
Note that for the following countries, bituminous coal
also includes sub-bituminous coal: Australia, Belgium, Chile, Finland, France, Iceland, Japan, Korea,
Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United States.
Except for these 12 countries, steam coal for all other
countries in the world is equivalent to the sum of anthracite and other bituminous coal.

Brown coal
Brown coal is calculated as the sum of subbituminous coal and lignite. Oil shale mined and
combusted directly is also currently reported as lignite. (Shale oil is reported as other hydrocarbons.)
Sub-bituminous coal: non-agglomerating coals
with a gross calorific value between 4 165 kcal/kg
(17.4 GJ/t) and 5 700 kcal/kg (23.9 GJ/t) on an
ash-free but moist basis.
Lignite: non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value less than 4 165 kcal/kg (17.4 GJ/t) on
an ash-free but moist basis.
Note that for 12 countries, (listed above) subbituminous coal is included in bituminous coal and
not brown coal.

Coal products
Derived solid fuels are products resulting from the
transformation or manufacturing of hard coal, brown
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

coal or other primary solid fuels, sometimes with the


addition of other materials.

Coke oven coke


Coke oven coke is the solid product obtained from the
carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high
temperature. Semi-coke, the solid product obtained
from the carbonisation of coal at low temperature, is
also included along with coke and semi-coke made
from lignite.

Gas coke
Gas coke is a by-product of hard coal used for the
production of town gas in gas works. Gas coke is used
for heating purposes.

Patent fuel
Patent fuel is a composition fuel manufactured from
coal fines by shaping with the addition of a binding
agent such as pitch.

Brown coal briquettes (BKB)


BKB are composition fuels manufactured from brown
coal. The brown coal is crushed, dried and moulded
under high pressure into an even shaped briquette
without the addition of binders. Peat briquettes, dried
brown coke, fines and dust and brown coal breeze are
also included.

Coal tar
Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the destructive
distillation of bituminous coal to make coke in the
coke oven process. Coal tar can also be the result of
low-temperature carbonisation of brown coal. Coal tar
can be further distilled into different organic products
(e.g. benzene, toluene, naphthalene), which normally
would be reported as a feedstock to the petrochemical
industry.

Coke oven gas


Coke oven gas is obtained as a by-product of solid
fuel carbonisation and gasification operations carried
out by coke producers and iron and steel plants not
connected with gas works and municipal gas plants.

Gas works gas


Gas works gas covers all types of gas produced in
public utility or private plants, whose main purpose is
the manufacture, transport and distribution of gas. It
includes gas produced by carbonisation (including gas
produced by coke ovens and transferred to gas works),
by total gasification (with or without enrichment with

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.13

oil products) and by reforming and simple mixing of


gases and/or air. Note: Starting with the 2011 edition,
gas works gas is included with coal for the years 1990
and beyond. Before 1990, gas works gas is included
with natural gas.

Blast furnace gas


Blast furnace gas is obtained as a by-product in operating blast furnaces. It is recovered upon leaving the
furnace and used partly within the plant and partly in
other steel industry processes or used in power stations equipped to burn it.

Oxygen steel furnace gas


Oxygen steel furnace gas is obtained as a by-product
of the production of steel in an oxygen furnace; it is
recovered upon leaving the furnace. The gas is also
known as converter gas, LD gas or BOS gas.

Coal resources and reserves


Quantifying mineable coal is based on a consideration
of geological, mining and economic criteria. The
amount of coal in place and, in some cases, the
amount of mineable coal is influenced by national
resource measurement criteria. The basis for computing these resources varies from country to country
and, therefore, it must be borne in mind that for this
reason, direct comparisons are sometimes not possible. During the 1990s, there was a considerable discussion on the adoption of internationally recognised
standards for reporting reserves. This largely stems
from the requirements of capital markets for improved
transparency in reserve estimation where project financing is being sought. However, to date there has
not been any adoption of international standards.
There are, however, some generally recognised definitions that can be applied.

Resources
Resources refer to the amount of coal that may be
present in a deposit or a coalfield. This does not take
into account the feasibility of mining the coal economically. Not all resources are recoverable using
current technology. Reserves constitute those resources that are recoverable.

Reserves
Reserves may be defined further in terms of proved
(or measured) reserves, and probable (or indicated)
reserves, based on exploration results and the degree
of confidence in those results. Probable reserves have
been estimated with a lower degree of confidence than
proved reserves. Estimates take account of coalfields
geological characteristics, in particular the regularity,

thickness and quality of seams, the spacing of


exploration boreholes and other exposures, and geological discontinuities such as faults or folding, all of
which affect the practical recoverability of the coal.

Proved reserves
Proved reserves are those reserves that are not only
confidently considered to be recoverable, but can also
be recovered economically under current market conditions. In other words, they take into account what
current mining technology can achieve, as well as the
economics of recovery (mining, transportation and
other relevant recovery costs, such as government
royalties, and coal prices). Proved reserves will, therefore, fluctuate according to economic conditions, especially price.

Peat
A solid formed from the partial decomposition of
dead vegetation under conditions of high humidity
and limited air access (initial stage of coalification). It
is available in two forms for use as a fuel, sod peat
and milled peat. Milled peat is also made into briquettes for fuel use. Peat is not considered a renewable resource as its regeneration period is long.

Heat and electricity


Data for electricity and heat includes disaggregated
data on inputs and outputs of combined heat and
power and on district heating. Data on heat became
available in different years for different countries and
thus aggregated country data should be used with caution. Total electricity production includes production
from both main activity producers (formerly known as
public) and autoproducers. Generally, the split of total
electricity production between main activity producers
and autoproducers is available only after 1973.

Flows: energy balance


Coal balances are presented in detail in Parts IV
and V. In Part IV, Table 5 presents uses in the rows
and selected years in the columns. Data is presented in
millions of tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce). One
tonne of coal equivalent is 7 million kilocalories.
Each table is divided into three main parts: the first
shows supply elements, the second shows the transformation processes and energy industries, and the
third shows final consumption broken down into various end-use sectors.
Both primary fuels such as coal and peat, and derived
fuels such as coke oven coke and blast furnace gas are
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.14 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

included in the calculations. However, derived products manifest themselves as positive outputs in the
relevant transformation process used to create them.
Generally they should be less than the inputs, which
result in a net negative entry in the transformation
flow. Given that this balance is restricted to coal and
associated products, inputs from other fuel types (such
as pitch for patent fuels, or oil, gas and renewable
inputs to blast furnaces) will not be recorded, nor will
electricity generated, both of which differ from a full
energy balance.
The energy balance flows detailed below have the
following functions, and may appear in other tables:

Supply
Production
Production is the production of primary energy,
i.e. hard coal, brown coal, peat, shale oil, etc. Production is calculated after the removal of impurities. It is
important to note that derived products such as coke
oven coke and patent fuel, while included in the balances, do not appear in production.

Imports and exports


Imports and exports comprise amounts having
crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country, whether or not customs clearance has taken place.
Coal in transit is not included.

Stock changes
Stock changes reflects the difference between opening
stock levels on the first day of the year and closing
levels on the last day of the year of stocks on national
territory held by producers, importers, energy transformation industries and large consumers. A stock
build is shown as a negative number, and a stock draw
as a positive number. It is presented this way as this is
how it affects the domestic supply, as opposed to how
it describes the changes in stocks.

Total primary energy supply


Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of
production + imports - exports stock changes.

Statistical differences
Statistical differences includes the sum of the unexplained statistical differences for individual fuels, as
they appear in the basic energy statistics. It also includes the statistical differences that arise because of
the variety of conversion factors in the coal and oil
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

columns. See the introduction to Energy Statistics of


OECD Countries for further details.

Transformation processes
Transformation processes record the transformation of
one kind of fuel or energy into another with both inputs and outputs being measured. This may bridge
several transformation processes. For instance:
Coking coal used to manufacture coke oven coke
would be reported as a negative input to the coke
oven transformation process.
The resulting coke oven coke, coal tar and coke
oven gas would be reported as a positive output to
the coke oven transformation process flow.
Energy inputs from other sources, including electricity, will not be reported in this particular instance. Therefore, numbers may not be indicative of
true efficiencies, but rather map the flow of coal.
The coke oven coke will largely be used to produce pig-iron in a blast furnace. Therefore, it will
be reported where it is used and mainly as an input
to the blast furnace transformation process.
The by-product blast furnace gas will appear as an
output in the blast furnace transformation flow.
However, a significant amount of energy is lost in
the process of making the pig-iron, so the net
negative value in the blast furnace transformation
flow will tend to be approximately 60% of the total energy inputs.
The blast furnace gas (and coal tar and coke oven
gas) will likewise be reported where used. Some of
this will appear in the relevant consumption flows,
other parts might be used to generate electricity
and appear in electricity transformation.
In a complete energy balance, the electricity generated would be converted to the appropriate energy unit and reported as a positive output in the
applicable electricity transformation flow. This is
not the case in the coal balance, so the number
displayed in the electricity transformation flow is
the fuel input, not the process efficiency loss.
The main transformation processes reported either
make a derived coal product or a by-product and have
been described earlier in the Energy sources section or
are mentioned below.

Electricity and heat generation


Electricity and heat generation can refer to electricity
plants, combined heat and power plants (CHP),

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.15

or heat plants. Both main activity producer1 and


autoproducer2 plants are included here. Electricity
plants are plants which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more units of the plant is a CHP
unit (and the inputs and outputs cannot be distinguished on a unit basis), then the whole plant is designated as a CHP plant.
Note that for autoproducer CHP plants, all fuel inputs
to electricity production are taken into account. However, only the part of the fuel inputs used to produce
the heat that is sold is shown. Fuel inputs for the production of heat that is consumed within the autoproducer's establishment are not included here but are
included in the final consumption of fuels in the
appropriate consuming sector.

Consumption
Total final consumption (TFC) is the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors.
Industry consumption is specified in the following
sub-sectors. Note that energy used for transport by
industry is not included here but is reported under
transport.
Iron and steel

ISIC Group 241 and


Class 2431

Chemical and
petrochemical industry

ISIC Divisions 20 and 21,


excluding petrochemical
feedstocks

Non-ferrous metals

ISIC Group 242 and Class


2432

Non-metallic minerals

ISIC Division 23, such as


glass, ceramic, cement, etc.

Transport equipment

ISIC Divisions 29 and 30

Machinery

ISIC Divisions 25 to 28,


comprises fabricated metal
products, machinery and
equipment other than
transport equipment

Other transformation covers non-specified transformation and transformations not shown elsewhere,
such as coal liquefaction.

Mining (excluding fuels)


and quarrying

ISIC Divisions 07 and 08 and


Group 099

Food and tobacco

ISIC Divisions 10 to 12

Energy industry own use

Paper, pulp and printing

ISIC Divisions 17 and 18

Wood and wood products

ISIC Division 16, other than


pulp and paper

Construction

ISIC Divisions 41 to 43

Textile and leather

ISIC Divisions 13 to 15

Non-specified

ISIC Divisions 22, 31 and 32 ,


any manufacturing industry
not included above

Heat plants (including heat pumps and electric boilers) are designed to produce heat only, which is sold
to a third party under the provisions of a contract.
Heat pumps that are operated within the residential
sector, where the heat is not sold, are not considered a
transformation process and are not included here.
However, the electricity consumption appears as residential use.

Other transformation

Energy industry own use contains the primary and


secondary energy consumed by transformation industries for heating, pumping, traction and lighting purposes [ISIC3 05, 06, 19 and 35, Group 091 and
Classes 0892 and 0721]. These quantities are shown
as negative figures. Included here is, for example,
own use of energy in coal mines.

Losses
Losses includes losses in gas distribution, flaring or
venting of manufactured gases, electricity transmission and coal transport.

1. Main activity producer generate electricity and/or heat for sale to


third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public
grid.
2. Autoproducer undertakings generate electricity and/or heat, wholly
or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary
activity. They may be privately or publicly owned.
3. International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic
Activities, Series M, No. 4 / Rev. 4, United Nations, New York, 2008.

Note: Most countries have


difficulties supplying an
industrial breakdown for all
fuels. In these cases, the
non-specified industry row
has been used. Regional
aggregates of industrial
consumption should therefore
be used with caution.

Transport includes all fuels used for the transport


[ISIC Divisions 49 to 51] of goods or persons between
points of departure and destination within the national
territory irrespective of the economic sector within
which the activity occurs.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.16 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

Other covers residential, commercial and public services [ISIC Divisions 33, 36-39, 45-47, 52, 53, 55, 56,
58-66, 68-75, 77-82, 84 (excluding Class 8422), 8588, 90-96 and 99], agriculture/forestry [ISIC Divisions 01 and 02], fishing [ISIC Division 03] and nonspecified consumption.

Units and conversions


Conversion (to toe and tce)
Most IEA/OECD publications showing inter-fuel relations and projections present such information in a
common energy unit, the ton of oil equivalent (toe). A
ton of oil equivalent is defined as 107 kcal (41.868 GJ),
a convenient measure because it is approximately the
net heat content of one ton of average crude oil. This
unit is used by the IEA/OECD in its energy balances.
Note also that totals may not be the sum of their components due to independent rounding.
The change from using the original unit to tonne of oil
equivalent implies choosing coefficients of equivalence between different forms and sources of energy.
This problem can be approached in many different
ways. For example, one could adopt a single equivalence for each major primary energy source in all
countries, e.g. 29 307 kJ/kg (7 000 kcal/kg) for hard
coal, 41 868 kJ/kg (10 000 kcal/kg) for oil.
The main objection to this method is that it results in
distortions since there is a wide spread in calorific
values between types of coal and individual coal
products, and between calorific values of these fuels
in different countries.
The Secretariat has, therefore, obtained specific calorific factors supplied by the national administrations
for the main categories of each quality of coal and for
each flow or use (i.e. production, imports, exports,
electricity generation, coke ovens, blast furnaces and
industry). The set of particular national calorific values that allow for the conversion of energy sources
from original (physical) units to joules are presented
later in Part I.
The balances are expressed in terms of net calorific
value. The difference between net and gross being the
latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For coal and oil, net calorific value is usually around 5 per cent less than gross
and for most forms of natural and manufactured gas
the difference is 9-10 per cent. The use of net calorific

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

value is consistent with the practice of the Statistical


Offices of the European Communities and the United
Nations.
In this report some data are reported in terms of tonnes of coal equivalent (tce) because this unit is more
widely used in the international coal industry. A tonne
of coal equivalent is defined as 7 million kilocalories.
The relation between tonne of oil equivalent (toe) and
tonne of coal equivalent (tce) is therefore:
1 tce = 0.7 toe
Note that billion refers to thousand million (109).
Also, in many cases totals shown in the tables may not
be the sum of their components due to independent
rounding.

Gas
In the IEA/OECD publication Energy Statistics of
OECD Countries all data on gases are expressed in
terajoules, on the basis of their gross calorific value.
1 terajoule = 0.00002388 Mtoe.
To calculate the net heat content of a gas from its
gross heat content, multiply the gross heat content by
the appropriate following factor:
Natural gas
Gas works gas
Coke oven gas
Blast furnace gas
Oxygen steel furnace gas

0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0

Electricity
Figures for electricity production, trade, and final consumption are calculated using the energy content of
the electricity, i.e. at a rate of 1 TWh = 0.086 Mtoe.
Hydro-electricity production (excluding pumped storage) and electricity produced by other non-thermal
means (wind, tide, photovoltaic, etc.) are accounted
for similarly using 1 TWh = 0.086 Mtoe. However,
the primary energy equivalent of nuclear electricity is
calculated from the gross generation by assuming a
33% efficiency, i.e. 1 TWh = (0.086 0.33) Mtoe. In
the case of electricity produced from geothermal heat
the primary equivalent is calculated assuming an
efficiency of 10%, so 1 TWh = (0.086 0.1) Mtoe,
unless the actual value is known.

Heat
Information on heat is supplied to the Secretariat in
terajoules.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.17

3. SOURCES AND NOTES


General notes
Energy flows data reported for 2010 (shown as 2010e)
are preliminary estimates based on the submissions
received in early 2011 and on quarterly submissions
to the IEA from member countries.
The fuels listed as solar, wind, tide include wave
and ocean, unless otherwise noted.
Statistics of non-OECD countries presented in this
publication are based on available data at the time of
publishing and may differ from the final non-OECD
data to be published in Energy Statistics of NonOECD Countries.
Additional information on methodologies and reporting conventions are included in the notes in Energy
Balances of OECD Countries 2011 Edition and
Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2011 Edition.

Preliminary 2010 data - 2010e


Data reported for the year 2010 in this publication are
preliminary and presented as 2010e. Final 2010 data on
solid fuels and manufactured gases will be submitted
by OECD Member countries to the Secretariat in annual questionnaires in late 2011. As a result, final data
for 2010 and preliminary 2011 data will be published
in the 2012 edition of Coal Information in July 2012.
Selected coal data for 2010 for some non-OECD
countries have been estimated by the Secretariat.

Qualifiers
Data marked as e are estimates of the IEA secretariat. Data marked as c mean that the data are confidential due to country specific regulations. Data
marked as .. mean that data are not available (either
not collected or not submitted by national government). Data marked as x mean that they are not

applicable or there is no meaningful explanation of a


value there. For example, the price cannot be shown if
there was no trade or if the consumption in the country is forbidden.

Treatment of blast furnace coke and PCI data


Data on coke used and pulverised coal injected in the
blast furnace (PCI) are harmonized for all OECD
countries in order to ensure that steam and coking coal
consumption data are consistently presented and that
comparisons between countries for consumption are
meaningful. The main effect of these revisions has
been to revise the reported consumption of coal in the
iron and steel industry.
It should be noted that in IEA statistics of coal trade
and consumption, PCI is not separately specified;
rather it is included with steam coal for all countries
(except Japan). This classification is based on the fact
that most PCI coal is of a steam coal quality and not
coking coal quality. For Japan, PCI consumption is
reported in this book as a coking coal in order to be
consistent with the Japanese practice of including imports of PCI coal with coking coal.

Price data
Energy prices are published quarterly in the
IEA/OECD Energy Prices and Taxes. IEA data on
coal prices are managed in two sub-systems, which
vary not only in content, but also with respect to the
data collection methods.
Import and export unit values
End-user prices

Import and export unit values


Import and export unit values are calculated quarterly
(March, June, September and December) from national customs statistics import and export volumes
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.18 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

and values. The basic data are collected from monthly


national trade sources (Japan, United States, Australia
and Canada) or provided monthly to the IEA by the
Statistical Office of the European Communities
(Eurostat).
Values recorded at the import stage are the sum of
cost, insurance and freight (CIF), but exclude import
duties. Values recorded at the export stage (FOB),
exclude seaborne or international transport, but include inland transport costs of the exporting country.
As far as possible, the concept of general imports and
exports is used. This includes coal imports for reexport with or without processing, but excludes transit
trade.
The definitions of coal categories and the volume and
value units used in each of the above source systems
vary considerably. A certain amount of regrouping
and unit conversions is necessary once the basic data
are compiled.
The rules for regrouping coal categories are consistent
with the definitions used in the annual IEA/OECD
coal statistics. Prices are compiled for steam coal and
for coking coal. Definitions and the correspondence to
national and European classifications are discussed in
detail in the quarterly IEA publication Energy Prices
and Taxes. Comments in Energy Prices and Taxes on
certain data items, as well as general background information, are developed systematically. Data comments relate mainly to calorific values of specific coal
trade flows and to national coal definitions. Background information covers duties and trade regulations.

End-user prices
End-user prices are collected quarterly from national
administrations and other relevant bodies and supplemented with data extracted from national publications.
Although a standard approach to reporting the data
has been developed, differences in definitions between countries are explained in the notes published
in Energy Prices and Taxes.
The standard approach to reporting end-use prices can
be summarised as follows:
includes transport costs to the consumer;
shows prices actually paid, i.e. net of rebates; and
includes taxes which have to be paid by the consumer as part of the transaction and which are not
refundable. This excludes value added taxes paid
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

in many European countries by industry (including


electric power stations) for all goods and services
(including energy). In these cases, value added
taxes are refunded to the customer, usually in the
form of a tax credit. Therefore, it is not shown as
part of the prices.
A standard coal quality for international comparisons
of end-use prices is not possible given the wide variety of coal qualities in domestic and international coal
trade. As a result, only average prices covering different qualities are collected, along with the calorific
value of these average qualities. If average prices are
not available, prices of a selected coal may be chosen.
Accordingly, international comparisons of coal enduse prices may be misleading. Detailed notes concerning these price series are published in Energy Prices
and Taxes. Also, please refer to Energy Prices and
Taxes for the detailed description of price mechanisms
in each country and country specific notes.

Derived price data


The information collected on prices is converted by
the IEA Secretariat into a variety of secondary data in
order to facilitate its analysis. Inter-fuel price comparisons for one country are usually made on the basis
of prices per heat unit such as a tonne of coal equivalent. In the end-user price tables, the conversion factor
used for converting gross calories to net calories for
natural gas is 0.9.
Inter-country price comparisons are made on the basis
of a standard currency unit, e.g., US dollars. Prices for
regional totals are calculated as the weighted average
of the available price data in the region and, therefore,
prices shown should be considered as only indicative.
For coal exports and imports, customs unit values are
prices reported by OECD Member countries.
Customs unit values are average values derived from
customs administrations total volume and total value
data. These data indicate broad price movements as
they are averages of all qualities of coal without regard to the end-use of the coal or to the contract terms
and conditions under which the trade occurs.
End-user prices are those paid by end-users in the
power sector and in industry and are reported by
Member countries in a quarterly reporting system
which the IEAs Standing Group on Long Term
Co-operation initiated in 1981. Data received are published in the IEA quarterly publication Energy Prices
and Taxes.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.19

Unless otherwise stated, prices are reported in US


dollars in the year specified (i.e. current US dollars).
In addition to the official price statistics presented,
coal price statistics published in the industry press are
used to summarise short-term spot steam and coking
coal price trends. Although not official in that they
are not provided by member countries, there is a high
correlation between prices published by the industry
press and national coal price statistics.

Electricity
-

Electricity production, (separately from combustible fuel, nuclear, hydro and other sources) imports,
exports and (apparent) consumption in OECD
member countries.

Data sources
Historical data (1960-2009)

Quarterly energy statistics


Readers who are interested in more recent data should
consult the OECD/IEA publication Oil, Gas, Coal and
Electricity Quarterly Statistics which is published in
January, March, June and September each year.
This book provides current, accurate and detailed statistics on quarterly production, supply and demand
and trade of the major energy forms mainly in, but not
limited to, the OECD area.
The information contained in this publication consists of:

Oil
-

Production of crude oil and NGL for the major


producers in the world.

Refinery balances for crude oil, NGL, refinery


feedstocks, and total (including inputs of origin
other than crude oil and NGL);

Complete product balances of production, trade,


refinery intake and output, final consumption,
stock levels and changes;

Crude, NGL and feedstock imports from 47 origins and exports to 24 destinations; and

Trade data for main product groups, LPG and


naphtha; imports from 44 origins and exports to 30
destinations.

Natural gas
-

Balances of supply and consumption of OECD


member countries; and
Imports from 28 origins and exports to 20 destinations.

Coal
-

World hard coal and brown coal production;

World steam coal and coking coal trade; and

Coking coal and steam coal imports and exports


for major OECD countries.

The annual historical data in Part IV of this report are


taken from the IEA/OECD databases of energy statistics which are based on annual submissions from all
OECD Member countries.

i) IEA/OECD coal statistics


This database of annual statistics for OECD countries
covers all primary solid fuels, derived fuels and related manufactured gases. It contains detailed supply/
demand balances for each fuel, as well as information
on coal trade by origin and destination. The main data
from this system are published annually in the
IEA/OECD publication Coal Information.

ii) IEA/OECD electricity statistics


This database of annual statistics for OECD countries
covers generating capacity and electricity production
from main activity producers and autoproducers
plants. It includes information on electricity production by fuel type and supply/demand balances for
electricity and for heat sold to third parties from different types of power and heat plants. The main data
from this system are published annually in the
IEA/OECD publication Electricity Information.

iii) IEA/OECD oil and gas statistics


This database of annual statistics for OECD countries
covers crude oil, NGL, refinery feedstocks and natural
gas, as well as derived oil products. It includes detailed supply/demand balances, trade by origin and
destination and stock levels and changes.
The main data from this system are published annually in the IEA/OECD publications Oil Information
and Natural Gas Information.

iv) IEA/OECD renewables statistics


This database of annual statistics for OECD countries
covers hydro, solid biofuels, geothermal, renewable
municipal waste, wind, gas from biofuels, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, tide/wave/ocean, non-renewable
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.20 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

municipal waste and industrial waste. It includes detailed supply/demand balances.

vii) IEA/OECD energy prices and taxes

The main data from this system are published annually


in the IEA/OECD publication Renewables Information.

The statistics were discussed separately above. The


prices and taxes are published quarterly in IEA/OECD
Energy Prices and Taxes.

v) IEA/OECD energy statistics

viii) Energy statistics of non-OECD countries

This annual database integrates data from the four


IEA/OECD statistical database systems listed above to
provide a summary of energy supply and demand for
each OECD country. It includes detailed statistics on production, trade and consumption for each source of energy,
expressed in original units (e.g. metric tons, TJ, GWh).

The annual historical data for non-OECD countries


presented in Part V of this report are taken from
IEA/OECD databases of energy statistics of nonOECD countries. These databases are compiled from
data submitted annually to the IEA Secretariat in
questionnaires from non-OECD Member countries of
the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UN ECE), from data provided by other international
organisations (the United Nations in New York, the
Organizacin Latinoamericana de Energa (OLADE)
in Quito, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in Tokyo and the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome,
etc.), from direct communications with national administrations, industry contacts and from published
sources.

The main data from this data system are published


annually in the IEA/OECD publication Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Detailed country notes referring to historical data can be found in this publication.

vi) IEA/OECD energy balances


Overall energy balances are constructed annually for
all OECD countries from the basic energy statistics
described above. The overall energy balance data are
expressed in a common energy unit of tons of oil
equivalent (toe) and presented in a standard matrix
format. The balances are published annually in the
IEA/OECD publication Energy Balances of OECD
Countries in which detailed country notes referring to
historical data can be found.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

The main data from this data system are published annually in the IEA/OECD publications Energy Statistics
of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Balances of NonOECD Countries. Detailed country notes referring to
historical data can be found in these publications.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.21

4. COUNTRY NOTES
In many cases data submitted by Member countries to
the Secretariat do not conform to the standard reporting methodology or have other particular characteristics. Information set out below will assist readers to
interpret data for particular countries and aid in the
comparison of data among countries.

Australia
All data refer to the fiscal year, (e.g. July 2008 to June
2009 for 2009). For the 2002 data, the Australian
Administration began to use a new survey methodology which has caused shifts in the structure of industry consumption. The Australian Administration is
planning to revise the historical series.
Data on blast furnace gas for electricity production by
autoproducers begins in 1986. Consumption in wood
and wood products is included in paper, pulp and print
from 2001 onwards. The drop in BKB production in
2004 was due to a fire in the main production plant.
Only anthracite for export is reported separately; the
remainder that is consumed domestically is included
with coking coal and other bituminous coal.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Austria
Historical revisions by the Austrian Administration
have resulted in some breaks in series between 1989
and 1990.
In the 2011 edition, the Austrian Administration has
revised the consumption data for coke oven coke from
1999 and lignite from 2001. Other bituminous coal
includes hard coal briquettes. "Trockenkohle" is included with BKB because of its high calorific value.
Since 1996, gas works gas is reported with natural gas

because it is distributed in the same network. The


amount of gas works gas is negligible and it is mostly
consumed by households. The last lignite mine closed
in the second quarter of 2004 and lignite use for
power generation ceased in 2006.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Belgium
Sub-bituminous coal data refer to recovered coal
products. Production of other bituminous coal ceased
on 31 August 1992. Production from other sources refers to recuperation of coal from coal dumps. In 1996,
the use of coke oven gas in the chemical and petrochemical industries ceased. The decrease of bituminous coal and coke oven coke in the iron and steel
industry in 2002 is due to the closure of several plants.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Canada
Due to the unavailability of data, non-energy use of
coke oven coke and hard coal is included with final
consumption sectors prior to 1978 and 1980, respectively. Before 1978, lignite inputs to main activity
producer heat plants are included in final consumption. Starting in 1979, these inputs are included in
main activity producer electricity plants. Due to a Canadian confidentiality law, it is not possible for the
Canadian Administration to submit disaggregated series for all of the coal types. Between 2002 and 2006,
the IEA Secretariat has estimated some of the missing
series. The data for 2007 onwards are given directly
as reported. The Canadian Administration is planning
to further refine its reporting.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.22 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

Chile
From 1990, consumption in paper and pulp includes
forestry and consumption in agriculture is included in
non-specified industry. In general, a new methodology has been applied for data since 1990, leading to
other breaks in series between 1989 and 1990.
Other bituminous coal includes sub-bituminous coals.

Czech Republic
Data are available starting in 1971.
Final consumption data were submitted by the Czech
Administration starting with 1996 data. Due to economic restructuring in the consumption sectors in the
late 1990s (large state enterprises subdividing and/or
privatising and the utilisation of new technologies by
businesses), there might be breaks in time series in
these sectors. Data for 1990 to 1995 were estimated
based on the Czech publication Energy Economy Year
Book. In 1995, town gas production (included in gas
works gas) ceased. Beginning in 1996, the Czech Administration reported gas works gas in autoproducer
CHP. In 1997, coke oven gas consumption in chemical
and petrochemical stopped. Revisions by the Czech
Administration have resulted in some breaks in series
between 2001 and 2002. Production from other sources
of other bituminous coal in 2004 is from coal slurries.
Coal which had been previously classified as subbituminous coal until the 2008 edition is now reported
under lignite for all years.
Sub-bituminous coal is reported in other bituminous
coal.

Denmark
In the 2004 edition, major revisions were made by the
Danish Administration for the 1990 to 2001 data,
which may cause breaks in time series between 1989
and 1990.

Estonia
Data for Estonia are available starting in 1990. Prior
to that, they are included in Former Soviet Union in
Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries.
Data reported as lignite is oil shale.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Finland
A new survey system and a reclassification of the data
lead to breaks in the time series between 1999 and
2000 for most products and sectors. The new survey
system is more detailed and has better product coverage especially in electricity, CHP and heat production,
as well as in industry.
A large increase of steam coal imports in 2003 is related to a draught in Scandinavia. Thermal power
plants were operated more intensively to replace
hydro-generated electricity that is consumed in the
country. Additionally, more coal-generated electricity
was exported to other countries in the region.
Peat production is highly dependent upon favourable
weather conditions and pricing of other fuels, causing
large movements in the data over time.
The first coking plant started operation in 1987, hence
imports of coking coal and production of coke oven
coke and coke oven gas started in that year. Coal tars
used for non-energy purposes are not reported in production or consumption. The increase of other bituminous coal inputs into main activity producer electricity
plants from 1993 to 1994 was due to coal replacing
imported electricity and hydro power. Production of
gas works gas ceased in April 1994.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

France

A large increase of steam coal imports in 2003 is related to a draught in Scandinavia. Thermal power
plants were operated more intensively to replace hydro-generated electricity that is consumed in the country. Additionally, more coal-generated electricity was
exported to other countries in the region.

Prior to 1985, consumption of colliery gas is included


with the use of coke oven gas by autoproducers. Final
consumption in industry is estimated by the Secretariat from 1986 to 2001 for some products. For 1989
to 1998, the IEA Secretariat has estimated industry
consumption based on Consommations dEnergie
dans lIndustrie, SESSI.

Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.23

Germany
The German Administration has changed the methodology for reporting heat. From 2007 onwards, all heat
production by autoproducers is considered as non-sold
(i.e. for self-use). Inputs for this heat production are,
therefore, no longer reported in the transformation
processes. Moreover, more information on district
heat has become available and inputs are now reported for this category. This causes breaks in series
between 2006 and 2007. A different methodology for
accounting for autoproducer heat was used for 2003 to
2006 which is apparent in both the inputs to transformation and the heat output.
Due to the reclassification of several sectors by the
German Administration, breaks in series may occur
between 1990 and 1992. This particularly affects
BKB, lignite and coke oven coke. BKB inputs to gas
works plants stopped in 1997. Breaks in time series
may occur between 1998 and 1999 for coke oven gas
and blast furnace gas. Up to 2003, other bituminous
coal includes anthracite. Breaks in the time series for
coke oven gas from 2007 are due to a change in statistical source. Consumption of non-renewable municipal waste and other solid biofuels as a reductant occurs in German blast furnaces, but is not currently
quantified. Likewise, coal tar is a by-product of coke
ovens, but not currently reported.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

of this domestic coal in main activity producer electricity and CHP plants has also been reclassified as lignite.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Iceland
Prior to 1970, final consumption includes inputs and
outputs to heat production. The industrial classifications
used by the Icelandic Administration were changed in
1987. Final consumption increased in 2000 due to a
new iron and steel plant coming on-line. Coal data for
2008 and 2009 are estimated by the IEA Secretariat.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Ireland
Production data for peat briquettes (BKB) are available from 1975. Low production of peat in 1985 was
due to a poor harvest. The production of gas works
gas ceased in 1987 due to fuel switching to natural
gas. Other bituminous coal inputs to main activity
producer electricity plants increased from 1986 due to
three new generating units at Moneypoint coming online. A reclassification causes a break in the time series for peat consumption in the energy industry own
use in BKB plants from 1989 to 1990. Patent fuel data
from 2007 are confidential.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Greece
Electricity production using hard coal ceased in 1989.
A new main activity producer electricity plant using
imported bituminous coal was brought on-line in 1991.
Production of gas works gas ceased in 1997. Lignite has
been used in main activity producer CHP plants since
1997. Production of BKB/peat briquettes ceased in 2009.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Israel
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without
prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Data reported as lignite is oil shale.

Hungary
Data are available from 1965.
Due to the sale of an autoproducer power plant,
breaks in time series occur for coke oven gas and blast
furnace gas between 1997 and 1998. From 1990, the
production of sub-bituminous coal has been included
with lignite due to the low quality of the coal. The use

Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Italy
In the 2011 edition, industry and transformation data
were revised for 2004 to 2007 according to the same
methodology as used in 2008 and 2009. This leads to
breaks in series between 2003 and 2004.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.24 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

From 1986 onwards, figures from lignite are given


using the same methodology as in the Bilancio Energetico Nazionale. In 1991, all industrial activities
were reclassified on the basis of ISTAT/NACE 91.
This has implied some transfer of activities which
may result in some anomalies between 1991 and earlier years. Due to a change in the survey system,
breaks in time series may occur between 1997 and
1998 for final consumption. Prior to 2009, subbituminous coal used in main activity electricity
plants was included with other bituminous coal.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Japan
Between 2004 and 2007, the IEA received a series of
revisions from the Japanese Administration. The first
set of revisions received in 2004 increased the 1990
supply by 5% for coal, 2% for natural gas and 0.7%
for oil compared to the previous data. This led to an
increase of 2.5% in 1990 CO2 emissions calculated
using the Reference Approach while the Sectoral
Approach remained fairly constant. For the 2006 edition, the IEA received revisions to the coal and oil
data which had a significant impact on both the energy data and the CO2 emissions. The most significant
revisions occurred for coke oven coke, naphtha, blast
furnace gas and petroleum coke. These revisions affected consumption rather than supply in the years
concerned. As a result, the Sectoral Approach CO2
emissions increased for all the years, however at different rates. For example, the Sectoral Approach CO2
emissions for 1990 were 4.6% higher than those calculated for the 2005 edition, while the 2003 emissions
were 1.1% higher than those of the previous edition.
Due to the impact these successive revisions have had
on the final energy balance, as well as on CO2 emissions, the IEA was in close contact with the Japanese
Administration to better understand the reasons behind these changes. These changes were mainly due
to the Government of Japan's efforts to improve the
input-output balances in the production of oil products
and coal products in response to inquiries from the
UNFCCC Secretariat. To cope with this issue, the
Japanese Administration established a working group
in March 2004. The working group completed its
work in April 2006. Many of its conclusions were
incorporated in the 2006 edition, but some further
revisions to the time series (especially in industry and
other) were submitted for the 2007 edition.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Starting in 1990, data are reported on a fiscal year


basis (e.g. April 2009 to March 2010 for 2009).
From 1982, residential use of coke oven coke is included in commercial/public services sector. Oxygen
steel furnace gas data are available from 1982. The
inputs of coke oven coke to blast furnaces, as well as
the final consumption of coke oven coke in iron and
steel, have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat
starting in 1990. From 1998, inputs of coke oven gas,
blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas into
autoproducer electricity plants include the amount
used to produce electricity with TRT technology (Top
pressure Recovery Turbines) which was previously
included in industry. Statistical differences in hard
coal since 2004 are primarily due to a stock build by
final consumers.
Coal injected in blast furnaces (PCI) is classified as
coking coal in order to be consistent with Japanese
trade statistics. With the 2008 edition, Japan has reclassified part of the coal inputs to coke ovens as inputs to blast furnaces.
Asymmetric statistical differences in hard coal since
2004 are primarily due to deliberate stock builds by
final consumers.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Korea
Data are available from 1971.
Data for 2002 onwards have been reported on a different basis, causing breaks in series between 2001
and 2002, especially for inputs and outputs to electricity generation and consumption in the iron and steel
industry. The Korean Administration is planning to
revise the historical series as time and resources
permit.
Data for coal and coal products from 1971 to 2001 are
based on information provided by the Korean Administration, as well as information from the Yearbook of Energy Statistics 2002, the Yearbook of Coal
Statistics 2001 (both from the Ministry of Commerce,
Industry and Energy), and Statistics of Electric Power
in Korea 2001 (from the Korea Electric Power Corporation). Data on sub-bituminous coal were estimated
by the IEA Secretariat based on statistics of the exporting countries. Consumption of imported coke
oven coke starting in 2002 is reported under nonspecified industry. Consumption of manufactured

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.25

gases in the iron and steel industry starting in 2002


includes the consumption in blast furnaces, oxygen
steel furnaces and other iron and steel processing
plants. Blast furnace gas used for energy purposes in
blast furnaces prior to 2007 are reported in the iron
and steel industry. Coal tar production prior to 2007 is
not available at this time.

Coal exports consist of re-exported volumes after


blending.

Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Where data refer to the fiscal year, April 2009 to


March 2010 is shown as 2009. In the 2011 edition, the
New Zealand Administration has revised some of the
coal, natural gas, oil, renewable and electricity time
series back to 1990.

Luxembourg
Steel production from blast furnaces ceased at the end
of 1997. For the 2011 edition, the Luxembourgian
Administration revised the time series from 2000 for
most coal and coal products. Time series for brown
coal briquettes consumption were revised from 1990.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Mexico
Data are available starting in 1971 and are partly estimated based on the publication Balance Nacional Energa. The Mexican Administration submitted data
directly by questionnaire for the first time with 1992
data. As a result, some breaks in time series may occur between 1991 and 1992. In the 2011 edition, the
Mexican Administration revised selected historical
data.
The time series for blast furnace gas and inputs of
coke oven coke to blast furnaces starts in 1991.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Netherlands
In the national statistical system of the Netherlands,
use of fuel in manufacturing industries for CHP production is considered to be consumption in the transformation sector. However, in IEA statistics, this own
use for heat production (autoproduced heat) is reported
under the relevant industry sub-sector, based on estimates provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics.
For 1984 to 1986, production from other sources of
other bituminous coal represents a stock of "smalls"
washed for re-use. Prior to 1989, non-energy use is
included with industry consumption. Paper, pulp and
print includes furniture.

Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

New Zealand

A reorganisation of government departments during


1987 leading to cessation of certain data series has
resulted in several breaks in time series between 1987
and 1988.
Production of gas works gas ceased in 1988. Peat,
although produced in New Zealand, is not used as a
fuel. It is used for agricultural purposes only. In final
consumption, some industry data are reported in nonspecified industry for confidentiality reasons. Construction is included with commercial/public services.
Prior to 2009, mining and quarrying is included in
agriculture. Sub-bituminous coal inputs into autoproducer CHP refers to coal that is merged with iron
sands and limestone to form the inputs for the multihearth-furnaces, kilns and melters to produce direct
reduced iron (Glenbrook Steel Site), with off-gases
and supplemental and natural gas driving the CHP
plants. This method, while not a typical iron and steel
process, produces similar by-products. The subbituminous coal inputs are reported under coke ovens
and the resulting off-gases are reported as production
of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. Some transformation efficiencies will appear higher than normal
due to non-reporting of certain inputs including some
confidential data.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Norway
Production of coking coal, coke oven coke and coke
oven gas ceased in the late 1980s. Other bituminous
coal includes lignite. The decrease of bituminous coal
production in 2005 is due to a fire in one of the coal
mines; this entailed a break in the production for a
large part of the year.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.26 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

Poland
For the 2011 edition, the Polish Administration has
revised the time series for blast furnace gas, coke
oven gas and other bituminous coal from 2001 to
2007. Time series for coke oven coke were revised for
the years 1990 to 2001.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Portugal
Since 1998, sub-bituminous coal is not used. As of
2002, gas works gas in the commercial/public services
and residential sectors was replaced by natural gas.
The production of pig iron ceased in the first quarter
of 2001, leading to decreases in supply and consumption of coking coal, coke oven coke, coke oven gas
and blast furnace gas in 2001.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

Slovak Republic
Data are available starting in 1971.
There are some breaks in time series between 1992 and
1993. A new survey system in 2001 led to major breaks
in series for most products. Commercial/public services
includes national statistical differences for other bituminous coal, lignite, patent fuel, coke oven coke and BKB.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Slovenia
Data for Slovenia are available starting in 1990. Prior
to that, they are included in Energy Statistics of NonOECD Countries in Former Yugoslavia. A new energy data collection system was implemented in January 2001, causing some breaks in time series between
1999 and 2000.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Spain
Other bituminous coal use in the iron and steel industry ceased in 1991 and started again in 1996. Consumption of BKB also ended in 1991. Consumption of

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

blast furnace gas in the chemical industry stopped in


1994, while chemical industry use of coke oven gas
ceased between 1994 and 2000. Natural gas inputs
into gas works gas stopped in 1999. Lignite mining
was halted indefinitely in 2008. For 1999-2003, anthracite is included in other bituminous coal.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Sweden
Other bituminous coal production is coal recovered during the quarrying of clay. Autoproducer inputs to waste
heat production that is sold are reported in the respective
final consumption sectors and not in transformation.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Switzerland
From 1999, data on consumption result from a new
survey and are not comparable with data of previous
years.
From 1985, industrial consumption of gas works gas is
reported in non-specified industry to prevent the disclosure of commercially confidential data. Allocation of
consumption data between certain coal types is estimated
by the Swiss Administration, as are calorific values.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

Turkey
Production of gas works gas declined in 1989 due to
plant closures; the last plant closed in 1994. Use of
gas coke and gas works gas ceased in 1994. Due to
government regulations in industry and residential, in
particular, there has been a shift from the use of domestically produced coal to imported coal and natural
gas. The privatisation of state owned coke ovens in
recent years results in incomplete information on coke
oven gas distribution. Data for 2008 are provided
from the results of an improved questionnaire. Therefore, significant changes occur in consumption patterns within the iron and steel industry, coal mining as
well as across industry, residential and commercial/
public services for other bituminous coal. Some coal
used in cement kilns is reported under construction
instead of non-metallic minerals in 2008 and 2009.
Historical data may be revised in future issues.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.27

United Kingdom
Consumption shown for the commercial/public services includes consumption of some of non-specified
other. Prior to 1994, the consumption of substitute
natural gas is included with natural gas, while its production is included with gas works gas.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in brown coal.

United States
Due to problems in reporting, there are numerous
breaks in series for the US data, particularly in 1992,
1999, 2001 and 2002. Care should be taken when

evaluating consumption by sector since inputs of fuel


to autoproducers are included in final consumption for
some years. No data are available for most energy
products in the construction and mining and quarrying
industries.
In 2002, the United States reported synfuel production as patent fuel for the first time. Prior to 2002, the
consumption of this fuel was reported with other bituminous coal. Production ceased in 2007 for economic
reasons. Since the Energy Information Administration
(EIA) and the US Department of Commerce do not
collect separate data on patent fuel exports by country,
total exports of patent fuel are included in the exports
of other bituminous coal. Coal tar as a by-product of
coke ovens is not currently reported.
Sub-bituminous coal is included in steam coal.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.29

5. GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE
Australia excludes the overseas territories.
Denmark excludes the Danish Faroes and Greenland.
France includes Monaco, but excludes the following
overseas departments and territories: Guadeloupe,
Guyana, Martinique, New Caledonia, French
Polynesia, Reunion, and St.-Pierre and Miquelon.
Germany includes the new federal states of Germany
from 1970 onwards.
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without
prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights,
East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West
Bank under the terms of international law.
Italy includes San Marino and the Vatican.
Japan includes Okinawa.
The Netherlands excludes Suriname and the
Netherlands Antilles.
Portugal includes the Aores and Madeira.
Spain includes the Canary Islands.
Switzerland does not include Liechtenstein.
United States includes 50 States and the District of
Columbia.
OECD Total comprises Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia1, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

1. Estonia and Slovenia are included starting in 1990. Prior to 1990,


data for Estonia are included in Former Soviet Union and data for
Slovenia in Former Yugoslavia in the publication Energy Statistics of
Non-OECD Countries.

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea,


Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic,
Slovenia1, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the
United Kingdom and the United States,
With the exception of Chile, Estonia, Iceland, Israel,
Mexico, and Slovenia, all 34 OECD member countries are also member countries of the IEA. IEA regional totals include only IEA Member countries and,
therefore, exclude non-IEA Members shown in italics
below.
The following countries are included in the regional
aggregates. OECD Total is the sum of the three regional aggregates.
OECD Americas comprises Canada, Chile, Mexico
and the United States.
OECD Europe comprises Austria, Belgium,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
OECD Asia Oceania comprises Australia, Israel,
Japan, Korea and New Zealand.
The European Union - 27 (EU-27) includes Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the
United Kingdom. Please note that in the interest of
having comparable data, all these countries are
included since 1990 despite different entry dates into
the European Union.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.30 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia includes Albania,


Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus2, Gibraltar, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Former Yugoslavia
Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Republic of Moldova,
Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia3, Former
Soviet Union4, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine,
Uzbekistan and Former Yugoslavia4.
Africa includes Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana (from
1981), Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of
Congo, Cte dIvoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon,
Ghana, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia (from 1991), Nigeria, Senegal,
South Africa, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania,
Togo, Tunisia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Other Africa.
Other Africa includes Botswana (until 1980),
Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial
Guinea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho,
Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Namibia (until 1990), Niger, Reunion,
Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Uganda and Western
Sahara (from 1990).
Latin America includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay,
Venezuela and Other Latin America.

Guyana, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico5 (for


natural gas and electricity), St. Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines, Suriname, and Turks and Caicos Islands.
Asia includes Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia
(from 1995), Chinese Taipei, India, Indonesia, DPR of
Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia (from 1985), Myanmar,
Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, Vietnam and Other Asia.
Other Asia includes Afghanistan, Bhutan, Cambodia
(until 1994), Cook Islands, East Timor, Fiji, French
Polynesia, Kiribati, Laos, Macau, Maldives, Mongolia
(until 1984), New Caledonia, Palau (from 1994),
Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga
and Vanuatu.
China includes the Peoples Republic of China and
Hong Kong (China).
Former Soviet Union4 includes Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Russia,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Middle East includes Bahrain, Islamic Republic of Iran,
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Please note that the following countries have not been
considered due to lack of data:
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia: Liechtenstein6
(except for oil data), Montenegro7 (after 2004),
and Kosovo (after 1999);
Africa: Saint Helena;

Other Latin America includes Antigua and Barbuda,


Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Falkland
Islands, French Guyana, Grenada, Guadeloupe,

America: Anguilla; and


Asia and Oceania: Christmas Island, Nauru and Niue.

2. Note by Turkey:
With respect to the Cyprus question, Turkey reserves its position as
stated in its declaration of 1 May 2004. The information in the report
under the heading Cyprus relates to the southern part of the Island.
There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is
found within the context of United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its
position concerning the Cyprus issue.
Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and
the European Commission:
The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United
Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this report
relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the
Republic of Cyprus.
3. Data for Serbia include Montenegro until 2004 and Kosovo until
1999.
4. Data is shown only under Former Soviet Union and Former
Yugoslavia until 1989. After 1990, data is shown by country only.

5. Oil statistics as well as coal trade statistics for Puerto Rico are
included under the United States.
6. Oil data for Liechtenstein are included under Switzerland.
7. Data for Montenegro are included under Serbia until 2004.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.31

6. ABBREVIATIONS, CONVERSION FACTORS


AND CALORIFIC VALUES
Units and technical abbreviations
t
kt
Mt
toe
Mtoe
tce
Mtce
kcal
MBtu
GWh
USD

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

metric ton = tonne = 1000 kg


thousand tonnes
million tonnes
tonne of oil equivalent
million tonnes of oil equivalent
tonne of coal equivalent (= 0.7 toe)
million tonnes of coal equivalent
kilocalories (103 calories)
million British thermal units
million kilowatt hours
US dollars

CIF
FAS
FOB
GDP
GCV
PCI
TPES

:
:
:
:
:
:
:

cost, insurance and freight


free alongside ship
free on board
Gross Domestic Product
gross calorific value
coals for pulverised injection
Total primary energy supply

EU
FSU
OECD
UN

:
:
:
:

European Union
Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/Soviet Union
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
United Nations

0 or 0.0 : negligible
c
e
..
x

:
:
:
:
:

confidential
estimated
not available
nil
not applicable

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.32 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

General conversion factors for energy


TJ

To:

Gcal

Mtoe

From:

MBtu

GWh

947.8

0.2778

3.968

1.163 x 10-3

3.968 x 107

11630

2.931 x 10-4

3412

st

lb

multiply by:

TJ

2.388 x 10-5

238.8
-3

Gcal

4.1868 x 10

Mtoe

4.1868 x 104

MBtu

1.0551 x 10

-3

GWh

3.6

-7

10

107

1
-8

0.252

2.52 x 10

860

8.6 x 10-5

Conversion factors for mass


kg

To:

lt

From:

multiply by:
1

0.001

9.84 x 10-4

1.102 x 10-3

2.2046

tonne (t)

1000

0.984

1.1023

2204.6

long ton (lt)

1016

1.016

1.120

2240.0

short ton (st)

907.2

0.9072

kilogramme (kg)

pound (lb)

0.454

4.54 x 10

0.893
-4

4.46 x 10

-4

2000.0

5.0 x 10

-4

Conversion factors for volume


gal U.S.

To:

gal U.K.

bbl

From:

ft3

m3

multiply by:

U.S. gallon (gal)

0.8327

0.02381

0.1337

3.785

0.0038

U.K. gallon (gal)

1.201

0.02859

0.1605

4.546

0.0045

Barrel (bbl)

42.0

34.97

5.615

159.0

0.159

7.48

6.229

0.1781

28.3

0.0283

0.2642

0.220

0.0063

0.0353

0.001

264.2

220.0

6.289

35.3147

1000.0

Cubic foot (ft )


Litre (l)
3

Cubic metre (m )

Decimal prefixes
101
10

10

10

10

10

12

10

15

10

18

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

deca (da)
hecto (h)
kilo (k)
mega (M)
giga (G)
tera (T)
peta (P)
exa (E)

10-1

deci (d)

10

-2

centi (c)

10

-3

milli (m)

10

-6

micro ()

10

-9

nano (n)

10

-12

pico (p)

10

-15

femto (f)

10

-18

atto (a)

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I - I.33

2009 COUNTRY SPECIFIC AVERAGE NET CALORIFIC VALUES [MJ/t]


Anthracite

Australia

Coking
coal

SubOther
bituminous bituminous
coal
coal

Lignite

Peat

Patent
fuels

Coke
oven
coke

Coal tar

BKB

28500

28794

20857

9310

25650

35714

21951

Austria

32363

29073

28067

22200

9003

8800

31003

29000

41800

19303

Belgium

25184

29308

25781

8370

29308

27696

20097

Canada

27700

26905

30134

19150

15000

27389

28638

21851

28645

41366

Chile
Czech Republic

30000

28268

23005

12573

27955

37161

22318

Denmark

24645

29300

18300

Estonia

27160

8998

10383

28500

16000

Finland

29300

24600

10200

29300

37000

France

30500

26000

17000

32000

28000

38000

Germany

28958

29000

25901

9000

31400

28650

21037

Greece

26000

5276

30356

Hungary

31430

25070

16271

7244

29687

38000

20269

Iceland

28050

28050

26670

Ireland

27842

27838

19820

8824

18548

Israel

25146

2931

Italy

30984

26587

18832

10468

29000

Japan

26362

28130

24801

29400

35393

Korea

23625

28261

24911

20934

19259

29308

37000

Luxembourg

26700

29300

28500

20100

Mexico

23483

23483

19405

14100

26521

29300

28671

24789

20000

28500

41900

New Zealand

29420

28230

20610

13380

29500

Norway

28100

28500

Poland

29589

22661

8930

23191

27231

37499

17487

Netherlands

Portugal

30464

25579

29229

Slovak Republic

27183

29250

26766

11373

28000

28124

23827

23896

18857

11097

29498

19352

28600

22390

10023

30139

38519

Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

30000

27400

12668

28080

28100

28100

20100

28100

Turkey

27419

25481

18833

8660

27914

United Kingdom

28967

25060

30970

28310

38519

28800

29707

26775

19015

13898

28842

Switzerland

United States

Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

I.34 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART I

Coal classification
The IEA collects statistics on coal production, trade and consumption according to a technically precise
classification based on the quality of coal as follows:
Coking coal is coal with a quality that allows the production of coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge;
Other bituminous coal and anthracite are non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value not less than
23 865 kJ/kg (5 700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis;
Sub-bituminous coal is a non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value between 23 865 kJ/kg
(5 700 kcal/kg) and 17 435 kJ/kg (4 165 kcal/kg) containing more than 31% volatile matter on a dry mineral
matter-free basis; and
Lignite/brown coal is a non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value less than 17 435 kJ/kg
(4 165 kcal/kg) and greater than 31% volatile matter on a dry mineral matter-free basis. Oil shale combusted
directly is reported in this category.
However, when publishing these data, the IEA adopts a simplified classification of hard coal and brown coal. The
correspondence is as follows:
Hard coal: this is the sum of coking coal and steam coal;
Coking coal is reported in the category coking coal;
Other bituminous coal and anthracite are reported in the category steam coal;
Sub-bituminous coal is reported in the category brown coal except for: Australia, Belgium, Chile, Finland,
France, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, and the United States where it is included in
steam coal (because of its relatively high calorific value); and
Lignite is reported in the category brown coal.
The term Total Coal refers to the sum of hard coal and brown coal after conversion to a common energy unit
(tonne of coal equivalent - tce). The conversion is done by multiplying the calorific value of the coal in question
(the conversion factors are submitted by national administrations to the IEA Secretariat each year) by the total
volume of hard and brown coal used, measured in physical units, i.e. in tonnes. One tce has an energy content of
29.3 Gigajoules (GJ) or 7 000 kcal and corresponds to 0.7 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe).

Defining coal consumption


Energy statistics are compiled and presented to take account of the complexity in the way fuels are used and to
avoid double counting. Misunderstandings can arise when statistics on coal consumption are used because of the
particular terminology used by energy statisticians.
Coal is used in four possible ways:
As a primary input to produce electricity or a secondary/tertiary fuel that is used elsewhere or sold - this is
referred to as use in transformation processes;
e.g. coking coal used to produce coke in a coke oven, steam coal used to produce electricity.
As a fuel used to support (but not used in) a transformation process - this is referred to as energy industry own
use;
e.g. coke oven gas used to heat the coke oven, steam coal used to operate the power plant.
As a fuel consumed in manufacturing industry, mining and construction, in transport, in agriculture, in
commercial and public services and in households - this is referred to as use in the final consumption sectors;
e.g. steam coal used to produce heat in cement kilns, steam coal used to produce industrial process steam.
As a raw material - this is referred to as non-energy use;
e.g. coal used to produce carbon electrodes for the aluminium industry.
In the wider community, the term consumption is commonly understood to include all four of the above enduses. However, in this book the term consumption refers only to use in the final consumption sectors (i.e. in the
third item above).

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.1

PART II
WORLD COAL MARKET REVIEW

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.3

WORLD COAL MARKET REVIEW


SUMMARY
In 2010, total global coal production increased by
6.0% to 7 228.7 Mt (Table II.1), making it the 11th
year in a row of the growth. With 1999 being the last
year when production declined, global coal production
in 2010 was 61% higher than in 1999. This was driven
almost entirely by growth in hard coal production
which was 73% higher than in 1999.
However, there has been a divergence of coal production
patterns between OECD and non-OECD economies in
recent years. The OECD countries had a combined
growth rate for 2010 of 0.6%, while the non-OECD
countries grew by 8.2%.
Gross electricity production in 2010 in the OECD (including generation from pumped storage plants) was
10 841.5 TWh, an increase of 3.6%, following the
economic crisis of 2009. Coal and peat used to generate electricity in OECD countries increased by 3.2%
to 3 734.8 TWh.
With the rebound from the economic crisis in 2009, coking coal use also grew, as it was used more in the iron
and steel industry. As a consequence, coking coal
consumption increased in the OECD region by
23.3 Mt to 183.9 Mt. (Part III Table 2.2).
The Peoples Republic of China continues to drive
much of the world coal markets as:
hard coal consumption grew by 15.1% or
435.4 Mt;
total coal production grew by 9.2% or 266.8 Mt;
and
hard coal imports rose by 40.7% or 51.2 Mt.
Total global coal consumption increased by 10.8% or
510 Mtce in 2010 (Table II.5). The OECD region

accounted for 87.1 Mtce of that growth. Although


they increased their coal consumption by 5.9%, they
still had less than a 30% share of total worldwide coal.
Global coal exports grew by 127.7 Mt in 2010 (Table II.7). Of this total, hard coal exports increased by
90.1 Mt (10.4%) in 2010, while brown coal exports
increased by 37.6 Mt (41.6%). (It should be noted that
because of differences in coal classification by trading
partners, difficulties in assigning trade to specific destinations, and because trade is not instantaneous, import
volumes do not exactly match export volumes.)
Steam coal export prices began to recover in 2010, as
the FOB prices of most of the exporting countries rose.
For example, South Africas prices rose 49.6% compared to 2009, as did Colombia (32.7%), Indonesia
(28.4%) and Australia (7.2%).
Regarding CO2 emissions in 2008, coal remains the
largest source of world CO2 emissions at 12.6 Gt. In
fact, coal emissions are 1.73 Gt greater than those
from oil and more than twice those of natural gas.
Once more, coal-related emissions increased in the
non-OECD countries (510.2Mt), while OECD coal
emission declined by 146.8 Mt (Figure II.6).

PRODUCTION
Total world coal supply
Total world coal production (hard and brown coal)
reached a record level of 7 228.7 Mt in 2010, increasing by 6.0% over 2009 (Table II.1). This is an average
annual growth rate of 4.5% since 1999. China was the
leading producer, with 3 162.2 Mt of total coal production, followed by the United States (997.1 Mt),
India (570.7 Mt) and Australia (420.3 Mt).
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II.4 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Table II.1 Total world coal production* [Mt]


Hard coal
Brown coal

2008
5 688.4
1 040.6

2009
5 789.7
1 033.0

2010e
6 185.8
1 042.9

Total

6 729.0

6 822.7

7 228.7

* Production includes recovered slurries.

Hard coal production


In 2010, world hard coal production increased by
6.8%, compared to 1.8% in 2009, and was the 11th
straight year of increased production. It continued to
be driven by growth in production from the nonOECD countries with 8.4% (or 364.9 Mt) growth in
2010. Among the major producing non-OECD
countries, production increased in the Peoples
Republic of China, the Russian Federation, Indonesia,
Kazakhstan, India, South Africa, Colombia, and
Vietnam (Table II.2).
OECD hard coal production was 1 467.0 Mt in 2010,
2.2% higher than the 2009 level, but still below the
level reached in 2005. Australia had the largest increase in OECD hard coal production with an increase
of 18.4 Mt, with the United States (10.5 Mt) and
Canada (5.7 Mt) also contributing to the rise in production in 2010.
Table II.2 Major Hard Coal Producers* [Mt]
PR of China
United States
India
Australia
South Africa
Russian
Federation
Indonesia
Kazakhstan
Poland
Colombia
Ukraine
Vietnam
Canada
DPR of Korea
United Kingdom
Other
Total

2008
2 734.4
1 007.2
488.6
325.4
252.2
222.4

2009
2 895.3
921.8
528.4
334.6
250.6
207.0

2010e
3 162.2
932.3
537.6
353.0
254.7
247.9

128.6
106.3
84.3
73.5
59.5
38.8
32.8
25.1
18.1
91.1

150.3
95.8
78.1
72.8
55.0
43.7
28.0
24.6
17.9
85.9

173.5
105.2
76.7
74.4
54.4
44.7
33.7
24.6
18.2
92.8

5 688.4

5 789.7

6 185.8

* Production includes recovered slurries.


See Table 1.1 in Part III for historic data on selected countries.

In 1978, the OECD accounted for about 45% of the


world hard coal production. However, since then its
share has declined as a general trend as more nonOECD countries have increased their hard coal production. While OECD production increased throughout the 70s and 80s, its share of world production
dropped from 47.7% in 1980 to below 40% in 1993
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

and by 2010 it had declined to 23.7%. In recent years,


this was largely due to the prodigious expansion of the
Chinese coal industry since 2001.
The largest OECD hard coal-producing region is
OECD Americas, with two-thirds of the OECD production. Nearly one quarter of the OECD production
is in the Asia Oceania region and the remaining 9% is
in the OECD Europe region.
Hard coal production in the non-OECD countries increased by 8.4% to 4 718.9 Mt in 2010. However,
over 99% of the non-OECD hard coal production is
accounted for by the 10 largest producing countries.
The Peoples Republic of China now accounts for
51.1% of world hard coal production and 67.0% of
non-OECD production. In 2010, its production
reached 3 162.2 Mt, an increase of 266.8 Mt (9.2%)
above its 2009 level. In 2010, its growth in hard coal
production accounted for just over two-thirds of the
total increase in world hard coal production. (It should
be noted that the IEA Secretariat currently incorporates lignite and sub-bituminous coals in hard coal
figures for the Peoples Republic of China while it is
in the process of determining accurate figures with
Chinese counterparts.)
Hard coal production in the Peoples Republic of
China has experienced a remarkable recovery since
the late 1990s when the government instituted a series
of company consolidations and mine closures. Their
production has increased by more than 150% since
2000, which allowed the country to meet the fast
growing demand for coal to generate electricity and
make steel. However, as a major coal exporter, the
Peoples Republic of China moved from the second
largest hard coal exporter in 2001 to be 10th in the
world in 2010. When also taking into account that the
Peoples Republic of China was the second largest
coal-importing country in 2010, their trade balance
moved from net exports of 5.0 Mt in 2008, to net imports of 156.9 Mt in 2010. Their imports grew dramatically from 40.3 Mt to 177.0 Mt (Table II.9), while
exports were more than cut in half from 45.3 Mt to
20.1 Mt (Table II.8) over this two-year period.
India is the second largest non-OECD hard coal producer and third in the world. India hard coal production increased by 1.7% to 537.6 Mt and follows an
8.2% increase in 2009. Although it dominates South
Asian production, it contains a very high ash quotient
and is almost exclusively consumed domestically.
Indonesia was the 7th largest hard coal producer in
2010 with coal production reaching 173.5 Mt, up

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.5

15.4% from its 2009 level. Indonesia is also the second largest hard coal exporter worldwide behind
Australia and the largest exporter of steam coal, surpassing Australia in 2006.

Coal resources and reserves

Brown coal production

Coal reserve estimates

Worldwide brown coal production rose by 1.0% to


1 042.9 Mt in 2010 (Table II.3), reaching a level not seen
since 1991. OECD brown coal production declined for
the 3rd straight year and is at the lowest level recorded since 1974, dropping to 598.5 Mt. On the other
hand, non-OECD brown coal production rose to a record level of 444.3 Mt in 2010, led by Indonesia, who
accounted for over three-quarters of the total increase.

In its most recent study, the German Federal Institute


for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) estimates the current proved recoverable global coal reserves at 1 000.5 billion tonnes (Table II.4), which
was an increase of 3.3 billion tons from 2009. The
2009 proved recoverable reserves represent over 138
years of production at current levels, down from 144
years estimated last year.

Table II.3 Major Brown Coal Producers* [Mt]

An estimate published by the World Energy Council


(WEC) in 1978 set proved coal reserves at 636.4 billion
tonnes. Thus, world proved coal reserves are 57%
larger than they were 32 years before. This is even
though production from 1978 to 2010 was
159.2 billion tonnes. It is also important to note that
world hard coal total resources are estimated to be
14.5 trillion tonnes or over 14 times proved reserves.1

Germany
Indonesia
Russian Federation
Turkey
Australia
United States
Greece
Poland
Czech Republic
Serbia
Canada
India
Romania
Bulgaria
Thailand
Other
Total

2008
175.3
120.1
82.5
76.8
66.0
68.7
65.7
59.7
47.5
38.7
34.9
32.4
35.9
29.0
18.0
89.3
1 040.6

2009
169.9
140.9
69.0
76.6
68.3
65.8
64.9
57.1
45.4
38.5
35.0
34.1
34.0
27.1
17.8
88.7
1 033.0

2010e
169.4
162.6
76.0
69.0
67.2
64.8
56.5
56.5
43.9
37.3
34.2
33.1
30.8
29.3
18.5
93.8
1 042.9

Following its 1989 peak, world brown coal production


declined steadily until 1999, largely as a result of contractions of demand and supply in central and Eastern
Europe. Production stabilised from 2000 onwards,
mainly as a result of an increased use for electricity

generation in countries such as Germany, Greece,


Serbia, Indonesia, Romania, India and Canada.

Another estimate published by the WEC on reserves at


the end of 2002 set proved coal reserves at 909.1 billion
tonnes. Even though it is difficult to compare the estimates from two different sources, the increase observed
between the end-2002 coal reserves and the 2009 coal
reserves suggests that, as the prices increased, a part of
the resources were reallocated to recoverable reserves as
they became economical to mine.

1 Reserves, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources, Federal


Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hanover, Germany
2010.

Table II.4 Proved Recoverable Reserves in 2009 and 2010 Production [Mt]
Region
OECD Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Total
Transition Economies
of which: Russian Federation
People's Republic of China
Asia excluding China
of which: India
Latin America
of which: Colombia
Africa and Middle East
World

Proved Recoverable Reserves 2009


Hard Coal
Soft Brown Coal
Total
16 601
55 201
71 802
233 381
33 138
266 519
45 296
43 860
89 156
295 278
132 199
427 477
123 810
108 039
231 849
68 655
91 350
160 005
180 600
11 000
191 600
83 338
21 209
104 547
72 009
4 895
76 904
8 298
5 073
13 371
5 298
5 298
31 504
9
31 513
723 009

277 529

Production 2010
Hard Coal
Brown Coal
130.3
431.5
976.6
99.0
360.2
68.0
1 467.0
598.5
408.3
200.7
247.9
76.0
3 162.2
0.0
804.1
238.0
537.6
33.1
83.6
5.6
74.4
0.0
260.6
0.0

1 000 538

6 185.8

1 042.9

Total
562.2
1 075.6
428.1
2 066.0
609.0
323.9
3 162.2
1 042.1
570.7
89.3
74.4
260.6
7 228.7

Sources: Reserves - Bundesanstalt fr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) www.bgr.bund.de


Production - International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2011

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.6 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Geographic location of proved coal reserves


Although coal resources are widely distributed around
the world2, proved coal reserves tend to be concentrated in the countries which rely on coal for domestic
energy or export revenue. OECD Americas and the
Transition Economy countries controlled 26.6% and
23.2% of the proved total coal reserves, respectively.
The Peoples Republic of China accounts for 19.1%
of proved reserves and 10.4% are in Asia (excluding
the Peoples Republic of China). Thus, almost 80% of
proved coal reserves are concentrated in just four regions. Looking at hard coal reserves, OECD Americas
contains 32.3% of world reserves and the same four
regions contain 85.9% of all coal reserves.

CONSUMPTION
Total coal consumption
In 2010, 76.9% of world consumption of coal was
accounted for by just five countries: the Peoples
Republic of China, the United States, India, the
Russian Federation and Japan (Table II.5). This is an
increase from 75.5% in 2009. If a second set of five
countries is added to this list South Africa,
Germany, Korea, Poland and Australia, then 86.7% of
the world coal consumption is accounted for.

OECD consumption
As OECD rebounded from the economic crisis in
2009, so did their coal consumption. OECD coal consumption increased by 5.9% in 2010 and reached
1 558.7 Mtce3, accounting for 29.8% of global coal
consumption.
The United States, the largest OECD coal consumer,
increased its coal consumption by 5.7% to 733.0 Mtce
above its 2009 level. In OECD Europe, coal
consumption is estimated to have reached 419.3 Mtce
in 2010, a 4.8% increase from the level of
consumption in 2009. The largest increases in
consumption were 9.0 Mtce in Poland, followed by

Germany (5.5 Mtce) and Turkey (4.9 Mtce). Total


coal consumption in the OECD Asia Oceania was
353.4 Mtce, an increase of 8.3% from 2009. This was
driven by Japan, where coal consumption increased
by 19.8 Mtce, and Korea (10.4 Mtce).
Table II.5 Total Coal Consumption [Mtce]
(Selected Countries)
2008

2009

2010E

778.3
162.9
112.4
89.0
84.8
79.1
42.0
50.8
38.6
28.2
23.5
18.1
9.7
19.8
11.3
11.9
11.1
4.4
6.2
45.0

693.6
145.0
100.1
92.4
77.6
78.4
42.4
42.6
33.0
24.8
18.5
15.1
11.2
13.7
10.5
12.0
10.6
4.7
5.2
40.2

733.0
164.8
105.6
102.8
86.6
75.6
47.3
44.4
32.2
24.7
20.1
16.1
12.6
11.7
10.6
10.4
10.2
6.0
5.9
38.1

Non-OECD Countries
PR of China
India
Russian Federation
South Africa
Chinese Taipei
Ukraine
Kazakhstan
Indonesia
Thailand
DPR of Korea
Brazil
Vietnam
Malaysia
Philippines
Serbia
Bulgaria
Romania
Hong Kong (China)
Other Non-OECD

2030.0
368.1
169.8
150.7
57
58
49.1
36.8
22
24.3
18.1
16.7
13.6
9.8
11.8
10.6
12.7
10
46.6

2187.2
405.6
137.3
140.5
54.4
51.6
44.5
43.6
21.3
23.4
15.2
17.9
15.1
8.3
10.8
9.1
10
10.9
46.3

2516.7
433.8
176.9
141.2
60.2
53.3
48.8
38.4
22.7
22.1
20.3
18.6
16.3
13.5
10.2
9.6
9.3
9.1
54.7

European Union
Total IEA
Total OECD
Total Non-OECD

437.4
1593.0
1627.1
3115.7

382.7
1438.3
1471.6
3253.0

397.9
1522.4
1558.7
3675.7

World

4742.9

4724.6

5234.4

OECD Countries
United States
Japan
Germany
Korea
Poland
Australia
Turkey
United Kingdom
Canada
Czech Republic
Italy
France
Mexico
Spain
Netherlands
Greece
Israel
Finland
Chile
Other OECD

See Tables 2.1 and 2.4 in Part III for historical data.

2. The range of definitions of coal resources and reserves and an


overview of the national classification systems is provided in an
Appendix to Major Coalfields of the World, IEA Coal Research, London,
June 2000.
3. Total coal, discussed in this section, refers to the sum of hard coal
and brown coal, converted to a common energy unit, million tonnes of
coal equivalent (Mtce).

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

The term Total Coal refers to the sum of Hard Coal and Brown
Coal after conversion to a common energy unit (tonne of coal
equivalent - tce). The conversion is done by multiplying the calorific value of the coal in question by the total volume of hard coal
and brown coal used, measured in physical units, i.e. in tonnes.
The energy content of one tonne of coal equivalent is 29.3 Gigajoules (GJ) or 7000 kcal and corresponds to 0.7 tonnes of oil
equivalent (toe).
Consumption refers to Total Primary Energy Supply.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.7

Non-OECD consumption
Total coal consumption in the non-OECD countries
continued its strong growth, increasing by 13.0% to
3 675.7 Mtce. This was mainly due to the Peoples
Republic of China, which strengthened its position as
the largest coal-consuming country in 2010. Consumption was up in China by 15.1%, following an
increase of 7.7% in 2009. China, therefore, consumed
2 516.7 Mtce of coal or 48.1% of total world coal
consumption.
Consumption also increased in other major coal consuming countries, including India (7.0%), the Russian
Federation (28.8%), and Chinese Taipei (10.7%).

Steam coal consumption


World steam coal consumption was up 11.0% in
2010, to 5 437.3 Mt (Table 2.3, Part III). Steam coal
consumption in the OECD countries increased by
5.5% in 2010, to 1 462.1 Mt. Viewed on a regional
basis, steam coal consumption increased by 4.5% in
OECD Americas, 6.6% in OECD Europe, and 7.5%
in OECD Asia Oceania. The countries with the largest
increases in 2010 were: the United States (37.0 Mt),
Japan (17.4 Mt), Germany (6.9 Mt), Turkey (6.4 Mt),
Poland (6.4 Mt) and Korea (5.8 Mt).
Non-OECD steam coal consumption increased by
13.2% to 3 975.2 Mt. Steam coal consumption increased in several of the major non-OECD consumer
countries led by the Peoples Republic of China, increasing consumption from 2 445.2 Mt in 2009 to
2 816.4 Mt in 2010. In addition, the Russian Federation
(30.7 Mt) and India (25.5 Mt) also had relatively large
increases in their steam coal consumption in 2010.

Coking coal consumption


Coking coal consumption in the OECD (Table 2.2,
Part III) increased significantly, by 14.5% to 183.9 Mt
in 2010, as demand for steel began to recover. However, it was still 6.4% below the pre-economic crisis
level of 2008. Despite some recent growth in 2004,
2006 and 2007, coking coal consumption has generally been declining in the OECD since the mid-1980s.
Several factors have combined to weaken coking coal
consumption. First, this is due to the growing use of
pulverised coal injection (PCI) and heavy fuel oil injection into blast furnaces. Coal used for PCI is generally of steam coal quality, so steam coal is displacing
coking coal as a carbon source. Second, the steel

industries in the OECD countries are experiencing


technological evolution where traditional integrated
steel production, which relies on coke oven coke, is
losing ground to electric arc furnace technology,
which does not require coke. Third, there has been a
general migration of integrated steel manufacturing
from the OECD to the non-OECD countries.
World consumption of coking coal in 2010 is estimated to have increased by 15.5% to 879.5 Mt. In
2010, the Peoples Republic of China accounted for
57.2% of global coking coal consumption down from
57.6% in 2009. The next five major coking coal consumers are: India, the Russian Federation, Japan,
Ukraine and Korea. Together they accounted for another 27.0% of world annual coking coal consumption.
The OECD countries mostly used the coking coal to
produce coke oven coke. In 2010, they produced
122.6 Mt of coke oven coke and consumed 124.4 Mt
of coke oven coke (Tables 1.5 and 2.5, Part III).
But the latest available data for 2009 shows that total
PCI consumption declined from 2008 by 20.3%, as
the world economic crisis affected this industry as
well (Table II.6). (For comparison purposes, world
coking coal consumption declined by 18.2% in 2009
compared to 2008.) The four top PCI consumers
(Japan, Korea, the Russian Federation and India) accounted for 69.6% of all PCI consumption. But the
largest declines occurred in Germany, Japan, France
and the United States.
Table II.6 PCI Used in Blast Furnaces
(major consumers in thousand tonnes)
Japan
Korea
Russian Federation
India
Germany
France
United States
Netherlands
Italy
United Kingdom
Chinese Taipei
Australia
Turkey
Slovak Republic
Colombia
Sweden
Spain
Belgium
Total

2008
9705
6663
3996
2493
3071
2046
1829
1353
887
961
1113
825
345
406
255
439
507
403

2009
8625
6123
3315
2615
1833
1036
1032
900
726
709
678
498
389
383
300
275
238
45

37 297

29 720

See Table 5.4 in Part III for other countries and historical data.
World totals are Secretariat estimates. Includes granular coal
injection for some countries.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.8 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

discrepancies between the export and import data of


those countries.)

TRADE

Exports

World coal trade


The trade of all types of coal in the world rose by
13.4% in 2010, reaching 1 083.1 Mt (Table II.7). This
was composed of 955.1 Mt of hard coal exports and
128.0 Mt of brown coal exports. World hard coal
trade grew by 10.4% (90.1 Mt) in 2010 and brown
coal trade rose by 37.6 Mt, a 41.6% increase. Again,
the large increase in both hard and brown coal trade
was due to the worldwide recovery and the expanding
intake of coal by the Peoples Republic of China.
Table II.7 World coal trade [Mt]
Hard coal exports
Brown coal exports
Hard coal imports
Brown coal imports
Total exports
Total imports
Balancing item

2008
860.2
78.9
908.2
21.6
939.1
929.8
9.3

2009
865.0
90.4
915.4
15.6
955.4
931.0
24.4

2010e
955.1
128.0
1 048.1
15.2
1 083.1
1 063.3
19.8

Note: The balancing item is the difference between total coal


imports and total coal exports. This is primarily due to the different
coal classification methodologies used by the importing and exporting countries. It also occurs because of coal in-transit, coal
that is unaccounted for, and reporting discrepancies by importing
and exporting countries.

The breakdown between coking, steam, and brown


coal statistics in world coal trade is affected by the
practice of some countries. For example, Australia
includes some steam coal (soft or semi-soft coking
coal, used for blending or as PCI) in their coking coal
statistics. However, other countries include this trade
in their steam coal import statistics. This results in a
discrepancy between reported world coal imports and
exports. It has also become an increasing problem of
some countries classifying certain coal exports as
subbituminous, while their trading partner is classifying those imports as bituminous coal. This also contributes to the growing divergence between world
hard coal imports and exports statistics.
(Note: Due to new information obtained from the
Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources,
Indonesian coking coal production in the 2011 edition
has been reduced significantly resulting in changes to
the export figures. The Japanese trade data have not
been modified, so that they remain consistent with the
Japanese reporting methodology. The new information from the Ministry also indicates a much larger
portion of brown coal in production and exports
than was previously reported. This causes larger
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Australia remains the world's leading hard coal exporter with total hard coal exports reaching 297.7 Mt
in 2010, up 13.8%, after an increase of 3.8% in 2009
(Table II.8).
Indonesia continues to show strong export growth with
an increase of 8.4% to 161.9 Mt in 2010, and remains
the second largest hard coal exporter in the world, as
demand in the Asia-Pacific region grew by 21.4%.
The Russian Federations exports of hard coal increased by 3.0% to 108.8 Mt in 2010, due to large
increases in demand in the Peoples Republic of
China, and remained the worlds third largest hard
coal exporter. Exports from the United States in 2010
rebounded to just above its 2008 level with 73.9 Mt.
South African exports grew by 3.0% or 2.1 Mt in
2010 and Colombian coal exports increased by 2.5%,
reaching 68.5 Mt in 2010. However, Colombia
dropped to be the 6th-largest hard coal exporter in
2010.
Table II.8 Major hard coal exporters [Mt]
Australia
Indonesia
Russian Federation
United States
South Africa
Colombia
Canada
Kazakhstan
Vietnam
PR of China
Other

2008
252.2
128.0
97.5
73.7
57.9
67.8
31.5
32.0
19.4
45.3
54.9

2009
261.7
149.4
105.6
53.4
67.5
66.8
28.5
29.1
25.0
22.3
55.7

2010e
297.7
161.9
108.8
73.9
69.6
68.5
33.3
32.8
22.4
20.1
66.1

Total

860.2

865.0

955.1

Statistics for hard coal exports presented in this table are shown
for selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables 3.14
and 3.16.

The Peoples Republic of China remained as the 10th


largest hard coal exporter, exporting 20.1 Mt. This is
less than half of the amount they exported in 2008
(45.3 Mt). Moreover, the Peoples Republic of China
imports almost nine times more than it exports.

Imports
Total world hard coal imports which can be allocated
were 1 048.1 Mt in 2010, a 14.5% increase over 2009
imports, as the world economic recovery took hold
(Table II.9).
The top seven ranked hard coal-importing countries in
2010 were, in order: Japan, the Peoples Republic of

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.9

China, Korea, India, Chinese Taipei, Germany, and


Turkey. Collectively, these seven accounted for almost all of the increase in world hard coal imports in
2010. The Peoples Republic of Chinas imports grew
40.6% to 177.0 Mt, while Indias imports grew by
23.0%.
Table II.9 Major hard coal importers [Mt]
Japan
PR of China
Korea
India
Chinese Taipei
Germany
Turkey
United Kingdom
Italy
Netherlands
Russian Federation
Malaysia
France
United States
Brazil
Other
OECD Total
Non-OECD Total
Asia Pacific
Europe + Eurasia
Africa + Mid. East
North America
Latin America

2008
184.4
40.3
99.6
59.0
58.0
45.4
19.5
43.9
25.1
21.2
31.0
18.1
21.3
30.9
15.3
195.2
603.3
304.9
503.7
307.4
24.2
46.5
26.5

2009
164.1
125.8
103.0
73.3
52.7
38.5
20.4
38.2
18.9
19.9
23.8
17.0
15.4
20.4
12.7
171.4
538.6
376.9
580.3
255.2
21.8
34.8
23.5

2010e
186.6
177.0
118.6
90.1
63.2
45.7
26.9
26.5
21.5
20.4
19.3
19.1
17.5
17.4
17.3
180.7
575.8
472.3
704.5
258.6
21.2
34.0
29.9

World

908.2

915.4

1048.1

Statistics for hard coal imports presented in this table are shown for
selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables 3.5 and 3.7.

Steam coal trade


Total world steam coal exports increased by 30.6 Mt or
4.7% in 2010 (Table II.10). Ranked in terms of change
in tonnage, Indonesia, Australia, Kazakhstan, the
United States, the Russian Federation, South Africa,
Colombia, and Poland all experienced increases in
their steam coal exports.
Table II.10 Major steam coal exporters [Mt]
Indonesia
Australia
Russian Federation
Colombia
South Africa
Kazakhstan
United States
Vietnam
PR of China
Poland
Other
Total

2009
147.3
136.5
92.3
66.8
66.2
28.8
19.6
25.0
21.7
6.7
42.6
653.5

2010e
159.7
143.1
95.1
68.5
68.2
32.5
23.0
22.4
19.5
8.1
44.0
684.1

Statistics for steam coal exports presented in this table are shown
for selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables 3.10,
3.12, 3.19 and 3.21.

In 2010, Indonesia further increased their world steam


coal market share from 22.5% to 23.3%. Australia, the
Russian Federation, Colombia, and South Africa followed with respective shares of 20.9%, 13.9%, 10.0%,
and 10.0%, as Australia and Indonesia both produced
record exports.
In 2010, steam coal imports in the Asia-Pacific market
increased by 20.6%, or 91.2 Mt, to reach 534.5 Mt
(Table II.11). Asia-Pacific imports represented 67.5%
of total world steam coal trade in 2010, up from
62.2% in the previous year. This demonstrates that
growth in the Asia-Pacific market has supported international steam coal trade in the recent past.
Table II.11 Major steam coal importers [Mt]
Japan
PR of China
Korea
India
Chinese Taipei
Germany
United Kingdom
Turkey
Russian Federation
Malaysia
Thailand
Italy
United States
Netherlands
France
Other
OECD Total
Non-OECD Total
Asia Pacific
Europe + Eurasia
Africa + Mid. East
North America
Latin America

2009
111.5
91.4
82.3
48.6
48.7
32.0
33.0
15.2
23.6
17.0
16.7
15.7
19.5
16.9
11.8
128.6
421.1
291.4
443.3
207.8
18.0
31.6
11.8

2010e
129.0
128.6
90.9
59.8
58.4
37.9
20.3
20.1
19.2
19.1
16.8
16.4
16.0
15.9
12.9
130.6
433.4
358.5
534.5
195.2
17.9
29.5
14.8

World

712.5

791.9

Statistics for steam coal imports presented in this table are shown
for selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables 3.10,
3.12, 3.19 and 3.21.

Japan remained the world's largest single market for


steam coal imports, receiving 129.0 Mt in 2010,
17.5 Mt more than in 2009 (Table II.11). Just behind
Japan, the Peoples Republic of Chinas steam coal
imports grew by 40.7% to 128.6 Mt in 2010. Other
major importers in the region were Korea (90.9 Mt
up 8.6 Mt), India (59.8 Mt up 11.2 Mt), and Chinese
Taipei (58.4 Mt up 9.7 Mt).
In 2010, the major steam coal suppliers to this AsiaPacific market were Indonesia, Australia, South Africa,
Vietnam, the Russian Federation and Colombia.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.10 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Steam coal exports to the European market were


195.2 Mt in 2010, 6.1% lower than in 2009. This
market now represents 24.6% of total world steam
coal trade - down from 29.2% in 2009.
Within the region, the major Europe/Eurasian importers were Germany (37.9 Mt), the United Kingdom
(20.3 Mt), Turkey (20.1 Mt), the Russian Federation
(19.2), Italy (16.4 Mt), the Netherlands (15.9 Mt), and
France (12.9 Mt).
The 2010 main steam coal suppliers to this market
were the Russian Federation, Colombia, South Africa,
Indonesia, the United States, Australia, and Poland.
In North America, steam coal shipments decreased by
6.6% to 29.5 Mt in 2010. The largest supplier to the
North American market is Colombia, followed by
trade between Canada and the United States.
In 2010, 8.2 Mt of steam coal were exported to Latin
American countries, (56% of which went to
Brazil). The largest suppliers to Latin America were
Colombia, South Africa, Venezuela, and Australia.
The estimated cost of steam coal imported by OECD
countries rose slightly in 2010 to USD 99.55/t, as the
economies began to emerge from the financial crisis
of 2009. However, they were still 17.5% below the
2008 record level of USD 120.60/t.
The average cost of steam coal imported into Japan was
USD 110.40/t, a decrease of 0.6% in 2010 (Table 11.12
and Figure II.1). The cost of steam coal imported into
the European Union averaged USD 104.13/t in 2010,
3.8% more than the average price in 2009. This was
after the 27.2% drop from 2008.
Table II.12: Steam coal: Import unit values CIF
[US$/t]
2008
2009
2010
Change 2008 to 2009
Change 2009 to 2010

OECD
120.60
97.53
99.55
-19.1%
2.1%

Japan
125.42
111.12
110.40
-11.4%
-0.6%

EU
137.79
100.28
104.13
-27.2%
3.8%

See Tables 4.3 and 4.4 in Part III for previous years for Japan
and EU.

The average FOB export unit value (in US dollars) for


Australia, Indonesia, Colombia and South Africa increased in 2010 as the financial crisis receded

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

(Table II.13 and Figure II.2). The US FAS prices had


increased in both 2008 and 2009, but declined by
11.9% in 2010.
Table II.13: Steam Coal: Export unit values
(FOB/FAS) [US$/t]

2008
2009
2010
Change
08 to 09
09 to 10

Australia
FOB
92.23
80.03
85.81
-13.2%
7.2%

Average to all markets


Indonesia Colombia South Africa
FOB
FOB
FOB
115.48
120.27
88.19
55.29
58.26
60.99
71.01
77.31
91.26
-52.1%
28.4%

-51.6%
32.7%

-30.8%
49.6%

US
FAS
62.76
81.33
71.63
29.6%
-11.9%

See Table 4.5 in Part III for previous years.

Coking coal trade


Total world coking coal trade increased by 28.1% to
270.9 Mt in 2010 (Table II.14).
Australia remained by far the largest exporter of coking coal at 154.6 Mt, accounting for about half of the
worldwide increase in coking coal trade in 2010. The
United States remained as the second-ranking coking
coal exporter with a volume of 50.9 Mt, a 50.6% increase from 2009, while third-ranked Canada exported
27.5 Mt of coking coal, a 27.9% increase over 2009.
Table II.14 Major coking coal exporters [Mt]
Australia
United States
Canada
Russian Federation
Mongolia
Czech Republic
New Zealand
Indonesia
Poland
South Africa
Other

2009
125.2
33.8
21.5
13.3
4.6
4.0
2.0
2.0
1.7
1.4
2.0

2010e
154.6
50.9
27.5
13.7
10.9
3.8
2.3
2.2
1.8
1.4
1.8

Total

211.5

270.9

Statistics for coking coal exports presented in this table are


shown for selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables
3.18 and 3.20.

Coking coal exports to Asia-Pacific are estimated to


have increased 24.1% to 170.0 Mt in 2010. Japan accounted for 22.5% (57.7 Mt) of the world market in
2010, and remains the worlds largest single market
for imported coking coal (Table II.15). In 2010, the
Peoples Republic of Chinas coking coal imports rose
to 48.4 Mt, and now accounts for 18.9% of the world
market.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.11

Table II.15 Major coking coal importers [Mt]


Japan
PR of China
India
Korea
Brazil
Ukraine
Germany
Turkey
United Kingdom
Italy
Chinese Taipei
France
Netherlands
Poland
Canada
Other

2009
52.5
34.4
24.7
20.7
9.1
5.3
6.4
5.2
5.2
3.2
4.0
3.6
3.0
2.3
2.2
21.1

2010e
57.7
48.4
30.4
27.7
12.5
10.5
7.8
6.8
6.2
5.1
4.8
4.6
4.6
3.2
3.1
22.8

OECD Total
Non-OECD Total
Asia Pacific
Europe + Eurasia
Africa + Mid. East
North America
Latin America

117.5
85.4
137.0
47.4
3.7
3.2
11.7

142.4
113.8
170.0
63.4
3.3
4.5
15.1

World

202.9

256.2

Statistics for coking coal imports presented in this table are


shown for selected countries with historic data in Part III, Tables
3.9 and 3.11.

Other major importers in the region were India


(30.4 Mt) and Korea (27.7 Mt). The major coking coal
supplier to this regional market in 2010 was Australia,
with nearly 64.4% of supply, followed by Mongolia,
the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation.
Coking coal trade to the Europe/Eurasian market was
63.4 Mt in 2010, which increased dramatically from
47.4 Mt in one year. This increased its market share to
24.7% in 2010.
Within the region, the major importers are: Ukraine
(10.5 Mt), Germany (7.8 Mt), Turkey (6.8 Mt), the
United Kingdom (6.2 Mt), Italy (5.1 Mt), France
(4.6 Mt), and the Netherlands (4.6 Mt). The main coking coal suppliers to this market in 2010 were the
United States, Australia, Canada, the Czech Republic,
the Russian Federation, and Poland.
Within North America, coking coal trade is primarily
between Canada and the United States. About 4.5 Mt
of coking coal was traded in the region in 2010, up
from 3.2 Mt in 2009.
In 2010, Latin America had imports of 14.6 Mt of
coking coal, 12.7 Mt of which went to Brazil. The
main suppliers to this regional market are the
United States, Australia and Canada.
In Japan, the average customs unit values (CIF) for
coking coal import prices decreased by 7.6% in 2010
(Table II.16). This followed an 11.0% price drop in

2009. This is despite the fact that Japans coking imports rebounded in 2010 back to its 2008 level.
Table II.16: Coking coal: Import unit values
(CIF) [US$/t]
Japan
184.13
163.82
151.45
-11.0%
-7.6%

2008
2009
2010
Change 2008 to 2009
Change 2009 to 2010

EU
197.84
187.29
194.02
-5.3%
3.6%

See Tables 4.1 and 4.2 in Part III for previous years.

In the EU, the average customs unit values (FOB) rose


slightly in 2010 by 3.6%, after a 5.3% decrease in 2009
from 2008. In 2010, coking coal export unit values
increased for Australia and the United States by
19.4% and 23.5%, respectively (Table II.17).
Table II.17: Coking coal: Export unit values
(FOB/FAS) [US$/t]
Australia
194.87
143.83
171.75
-26.2%
19.4%

2008
2009
2010
Change 2008 to 2009
Change 2009 to 2010

US
148.39
129.77
160.32
-12.5%
23.5%

See Table 4.6 in Part III for previous years.

Coke oven coke trade


The OECD countries imports of coke oven coke rose
by 46.4% (4.4 Mt) between 2009 and 2010 as imports
rose to 13.9 Mt (Table 3.13, Part III). Germany alone
accounted for 31.1% of the OECD coke imports in
2010. Imports in the United States rose by 250%,
reaching 1.1 Mt in 2010, however, still 2.2 Mt less
than in 2008.
Coke exports from the OECD countries rose from 10.2 Mt
in 2009 to 11.8 Mt in 2010, an increase of 15.8% (Table 3.22, Part III). Poland, the United States, the
Czech Republic, and Japan were the top exporters in
2010 accounting for 78.4% of OECD coke exports.
Coke statistics for the non-OECD countries are not
available for 2010. However, for 2009, non-OECD
coke imports and exports were both substantially affected by the worldwide recession, as the demand for
their exports fell by 80%. As a region, the non-OECD
countries went from a net exporter with imports of
12.9 Mt and exports of 17.2 Mt in 2008 to a net importer with imports of 9.3 Mt and exports of just
3.4 Mt. Within the non-OECD countries, India (2.2 Mt),
Kazakhstan (0.7 Mt), the Islamic Republic of Iran
(0.6 Mt) and Romania (0.6 Mt) were the main importers.
The Russian Federation (1.9 Mt) and Ukraine (0.9 Mt)
accounted for over 80% of the non-OECD coke oven
coke exports in 2009.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.12 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Figure II.1: OECD international trade values for steam coal and oil
(USD/tce)
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Crude oil (IEA CIF import cost)

Steam coal (OECD CIF import cost)

Natural gas (pipeline)

Liquified natural gas (LNG)

Heavy fuel oil (Spot Rotterdam)

Notes: Spot prices for heavy fuel oil are not directly comparable to customs unit values for steam coal. They are, however, closely correlated with
average CIF crude oil prices, which are, by definition comparable to customs unit values for steam coal. As a consequence, it is not unreasonable to compare customs unit values for steam coal with spot prices of heavy fuel oil. Steam coal and crude oil are IEA average and CIF import
values. Steam coal excludes intra-EU trade. Heavy fuel oil is Rotterdam spot market value, 3.5% sulphur.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices and Taxes.

Figure II.2: Steam coal import and export value comparison


(USD/t)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Japan CIF

EU Member States CIF

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices and Taxes.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Australia FOB

South Africa FOB

Colombia FOB

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.13

Figure II.3: Delivered steam coal prices in Europe and Asia (USD/t CIF)
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

McCloskey Northwest Europe CIF

McCloskey Asian CIF

Source: The McCloskey Group, McCloskeys Coal Report

Figure II.4: FOB port steam coal prices in South Africa and Australia (USD/t FOB)
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

South Africa (Richards Bay)

Australia (Newcastle)

Source: The McCloskey Group, McCloskeys Coal Report

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.14 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Figure II.6. Global change in CO2 emissions


(2007-2008)

CO2 EMISSIONS (2008)


800

Figure II.5: World CO2 emissions by fuel


15

Gt CO2

10

Coal and peat

Oil

Natural gas

Other

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

In 2008, the growth in global coal emissions accounted for 88% of the growth in total global emissions. Coal emissions increased by 363.4 Mt, while
natural gas emissions grew by 147.5 Mt and those
from oil dropped by 98.3 Mt globally (Figure II.6).
The OECD contribution to global emissions actually
declined in 2008 by 342.9 Mt, while non-OECD
sources of CO2 emissions rose by 754.3 Mt.
The annual growth in emissions from fossil fuels averaged 2.1% between 1971 and 1990, while it averaged 1.1% between 1990 and 2000. This lower pace
of growth after 1990 is in part related to the collapse
of the formerly centrally-planned economies of Central
and Eastern Europe, which led to a rapid decline in
output from inefficient industrial sectors and restructuring of these economies. Other important factors include
the use of more efficient technologies, fuel switching
and renewable energy sources. Rapid expansion of
non-OECD economies since 2000 caused emissions to
increase on average by 5.9% between 2000 and 2008,
with coal emissions increasing by 7.8% per annum
over this period. It is also important to note that these
data precede the global economic downturn, during
which non-OECD coal use continued to grow.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

600

Mt CO2

400
200
0
-200
-400
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

OECD

Other

Total

Non-OECD

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

Coal-related emissions in the non-OECD countries


became responsible for the majority of coal-related
global emissions from 1990 onward. The non-OECD
countries almost quadrupled their coal-related emissions from 2.1 Gt in 1971 to 8.2 Gt in 2008, whereas
the increase in the OECD was 39.8% from 3.1 Gt in
1971 to 4.4 Gt in 2008.
OECD emissions from fossil fuels increased from
9.4 Gt in 1971 to 11.2 Gt in 1990 and 12.8 Gt in 2008,
which represents an average annual growth rate of
0.8% between 1971 and 2008. As a result, the share
for the OECD countries in total world CO2 emissions
declined from 67% in 1971 to 53% in 1990 and 43%
in 2008 (Figure II.7). This occurred as the share of the
non-OECD countries in total world CO2 emissions rose
from 30% in 1971 to 44% in 1990 and 53% in 2008.
Figure II.7: World CO2 emissions by region
30
25
53%

20

Gt CO2

World CO2 emissions from fossil fuels increased by


109.1% between 1971 and 2008, going from 14.1 Gt
in 1971 to 21.0 Gt in 1990 and 29.4 Gt in 2008. Over
the same period, coal-related emissions increased by
142.3% from 5.2 Gt in 1971 to 8.3 Gt in 1990 and
12.6 Gt in 2008 - by then accounting for 42.8% of
CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (Figure II.5). Coal,
since 2005, is the leading source of world CO2 emissions ahead of oil and natural gas. Since 2002, CO2
emissions from coal have grown by 5.7% per year (or
590 Mt/y), over 80% of which has come from rapid
growth in the Peoples Republic of China.

44%

15
10

30%
4%

67%

4%

3%
53%

43%

0
1971
OECD

1990
Bunkers

2008
Non OECD

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

One of the most important recent developments in


the world economy is the increasing economic integration of large non-OECD countries, in particular

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.15

CO2 emissions have been clearly linked to economic


growth as shown in the example of China, where
strongly increasing electricity production is the main
driver for record high CO2 emissions. Coal consumption for electricity generation more than doubled in
China between 2001 and 2008. The impact of this is
visible in Figure II.9, where OECD coal-related CO2
emissions increase from 4.2 Gt in 1990 to 4.4 Gt in
2008. However, the OECD share of world CO2 emissions from coal decreased from 50% to 35% as nonOECD coal-related emissions increase from 4.2 Gt to
8.2 Gt in the same period. In fact, OECD countries
started diversifying their energy consumption after the
two oil shocks, and the share of oil in the CO2 emissions gradually declined and fell below the 50% line in
1980.
Figure II.8. The growing importance
of the BRICS countries

Figure II.9: Coal-related CO2 emissions


by region
14
12

14

Annex I

50%
(23%)

6
4
2

40%
(13%)
60%

50%

35%

1990

2008

0
1971
OECD

Non-OECD

of which: China

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

World CO2 emissions have also been influenced by


changes in international energy prices. Oil had been
the largest contributor to world emissions until 2005,
even though the upward trend was interrupted by the
oil shocks of 1974 and 1979. Even after the decline in
oil prices after 1985, growth in emissions was partially
mitigated because consuming countries adopted more
energy-efficient technologies and behaviour, and some
fuel switching occurred. Oil, as the main contributor
to OECD emissions, generated 41.9% of the CO2
emissions in 2008 down from 42.5% in 2007, as natural gas consumption and emissions continued to increase (Figure II.10).

16
Annex I

65%
(43%)

10
Gt CO2

Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, the Peoples


Republic of China and South Africa, the so-called
BRICS countries (Figure II.8). In 2008, these five
countries represented 31% of global energy use and
36.2% of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion.
These shares are likely to rise further in coming
years if the ongoing strong economic performance
currently enjoyed by most of these countries continues, as many commentators expect. In fact, besides
the United States, the Peoples Republic of China,
the Russian Federation and India are the other three
countries that emit the most CO2 emissions in absolute terms.

Figure II.10: OECD CO2 emissions by fuel

Non-Annex I

60%

12

Other
NonAnnex I

Gt CO2
10

50%
40%
Brazil

30%

8
6
4
2
0

Other
Annex I

Other
Annex I

Other
NonAnnex I
Brazil
India

Russian
China
Fed.
1990

South
Africa

India

Non-Annex I

South
Africa
Bunkers

20%
10%

China

0%
Bunkers

Russian
Fed.
2008

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion


Annex I countries are: OECD nations (with the exception of Chile,
Estonia, Israel, Korea, Mexico and Slovenia), the European Union
(with the exception of Cyprus and Malta), Belarus, Croatia,
Liechtenstein, Monaco, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine.

Coal

Oil

Natural gas

Other

Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

Within the OECD, coal is the second largest source of


CO2 emissions. Between 1971 and 1985, coal was
used as the main substitute for oil and its share of
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.16 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Figure II.11: World coal-related


CO2 emissions by sector

emissions increased, especially between 1978 and


1985, from its lowest point (31%) to its highest point
(39%). After 1985, the share of emissions from coal
declined regularly and by 1994 essentially returned to
its 1971 level (34%), where it has remained.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Gt CO2

World coal-related CO2 emissions due to electricity


and heat generation more than tripled between 1971
and 2008, from 2.4 Gt in 1971 to 8.7 Gt in 2008
(Figure II.11). During the same period, coal emissions
due to manufacturing industries and construction increased almost doubled, from 1.6 Gt in 1971 to 3.1 Gt
in 2008. Emissions due to the other sectors (including
transport) were almost cut by a third between 1971
and 2008, falling from 1.2 Gt in 1971 to 0.8 Gt in
2008. As a result, the electricity and heat generation
share of world coal-related CO2 emissions increased
from 46% in 1971 to 69% in 2008. On the other hand,
the share of CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction fell from 31% in 1971 to 24%
in 2008 and the share of other emissions fell from
23% to 6% over the period.

14
12

6%

10

24%

14%

26%

23%
31%

69%
59%

46%
0
1971

1990

2008

Electricity and heat production


Manuf acturing industries and construction
Other*

* Other includes residential, transport, commercial/public services,


agriculture, other energy industries and non-specified other sectors.
Source: IEA/OECD CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II - II.17

EFFICIENCY OUTLOOK FOR POWER


GENERATION FROM COAL
This is a selected excerpt from a report by the IEA
Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB), which is a
group of high-level executives from coal-related industrial enterprises, established by the IEA in July
1979 to provide advice to the IEA Executive Director
on a wide range of issues relating to coal. The CIAB
currently has 46 members from 21 countries, contributing valuable experience in the fields of coal production, trading and transportation, electricity generation
and other aspects of coal use. Mr. Mike Garwood of
E.On was the primary author of the report. The full
report, "Power Generation from Coal: Measuring and
Reporting Efficiency Performance and CO2 Emissions", is available at:
http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PU
BS_ID=2296.

The need for energy, together with the economics of


producing and supplying that energy to the end user,
are central considerations in power plant investment
decisions and operating strategies. Inevitably, there
will be a point at which higher efficiency and lower
emissions come at a cost which cannot be justified.
Where economic and regulatory conditions exist
which shift this balance consistently in favour of
higher efficiency and lower emissions, improvements
become a normal part of running a competitive business. The trend over time has been towards improved
power plant performance.
Worldwide coal-fired power plant efficiency averaged
35.1% in 2007, compared with 33.5% in 1971.1

1. On a lower heating value, gross electrical output basis, after correction for heat supply. The average efficiency in 2007 is estimated to be
32.6% on a net output basis, assuming power plant own use of approximately 7%. The reported average efficiency would be lower if no
correction were made for heat supply (see Figure II.16).

Figures II.12, II.13, II.14 and II.15 illustrate the evolution of efficiency in countries where coal is used
widely for electricity generation and heat supply. This
top-down assessment is based on annual coal consumption and electricity supply data collected by the
IEA. Fuel energy input is on a net calorific value
(NCV) or lower heating value (LHV) basis, while
electricity output is on a gross basis (i.e. at the generator terminals, before any deduction for on-site electricity use); each being the basis adopted by the IEA
for reporting energy statistics. Heat supply is based on
the quantity of heat supplied under commercial arrangements; the gross-net concept has no meaning for
heat supply. Efficiency is calculated after correcting
for heat supply using the methodology adopted by the
European Union.2 While this assessment allows for a
comparison of coal-fired power generation efficiency
at the national level, it does not allow for performance
comparisons to be made between individual plants;
indeed, the IEA does not collect plant-level data.
Although drawing national comparisons is not the
purpose of this article, some observations can be made
on the four figures:

2. Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council


of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a
useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC was published in the Official Journal of the European
Union, OJ L 52 on 21 February 2004 (pp. 50-60). Harmonised efficiency reference values for the separate production of electricity and
heat were tabulated in Commission Decision 2007/74/EC (OJ L 32,
6 February 2007, pp. 183-188), with further detailed guidance in
Commission Decision 2008/952/EC (OJ L 338, 17 December 2008,
pp. 55-61).
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.18 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Figures II.12, II.13, II.14 and II.15: Evolution of coal-fired heat and power plant efficiency
in selected countries
55%

55%

50%

50%

45%

45%

40%

40%

35%

35%

30%

30%

25%

25%

20%

20%

15%

15%

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Japan

Korea

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Australia

Germany

55%

55%

50%

50%

45%

45%

40%

40%

35%

35%

30%

30%

25%

25%

20%

20%

15%

15%

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Canada

USA

Poland

Italy

UK

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
South Africa

China

India

Note: The data reported in Figures II.12 to II.15 are not corrected for any of the factors which influence uncontrollable variables on performance,
such as ambient temperature.
Source: IEA databases.

The most rapid efficiency improvements have


been seen during periods when large new coalfired power plants were being built, for example in
Japan, Korea and South Africa.
In North America, much of the fleet of coal-fired
power plants operating today was built during the
1960s, so efficiency performance has been largely
unchanged over the last 40 years. The availability
of competitively priced indigenous coal and the
need to retrofit pollution control equipment have
not favoured efficiency improvements.
In Europe, the trend of improving efficiency
reflects the closure of older, less efficient coalfired power plants, replaced either by new coalfired plants or other energy sources for power
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

generation such as natural gas, renewable sources


and nuclear.
Coal-fired power generation efficiency shows a
gradual improvement in China as more new plants
are built with improved performance.
Countries which exploit poor quality coal for power
generation are faced with lower levels of efficiency,
for example in Australia and India. Many power
plants in these two countries must also contend with
high ambient temperatures and limited water supplies, both contributing to lower efficiency.
The cogeneration of heat and power can improve
efficiency, for example in Russia and Poland.
However, this assumes that the heat supplied is
used effectively.

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition)


E
PART II - II.19

Figure II.16: Efficiency improvement potential at hard coal-fired power plantts

Source: VGB (2009). Reprinted by permission of the publisher.


p
VGB PowerTech e.V., 2009.

The development of supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam cycles, with progresssively higher
steam temperatures and pressures, com
mbined with
modern plant design and automation, proovide significant potential for further efficiency improvvements and
the mitigation of CO2 emissions when compared
c
to
existing coal-fired power plants. These im
mprovements
can be realised through the progressive repplacement of
existing assets with new plant designs thaat reflect best
practices.
Although a large number of supercriticaal and ultrasupercritical pulverised coal-fired powerr plants are
currently under construction or plannedd, subcritical
technology has continued to dominate recent
r
build.
However, with stricter requirements too limit CO2
emissions, the share of supercritical and ultrasupercritical plants should increase.
By far the largest energy loss from existinng and future
coal-fired power plants will remain the heat
h
rejected
from the steam cycle to the cooling waterr. The use of
co-generation or combined heat and power, along
t
rewith district heating and cooling, has therefore
ceived renewed interest in the light of reqquirements to
improve energy efficiency and reduce specific
s
CO2
emissions. However, the most significantt potential to
reduce CO2 emissions from coal-fired power
p
plants
will come through the application of CO2 capture and
storage. Here, basic plant efficiency im
mprovements
will be a significant factor in ensuring thee viability of
carbon capture.
Figure II.16 shows projections by VGB for the efficiency of and emissions from coal-fired power generation by 2020. With proper policy annd financial
support for demonstration, by 2015 the net efficiency

of state-of-the-art units firing hardd or bituminous coal


could reach 50% (LHV) at plants without
w
CO2 capture
and storage. For lignite-fired plantts, these figures will
be up to 5 percentage points loweer depending on the
moisture content of the coal, but thhat can be improved
if developments in efficient coall-drying technology
are successful, using either wastee heat or low-grade
steam.
CO2 capture will significantly impaact the efficiency of
both existing and future plants. Att the current state of
technology, units retrofitted with capture
c
would suffer
a decrease in efficiency of up to 122 percentage points,
and consume perhaps 20% to 30%
% more fuel per unit
of electricity supplied. While a cooncept of what constitutes capture-ready exists for new
n power plants, it
may not be economic or technicallly viable to retrofit
existing pulverised coal plants with CO2 capture, especially at smaller units. Refurbishhments will often be
necessary to improve efficiency att existing plants before CO2 capture retrofits can be
b contemplated. If
40% efficiency were to be considdered the cut-off for
CO2 capture retrofit, around 10% of the worlds current coal-fired capacity would be suitable for CCS.3
Even then, and assuming a route to
t storage, case-bycase analyses would be needed to assess whether exs
adapted and
isting control systems can be safely
whether the large steam requirem
ment of CO2 capture
equipment can be sensibly supplieed from these existing plants.
3. Estimate using IEA Clean Coal Centre CoaalPower5 database. Of the
7 173 units listed in the database, the individdual efficiencies of a sample comprising 4 396 units (with a total caapacity of 1 074 GW) has
been estimated from available operating paarameters. Of these units,
255 units (with a total capacity of 118 GW) are estimated to have an
efficiency of greater than 40%.
INTERNATION
NAL ENERGY AGENCY

II.20 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART II

Owing to the loss of efficiency, retrofitted units will


deliver less power; additional new capacity would
likely be needed to offset this loss. Based on newbuild information, project proposals and forecasts it
appears that while the majority of future plants will be
either supercritical or ultra-supercritical with an efficiency rating above 40%, subcritical units will still

have a significant market share. By 2030, up to half of


the fleet might be considered suitable for CCS retrofit
when necessary, while most of the remaining plants
would require either upgrading to deliver high efficiencies or total replacement.4 Further work is needed
to better define the future potential for CCS retrofit at
coal-fired power plants.

4. Estimate from supercritical coal-fired power plants listed in Platts


UDI World Electric Power Plants Database 2009 and analysis presented in IEA World Energy Outlook 2009.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.1

PART III
WORLD COAL OVERVIEW

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.3

1. PRODUCTION

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.5

Table 1.1: World hard coal production (1)


(thousand tonnes)

Australia(2)
Austria
Belgium(2)
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
France(2)
Germany
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Japan(2)
Korea(2)
Mexico(2)
Netherlands
New Zealand(2)
Norway
Poland
Portugal(2)
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States(2)
IEA Total
OECD Total
Algeria
Botswana
Dem. Rep. of Congo
Egypt
Morocco
Mozambique
Nigeria
South Africa
United Rep. of Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Venezuela

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

55483
10362
12337
1374
27780
26350
104407
1186
64
25090
13571
2578
1829
2325
415
156630
221
9991
12
4642
131985
530064
1114744
1118696
333
130
565
394
327
62352
940
2806
160
451
1015
2834
33
50

71610
8018
20173
1125
27721
20190
94492
883
60
18027
18625
3089
1930
288
193121
177
12838
18
3598
130097
710178
1332044
1336258
3
138
680
207
176
115120
1
570
2768
196
390
1748
4164
41
42

122346
7666
34310
1291
26401
17055
88849
592
57
16381
22543
5193
101
2279
507
191642
237
16091
13
3605
94111
735935
1380721
1387205
23
437
121
775
35
140
173500
15
511
3104
317
400
1661
8766
127
40

158572
2357
37673
2183
22415
11199
76553
169
25
58
7979
17217
6933
2419
303
147736
281
14612
11
2745
92762
853647
1448733
1457849
794
126
526
40
90
174800
4
377
5345
314
276
637
21375
97
2189

191055
1
637
38621
1038
17738
8495
58858
1
6317
5720
9320
3334
292
137166
13497
2248
53037
858627
1395644
1406002
898
93
650
38
20
206211
44
152
4693
342
305
240
25651
51
4064

239429
375
33805
366
14855
3804
37376
2964
8300
11344
3246
632
103331
11317
2392
31198
893972
1386996
1398706
947
96
58
31
16
3
224200
79
194
4260
585
259
159
38242
17
7885

300190
109
29086
544
13254
617
28018
95
2832
10755
5021
1471
97904
8548
2170
20498
962440
1472253
1483552
985
120
25
12
3
8
244986
75
150
3621
678
25
528
59064
43
7195

324571
32812
243
12894
422
24185
158
2886
12514
4574
4073
88312
7873
2462
17007
981690
1503919
1516676
828
126
25
24
8
247666
85
14
3237
693
110
228
69902
112
7647

325375
32841
667
12663
277
19068
117
2773
11430
4578
3430
84345
7314
2601
18054
1007222
1520658
1532755
910
129
25
38
8
252213
90
1
3039
711
110
355
73502
142
7647

334630
27961
636
11001
147
13766
72
2519
10548
4304
2641
78064
6952
2864
17874
921801
1424596
1435780
738
133
25
38
8
250582
95
1
2997
708
82
78
72807
322
8792

353034
33703
619
11435
261
12900
101
2084
9975
5035
1935
76710
5987
2778
18159
932279
1456401
1466995
738
133
24
38
8
254727
95
1
2997
708
82
78
74350
322
8792

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.6 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 1.1: World hard coal production (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

Bangladesh
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia
PR of China
Bulgaria
Romania
Croatia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union
Islam. Rep. of Iran
Non-OECD Total
World

1973
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2007
77
361
76588 111000 150468 211184 268280 311428 404461 454358
149
152
959
5161
20914
40870
94180 140359
23198
34106
40000
35693
23700
22500
26864
23860
100
121
346
802
1075
480
595
1290
70
2124
3268
10
11
43
40
12
468
853
1038
17
12
14
1143
1098
1567
1922
2546
2166
2861
3065
3327
2574
1858
472
235
83
5
2990
5200
5594
4638
8350
11609
32396
42546
117
511
151
108
74
277
418
443
417000 620150 837272 1050734 1342859 1231074 2158908 2466428
351
267
223
143
194
118
9
215
7172
8060
8657
4446
359
281
x
x
x
156
75
x
x
x
137
55
88
576
388
400
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1103
34
7
5
14
x
x
x 128000
80754
74886
82788
93458
x
x
x
1495
183
104
49
37
x
x
x 237514 162411 152538 209213 217878
x
x
x
475
14
9
84
158
x
x
x 143483
74002
61601
60007
58739
x
x
x
200
74
69
73
160
510600 553000 569000
x
x
x
x
x
903
925
1106
835
1084
1149
1557
1634

2008
840
488550
128641
25098
1476
4168
1075
15
2898
38826
468
2734421
41
x
11
106296
55
222432
176
59465
198
x
1591

2009
1000
528380
150347
24602
2515
7094
1127
16
2281
43715
491
2895345
131
x
213
95770
67
206980
175
54977
101
x
1174

2010e
1000
537590
173451
24602
2399
16559
1127
16
2217
44663
491
3162193
29
x
213
105215
67
247935
175
54444
198
x
1174

1116514 1463686 1807750 2035624 2231077 2188789 3395259 3839813 4155661 4353907 4718851
2235210 2799944 3194955 3493473 3637079 3587495 4878811 5356489 5688416 5789687 6185846

(1) Hard coal represents higher grade coal and includes coking coal, anthracite and bituminous coal.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Includes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.7

Table 1.2: World coking coal production


(thousand tonnes)

1978

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

40086
54835
64631
79375
4036
3484
14151
24371
27660
28624
17403
16465
14383
10824
4114
3388
1821
439
56036
51401
44577
31686
883
592
169
6943
3921
3089
3713
2963
1645
173
319
578
1474
160
174
31495
31143
28793
28714
1333
907
279
2435
2247
1824
929
10050
2608
1600
599
117716
89463
93259
77166
307014 285318 279574 259830
310103 289031 282537 261475
3
23
10605
11142
9308
10165
1
1
991
269
612
621
1545
1407
499
106
716
745
775
681
18055
25847
36088
28803
10
29
241
3836
2500
2543
107
3
68222
68370
85657 147846
1828
3825
1482
349
x
x
574
x
x
29983
12756
x
x
85458
55645
x
x
7
x
x
62283
25783
143534 134985
x
x
842
1006
760
914

103750
28164
8136
18862
2214
1310
17222
735
255
54287
232721
234935
3204
813
15
587
22088
616
123748
13
10687
51035
27844
x
823

128310
26613
7136
15171
1792
2446
14071
648
274
46444
241113
242905
1640
690
210
514
23584
1222
1967
280648
10981
55505
23166
x
1115

142646
28126
7674
13753
2058
1923
13636
684
266
47307
256015
258073
2349
617
144
522
25581
1736
3132
379135
11172
57441
21534
x
1170

140108
28345
7512
10554
1841
2284
12024
858
307
57367
259359
261200
2207
579
260
541
25318
1922
3746
384962
10661
54402
19776
x
1139

129988
22980
5900
9064
1793
1903
8540
1562
246
46559
226742
228535
2556
571
1115
34769
2049
4704
416458
61
11001
59854
19244
x
841

152136
28153
6023
7147
1482
2341
11658
1515
354
68645
277972
279454
2598
571
1139
35403
2364
10980
454841
61
12086
71697
19057
x
841

Australia
Belgium
Canada
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Hungary
Japan
Mexico
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
IEA Total
OECD Total
Algeria
South Africa
United Rep. of Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Brazil
Colombia
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Mongolia
Chinese Taipei
PR of China
Romania
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Former Soviet Union
Islam. Rep. of Iran

37668
3805
13780
18553
4664
52239
861
8659
3085
11
227
40845
1800
2964
15110
92201
293387
296472
9718
946
1317
705
13938
3415
52604
2134
x
x
x
x
x
139250
678

Non-OECD Total

224705 250177 250236 316055 283918 241473 401242 504533 505513 553223 611638

World

521177 560280 539267 598592 545393 476408 644147 762606 766713 781758 891092

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.8 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 1.3: World steam coal production (1)


(thousand tonnes)

Australia(2)
Austria
Belgium(2)
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
France(2)
Germany
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Japan(2)
Korea(2)
Mexico(2)
Netherlands
New Zealand(2)
Norway
Poland
Portugal(2)
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States(2)
IEA Total
OECD Total
Algeria
Botswana
Dem. Rep. of Congo
Egypt
Morocco
Mozambique
Nigeria
South Africa
United Rep. of Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Venezuela

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

55483
10362
12337
1374
27780
26350
104407
1186
64
25090
13571
2578
1829
2325
415
156630
221
9991
12
4642
131985
530064
1114744
1118696
333
130
565
394
327
62352
940
2806
160
451
1015
2834
33
50

31524
3982
6022
1125
10318
16076
38456
60
11084
18625
1757
128
161626
177
11505
18
1163
120047
592462
1025030
1026155
138
680
207
176
104515
1
570
1777
196
390
203
3448
41
42

67511
4182
9939
1291
9936
13667
37448
57
12460
22543
1480
101
1960
333
160499
237
15184
13
1358
91503
646472
1095403
1098174
437
121
775
35
140
162358
15
511
2835
317
400
254
8021
127
40

93941
2357
10013
2183
8032
9378
31976
25
58
7979
17217
3970
1841
303
118943
281
14333
11
921
91162
760388
1169159
1175312
794
126
526
40
90
165492
3
377
4733
314
276
138
20600
97
2189

111680
1
637
9997
1038
6914
8056
27172
1
6317
5720
7675
1860
292
108452
13497
1319
52438
781461
1135814
1144527
898
93
650
38
20
196046
43
152
4072
342
305
134
24970
51
4064

135679
375
5641
366
6719
3804
18514
2964
8300
9130
1936
632
86109
11317
1657
30943
839685
1154275
1163771
947
96
58
31
16
3
220996
79
194
3447
585
259
144
37655
17
7885

171880
109
2473
544
6118
617
12847
95
2832
8963
2575
1471
83833
8548
1522
20224
915996
1231140
1240647
985
120
25
12
3
8
243346
75
150
2931
678
25
318
58550
43
7195

181925
4686
243
5220
422
10432
158
2886
10456
2651
4073
74676
7873
1778
16741
934383
1247904
1258603
828
126
25
24
8
245317
85
14
2620
693
110
84
69380
112
7647

185267
4496
667
5151
277
8514
117
2773
9589
2294
3430
72321
7314
1743
17747
949855
1261299
1271555
910
129
25
38
8
250006
90
1
2460
711
110
95
72961
142
7647

204642
4981
636
5101
147
4702
72
2519
8755
2401
2641
69524
6952
1302
17628
875242
1197854
1207245
738
133
25
38
8
248026
95
1
2426
708
82
78
71692
322
8792

200898
5550
619
5412
261
5753
101
2084
8493
2694
1935
65052
5987
1263
17805
863634
1178429
1187541
738
133
24
38
8
252129
95
1
2426
708
82
78
73211
322
8792

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.9

Table 1.3: World steam coal production (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

Bangladesh
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia
PR of China
Bulgaria
Romania
Croatia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union
Islam. Rep. of Iran
Non-OECD Total
World

1973
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2007
2008
2009
77
361
840
1000
76588
92945 124621 175096 239477 289340 380877 428777 463232 493611
149
152
949
5132
20673
40254
92958 138623 126719 148298
23198
30270
37500
33150
23700
22500
26864
23860
25098
24602
100
121
346
802
1075
1476
2515
480
595
1290
70
157
136
422
2390
10
11
43
40
12
468
853
1038
1075
1127
17
12
14
15
16
1143
1098
1567
1922
2546
2166
2861
3065
2898
2281
3327
2574
1751
469
235
83
5
2990
5200
5594
4638
8350
11609
32396
42546
38826
43715
117
511
151
108
74
277
418
443
468
491
417000 551928 768902 965077 1195013 1107326 1878260 2087293 2349459 2478887
351
267
223
143
194
118
9
215
41
131
7172
6232
4832
2964
10
268
x
x
x
156
75
x
x
x
137
55
88
576
388
400
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
529
34
7
5
14
11
152
x
x
x
98017
67998
64199
71807
82286
95635
84769
x
x
x
1495
183
104
49
37
55
67
x
x
x 152056 106766 101503 153708 160437 168030 147126
x
x
x
475
7
9
84
158
176
175
x
x
x
81200
48219
33757
36841
37205
39689
35733
x
x
x
200
74
69
73
160
198
101
510600 409466 434015
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
903
83
100
75
170
326
442
464
452
333

2010e
1000
502187
171087
24602
2399
5579
1127
16
2217
44663
491
2707352
29
x
152
93129
67
176238
175
35387
198
x
333

1116514 1213509 1557514 1719569 1947159 1947316 2994017 3335280 3650148 3800684 4107213
2235210 2239664 2655688 2894881 3091686 3111087 4234664 4593883 4921703 5007929 5294754

(1) Steam coal is also commonly known as thermal coal. It includes anthracite and bituminous coal.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Includes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.10 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 1.4: World brown coal production (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Australia(2)
Austria
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
Estonia
France(2)
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Israel
Italy
Japan(2)
New Zealand(2)
Poland
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
United States(2)
IEA Total
OECD Total
Brazil
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Mongolia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Philippines
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia
Albania
Bulgaria
Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
F.Y.R. of Macedonia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia

2007

2008

2009

2010e

24121
32894
38380
45990
50752
67293
67152
65613
3328
2865
3081
2448
1297
1249
8135
16515
26543
30659
36360
35358
36259
36552
61
40
35
75965
89086
94636
78983
57163
50307
48772
49732
x
x
x
22486
12433
11727
14591
16544
2764
2560
1839
2333
1401
296
366409 389726 434037 357468 192756 167691 177907 180409
13301
23198
35888
51896
57662
63887
69398
66308
25925
25142
23500
17332
14772
14033
9570
9818
303
470
390
429
429
1190
1286
1892
956
172
14
100
27
143
208
247
159
243
213
246
260
39215
36866
57746
67584
63547
59484
61636
57538
5804
5796
5731
4766
3759
3648
2511
2111
x
x
x
5583
4884
4480
4540
4535
3003
15454
23572
21070
14808
12154
10933
9309
7754
15027
36392
44683
52825
60876
56170
72902
12948
42783
65701
79914
78471
77619
76151
71291
590105 699433 849185 806241 625988 614122 616705 621843
590166 699473 849220 834613 643775 630719 636265 643351
1324
3494
6051
3958
4959
6553
5727
5737
3320
5110
8040
14074
22146
24247
30228
33980
152
949
5069
20914
38507
76361 108473
7000
10000
12000
10660
7600
7243
7746
6478
6043
6562
3729
5115
5402
5970
27
43
38
23
112
221
283
471
671
824
1091
928
2010
1059
39
326
1256
1232
1293
1357
2880
3394
361
1525
5188
12421
18416
17708
20878
18239
1802
2206
3985
220
320
682
811
1420
2150
2071
80
30
64
64
26459
29946
30657
31532
30636
26314
24686
28418
17679
27104
37924
33737
40762
29004
31106
35780
x
x
x
19670
1640
7439
9119
10609
x
x
x
18
7
x
x
x
6644
7249
7516
6881
6509
x
x
x
45800
40540
37006
35100
37148
31874
40913
68072
x
x
x
x
x

66033
34908
47537
16117
175313
65720
9404
427
253
59668
2423
4520
2873
76801
68659
609592
630656
6257
32421
120125
7235
5903
245
841
3609
17982
951
379
85
29009
35861
11682
7630
38709
x

68252
34975
45416
14939
169857
64893
8986
444
260
57108
2573
4429
2493
76635
65751
597199
617011
5631
34071
140900
6954
7349
234
1200
4687
17786
397
22
27148
33961
11469
7426
38499
x

67225
34191
43850
17934
169403
56520
9077
462
295
56510
2379
4430
2444
68971
64846
575711
598537
5631
33085
162551
6954
8689
218
1167
6500
18458
397
22
29305
30831
11019
6789
37348
x

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.11

Table 1.4: World brown coal production (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union

x
x
x
3443
x
x
x
2140
x
x
x 134385
x
x
x
450
x
x
x
9280
x
x
x
6200
157000 163000 157000
x

3740
280
83317
27
2296
2980
x

2558
321
87786
13
802
2500
x

4409
286
73668
15
354
3003
x

4370
358
71143
23
186
3282
x

4777
437
82530
23
163
3092
x

5084
535
69011
23
39
3553
x

5584
537
75969
23
150
3102
x

Non-OECD Total
World

248073 287473 336044 350208 293725 303279 340464 383987 409946 415979 444329
838239 986946 1185264 1184821 937500 933998 976729 1027338 1040602 1032990 1042866

(1) Brown coal represents lower grade coal and includes lignite. For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Excludes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.12 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 1.5: OECD production of coke oven coke (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

4983
1719
7774
5370
315
9383
..
11881
41614
400
1082
7665
52300
318
2021
2655
20
282
16938
269
1500
..
4475
533

4991
1729
6048
5250
303
8725
..
11120
35492
247
975
8264
47463
2965
2447
2455
13
349
19598
216
1598
..
3900
1188

3603
1751
5964
4684
301
8328
..
8691
30171
607
7410
48621
5253
2924
2958
5
313
15828
275
1909
..
3440
1203

4495
1725
5420
3708
336
7125
41
487
7197
21926
672
6356
51118
8800
2384
2736
373
13516
230
2340
3211
1084

4617
1448
3696
3283
457
4963
40
920
5566
11102
1033
5185
44778
10593
2148
2888
369
11578
331
1861
2438
1149

3739
1385
3104
3242
475
3411
23
910
5234
9115
937
4504
41220
12288
2100
2116
349
8972
371
1706
2470
1146

3808
1388
2856
3305
493
3412
37
894
4445
8397
614
4574
42645
8935
2002
2238
418
8404
1846
2662
1411

3634
1424
2607
3098
569
3258
40
865
4465
8441
1017
4727
44437
9926
2058
2163
418
10168
1748
2742
1194

3636
1410
2309
3040
497
3399
35
860
4488
8242
999
4485
41033
10857
2074
2086
392
10075
1582
2646
1176

2731
1281
1574
2190
431
2295
18
738
3222
6771
746
2755
37710
9632
1763
1683
414
7091
1573
1917
987

2002
1418
995
2720
392
2548
21
827
3151
8150
1018
3755
42210
13549
2209
1515
458
9738
1657
2051
1197

Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

1251
17776
62803

1937
10060
41850

2711
9276
25992

3158
8350
25053

3131
6274
21545

2925
6206
18876

2992
4364
15168

3335
4477
14697

3976
4359
14194

3437
3693
10108

3334
4023
13628

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

68173
47100
30676
57621
55432
57482
127197 113901 100835
70509
49850
33901
57621
55432
57482
127197 113901 100835

28761
64786
85533
31481
64786
85574

24828
60357
63563
27433
60357
63603

22118
57596
54512
24693
57596
54535

18473
55806
50497
20968
55806
50534

17795
58415
52631
20422
58415
52671

17234
55918
52092
19805
55918
52127

12298
50487
39763
14492
50487
39781

16348
58219
45377
18949
58219
45398

IEA Total
OECD Total

252991 216433 188993 179080 148748 134226 124776 128841 125244 102548 119944
255327 219183 192218 181841 151393 136824 127308 131508 127850 104760 122566

(1) Solid product obtained from carbonization of coal, principally coking coal, used mainly in the iron and steel industry.
(1) Also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.13

2. CONSUMPTION

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.15

Table 2.1: World hard coal consumption (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Australia(2)

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States(2)

27292
34422
39980
49299
51739
60830
67874
69869
68871
67046
64458
2856
2871
3178
4159
3392
3724
4050
4274
4021
3282
3256
17169
17004
15576
16153
12394
11046
7551
6518
5881
4682
2777
17556
21361
21522
18886
15900
22503
20451
12955
12618
9845
9276
1711
1678
1792
3720
3391
4590
4571
5721
7726
6817
7764
27780
23937
22030
20060
14180
10717
9221
9760
9428
6757
7085
3146
9669
11935
9992
11003
6641
6293
7901
6836
6780
6496
x
x
x
382
85
87
56
130
129
87
60
3035
5692
5318
5648
6540
5193
4598
7075
4986
5446
6914
40289
48080
36507
28791
22611
21801
21142
20512
19125
16351
17294
105801
96385
93466
86965
74224
68963
63952
70097
64067
52016
58589
651
545
1750
1380
1480
1121
563
710
523
337
635
2137
1695
1043
971
1402
1280
1341
1965
1907
1349
1794
1
12
69
65
65
101
117
138
109
101
97
822
1066
1586
3198
2689
2944
2942
2445
2296
1891
1888
2927
3720
6568
10591
12124
13294
12940
12320
11823
11603
17024
21894
21327
17446
18013
24240
25118
24910
19364
20896
81690
87699 109391 114960 133564 153190 176974 187000 184399 164049 186637
16329
27790
42505
44776
44634
71799
82272
92044 102723 106861 118380
305
346
199
197
217
172
122
121
115
104
102
2894
3973
5317
6881
10243
12290
17556
17487
13997
16363
18263
4794
5973
10276
14032
14281
12740
13009
13445
12685
11871
11870
2317
1768
1810
2091
1836
1788
4061
2830
3372
2699
2892
772
951
1118
749
1018
1035
795
756
826
538
818
122097 163778 156570 120231 107823
83371
80438
85336
82668
75730
85263
805
604
1050
4397
5708
6154
5476
4742
4156
4677
2700
5834
5373
5809
5879
5330
4656
4983
5021
4651
4327
3533
x
x
x
32
20
11
49
66
63
23
24
13260
16531
25198
26047
27488
32804
32948
33090
23982
18303
14918
1060
2138
4158
3709
3444
2861
3070
3192
2774
2433
2859
258
315
640
481
245
173
178
182
162
155
166
4595
4630
6189
8146
8548
15526
19421
25350
22720
22043
29659
133527 123610 105980 106722
75916
59839
61779
62903
58220
48786
51290
492567 608038 682608 736926 782788 892126 953585 955157 951307 853388 895518

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

510123
127628
502596
514728
127628
502597

Austria
Belgium(2)
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland(2)
France(2)
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland(2)
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan(2)
Korea(2)
Luxembourg
Mexico(2)
Netherlands
New Zealand(2)
Norway
Poland
Portugal(2)

IEA Total
OECD Total

629399
151679
548217
635050
151679
548229

704130
193686
531470
711239
196613
531539

755812
211126
489234
766413
214846
489713

798688
231773
417379
812322
238341
417549

914629
287607
370774
931509
298198
370973

974036
331181
368112
996163
343305
368334

968112
351743
390513
991320
365037
390847

963925
359365
356939
985648
372305
357240

863233
340655
307222
886413
352975
307433

904794
372367
330802
930821
384190
330983

1140347 1329295 1429286 1456172 1447840 1573010 1673329 1710368 1680229 1511110 1607963
1144953 1334958 1439391 1470972 1468212 1600680 1707802 1747204 1715193 1546821 1645994

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.16 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 2.1: World hard coal consumption (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Algeria
Botswana
Dem. Rep. of Congo
Egypt
Kenya
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Sudan
United Rep. of Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Panama
Peru
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela
Other Latin America
Bangladesh
Cambodia
Hong Kong (China)
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

63
93
1226
1005
632
689
819
856
856
290
466
815
912
1040
1002
905
914
742
738
170
167
156
169
136
132
160
178
189
194
150
477
894
1192
1340
1540
1820
1777
1708
1671
1635
1309
70
16
90
151
96
66
89
110
109
95
103
582
635
1110
1774
2665
4018
4938
5019
4462
4099
3131
587
288
106
58
56
9
10
10
768
16
3
20
77
413
193
143
289
151
94
55
20
3
8
8
8
8
9
152
215
215
254
313
60408
86961 125870 124900 147205 157135 175403 182486 196727 185782 187055
2
1
15
4
44
79
75
85
90
95
95
33
21
21
15
941
618
471
375
148
128
140
14
1
1
6
2758
2614
3026
5355
4494
4297
3698
3306
3104
3061
3008
222
278
379
436
442
697
758
1127
974
970
2030
1072
1425
1247
1367
1439
1058
1383
1573
1790
1803
1708
2842
6354
9870
10650
12080
13457
14270
15068
15300
12748
17385
2859
4135
4630
4825
5608
4231
4173
3697
4351
5399
5859
1
1
1
1
2
25
1
4
4
95
126
153
77
22
22
18
24
17
23
224
17
80
93
476
728
763
747
781
22
215
589
659
672
1383
1134
61
12
135
183
64
105
103
46
52
55
53
58
36
48
51
12
13
32
32
51
60
6
86
74
107
149
389
708
1075
1180
1073
1142
805
1
32
4
1
1
1
2
2
3
53
42
42
355
7
181
51
62
62
71
2635
1302
243
235
98
563
642
660
742
897
1257
1257
1800
138
12
3
5523
8928
9109
6058
10824
12261
11345
12331
10324
73410 102737 148316 205722 272577 332185 430693 500094 537827 589168 625654
129
124
313
2148
877
4660
11969
15700
782
1020
11516
23580
34456
42200
37793
24340
22241
24235
20286
22638
21780
20350
13
76
517
1936
2303
3298
12728
16519
17717
19677
21308
480
595
1290
70
154
155
96
2
74
221
223
80
15
38
145
163
169
177
879
78
83
17
81
123
430
413
328
309
324
135
1270
1196
2283
3422
3631
3116
5704
9052
7550
6939
9346
254
1248
1344
1711
7246
7029
7729
9078
7367
11181
1
1
347
1
8
5
93
68
72
75
190
3572
5956
11085
17230
26167
42055
54711
59358
56971
54130
63238
1
94
212
250
2305
3684
8479
13841
15885
15475
16758
2770
4052
4990
3951
5917
7808
14510
16623
20386
22397
23242
220
657
345
303
221
564
737
681
872
915
1416

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.17

Table 2.1: World hard coal consumption (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
PR of China
Albania
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Malta
Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
F.Y.R. of Macedonia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Republic of Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union
Bahrain
Islam. Rep. of Iran
Lebanon
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab Republic

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

414180 626010 803907 1050895 1316745 1214798 2098830 2454333 2683179 2883740 3319096
89
160
220
302
1
6136
6999
8277
6046
3443
3379
4361
4916
4637
3015
2939
74
97
97
49
52
49
40
21
8
192
300
52
8490
12009
14705
9351
5065
2649
3041
2950
2048
407
304
x
x
x
592
672
708
859
168
x
x
x
1150
143
623
1057
1081
1121
799
1939
x
x
x
129
142
67
3
18
14
5
158
x
x
x
137
55
218
67
93
151
48
2
2540
3790
5089
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
552
3
3
2
x
x
x
200
6
x
x
x
2389
1125
504
168
83
76
79
11
x
x
x
1323
44
27
18
48
119
317
233
x
x
x
85806
61195
41652
59570
68602
74432
66822
72652
x
x
x
4014
505
830
887
575
554
502
59
x
x
x
917
252
97
120
162
162
130
125
x
x
x
1303
372
130
284
379
324
242
316
x
x
x
4510
1315
181
167
131
198
181
x
x
x 240033 163266 142222 141438 142034 148763 116437 158479
x
x
x
1044
14
16
90
166
184
188
177
x
x
x
670
x
x
x 139440
86898
65887
63614
68196
70382
62959
63933
x
x
x
2740
81
69
73
160
198
101
198
490220 529110 543430
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
20
948
1783
1444
1061
1546
1782
2075
1973
1755
1202
1185
1
180
200
200
200
200
200
293
2
55
1
1
-

Non-OECD Total

1101534 1434896 1745751 1992829 2171969 2099814 3171042 3639793 3926195 4112282 4670738

World

2246487 2769854 3185142 3463801 3640181 3700494 4878844 5386997 5641388 5659103 6316732

(1) Hard coal represents higher grade coal and includes coking coal, anthracite and bituminous coal.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Includes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.18 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 2.2: World coking coal consumption


(thousand tonnes)

1978

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

7216
2006
7524
6776
385
12567
12980
41881
213
1740
9909
58724
2009
4053
2953
414
25847
423
2180
x
4863
1227
3429
14988
68885

7049
2371
8010
7321
454
12166
7
14570
50293
384
1695
11237
70203
3987
3973
3521
8
432
25272
363
2336
x
5407
1654
3407
11628
61457

5476
2391
8086
6483
427
11365
6
11332
47825
1043
20
7
10165
73456
6959
3837
4061
6
394
17745
370
2790
x
4908
1620
4825
11122
37246

5932
2337
7157
5023
492
9941
711
9669
42216
971
13
14
8633
64934
11735
2911
4391
249
18127
313
3136
1
4456
1515
5335
10517
35269

5874
1908
4737
4417
715
6648
1650
7739
33993
1402
7
6966
59796
16305
1875
4893
144
17405
455
2745
3312
1646
4658
8487
29934

4799
1877
4045
4461
714
4972
1284
6543
24462
1280
14
6658
57081
19415
932
4054
13332
497
2597
3556
1772
7042
8824
25963

5354
1899
3263
4289
703
4334
1401
6222
22193
808
14
5630
56530
20883
676
4682
123
11157
2738
3463
1847
5585
6569
20893

4553
1900
3448
4725
694
4099
1418
6144
23000
1460
30
6197
58205
21736
1019
4703
13642
2854
3667
1998
5816
7201
20524

4548
1863
2912
5084
675
4301
1077
7218
20013
1432
50
5925
57584
23835
1007
4419
13012
2617
3453
1586
6878
6931
19989

3402
1693
1958
3347
591
2932
948
3533
15472
1022
46
3585
52514
21182
1903
3423
1
9907
2391
2502
1440
7151
5663
14042

3013
1838
1202
3747
509
2978
1195
4504
15114
1414
44
4876
57680
26925
1793
3925
66
13078
2133
2497
1868
8328
6058
19152

IEA Europe
IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
OECD Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania

75661
68778
43729
40292
34351
67949
81247
85897
82850
82119
145144 154753 140055 129439 108644
80099
73205
47993
43695
36941
67949
81247
85897
82850
82119
145144 154753 140075 129453 108651

30424
81295
92795
32070
81295
92809

25182
82890
81791
26561
82890
81805

25249
84494
87547
26962
84494
87577

25073
85967
83637
26755
85967
83687

17389
77099
63620
19883
77099
63666

22899
87684
71008
25201
87684
71052

IEA Total
OECD Total

288754 304778 269681 252581 225114 204514 189863 197290 194677 158108 181591
293192 309205 273965 255998 227711 206174 191256 199033 196409 160648 183937

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.19

Table 2.2: World coking coal consumption (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1978

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
United Rep. of Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Guatemala
Jamaica
Peru
Other Latin America
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Mongolia
Pakistan
Chinese Taipei
PR of China
Albania
Bulgaria
Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
F.Y.R. of Macedonia
Former Yugoslavia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Republic of Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Former Soviet Union
Islam. Rep. of Iran
Saudi Arabia

50
93
1226
975
894
1192
7018
7158
6000
946
991
269
990
801
826
4869
6154
9602
705
716
745
40
49
50
15757
15441
28149
3857
4286
5000
16
98
716
1386
1513
2562
52304
66822
62873
25
25
33
1921
1926
1553
5734
5228
7825
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1447
3402
4689
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
129250 131534 123985
1107
1700
1344
-

1005
632
689
819
856
856
290
1339
1540
1820
1777
1708
1671
1635
1297
5675
4220
2569
2975
3222
3346
3028
3094
1
1
612
621
813
690
617
579
571
571
1121
589
558
789
961
1181
1181
1100
10489
11094
9936
9742
10376
10345
9146
12493
775
681
587
514
522
541
1115
1139
180
212
220
1089
789
52
55
53
58
36
48
51
12
37
51
44
167
39491
39409
35852
39041
46010
46544
54556
65556
140
98
68
107
69
144
5143
1040
101
175
147
164
158
346
154
155
96
77
1102
1085
950
565
466
1200
431
660
4150
4208
5236
4919
4600
4597
4135
4828
80373 140501 119758 282365 381149 387528 438568 502668
62
1854
1693
1325
1051
751
434
5082
5047
2257
2963
2883
1951
337
249
592
672
708
859
168
747
117
70
67
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
686
6
91
67
29983
10853
10343
10734
10910
10332
10702
11749
141
166
1
2
53885
50669
43938
44991
46529
42200
46807
58196
7
2
2
2
2
2
54508
31642
30581
29821
30296
27722
24771
29085
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
986
1388
1518
1669
1526
1340
891
883
26

Non-OECD Total

228397 248831 258639 299275 307102 269137 436530 544674 543771 600722 695530

World

521589 558036 532604 555273 534813 475311 627786 743707 740180 761370 879467

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.20 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 2.3: World steam coal consumption (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Australia(2)

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States(2)

27292
27373
34504
43367
45865
56031
62520
65316
64323
63644
61445
2856
500
787
1822
1484
1847
2151
2374
2158
1589
1418
17169
8994
7490
8996
7657
7001
4288
3070
2969
2724
1575
17556
14040
15039
13863
11483
18042
16162
8230
7534
6498
5529
1711
1224
1365
3228
2676
3876
3868
5027
7051
6226
7255
27780
11771
10665
10119
7532
5745
4887
5661
5127
3825
4107
3146
9662
11929
9992
11003
6641
6293
7901
6836
6780
6496
x
x
x
382
85
87
56
130
129
87
60
3035
5692
5318
4937
4890
3909
3197
5657
3909
4498
5719
40289
33510
25175
19122
14872
15258
14920
14368
11907
12818
12790
105801
46092
45641
44749
40231
44501
41759
47097
44054
36544
43475
651
161
1750
1380
1480
1121
563
710
523
337
635
2137
533
505
475
327
380
1
12
49
52
58
87
103
108
59
55
53
822
1066
1579
3184
2689
2944
2942
2445
2296
1891
1888
2927
3720
6568
10591
12124
13294
12940
12320
11823
11603
5787
11729
12694
10480
11355
18610
18921
18985
15779
16020
81690
17496
35935
50026
73768
96109 120444 128795 126815 111535 128957
16329
23803
35546
33041
28329
52384
61389
70308
78888
85679
91455
305
346
199
197
217
172
122
121
115
104
102
2894
1480
3970
8368
11358
16880
16468
12990
14460
16470
4794
2452
6215
9641
9388
8686
8327
8742
8266
8448
7945
2317
1760
1804
1842
1692
1788
3938
2830
3372
2698
2826
772
519
724
749
1018
1035
795
756
826
538
818
122097 138506 138825 102104
90418
70039
69281
71694
69656
65823
72185
805
241
680
4084
5253
5657
5476
4742
4156
4677
2700
5834
3037
3019
2743
2585
2059
2245
2167
2034
1936
1400
x
x
x
31
20
11
49
66
63
23
24
13260
11124
20290
21591
24176
29248
29485
29423
20529
15801
12421
1060
484
2538
2194
1798
1089
1223
1194
1188
993
991
258
315
640
481
245
173
178
182
162
155
166
4595
1223
1364
2811
3890
8484
13836
19534
15842
14892
21331
133527 111982
94858
96205
67429
51015
55210
55702
51289
43123
45232
492567 546581 645362 701657 752854 866163 932692 934633 931318 839346 876366

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

510123
127628
502596
514728
127628
502597

Austria
Belgium(2)
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland(2)
France(2)
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland(2)
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan(2)
Korea(2)
Luxembourg
Mexico(2)
Netherlands
New Zealand(2)
Norway
Poland
Portugal(2)

IEA Total
OECD Total

560621
70432
393464
561845
70432
393476

660401
107789
391415
663246
110716
391464

715520
128276
359795
722718
131996
360260

764337
149654
308735
775381
156222
308898

884205
206312
277979
899439
216903
278164

948854
248291
286321
969602
260415
286529

942863
267249
302966
964358
280543
303270

938852
273398
273302
958893
286338
273553

845844
263556
243602
866530
275876
243767

881895
284683
259794
905620
296506
259931

1140347 1024517 1159605 1203591 1222726 1368496 1483466 1513078 1485552 1353002 1426372
1144953 1025753 1165426 1214974 1240501 1394506 1516546 1548171 1518784 1386173 1462057

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.21

Table 2.3: World steam coal consumption (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Algeria
Botswana
Dem. Rep. of Congo
Egypt
Kenya
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Sudan
United Rep. of Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Panama
Peru
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela
Other Latin America
Bangladesh
Cambodia
Hong Kong (China)
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia

63
170
477
70
582
587
289
60408
33
941
2758
222
1072
2842
2859
1
13
86
32
53
243
12
73410
129
23580
13
74
78
1270
3572
1
2770
220

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

466
815
912
1040
1002
905
914
742
738
167
156
169
136
132
160
178
189
194
150
1
12
16
90
151
96
66
89
110
109
95
103
635
1110
1774
2665
4018
4938
5019
4462
4099
3131
288
106
58
56
9
10
10
768
16
3
20
77
413
193
143
151
94
55
20
3
8
8
8
8
9
152
215
215
254
313
79803 119870 119225 142985 154566 172428 179264 193381 182754 183961
2
1
15
3
43
79
75
85
90
95
95
21
21
15
618
471
375
148
128
140
14
1
1
6
1623
2757
4743
3873
3484
3008
2689
2525
2490
2437
278
379
436
442
697
758
1127
974
970
2030
624
421
246
850
500
594
612
609
622
608
200
268
161
986
3521
4528
4692
4955
3602
4892
3419
3885
4050
4927
3644
3659
3175
3810
4284
4720
1
1
1
2
25
1
4
4
95
126
153
77
22
22
18
24
17
23
224
17
80
93
476
728
763
747
781
22
215
409
447
452
294
345
61
12
135
183
64
105
103
46
32
32
51
60
6
25
57
112
338
664
1075
1180
1073
1142
805
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
3
42
42
355
7
181
51
62
62
71
2635
1135
235
98
563
642
660
742
897
1257
1257
1800
138
3
5523
8928
9109
6058
10824
12261
11345
12331
10324
87296 120167 166231 233168 296333 391652 454084 491283 534612 560098
124
313
2148
877
4520
11871
15632
675
951
11372
30170
37200
32650
23300
22140
24060
20139
22474
21622
20004
76
517
1936
2303
3298
12728
16519
17717
19677
21308
480
595
1290
70
-75
221
223
80
15
38
145
163
169
177
879
83
17
81
123
430
413
328
309
324
135
1098
1567
2320
2546
2166
5139
8586
6350
6508
8686
254
1248
1344
1711
7246
7029
7729
9078
7367
11181
1
1
347
1
8
5
93
68
72
75
190
4443
8523
13080
21959
36819
49792
54758
52374
49995
58410
94
212
250
2305
3684
8479
13841
15885
15475
16758
4052
4990
3951
5917
7808
14510
16623
20386
22397
23242
657
345
303
221
564
737
681
872
915
1416
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.22 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 2.3: World steam coal consumption (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

PR of China
Albania
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Malta
Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
F.Y.R. of Macedonia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Republic of Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union
Bahrain
Islam. Rep. of Iran
Lebanon

1973
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2007
2008
2009
2010e
414180 559188 741034 970522 1176244 1095040 1816465 2073184 2295651 2445172 2816428
89
135
187
240
1
6136
5073
6724
4192
1750
2054
3310
4165
4203
3015
2939
74
97
97
49
52
49
40
21
8
192
300
52
8490
6781
6880
4269
18
392
78
67
97
70
55
x
x
x
x
x
x
403
143
623
1057
1081
1121
799
1939
x
x
x
12
72
3
18
14
5
158
x
x
x
137
55
218
67
93
151
48
2
2540
388
400
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
552
3
3
2
x
x
x
200
6
x
x
x
2389
1125
504
168
83
76
79
11
x
x
x
637
38
27
18
48
119
226
166
x
x
x
55823
50342
31309
48836
57692
64100
56120
60903
x
x
x
4014
505
830
887
575
554
502
59
x
x
x
917
252
97
120
162
162
130
125
x
x
x
1303
372
130
284
379
324
101
150
x
x
x
4510
1315
181
167
130
198
179
x
x
x 186148 112597
98284
96447
95505 106563
69630 100283
x
x
x
1044
7
14
88
164
182
186
177
x
x
x
670
x
x
x
84932
55256
35306
33793
37900
42660
38188
34848
x
x
x
2740
81
69
73
160
198
101
198
490220 397576 419445
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
20
948
83
100
75
158
264
406
447
415
311
302
1
180
200
200
200
200
200
293

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

29

Syrian Arab Republic

Non-OECD Total

1101534 1186065 1487112 1693554 1864867 1830677 2734512 3095119 3382424 3511560 3975208

World

2246487 2211818 2652538 2908528 3105368 3225183 4251058 4643290 4901208 4897733 5437265

(1) Steam coal is also commonly known as thermal coal. It includes anthracite and bituminous coal.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Includes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.23

Table 2.4: World brown coal consumption (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Australia(2)

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Poland
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Switzerland
Turkey
United States(2)

24121
32894
38380
45990
50752
67293
67152
65613
66033
68252
67225
3328
3274
3868
2504
1743
1381
1275
95
88
79
108
95
275
276
195
220
206
317
281
173
95
8058
15911
26653
30260
36734
40465
39760
44221
42915
38232
37845
61
40
35
75965
79822
83854
71772
52300
50372
47622
48577
45381
44238
43301
x
x
x
25954
14561
13232
14804
16810
15704
13769
17890
2775
2570
2418
2094
1516
355
36
51
67
51
52
372497 391753 432521 364050 194811 169942 177892 180560 174833 169846 169327
13000
22692
36214
52053
56962
64564
70096
66373
64632
65213
54826
26896
25849
24583
19005
15529
13893
10247
10088
9930
9327
9205
38
45
36
53
14
25
24
21
303
470
390
429
429
427
444
462
1299
1385
2041
1089
196
30
8
4
4
585
606
100
27
28
2
4
3
3
3
4
3
20
156
103
69
33
46
50
58
25
28
25
143
208
264
159
243
213
246
260
253
260
292
34282
35308
57565
67391
63196
59488
61589
57529
59651
57084
56593
12784
16039
15784
12481
7221
4213
3307
2935
3374
3266
3042
x
x
x
6058
5219
4914
5143
5198
5134
4919
5061
3062
14691
23242
20776
15054
12850
11550
9579
2431
1375
2072
13
8
6
39
85
75
66
62
7642
15801
35301
46178
52471
64406
57315
72827
75894
76651
68971
12948
42129
62063
79023
80764
74265
76136
71851
70443
65105
63595

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

21006
58040
88716
24364
33129
38644
553550 609463 717769
21067
58080
88751
24364
33129
38644
553550 609463 717769

IEA Total
OECD Total

598920 700632 845129 815221 629773 624038 624579 631037 616335 599855 577263
598981 700672 845164 847536 650025 642578 644958 653477 637603 618991 600679

Austria
Belgium(2)
Canada
Chile(2)
Czech Republic
Estonia
France(2)
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan(2)
Luxembourg
Mexico(2)
Netherlands
New Zealand(2)

109283
46149
659789
109283
46452
691801

117498
50995
461280
117500
51465
481060

114730
67506
441802
114734
67896
459948

115896
67398
441285
115899
67827
461232

116072
65873
449092
116075
66302
471100

113358
66286
436691
113361
66713
457529

103337
68512
428006
103341
68956
446694

101440
67517
408306
101443
67979
431257

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.24 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 2.4: World brown coal consumption (1) (continued)


(thousand tonnes)

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Angola
Other Africa
Argentina
Brazil
Peru
Venezuela
Other Latin America
Brunei Darussalam
India
Indonesia
DPR of Korea
Mongolia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia
Albania
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
F.Y.R. of Macedonia
Serbia
Former Yugoslavia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Lithuania
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Former Soviet Union
Saudi Arabia

1280
2788
6991
4786
3762
5059
7913
14985
112
612
4172
7000
10000
12000
10660
5687
6054
27
43
38
471
671
824
40
304
1171
1232
1
1
2
361
1525
5132
12457
2206
4200
810
1420
2150
1843
26311
29704
30657
31778
17690
27364
38404
36872
x
x
x
19670
x
x
x
743
x
x
x
6808
x
x
x
45800
31356
40516
68217
x
x
x
x
3443
x
x
x
2140
x
x
x
3
x
x
x
x
x
x 134047
x
x
x
450
x
x
x
7983
x
x
x
6200
157138 163030 157015
x
-

5040
22298
11015
7600
3914
23
1091
1293
62
18496
80
30873
40635
1640
188
7293
40550
x
3630
287
82065
27
3000
2947
x
-

6813
24824
18060
7243
5142
59
928
1357
4725
17586
45
73
25844
29313
7437
80
7702
37106
x
2438
339
1
88257
13
793
3473
x
-

5734
30239
30062
7746
5473
85
2010
2880
5005
21046
95
77
24870
1
32961
8865
83
7470
35324
x
4197
452
3
73156
15
409
3112
x
-

5847
34654
38314
6478
5907
113
1059
2595
5718
18121
1811
102
77
28687
1
36613
10315
65
6966
37359
x
4145
472
70147
23
194
3448
x
-

5523
31846
48144
7235
5844
115
841
2716
5640
18492
954
76
98
28530
1
37497
11370
61
7730
38590
x
3876
474
80769
23
189
3320
x
-

4672
34409
56865
6954
6610
117
1200
2693
5831
17843
79
304
27171
1
34076
10688
49
7475
39037
x
4230
602
70225
23
30
3716
x
-

8
1
1
5631
1
18
2
1
33085
37679
6953
8613
134
1167
5211
1
1580
18458
722
22
29296
31676
10927
1
6843
37355
x
5498
537
1
75891
23
121
3159
x
1

Non-OECD Total
World

247955 286521 336663 352990 284047 289651 301370 319231 339954 334900 320617
846936 987193 1181827 1200526 934072 932229 946328 972708 977557 953891 921296

(1) Brown coal represents lower grade coal and includes lignite, sub-bituminous and oil shale.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
(2) Excludes sub-bituminous coal.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries , IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.25

Table 2.5: OECD consumption of coke oven coke (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

4983
2681
8429
5454
333
5913
96
..
877
14783
37220
414
2317
13
2
7099
51800
356
3235
2173
2657
20
826
14212
306
2422
..
5349
1900

5077
2674
6542
5519
399
6244
116
..
1224
13180
32691
261
2243
16
8
1
7379
45795
3086
2282
2494
2363
13
849
17849
317
1642
..
3917
1618

3520
2993
5789
5212
334
6472
68
..
1218
10353
29657
55
2000
34
22
1
7258
44859
5359
1854
3022
2539
6
881
14671
401
2126
..
3758
1494

3300
2403
5265
3412
373
5713
40
20
1272
7714
21127
42
1183
30
29
6413
49890
8800
1447
2528
2339
373
529
9854
240
2833
70
3365
1422

3952
2354
4287
3682
590
3857
43
1
1192
6219
14879
12
990
18
6
5656
41939
10593
521
2951
2454
369
500
8294
296
1964
57
3131
1496

3456
2436
3928
3429
506
3144
40
2
1443
6119
14982
1
804
47
5041
41604
12288
1
3591
2027
349
559
5762
323
1815
72
1923
1495

3001
2735
2951
3361
540
2949
34
1416
5043
12209
4
751
33
5271
43191
9276
1
3166
2082
418
356
3399
5
1984
60
2027
1701

2852
2737
2422
3633
522
3208
38
1414
4669
13105
2
775
34
4983
45486
10477
1
3240
2148
418
437
3905
4
1797
52
1935
1478

2899
2717
2942
4191
576
2886
35
1
1360
4735
12360
1
735
21
4250
40776
11557
2
3564
2145
392
448
3533
4
1715
39
2136
1405

3061
2147
1415
3326
431
2290
26
1034
4101
9770
1
644
19
2487
37879
9888
1
1644
1758
414
294
2693
3
1752
30
1732
840

2002
2675
1105
3220
392
1936
23
1269
4228
12243
1
753
18
3584
42437
14178
1
1873
2133
458
426
3491
2077
29
1842
1424

Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

185
1251
17034
64235

131
1954
7296
37446

82
2803
9209
26553

43
3256
8244
25230

31
3201
6517
22180

27
3592
6114
21085

20
3428
5001
16547

22
3816
5243
15666

24
4097
5102
15428

22
3500
3737
9364

18
3696
3428
13469

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

69689
42965
31765
57159
53971
53744
129219 112780 105703
72195
45858
35121
57161
53972
53745
129219 112796 105737

28642
62363
84773
31543
62363
84893

25862
56853
67900
29403
56853
67976

24514
57697
61576
28611
57697
61697

19908
55886
53367
23614
55886
53460

19299
59233
54139
23061
59233
54225

19619
55624
52632
23759
55624
52693

12690
51242
40247
14765
51242
40296

16689
59075
46353
18954
59075
46400

IEA Total
OECD Total

256067 209716 191212 175778 150615 143787 129161 132671 127875 104179 122117
258575 212626 194603 178799 154232 148005 132960 136519 132076 106303 124429

(1) Solid product obtained from carbonization of coal, principally coking coal, used mainly in the iron and steel industry.
(1) Also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

1045.19

from

from

4758.18

1533.41

5097.22
950.35

2882.69

2754.92

60.37
16.55
34.65
179.41
4.56
15.22
9.19
1.22
7.93
87.62
172.97
6.62
20.72
0.00
10.11
8.42
147.99
203.99
72.04
2.60
111.70
80.45
7.71
11.56
25.84
9.59
9.75
1.87
72.57
2.61
6.27
67.42
178.70
1234.50

47.83

93.53

93.44

0.42
2.53
3.24
0.69
0.00
0.87
1.73
0.00
0.65
5.49
16.11
0.02
0.33
0.00
0.06
0.00
3.36
4.46
8.85
0.12
0.00
3.38
0.00
0.60
3.19
0.63
0.21
0.09
1.45
2.04
3.44
0.11
2.11
27.34

Natural Gas
Other*
(Million tonnes CO2)

113.15
32.88
52.23
253.90
45.47
23.77
20.20
2.84
24.80
217.00
270.97
48.49
17.17
1.68
21.08
27.38
191.08
491.97
182.06
6.98
254.27
64.70
17.55
22.99
63.82
31.82
8.84
7.40
168.47
30.97
32.12
76.53
171.58
2101.04

Oil

from

3576.79

12044.73

11483.68

394.88
63.37
100.70
520.75
64.93
109.84
46.78
14.66
55.01
354.30
750.19
90.22
48.16
2.00
39.46
64.63
389.28
1092.86
515.46
9.99
399.67
176.11
31.31
37.31
286.76
53.14
33.17
15.15
283.37
41.71
42.42
256.31
465.80
5195.02

Total

% Coal in

29.22

33.0

33.8

56.0
18.0
10.5
16.7
22.9
63.7
33.5
72.4
39.3
12.5
38.7
38.9
20.6
15.6
20.8
44.6
12.0
35.9
49.0
3.0
8.4
15.7
19.3
5.8
67.6
20.9
43.3
38.2
14.4
14.6
1.4
43.8
24.3
35.3

(%)

emissions

total energyrelated CO2

2.25

2.30

2.30

3.01
2.00
1.76
2.05
2.26
2.62
2.51
3.09
1.66
1.38
2.36
3.06
1.94
0.38
2.75
3.00
2.36
2.32
2.25
2.53
2.29
2.25
1.80
1.32
3.05
2.21
1.98
2.17
2.24
0.92
1.57
2.62
2.37
2.40

(t CO2 / toe)

related
CO2/TPES

Energy-

0.38

0.41

0.40

0.74
0.29
0.39
0.61
0.63
1.45
0.28
1.82
0.39
0.24
0.38
0.54
0.85
0.18
0.32
0.40
0.35
0.22
0.68
0.38
0.55
0.41
0.46
0.19
1.19
0.43
1.06
0.59
0.40
0.15
0.15
0.72
0.28
0.46

2000 US$)

(kg CO2/

related
CO2/GDP

Energy-

7.70

9.83

10.54

17.87
7.58
9.33
15.43
3.84
10.45
8.47
10.94
10.30
5.49
9.16
8.00
4.81
6.26
8.83
8.69
6.47
8.58
10.57
20.10
3.72
10.66
7.23
7.73
7.52
5.00
6.12
7.42
6.17
4.48
5.44
3.57
7.54
16.90

(t CO2 / capita)

related
CO2/population

Energy-

Share in

100.0

95.4

2.5
0.6
1.1
4.9
0.5
0.8
0.4
0.1
0.6
4.9
6.1
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.4
3.1
9.0
4.4
0.1
3.3
1.5
0.3
0.5
1.8
0.5
0.3
0.1
2.4
0.9
0.5
1.9
3.8
41.3

(%)

TPES

total OECD

Sources: IEA, Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 2005-2006 (Paris: OECD, 2008) and CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (Paris: OECD, 2008).

Note: Energy-related CO2 emissions are calculated using the Tier 1 IPCC Sectoral Approach. Emissions from the combustion of biomass-derived fuels are not included in accordance with the IPCC
greenhouse gas inventory methodology.
* Other includes industrial wastes and non-renewable municipal wastes.

1587.99

EU27

3971.30

3877.15

4995.81

5237.72

IEA Total

220.94
11.41
10.58
86.74
14.90
69.97
15.67
10.61
21.63
44.20
290.13
35.09
9.93
0.31
8.21
28.84
46.85
392.44
252.51
0.30
33.71
27.57
6.05
2.17
193.91
11.09
14.36
5.79
40.88
6.09
0.60
112.25
113.42
1832.14

Coal

from

131.07
31.66
57.22
254.12
28.78
41.99
18.61
4.75
33.17
256.22
318.53
29.44
24.86
5.22
14.34
21.55
164.63
471.99
229.18
3.95
174.64
78.17
17.40
28.24
93.99
24.10
16.72
6.97
126.52
45.41
26.95
97.66
196.76
2162.92

OECD Total

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

(Mtoe)

TPES

Energy-related CO2 emissions

Table 2.6 : Key Energy and CO2 Emissions Data for OECD Countries (2009)
Share in

100.0

95.3

3.3
0.5
0.8
4.3
0.5
0.9
0.4
0.1
0.5
2.9
6.2
0.7
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.5
3.2
9.1
4.3
0.1
3.3
1.5
0.3
0.3
2.4
0.4
0.3
0.1
2.4
0.3
0.4
2.1
3.9
43.1

(%)

energy-related
CO2 emissions

total OECD

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) - III.26

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.27

3. TRADE

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.29

Table 3.1: World and seaborne coal trade


(million tonnes)
Steam coal

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Coking coal

Hard coal

Total

Seaborne

Total

Seaborne

Total

Seaborne

270.0
286.6
288.0
297.5
287.8
287.6
253.0
267.7
288.5
317.7
339.9
361.9
357.6
402.3
454.0
464.1
513.0
556.6
567.0
646.4
679.2
635.1
659.3
676.4

143.1
155.3
166.2
181.6
201.1
210.1
198.2
217.4
239.1
271.3
284.6
292.5
302.4
337.7
384.7
407.6
445.3
492.3
504.0
574.8
606.7
546.9
580.7
597.3

174.3
191.9
190.9
199.1
193.3
172.8
186.5
182.9
193.9
195.0
200.7
186.2
185.0
183.3
199.1
187.6
205.9
197.3
206.4
222.8
246.8
230.5
204.8
262.1

133.7
149.8
154.1
154.3
164.3
153.9
160.6
163.2
172.1
174.7
181.6
171.3
172.4
167.7
181.3
172.4
190.5
180.1
186.9
204.4
225.6
211.8
189.8
244.7

444.2
478.5
478.9
496.6
481.0
460.5
439.6
450.6
482.3
512.7
540.5
548.1
542.6
585.7
653.1
651.7
718.9
753.9
773.4
869.3
926.0
865.6
864.1
938.5

276.7
305.0
320.3
335.9
365.4
364.0
358.8
380.6
411.3
446.0
466.2
463.8
474.8
505.4
566.0
580.0
635.8
672.3
691.0
779.2
832.3
758.6
770.4
842.0

Table 3.2: World total hard coal trade


Japan

Other

OECD

(million tonnes)
Oth. Eur.
Africa +

Asia

Europe

+ Eurasia

Mid. East

North

Latin

Balancing

America

America

item

World

Exporters

2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010

Australia
Canada
Poland
United States
Other OECD
Total OECD
PR of China
Colombia
Indonesia
Kazakhstan
Russian Fed.
South Africa
Other non-OECD
Tot. Imp./Exp.

103.6 118.6 121.3 148.2

15.6

18.2

0.4

0.2

2.1

2.0

3.9

2.8

5.3

6.0

9.4

9.3

8.9

13.5

13.5

3.6

3.6

0.1

1.2

1.9

1.2

2.0

-0.5

3.3

1.5 261.7 297.7


28.5

9.7

10.8

0.1

0.1

-1.4

-0.9

8.4

10.0

1.1

3.0

5.0

13.4

26.3

27.5

1.2

4.2

1.6

2.4

7.7

9.0

8.0

8.7

2.6

5.8

53.4

73.9

0.4

0.4

0.0

0.0

11.6

9.2

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.0

6.7

9.5

19.2

19.8

114.5 130.9 139.8 175.2

66.7

69.3

1.9

4.7

3.9

4.5

13.0

14.2

14.5

16.7

16.8

33.3

19.3 371.2 434.6

6.0

7.0

15.0

12.3

0.9

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.9

0.7

22.8

20.1

0.0

0.2

13.4

34.9

35.5

0.4

0.3

1.0

0.1

17.5

14.3

8.0

7.8

5.4

-3.0

67.3

68.5

34.5 183.2 291.1

32.4

12.0

9.1

0.2

0.7

0.0

0.2

2.0

1.7

0.5

0.8

0.3

0.3

0.4

-86.1 -176.3 144.2 161.9


28.5

8.8

12.1

32.9

31.0

62.0

46.0

9.9

14.3

1.3

1.6

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.5

0.3

24.9

43.1

31.6

17.4

0.3

2.1

3.4

0.8

1.3

0.4

2.2

6.2

1.9

66.9

69.6

1.7

1.6

46.0

46.8

9.0

39.6

2.0

2.8

13.4

12.0

1.2

2.4

1.0

1.1

-21.1

-47.6

53.3

58.8

164.1 186.6 441.8 612.8 217.5 217.3

15.0

22.8

21.9

21.7

34.8

34.0

24.6

29.0

32.5

29.3

32.8

3.3 116.2 108.8

-48.5 -169.1 871.2 955.1

Notes: The data in this table come from a variety of sources. The data in the columns for OECD Europe, Japan and North America
Notes: are import statistics from those regions and countries. The data in the rows from Australia to Total OECD, except the data in
Notes: the columns mentioned above, are export statistics from these countries and regions. The data in the World column are based
Notes: on export statistics. All other data are based on national and international sources and estimates.There are some uncertainties
Notes: in the regional breakdown of the different types of coal. Therefore, the Balancing item is used to account for this. In addition,
Notes: the Balancing item also accounts for regional differences occurring due to the method that each country uses to classify its
Notes: coal imports and exports, coal in-transit, coal that is unaccounted for, confidentiality, and reporting discrepancies by importing
Notes: and exporting countries.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics and Secretariat sources.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.30 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.3: World steam coal trade


Japan
Exporters

Other

OECD

(million tonnes)
Oth. Eur.
Africa +

Asia

Europe

+ Eurasia

Mid. East

North

Latin

Balancing

America

America

Item

World

2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010

69.8 85.9 66.8 68.8


4.4
3.3
Australia
Canada
6.3
2.7
4.5
3.2
0.6
0.8
Poland
7.4
9.6
United States
0.8
0.4
0.6
4.3 11.0 11.0
Other OECD
0.3
0.0
0.0
7.1
6.6
Total OECD
77.1 89.0 71.8 76.3 30.5 31.2
PR of China
4.5
6.3 13.7 10.3
0.9
0.1
Colombia
0.0
0.1
- 13.4 34.6 34.8
Indonesia
21.7 21.5 179.4 288.5 12.0
9.1
Kazakhstan
0.3
0.3
Russian Fed.
6.2 10.2 28.3 22.8 60.2 43.4
South Africa
0.4
0.3 24.4 42.9 31.1 16.8
Other Non-OECD
1.7
1.6 41.8 31.2
7.3 29.5
Tot. Imp./Exp.
111.5 129.0 359.3 485.4 176.9 165.3

0.2

0.7

0.5

3.9

2.8

0.0

0.6

-9.3

0.3

0.6

0.0

0.1

-4.7

-18.9 136.5 143.1


-1.5

6.9

5.7

0.0

0.1

-0.8

-1.5

6.7

8.2

0.1

0.0

0.6

1.2

5.5

5.9

0.8

1.2

0.3

-1.1

19.6

23.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.0

5.3

6.4

13.0

13.6

0.4

0.2

1.4

1.8

9.9

9.7

0.8

2.0

-9.2

-16.6 182.7 193.6

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

2.3

2.1

21.3

18.8

0.4

0.3

1.0

0.1

17.5

14.3

7.2

7.0

6.4

-2.6

67.2

67.3

0.2

0.7

0.0

0.2

2.0

1.7

0.5

0.8

0.4

28.1

6.5

8.7

1.3

1.6

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

2.2

-73.7 -162.0 142.1 160.6


32.3

28.8

32.7

5.4 105.0

92.5

0.3

2.1

3.4

0.8

1.3

0.4

2.1

6.8

2.7

66.3

69.4

2.0

2.8

12.7

12.0

1.2

2.4

0.5

1.1

-19.0

-33.3

48.3

47.3

10.2

12.7

18.6

18.9

31.6

29.5

9.7

13.4

-56.1 -172.0 661.7 682.1

Notes: The data in this table come from a variety of sources. The data in the columns for OECD Europe, Japan and North America
Notes: are import statistics from those regions and countries. The data in the rows from Australia to Total OECD, except the data in
Notes: the columns mentioned above, are export statistics from these countries and regions. The data in the World column are based
Notes: on export statistics. All other data are based on national and international sources and estimates.There are some uncertainties
Notes: in the regional breakdown of the different types of coal. Therefore, the Balancing item is used to account for this. In addition,
Notes: the Balancing item also accounts for regional differences occurring due to the method that each country uses to classify its
Notes: coal imports and exports, coal in-transit, coal that is unaccounted for, confidentiality, and reporting discrepancies by importing
Notes: and exporting countries.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics and Secretariat sources.

Table 3.4: World coking coal trade


Japan

Other

OECD

(million tonnes)
Oth. Eur.
Africa +

Asia

Europe

+ Eurasia

Mid. East

North

Latin

Balancing

America

America

Item

World

2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009
Exporters
Australia(1)
33.9 32.7 54.5 79.4 11.1 14.9
0.2
0.2
1.4
1.5
5.3
5.4 18.8 20.5 125.2
Canada
3.1
6.3
9.1 10.4
3.0
2.8
0.1
0.9
1.4
1.2
1.9
4.2
4.8 21.5
Poland
2.3
1.2
0.0
0.0
-0.6
0.6
1.7
United States
0.4
2.6
4.4
9.0 15.3 16.5
1.0
4.1
1.0
1.2
2.2
3.1
7.2
7.4
2.3
6.9 33.8
Other OECD
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
4.5
2.6
0.2
0.1
0.0
1.4
3.1
6.2
Total OECD
37.4 41.9 68.0 98.9 36.3 38.0
1.4
4.5
2.5
2.7
3.2
4.5 13.7 14.7 26.0 35.8 188.5
PR of China
1.5
0.7
1.4
2.0
0.0
0.0
-1.4
-1.4
1.5
Colombia
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.8
-1.0
-0.3
0.1
Indonesia
10.7 13.1
3.8
2.6
- -12.4 -14.3
2.1
Kazakhstan
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.5
Russian Fed.
2.7
1.9
4.7
8.2
1.8
2.6
3.4
5.6
0.0
0.0
-1.4
-2.1 11.2
South Africa
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.1
-0.6
-0.8
0.6
Other Non-OECD
0.0
0.0
4.2 15.5
1.7 10.1
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.5
0.0
-2.0 -14.3
5.1
Tot. Imp./Exp.
52.5 57.7 82.5 127.5 40.6 52.0
4.8 10.1
3.3
2.8
3.2
4.5 14.9 15.6
7.6
2.8 209.4

2010
154.6
27.5
1.8
50.9
6.2
241.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
0.1
16.3
0.1
11.5
273.0

Notes: The data in this table come from a variety of sources. The data in the columns for OECD Europe, Japan and North America
Notes: are import statistics from those regions and countries. The data in the rows from Australia to Total OECD, except the data in
Notes: the columns mentioned above, are export statistics from these countries and regions. The data in the World column are based
Notes: on export statistics. All other data are based on national and international sources and estimates.There are some uncertainties
Notes: in the regional breakdown of the different types of coal. Therefore, the Balancing item is used to account for this. In addition,
Notes: the Balancing item also accounts for regional differences occurring due to the method that each country uses to classify its
Notes: coal imports and exports, coal in-transit, coal that is unaccounted for, confidentiality, and reporting discrepancies by importing
Notes: and exporting countries.
(1) Includes exports of soft and semi-soft coking coal used for pulverised coal injection (PCI).
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics and Secretariat sources.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.31

Table 3.5: World hard coal imports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

344150

266147

371469

284780

375420

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Europe
Eurasia

78003

16416

137017

112714

4583

11169

32300

29951

86689

19894

137451

127435

4675

10760

38143

33111

291069

84351

18618

143030

129421

4681

10974

40402

28294

491353

313378

177975

18506

160219

134653

4123

11688

43526

118638

488184

333497

154687

17157

170642

145698

4722

12261

42608

95096

472123

330953

141170

17966

166139

146848

4649

11927

48123

76471

443444

317942

125502

16268

146854

154820

4756

12645

54230

53871

461138

338618

122520

18466

151539

168613

5200

13171

54501

49648

491858

360442

131416

19295

160868

180279

5355

13467

61312

51282

502942

373039

129903

22735

166694

183610

6594

14448

65292

43569

531916

397328

134588

26097

174205

197026

6880

14348

71495

41865

537969

403552

134417

30197

180077

193278

8222

14773

69836

41586

538769

408611

130158

31885

173930

202796

7848

14646

77972

29692

610310

458527

151783

36895

196449

225183

9089

15263

86166

41265

652501

491516

160985

45088

213962

232466

10170

14928

92948

42939

665089

490072

175017

38906

205317

245849

11088

15638

110179

38112

710441

518090

192351

46206

219340

252544

10739

16349

118570

46693

770744

556725

214019

45909

237360

273456

10815

17317

142592

43295

789797

556487

233310

52882

236093

267512

11104

17426

163664

41116

854422

592733

261689

61194

258714

272825

11312

16860

187160

46357

902444

606574

295870

55456

261610

289508

11258

18766

217941

47905

908187

603272

304915

53591

252315

297366

11420

19348

219080

55067

915416

538560

376856

41016

217489

280055

9437

17221

312516

37682

1048109

575807

472302

41111

217394

317302

9393

22755

399002

41152

Table 3.6: World brown coal imports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

(thousand tonnes)
OECD

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

World

OECD

Non
OECD

16604

13347

3257

13347

1601

1656

16656

13266

3390

13266

1434

1956

16165

12370

3795

12370

1163

2632

18855

13698

5157

13698

825

4332

19385

16569

2816

16569

2814

15093

13393

1700

13392

1699

13119

12352

767

12350

766

10517

10130

387

10129

386

10586

9115

1471

9113

271

1200

11286

8534

2752

469

8065

265

2487

10278

8614

1664

967

7647

542

1122

10975

8231

2744

2211

6020

2048

696

12649

9795

2854

3676

6119

2465

389

16259

10026

6233

4525

5501

4744

1489

16781

8908

7873

3567

5341

6027

1846

18218

11678

6540

8197

3481

5244

1296

19908

12415

7493

9228

3187

5141

2352

17590

9810

7780

6544

3266

5729

2051

16623

9452

7171

6772

2680

4797

2374

15990

7910

8080

5042

2868

5250

2830

20554

10975

9579

8144

2831

5898

3681

21621

13078

8543

9645

3433

5825

2718

15623

7607

8016

4678

2929

5800

2216

15206

6421

8785

3931

2490

10

22

6687

2066

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Africa
M. East

Europe/
Eurasia

Note: Prior to 1990 excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.32 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.7: World hard coal imports - selected countries


Belgium France
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

Germany

Spain

UK

(thousand tonnes)
USA Canada Russian
Fed.

India

PR of Chinese
China Taipei

Japan

Korea

9133

13309

14960

8886

9781

1585

14345

2970

1941

14022

90916

18279

11065

12114

13304

8766

11685

1936

17477

3700

1743

17455

101241

22657

12658

15943

11071

10569

12137

2587

14522

4410

2290

16852

101509

24216

14761

19389

13580

10455

14783

2449

14169

53210

6046

2003

18527

106918

23729

14421

21792

15423

12988

19611

3075

12567

46911

5272

1368

18444

112675

29094

14014

21989

15452

14279

20339

3450

13003

39723

6495

1630

22139

110626

30781

11894

14231

13090

12726

18400

6631

8468

28200

7330

1428

25345

112053

37381

12659

12190

15483

11504

15088

6880

9366

27198

10556

1209

26721

121477

41009

14099

13190

15052

13408

15896

6533

9735

22734

12512

1635

28698

127354

45831

12814

15758

16348

11994

17799

6464

11740

20081

13175

3217

30907

130372

46074

12796

13604

20031

11340

19757

6792

13504

20715

16440

2013

35777

136217

51997

12634

18424

22249

14554

21244

7868

16494

21800

16535

1586

35083

130044

53586

10836

17841

22678

20098

20293

8204

16129

16044

19700

1673

38669

138615

54569

11347

18980

27948

21649

23446

11271

18790

25518

20930

2178

40708

150340

64895

12681

15960

33511

18916

35542

18672

20141

27820

20548

2661

43074

154616

66381

9906

18142

32607

24514

28687

16060

13987

20866

23260

11258

46570

161306

71708

9390

16768

34917

21552

31891

22614

13451

25217

21683

11098

49529

166418

73405

9790

19460

39536

24473

36153

24635

12797

22259

28484

18614

54757

180804

78963

8804

19851

37105

24756

43968

27506

14104

22390

38586

26172

55455

176977

76758

8056

20391

42132

23704

50528

32691

15868

25742

43081

38106

57061

179118

79707

7415

18958

46287

24439

43364

32865

10399

23441

49794

51016

59344

187004

88285

7431

21288

45427

20967

43876

30913

11026

30992

59003

40340

58019

184402

99584

4806

15437

38475

17038

38167

20408

8353

23808

73255

125840

52709

164051

102982

2533

17540

45725

12818

26521

17421

8845

19340

90137

176958

63238

186637

118591

PR of Chinese
China Taipei

Japan

Korea

Table 3.8: World brown coal imports - selected countries


Belgium France
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

Germany

Spain

UK

(thousand tonnes)
USA Canada Russian
Fed.

India

264

49

2162

226

49

1883

267

57

1990

276

69

2083

276

3428

244

3640

226

2991

212

48

2623

265

195

53

2132

481

59

227

42

1950

136

467

241

219

37

2151

965

89

442

196

32

1944

46

2163

22

2010

159

37

2053

41

3630

2435

219

52

1796

80

4441

10

4701

207

59

1997

79

3486

242

6017

205

23

848

121

8074

5244

188

42

35

107

9117

127

5141

190

40

17

114

6426

170

5726

206

36

128

6641

253

4797

289

37

53

191

4848

341

5250

317

51

27

108

8033

270

5888

282

67

28

119

9523

275

5821

172

51

10

130

4544

338

5800

96

52

135

3793

280

6360

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.33

Table 3.9: World coking coal imports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

164203

129576

34627

178687

143012

35675

177466

141289

171198

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Europe

6072

50322

73182

3271

10788

10202

10366

6736

53911

82365

3289

10290

11890

10206

36177

6377

54572

80340

3001

10901

13129

9146

136986

34212

5211

55546

76229

2478

11354

13841

6539

169121

137142

31979

5384

54340

77418

2918

11673

13501

3887

166310

131482

34828

5453

51742

74287

3070

11273

13958

6527

163714

130090

33624

5355

50305

74430

3210

11413

14301

4700

174011

133181

40830

5135

50837

77209

3421

11570

16646

9193

179642

134521

45121

4844

52723

76954

2960

11628

15893

14640

181161

137498

43663

5557

54228

77713

3305

11997

15559

12802

183395

137599

45796

4991

56107

76501

3409

11468

19292

11627

177109

136511

40598

6359

58512

71640

4116

11133

16798

8551

168638

130791

37847

5819

52851

72121

3771

10407

17701

5968

178461

139299

39162

6557

56071

76671

4217

10499

17751

6695

171764

133489

38275

6791

52154

74544

4113

10317

17872

5973

175566

134491

41075

7191

48850

78450

5071

10117

19775

6112

176368

131000

45368

5547

47389

78064

4979

10509

21852

8028

198321

141119

57202

6162

52253

82704

5102

10454

30368

11278

194476

136629

57847

6523

52941

77165

5063

10435

29892

12457

195975

140291

55684

6466

56064

77761

5080

10355

28014

12235

207708

145237

62471

5551

58941

80745

4698

11483

33412

12878

209238

146288

62950

5584

59030

81674

5127

11941

34165

11717

202889

117467

85422

3711

40579

73177

3705

11149

63789

6779

256207

142440

113767

5016

52038

85386

3271

14561

84613

11322

Americas

Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Asia
Oceania

Europe
Eurasia

Table 3.10: World steam coal imports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

179947

136571

192782

141768

197954

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Europe
Eurasia

43376

10344

86695

39532

1312

381

22098

19585

51014

13158

83540

45070

1386

470

26253

22905

149780

48174

12241

88458

49081

1680

73

27273

19148

320155

176392

143763

13295

104673

58424

1645

334

29685

112099

319063

196355

122708

11773

116302

68280

1804

588

29107

91209

305813

199471

106342

12513

114397

72561

1579

654

34165

69944

279730

187852

91878

10913

96549

80390

1546

1232

39929

49171

287127

205437

81690

13331

100702

91404

1779

1601

37855

40455

312216

225921

86295

14451

108145

103325

2395

1839

45419

36642

321781

235541

86240

17178

112466

105897

3289

2451

49733

30767

348521

259729

88792

21106

118098

120525

3471

2880

52203

30238

360860

267041

93819

23838

121565

121638

4106

3640

53038

33035

370131

277820

92311

26066

121079

130675

4077

4239

60271

23724

431849

319228

112621

30338

140378

148512

4872

4764

68415

34570

480737

358027

122710

38297

161808

157922

6057

4611

75076

36966

489523

355581

133942

31715

156467

167399

6017

5521

90404

32000

534073

387090

146983

40659

171951

174480

5760

5840

96718

38665

572423

415606

156817

39747

185107

190752

5713

6863

112224

32017

595321

419858

175463

46359

183152

190347

6041

6991

133772

28659

658447

452442

206005

54728

202650

195064

6232

6505

159146

34122

694736

461337

233399

49905

202669

208763

6560

7283

184529

35027

698949

456984

241965

48007

193285

215692

6293

7407

184915

43350

712527

421093

291434

37305

176910

206878

5732

6072

248727

30903

791902

433367

358535

36095

165356

231916

6122

8194

314389

29830

Note: Prior to 1990 excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.34 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.11: World coking coal imports - selected countries


Belgium France
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

Germany

Spain

UK

(thousand tonnes)
USA Canada Russian
Fed.

India

PR of Chinese
China Taipei

Japan

Korea

4874

7532

2200

3437

6492

5589

2970

224

3490

63935

9247

6838

8165

2248

3643

7082

6255

3700

50

4687

71128

11237

7064

7769

2281

4000

7998

5917

4410

303

4921

68689

11651

7132

7848

1706

4169

8614

4491

5854

250

4237

64935

11287

6426

7660

1057

4652

9196

4744

5272

408

4350

61839

15572

5795

7457

1357

4343

8385

4848

6325

400

3748

57898

16381

4748

6904

987

4572

8602

4681

6936

3915

57104

17321

4444

6747

1093

3893

8065

4467

3237

9874

4032

60301

16902

5267

7300

1427

3244

7754

4129

2215

9378

4390

59799

17151

5325

7387

2189

3318

8245

4833

1708

10617

3946

59479

18226

4328

7235

2536

3745

8072

4301

1274

11745

398

6033

59098

17395

4195

7052

4299

3905

8646

1050

4597

292

10023

103

5636

53649

17979

3953

6950

3519

3548

8020

1065

4041

10992

263

5375

54880

17227

3818

6543

4608

3755

8462

1547

4296

200

11063

339

5158

57081

19575

4169

6942

3984

3424

7723

2091

3987

11107

277

5373

56625

17899

3363

6405

5174

3425

6315

2207

4315

12947

256

5272

58435

20003

3220

5577

5504

3321

6474

1556

3272

12992

2605

5274

57744

20315

3577

6798

6875

4043

6345

1987

3429

16925

6830

5078

60884

21808

3533

6255

7152

3571

6551

1603

4228

866

16891

7195

4968

56530

20627

3490

5995

8692

3622

6774

1533

4253

167

17877

4663

4872

57672

20081

3247

6191

9627

3682

7481

1515

3322

22029

6219

4483

58205

22532

2993

7239

9255

3371

6349

1580

3286

1450

21080

6857

4757

57584

24083

1666

3610

6448

2058

5164

947

2204

225

24690

34417

4024

52514

20659

1339

4615

7793

2777

6235

1385

3122

183

30380

48398

4828

57680

27706

PR of Chinese
China Taipei

Japan

Korea

Table 3.12: World steam coal imports - selected countries


Belgium France
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

Germany

Spain

UK

(thousand tonnes)
USA Canada Russian
Fed.

India

4259

5777

12760

5449

3289

1585

8756

1717

10532

26981

9032

4227

3949

11056

5123

4603

1936

11222

1693

12768

30113

11420

5594

8174

8790

6569

4139

2587

8605

1987

11931

32820

12565

7629

11541

11874

6286

6169

2449

9678

53210

192

1753

14290

41983

12442

7995

14132

14366

8336

10415

3075

7823

46911

960

14094

50836

13522

8219

14532

14095

9936

11954

3450

8155

39723

170

1230

18391

52728

14400

7146

7327

12103

8154

9798

6631

3787

28200

394

1428

21430

54949

20060

8215

5443

14390

7611

7023

6880

4899

23961

682

1209

22689

61176

24107

8832

5890

13625

10164

8142

6533

5606

20519

3134

1635

24308

67555

28680

7489

8371

14159

8676

9554

6464

6907

18373

2558

3217

26961

70893

27848

8468

6369

17495

7595

11685

6792

9203

19441

4695

1615

29744

77119

34602

8439

11372

17950

10649

12598

6818

11897

21508

6512

1483

29447

76395

35607

6883

10891

19159

16550

12273

7139

12088

16042

8708

1410

33294

83735

37342

7529

12437

23340

17894

14984

9724

14494

25318

9867

1839

35550

93259

45320

8512

9018

29527

15492

27819

16581

16154

27820

9441

2384

37701

97991

48482

6543

11737

27433

21089

22372

13853

9672

20866

10313

11002

41298

102871

51705

6170

11191

29413

18231

25417

21058

10179

25217

8691

8493

44255

108674

53090

6213

12662

32661

20430

29808

22648

9368

22259

11559

11784

49679

119920

57155

5271

13596

29953

21185

37417

25903

9876

21524

21695

18977

50487

120447

56131

4566

14396

33440

20082

43754

31158

11615

25575

25204

33443

52189

121446

59626

4168

12767

36660

20757

35883

31350

7077

23441

27765

44797

54861

128799

65753

4438

14049

36172

17596

37527

29333

7740

29542

37923

33483

53262

126818

75501

3140

11827

32027

14980

33003

19461

6149

23583

48565

91423

48685

111537

82323

1194

12925

37932

10041

20286

16036

5723

19157

59757

128560

58410

128957

90885

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.35

Table 3.13: OECD coke oven coke imports (1)


(thousand tonnes)

1973
Australia

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

44

Austria

1055

986

1274

815

718

981

1402

1438

1420

813

1268

Belgium

1110

1261

676

822

1259

1108

152

217

850

179

166

Canada

357

267

340

339

818

631

88

757

804

777

750

11

148

53

44

51

27

68

34

62

320

602

510

735

519

536

168
22

Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark

129

112

75

41

45

47

36

35

39

21

Estonia

..

..

..

12

Finland

832

1229

1231

786

274

505

505

572

534

246

462

France

3646

3000

2147

1109

885

1448

1525

1071

1310

1047

1264

Germany

4497

4202

2693

2001

2601

5987

3793

4693

4347

3168

4310

45

35

53

32

11

1207

1468

1486

478

351

205

27

16

Iceland

16

34

30

18

47

33

34

21

19

18

Ireland

13

22

29

82

101

134

115

745

506

848

426

228

18

261

493

2467

2500

1999

1293

413

879
629

Greece
Hungary

Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea

38

121

106

341

551

700

256

3247

2292

1854

1447

521

Mexico

150

122

121

124

437

631

390

274

348

208

391

Netherlands

677

832

405

360

649

515

341

509

186

78

243

577

531

700

534

522

543

382

442

455

279

434
137

Luxembourg

New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom

34

16

117

119

85

55

38

102

157

13

34

922

130

268

456

178

155

260

455

415

275

610

..

..

..

68

57

72

56

49

34

25

29

459

553

209

172

846

137

136

136

204

121

204

1495

453

386

318

484

328

393

266

319

146

247

158

127

77

27

24

27

20

22

24

22

18

40

182

722

414

442

216

274

362

53

374

304

640

483

909

1069

722

178

113

United States

978

598

524

694

1648

3430

3202

2232

3269

315

1101

IEA Americas

1335

865

864

1033

2466

4061

3290

2989

4073

1092

1851

38

121

106

261

493

2467

2841

2594

2000

669

1508

20242

17422

14261

9859

11329

14117

11959

12678

11896

7447

10056

1496

1135

1038

1201

2954

4719

3748

3297

4483

1300

2242

40

122

107

261

493

2467

2841

2594

2000

669

1508

OECD Europe

20242

17438

14295

9969

11404

14237

12048

12761

11951

7491

10103

IEA Total

21615

18408

15231

11153

14288

20645

18090

18261

17969

9208

13415

OECD Total

21778

18695

15440

11431

14851

21423

18637

18652

18434

9460

13853

IEA Asia Oceania


IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania

(1) Solid product obtained from carbonization of coal, principally coking coal, used mainly in the iron and steel industry.
(1) Also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.36 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.14: World hard coal exports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

354226

249047

387119

267936

389064
502813

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Europe
Eurasia

105179

98990

48605

101452

41853

8938

16449

37939

119183

118021

49932

99983

44331

11146

17306

46400

269849

119215

124314

46380

99155

47091

14176

18148

39800

275708

227105

126918

45057

103733

50066

15371

21734

139934

488655

291078

197577

132913

37372

120793

47515

18590

26536

104936

479200

282416

196784

121120

34281

127015

52149

16930

35655

92050

432541

262671

169870

95881

34248

132542

51981

21441

32848

63600

442684

270717

171967

96432

42038

132247

55115

22613

40577

53662

483328

298612

184716

114322

46252

138038

59896

22553

52636

49631

503480

301776

201704

116539

42789

142448

60410

28398

64322

48574

529766

315094

214672

112318

43974

158802

64672

32685

66436

50879

534787

320612

214175

106283

46439

167890

61833

35969

67140

49233

528517

300050

228467

86609

40246

173195

66813

36760

77990

46904

599424

315492

283932

85092

41906

188494

70459

43321

96801

73351

650084

317455

332629

73692

49784

193979

69970

46428

139655

76576

637514

310909

326605

62612

42030

206267

69888

43854

139189

73674

690686

315914

374772

67176

37778

210960

72065

52392

160192

90123

720501

329160

391341

69098

39726

220336

68621

57650

168235

96835

769625

342916

426709

73163

36108

233645

72017

60833

179729

114130

815818

344242

471576

72852

37372

234018

69365

69699

209056

123456

853937

367097

486840

83789

37702

245606

67524

71995

219615

127706

860246

389967

470279

105208

30006

254753

58468

75181

202277

134353

865031

371230

493801

81850

25529

263851

68069

75284

210398

140050

955057

434642

520415

107206

27341

300095

69621

74678

228390

147726

Table 3.15: World brown coal exports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

Non
OECD

(thousand tonnes)
OECD

OECD

12689

11710

979

32

11678

912

67

12626

11194

1432

11187

1382

50

12370

10710

1660

10

10700

1660

17179

10178

7001

79

10099

2137

4864

17310

11131

6179

55

11076

2682

3497

18488

9874

8614

55

9819

5548

3066

16825

9543

7282

29

9514

5953

1329

14667

7042

7625

51

6991

7127

498

20714

6882

13832

6882

11273

2559

21618

5724

15894

11

5713

13094

2800

21109

4887

16222

4885

15017

1205

23106

4104

19002

293

3811

17226

1776

25391

3344

22047

47

3297

20317

1730

25394

2879

22515

55

2824

20675

1840

29003

3171

25832

161

3010

24137

1695

29929

2248

27681

242

2006

26566

1115

35711

1398

34313

229

1169

32206

2107

40849

1533

39316

309

1224

38204

1112

49720

1965

47755

351

1614

46660

1095

69914

2352

67562

430

1922

66411

1151

75456

2273

73183

678

1595

71708

1475

78923

3492

75431

1781

1711

73307

2124

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

World

Europe/
Eurasia

90388

1846

88542

520

1326

86484

2058

128001

1239

126762

342

897

126322

440

Note: Prior to 1990 excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.37

Table 3.16: World hard coal exports - selected countries


Poland Canada
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

USA

AusCotralia lombia

(thousand tonnes)
Vene- Russian Kazakh- Ukraine
zuela
Fed.
stan

PR of
China

India

Indonesia

South
Africa

30222

26740

72186

101152

8938

13530

170

549

41700

32340

31732

86203

99618

10121

1025

15646

200

625

44170

28943

32817

91457

98669

12487

1689

15338

160

1605

46931

28065

31000

95912

103396

13505

1834

56051

51480

22217

17290

100

3013

49900

22464

34103

98809

120183

16379

2196

37402

51963

12722

20001

110

4681

47357

22542

28165

92955

126242

14614

2309

40500

42459

7342

23363

130

9947

52059

22968

28274

67602

131752

17616

3825

25881

33821

3101

19815

100

10925

51711

27695

31695

64736

131201

18437

4135

23100

26000

4106

24194

673

13087

54838

31868

33993

80329

136702

18274

4242

26263

20768

2400

28617

651

20037

59676

28920

34448

82076

140856

24781

3617

25341

20840

2289

36485

478

23277

60224

29466

36530

75788

157557

27580

5105

23493

24857

2374

35331

540

26697

64200

28055

34183

72098

166796

30061

5908

24042

23294

1881

32297

823

30464

61300

24102

33539

53001

171861

29932

6828

27709

17025

2138

37437

1156

35680

66235

23245

32082

53006

186962

35391

7930

36737

34281

2320

55057

1292

36350

69910

23029

29618

44066

192178

38868

7560

41553

31268

3729

90125

1903

42460

69210

22623

26804

35805

204334

36510

7344

43497

26975

3092

83887

1517

46708

69231

20119

28280

38896

208749

45644

6748

54625

32572

2912

93986

1627

56759

71531

19684

25746

43351

218426

50902

6748

68616

24326

3883

86613

1294

67278

67946

19369

28064

45095

231311

53607

7143

86006

24446

3666

71676

1989

82309

71442

16735

27989

44860

231296

61968

7589

91391

28605

3457

63211

1554

117240

68747

11900

30422

53359

243588

64575

7373

98054

25953

3621

53111

1627

124727

66963

8461

31513

73688

252189

67761

7373

97470

32042

4794

45288

1655

127966

57891

8396

28466

53379

261742

66756

8477

105552

29121

5290

22348

2454

149396

67509

9965

33272

73929

297676

68491

6182

108796

32797

6071

20055

2073

161936

69566

India

Indonesia

South
Africa

Table 3.17: World brown coal exports - selected countries


Poland Canada
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

USA

AusCotralia lombia

(thousand tonnes)
Vene- Russian Kazakh- Ukraine
zuela
Fed.
stan

PR of
China

32

301

341

10

884

193

70

3134

1433

1647

1275

10

45

2979

348

2561

1063

46

2896

5460

909

29

1321

5953

719

51

232

266

7127

368

2171

202

11271

45

11

2059

232

13093

37

883

223

15017

23

293

1620

109

17136

13

47

1604

73

20070

55

1592

147

20447

15

78

83

1245

299

23884

41

120

122

783

87

26273

36

109

120

1317

184

31927

27

117

192

315

211

37844

140

211

552

212

46299

251

179

539

248

65947

364

314

584

225

70159

1516

265

649

867

71981

68

287

233

893

788

17

84035

115

139

203

167

89

29

124872

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.38 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.18: World coking coal exports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

174260

146920

191195

161929

191866

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

Europe
Eurasia

27340

69382

22506

55032

4755

3585

19000

29266

83895

21788

56246

5016

3250

21000

164800

27066

87800

21286

55714

4161

2905

20000

208775

162292

46483

84425

19781

58086

3633

3502

39348

201524

169976

31548

87432

16485

66059

3523

3889

24136

202245

161704

40541

77034

16339

68331

5088

3789

31664

184513

161116

23397

68967

17420

74729

4865

4453

14079

194372

158390

35982

70007

15843

72540

5764

5370

24848

193974

169662

24312

75819

18218

75625

6305

7314

10693

192331

170142

22189

76758

14826

78558

6133

7978

8078

195816

175094

20722

77406

12982

84706

5650

5207

9865

183168

165753

17415

71075

10273

84405

5167

5525

6723

177865

161877

15988

58092

10456

93329

2532

6855

6601

185723

168603

17120

58166

9747

100690

1744

7710

7666

193779

164995

28784

49967

8301

106727

973

13064

14747

181117

156604

24513

42503

7643

106458

759

14284

9470

184159

159546

24613

43755

6767

109024

584

14207

9822

188124

167676

20448

48196

6757

112723

917

6930

12601

205392

185601

19791

52711

6663

126227

557

8495

10739

199852

180273

19579

50149

8092

122032

730

8023

10826

214978

196284

18694

55872

7234

133178

935

7293

10466

235244

210734

24510

65242

6007

139485

1291

9079

14140

211546

188535

23011

55347

5916

127272

1382

7562

14067

270931

241056

29875

78434

5698

156924

1410

13922

14543

Table 3.19: World steam coal exports - regional aggregates

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

World

OECD

Non
OECD

179966

102127

195924

106007

197198
294038

(thousand tonnes)
OECD
Africa
M. East

Non-OECD
Latin
Asia
America

Americas

Europe

Asia
Oceania

77839

29608

26099

46420

37098

8938

12864

18939

89917

34126

28144

43737

39315

11146

14056

25400

105049

92149

36514

25094

43441

42930

14176

15243

19800

113416

180622

42493

25276

45647

46433

15371

18232

100586

287131

121102

166029

45481

20887

54734

43992

18590

22647

80800

276955

120712

156243

44086

17942

58684

47061

16930

31866

60386

248028

101555

146473

26914

16828

57813

47116

21441

28395

49521

248312

112327

135985

26425

26195

59707

49351

22613

35207

28814

289354

128950

160404

38503

28034

62413

53591

22553

45322

38938

311149

131634

179515

39781

27963

63890

54277

28398

56344

40496

333950

140000

193950

34912

30992

74096

59022

32685

61229

41014

351619

154859

196760

35208

36166

83485

56666

35969

61615

42510

350652

138173

212479

28517

29790

79866

64281

36760

71135

40303

413701

146889

266812

26926

32159

87804

68715

43321

89091

65685

456305

152460

303845

23725

41483

87252

68997

46428

126591

61829

456397

154305

302092

20109

34387

99809

69129

43854

124905

64204

506527

156368

350159

23421

31011

101936

71481

52392

145985

80301

532377

161484

370893

20902

32969

107613

67704

57650

161305

84234

564233

157315

406918

20452

29445

107418

71460

60833

171234

103391

615966

163969

451997

22703

29280

111986

68635

69699

201033

112630

638959

170813

468146

27917

30468

112428

66589

71995

212322

117240

625002

179233

445769

39966

23999

115268

57177

75181

193198

120213

653485

182695

470790

26503

19613

136579

66687

75284

202836

125983

684126

193586

490540

28772

21643

143171

68211

74678

214468

133183

Note: Prior to 1990 excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union and Former Yugoslavia.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Europe
Eurasia

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.39

Table 3.20: World coking coal exports - selected countries


Poland Canada
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

USA

AusCotralia lombia

(thousand tonnes)
Vene- Russian Kazakh- Ukraine
zuela
Fed.
stan

PR of
China

India

Indonesia

South
Africa

13639

22436

46882

54733

3579

4755

13381

27609

56200

55881

3241

5016

11467

28677

59083

55228

2896

4161

11226

26851

57568

57750

31573

7775

3473

29

3633

9767

28786

58645

65450

15633

8503

3840

49

3523

10781

23124

53910

67561

24322

7342

3700

89

5088

12829

23921

45044

73941

6729

4247

3101

4283

170

4843

10694

27066

42941

71496

17367

3375

4106

4906

254

210

5764

12296

28564

47255

74291

8693

1999

6744

329

241

6305

9886

28722

48036

76968

6538

1509

31

7487

188

303

6133

9138

30092

47314

83462

8450

1371

44

4601

272

334

5650

6506

28353

42722

83312

6440

271

12

4855

385

285

5167

6635

28946

29146

91996

6400

184

17

5246

774

835

2517

5290

28386

29780

99161

7300

344

22

6470

624

616

1744

3813

26914

23053

104935

14431

316

11445

879

740

970

3521

22964

19539

104526

9196

271

13295

163

826

759

2710

23716

20039

106814

9470

328

24

13135

158

914

584

3036

23847

24349

110815

11935

245

417

5757

114

1059

917

3151

26710

26001

123896

9983

247

509

5260

46

1222

524

3601

25203

24946

119312

10007

289

530

4344

107

1550

672

2363

26674

29198

131164

10019

262

118

2543

36

1736

910

1683

26643

38599

136924

13614

329

197

3457

109

1922

1266

1725

21544

33803

125238

13276

299

453

636

269

2049

1357

1815

27528

50906

154623

13684

337

520

571

227

2221

1398

PR of
China

India

Indonesia

South
Africa

Table 3.21: World steam coal exports - selected countries


Poland Canada
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010e

USA

AusCotralia lombia

(thousand tonnes)
Vene- Russian Kazakh- Ukraine
zuela
Fed.
stan

16583

4304

25304

46419

8938

9951

170

543

36945

18959

4123

30003

43737

10121

1025

12405

200

616

39154

17476

4140

32374

43441

12487

1689

12442

160

1596

42770

16839

4149

38344

45646

13505

1834

24478

51480

14442

13817

100

2984

46267

12697

5317

40164

54733

16379

2196

21769

51963

4219

16161

110

4632

43834

11761

5041

39045

58681

14614

2309

16178

42459

19663

130

9858

46971

10139

4353

22558

57811

17616

3825

19152

29574

15532

100

10755

46868

17001

4629

21795

59705

18437

4135

5733

22625

19288

419

12877

49074

19572

5429

33074

62411

18274

4242

17570

18769

2400

21873

322

19796

53371

19034

5726

34040

63888

24781

3617

18803

19331

2258

28998

290

22974

54091

20328

6438

28474

74095

27580

5105

15043

23486

2330

30730

268

26363

58550

21549

5830

29376

83484

30061

5908

17602

23023

1869

27442

438

30179

56133

17467

4593

23855

79865

29932

6828

21309

16841

2121

32191

382

34845

63718

17955

3696

23226

87801

35391

7930

29437

33937

2298

48587

668

35734

68166

19216

2704

21013

87243

38868

7560

27122

30952

3729

78680

1024

41720

68240

19102

3840

16266

99808

36510

7344

34301

26704

3089

70592

1354

45882

68472

17409

4564

18857

101935

45644

6748

45155

32244

2888

80851

1469

55845

70947

16648

1899

19002

107611

50902

6748

56681

24081

3466

80856

1180

66219

67029

16218

1354

19094

107415

53607

7143

76023

24199

3157

66416

1943

81087

70918

13134

2786

19914

111984

61968

7589

81384

28316

2927

58867

1447

115690

68075

9537

3748

24161

112424

64575

7373

88035

25691

3503

50568

1591

122991

66053

6778

4870

35089

115265

67761

7373

83856

31713

4597

41831

1546

126044

56625

6671

6922

19576

136504

66756

8477

92276

28822

4837

21712

2185

147347

66152

8150

5744

23023

143053

68491

6182

95112

32460

5551

19484

1846

159715

68168

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.40 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 3.22: OECD coke oven coke exports (1)


(thousand tonnes)

Australia

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010e

122

11

574

334

22

Austria

82

11

Belgium

469

768

847

915

557

293

20

102

107

405

140

Canada

368

80

22

193

334

300

154

178

70

75

83

45

34

19

41

39

46

12

3467

2450

1927

1451

1409

948

913

807

830

562

904

Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark

Estonia

35

39

20

37

40

28

26

22

Finland

24

13

France
Germany

1012

870

553

383

307

711

643

796

993

617

122

10197

7692

6038

2945

287

75

75

122

167

105

189

Greece

31

Hungary

103

420

183

53

269

251

154

300

Iceland

Ireland

Israel

Italy

628

747

451

201

130

123

229

215

239

276

303

Japan

600

2068

4055

1880

3428

2593

1674

1382

944

1020

652

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

79

95

680

702

880

829

1025

562

358

566

227

135

148

Norway

51

36

122

Poland

2780

1770

1639

3662

3331

3691

4624

6337

6118

4813

6347

16

11

74

80

13

23

58

59

138

140

183

164

324

Netherlands
New Zealand

Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia

Spain

11

42

81

744

610

1053

624

199

370
33

Sweden

11

114

77

41

67

29

35

27

33

274

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

665

1265

1163

435

264

381

119

257

185

146

483

United States

1266

1879

1018

519

680

1039

1585

1310

1777

1186

1327

IEA Americas

1634

1959

1040

712

1014

1339

1739

1488

1847

1261

1410

600

2190

4066

2454

3762

2615

1675

1382

944

1020

652

20218

16437

13750

10926

8013

7882

7823

10699

9960

7853

9682
1410

IEA Asia Oceania


IEA Europe
OECD Americas

1634

2083

1169

716

1034

1382

1780

1537

1862

1261

600

2190

4066

2454

3762

2615

1675

1382

944

1020

652

OECD Europe

20218

16437

13750

10961

8052

7902

7860

10739

9988

7879

9704

IEA Total

22452

20586

18856

14092

12789

11836

11237

13569

12751

10134

11744

OECD Total

22452

20710

18985

14131

12848

11899

11315

13658

12794

10160

11766

OECD Asia Oceania

(1) Solid product obtained from carbonization of coal, principally coking coal, used mainly in the iron and steel industry.
(1) Also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite.
(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.41

4. PRICES

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.43

Table 4.1: Japan coking coal import costs


Total(1)
(all sources)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Note:

60.72
60.61
57.86
55.39
51.91
55.03
56.39
55.19
50.98
42.95
39.46
41.13
42.14
41.73
61.40
88.80
93.10
88.43
184.13
163.82
151.45

(average unit value, CIF, US$/t)


Australia
Canada
USA
55.27
56.64
53.55
51.49
47.89
51.15
54.07
52.73
49.47
41.83
39.01
40.96
43.32
43.56
56.85
96.44
106.20
96.03
206.71
191.58
170.10

71.27
71.85
70.98
67.12
64.65
64.49
64.44
64.84
59.73
51.05
45.46
47.30
50.50
51.64
62.04
106.05
125.68
112.61
234.34
220.94
191.97

66.90
66.16
63.68
61.82
59.34
61.37
61.05
61.24
59.53
55.79
52.69
47.81
52.07
42.93
163.61
159.01
159.35
516.32
308.56
241.65
208.24

Africa

Russian(2)
Federation

China

50.11
51.94
52.36
46.78
46.93
49.54
50.94
49.64
47.06
39.74
39.99
47.09
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

57.45
56.86
55.80
54.37
51.80
54.81
57.21
57.09
54.63
45.17
43.62
45.52
45.59
46.05
67.98
114.96
116.69
105.45
250.90
190.54
185.00

54.38
53.22
51.66
50.52
47.03
49.49
51.88
49.98
46.78
40.01
37.12
39.35
38.97
39.09
72.57
100.45
91.98
100.91
256.42
138.99
154.71

South

PR of

It should be noted that as a result of the import coal classification system used by Japanese customs authorities, most
imports of Indonesian coal are recorded by customs as coking coal even though most of the coal is not used in the
metallurgical industry. As this coal has a lower unit value than coking coal reported in other categories, the data presented in
the Total column in this table, from 1991 onwards, tend to understate the total average unit value of coals imported into
Japan for metallurgical use. Prior to 1991, the volume of imports reported by customs in this manner was not so large as to
significantly affect the total averages.

Table 4.2: EU coking coal import costs from selected countries

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Total(1)
(all sources)
65.01
61.75
60.95
55.82
55.97
58.49
59.74
57.99
54.53
48.97
47.88
53.56
56.63
59.61
78.12
109.61
125.86
125.73
197.84
187.29
194.02

(Average Unit Value, CIF, US$/t)


Australia
Canada
USA
67.29
60.84
60.76
55.67
55.56
57.03
59.72
57.97
55.00
47.33
45.45
51.24
55.52
58.03
73.63
114.89
135.52
127.74
220.54
243.76
213.42

64.53
60.80
61.51
55.40
52.42
57.02
58.52
57.61
54.18
45.58
45.92
54.59
56.90
61.31
76.64
113.81
137.66
129.45
220.91
223.39
205.20

63.07
61.65
61.22
57.13
58.22
61.20
62.03
60.08
58.53
54.14
52.91
58.54
61.48
64.18
84.75
110.91
123.44
126.95
175.35
160.22
191.43

South
Africa
58.81
51.55
50.54
48.21
44.13
49.65
47.44
43.31
35.83
36.21
39.09
42.10
38.69
39.20
61.31
71.77
66.18
96.82
141.18
81.99
95.76

Russian(2)
Federation
57.44
51.33
47.95
36.22
46.11
56.00
59.88
54.93
51.08
57.96
42.02
58.89
58.11
47.45
86.41
86.05
81.34
92.15
147.83
108.78
128.15

Poland
63.98
59.20
59.64
54.09
53.55
59.26
61.11
61.02
52.52
47.48
50.43
51.58
50.15
62.24
108.71
138.92
118.82
139.47
245.85
137.24
194.36

(1) Weighted average based only on imports for which prices are available. Calculated average prices may not be comparable
(1) from one year to the next due to differing components.
(2) Former Soviet Union prior to 1991.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes (Table 21 and Table 19 in Part I)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.44 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 4.3: Japan steam coal import costs

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Total(1)
(all sources)
50.97
50.43
48.47
45.92
43.88
47.85
49.29
45.26
40.68
35.87
34.59
37.95
36.95
34.93
51.48
62.73
63.33
70.92
125.42
111.12
110.40

Australia
52.23
51.68
49.29
46.31
44.92
48.87
50.24
45.59
40.80
36.12
34.59
38.32
37.39
35.13
50.20
61.90
63.90
71.03
127.23
111.87
111.12

(average unit value, CIF, US$/t)


USA
South
Russian(2)
53.17
52.36
51.22
51.05
49.91
52.65
54.32
49.86
47.52
45.37
45.49
45.99
48.63
x
186.48
x
596.68
553.99
151.26
47.12
84.43

Africa
47.95
48.36
46.93
44.34
42.47
48.27
49.86
46.58
41.50
37.34
35.82
38.05
40.30
35.21
x
80.64
x
77.46
105.49
87.62
107.07

Federation
46.54
44.93
43.73
40.24
38.68
43.45
44.63
42.57
38.46
30.24
30.68
37.61
34.35
34.28
59.02
66.10
62.20
72.28
121.34
101.62
106.42

PR of

Canada

China
47.59
47.69
46.04
43.55
39.05
44.48
46.52
44.73
39.96
34.89
33.69
36.95
36.25
35.28
55.06
65.65
63.88
73.60
124.10
118.18
112.29

48.26
46.76
46.30
45.76
42.88
44.20
45.91
42.01
38.25
33.50
34.72
36.94
37.34
33.82
52.60
63.79
56.32
66.04
125.52
103.84
107.80

Table 4.4: EU steam coal import costs from selected countries


(1)

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Total
(all sources)
52.64
50.69
48.59
37.99
40.35
47.51
45.62
43.52
39.72
34.43
35.22
42.96
38.69
41.94
61.91
71.27
69.80
82.21
137.79
100.28
104.12

Australia
52.03
49.14
50.07
38.85
40.74
45.06
48.25
46.38
40.03
36.68
39.04
44.13
43.28
46.83
69.05
106.40
109.71
103.73
184.75
149.29
197.74

(average unit value, CIF, US$/t)


USA
South
Russian(2)
54.69
51.51
50.69
46.96
46.05
49.12
48.03
48.47
46.99
40.67
41.07
46.52
43.48
47.37
61.50
86.75
82.08
97.50
138.40
107.28
117.46

Africa
45.18
45.31
42.48
32.86
36.18
43.76
42.23
40.33
36.30
31.78
33.83
42.32
36.65
39.10
58.00
67.64
66.24
80.25
142.07
95.66
98.50

Federation
44.69
42.54
39.50
24.10
36.67
42.55
42.48
39.84
37.23
30.96
33.59
42.16
36.79
42.22
65.14
68.46
67.93
79.03
131.62
92.41
97.66

PR of

Poland

Colombia

China
49.36
47.14
45.46
45.65
41.78
45.29
46.18
52.87
52.85
32.58
31.45
40.90
44.30
51.38
60.61
93.41
150.20
73.02
161.12
x
x

61.05
58.18
54.11
36.60
41.44
46.78
46.50
42.62
39.61
35.03
35.30
44.41
40.75
43.26
68.95
78.34
75.65
94.13
156.01
114.60
104.06

52.60
49.81
49.65
35.39
39.68
43.42
41.93
42.29
37.56
32.69
34.22
42.32
36.99
41.65
61.54
67.98
66.07
78.16
138.32
95.99
95.84

(1) Weighted average based only on imports for which prices are available. Calculated average prices may not be comparable
(1) from one year to the next due to differing components.
(2) Former Soviet Union prior to 1991.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes (Table 16 and Table 14 in Part I)

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.45

Table 4.5: Steam coal export costs


Exported from:
To:
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Australia (FOB)
Total Japan
EU(1)
38.34
40.03
35.25
37.93
40.32
34.05
36.49
38.85
32.47
33.45
35.49
30.02
32.75
33.72
29.09
34.99
36.85
31.05
37.77
38.89
33.19
34.35
35.40
31.76
30.10
31.50
24.54
26.49
27.02
21.63
24.27
24.72
20.86
28.71
29.69
25.86
28.01
29.20
24.42
25.41
26.00
25.18
37.65
38.45
34.44
48.86
49.42
49.46
47.05
50.59
49.29
51.11
54.61
55.42
92.23 103.23 102.85
80.03
88.54
72.97
85.81
89.03 120.56

(Average Unit Value, US$/t)


Canada
United States (FAS)
Total
40.37
40.35
38.15
34.61
31.51
32.90
35.67
32.44
30.24
25.72
24.99
26.01
28.11
35.75
44.75
53.23
45.24
50.51
97.37
84.45
96.12

Total
39.99
40.63
39.53
39.78
38.22
38.94
36.94
34.84
32.24
32.02
31.84
34.51
37.70
37.00
53.93
67.09
55.66
52.61
62.76
81.33
71.63

Japan
41.76
39.73
39.66
39.08
37.13
38.61
40.02
38.55
37.00
35.40
34.90
37.70
40.41
166.40
91.47
105.21
166.53
198.41
143.02
113.97
83.85

EU(1)
42.54
41.50
40.90
41.60
40.23
40.91
36.80
35.88
33.05
29.39
28.26
34.69
33.09
32.18
42.06
76.79
64.17
66.30
81.46
95.04
82.21

Colombia

Indonesia

Total
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.81
33.84
30.51
27.25
26.99
31.36
30.09
36.41
59.55
51.89
51.92
57.76
120.27
58.26
77.31

Total
42.75
42.23
41.22
38.52
36.40
42.71
42.71
39.90
35.82
31.00
29.60
32.07
29.98
25.00
38.00
44.50
47.25
60.91
115.48
55.29
71.01

Colombia

Indonesia

S. Africa
Total
30.53
30.19
29.53
25.38
23.89
29.20
30.63
31.47
26.37
22.77
22.63
28.59
25.82
24.47
32.77
46.46
45.90
51.06
88.19
60.99
91.26

Table 4.6: Coking coal export costs


Exported from:
To:
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Australia (FOB)
Total Japan
EU(1)
47.72
46.98
48.00
47.96
47.24
48.23
46.78
46.44
46.53
44.28
43.85
44.06
41.36
40.24
41.41
44.23
43.37
44.45
47.56
46.11
48.56
47.37
45.52
47.73
43.97
42.47
44.10
35.99
34.60
37.59
32.85
31.64
33.66
36.93
34.46
39.99
40.16
36.79
44.34
39.75
36.18
43.14
48.84
45.51
51.43
88.94
83.74 100.84
98.27
94.04 106.29
84.16
79.50
93.67
194.87 193.79 215.74
143.83 165.07 168.94
171.75 154.53 193.93

(Average Unit Value, US$/t)


Canada
United States (FAS)
Total
59.23
57.37
57.08
52.73
48.03
48.76
51.52
50.04
46.15
38.19
34.01
43.03
43.90
44.59
51.37
96.26
109.29
98.44
209.51
194.92
198.29

Total
51.55
50.80
50.01
48.63
47.11
48.47
50.05
49.99
48.55
46.19
42.98
45.88
50.06
49.11
70.14
89.91
111.72
98.10
148.39
129.77
160.32

Japan
50.34
50.18
49.58
47.99
44.72
45.35
46.51
45.94
45.98
44.46
41.99
x
x
56.01
98.14
100.61
89.80
x
157.59
181.25
166.81

(1)

EU
52.41
51.33
51.72
50.71
49.82
51.13
53.12
52.87
51.67
49.27
45.58
50.10
53.14
52.19
63.60
89.53
102.37
99.84
132.75
124.64
157.76

Total

(2)

..
42.22
36.50
..
..
..
..
..
31.97
31.26
33.15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Total
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

S. Africa
Total
38.84
43.31
40.35
41.16
37.48
39.66
39.68
37.72
31.39
34.38
32.09
37.81
32.43
27.91
43.15
53.00
54.94
67.93
114.58
95.04
..

(1) Weighted average based only on imports for which prices are available. Calculated average prices may not be comparable
(1) from one year to the next due to differing components.
(2) Low ash bituminous; injection grade to Japanese steel mills
Sources: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes (Tables 23 to 27) for Australia, Canada and the US, Latin America Coal & Power for Colombia
prior to 2003, Indonesia Mineral and Coal Statistics 2004 for Indonesia prior to 2003, Coal Americas, Energy Publishing Inc. for Colombia and
Indonesia 2003 onwards, Republic of S. Africa Minerals Bureau for South Africa prior to 2004, Xavier Provost, private consultant since 2004
and South African Coal Report .

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.46 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 4.7: Coking coal prices for industry


(US$/tce)
1978
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

29.69
..
63.67
62.70
..
..
..
..
..
51.84
62.91
..
..
..
..
69.79
72.47
..
..
..
105.55
..
..
..
175.90
27.50
..
68.57
64.11
..
70.23
..
48.94

2001
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

1980
29.57
..
66.51
64.82
..
..
..
..
..
58.46
71.78
..
..
..
..
69.57
73.35
..
..
..
131.85
..
116.19
..
243.16
28.29
..
103.43
72.84
127.61
83.99
..
61.20

2002

..
..
54.03
..
..
55.32
..
..
105.14
50.42
..
..
..
..
..
58.22
46.93
..
..
..
..
..
..
46.73
38.85
..
..
..
..
..
71.75
..
50.67

..
..
..
..
..
65.73
..
..
109.88
58.03
..
..
..
..
..
60.99
48.88
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.46
32.64
..
..
..
..
..
86.26
..
55.73

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

1985
24.85
..
60.40
54.01
..
44.30
..
..
..
50.31
63.40
..
..
..
..
62.38
66.24
..
..
..
97.88
..
72.51
..
68.37
41.02
..
63.42
64.56
102.86
57.26
..
59.10

2003
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
126.04
59.67
..
..
..
..
..
63.48
48.81
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.92
38.73
..
..
..
..
..
92.36
..
55.15

1990
..
..
61.72
..
..
52.62
..
..
..
62.62
63.02
..
..
..
..
64.88
68.03
..
..
..
154.34
..
93.32
..
52.51
56.55
..
..
..
..
82.07
..
52.01

2004
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
158.63
72.00
..
..
..
..
..
81.00
69.33
72.66
..
..
..
..
..
95.31
..
..
..
..
..
..
118.78
..
66.99

1995
..
..
57.55
..
..
64.92
..
..
101.01
59.55
60.34
..
..
..
..
60.70
61.13
..
..
..
..
..
89.69
60.05
43.92
..
..
..
..
..
86.05
..
51.52

2005
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
196.65
106.19
..
..
..
..
..
108.96
104.02
116.53
..
..
..
..
..
114.57
..
..
..
..
..
..
148.07
..
91.26

1996
..
..
57.49
..
..
58.11
..
..
101.95
58.50
60.96
..
..
..
..
62.50
62.87
..
..
..
..
..
..
56.20
45.25
..
..
..
..
..
100.82
..
51.52

2006
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
203.29
127.95
..
..
..
..
..
117.95
112.09
120.23
..
..
..
..
..
94.24
..
..
..
..
..
..
161.57
..
101.49

1997
..
..
57.58
..
..
56.28
..
..
106.56
55.72
60.05
..
..
..
..
61.12
62.65
..
..
..
..
..
..
49.94
42.79
..
..
..
..
..
110.65
..
51.58

2007
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
225.89
119.55
..
..
..
..
..
124.19
108.07
110.12
..
..
..
..
..
111.17
..
..
..
..
..
..
200.52
..
103.44

1998
..
..
55.48
..
..
58.08
..
..
107.06
53.43
56.13
..
..
..
..
59.26
58.61
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.08
37.82
..
..
..
..
..
94.11
..
50.15

2008
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
382.62
207.93
..
..
..
..
..
199.90
220.66
247.02
..
..
..
..
..
221.50
..
..
..
..
..
..
258.70
..
128.62

1999
..
..
49.29
..
..
56.79
..
..
105.93
47.44
..
..
..
..
..
52.70
49.64
..
..
..
..
..
..
38.32
31.74
..
..
..
..
..
70.90
..
49.91

2009
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
287.47
197.67
..
..
..
..
..
152.00
207.53
169.43
..
..
..
..
..
129.55
..
..
..
..
..
..
269.73
..
156.19

2000
..
..
47.21
..
..
50.73
..
..
99.78
45.43
..
..
..
..
..
53.26
45.29
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.10
31.67
..
..
..
..
..
80.19
..
48.41

2010
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
288.81
209.31
..
..
..
..
..
185.72
171.25
..
..
..
..
..
..
187.88
..
..
..
..
..
..
272.13
..
158.80

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.47

Table 4.8: Steam coal prices for industry


(US$/tce)
1978
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

..
90.20
29.62
43.98
..
..
76.39
..
51.74
61.82
98.52
93.42
..
..
..
70.05
71.23
..
..
..
57.76
36.23
39.79
..
..
7.88
..
..
77.55
68.81
..
49.74
36.26

2001
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

..
56.42
..
..
34.09
28.43
..
..
97.40
107.49
..
..
..
..
..
50.90
49.69
51.13
..
..
..
..
..
54.39
46.43
..
..
..
..
68.67
52.41
63.69
39.02

1980
..
119.83
42.87
42.74
..
..
95.46
..
77.80
107.40
120.31
119.98
50.47
..
..
56.68
74.99
32.73
..
..
62.94
41.62
62.32
..
..
8.51
..
..
93.41
95.71
86.47
91.28
41.85

2002
..
75.33
..
..
31.28
33.87
..
..
96.68
109.32
..
..
..
..
..
47.01
48.29
52.96
..
..
..
..
..
50.23
39.74
..
..
..
..
61.64
69.46
65.08
39.97

1985
27.23
65.63
54.28
50.08
..
19.06
81.93
..
57.34
89.61
98.18
..
57.76
..
..
56.50
66.49
40.62
..
..
60.33
..
45.67
..
..
11.70
..
..
69.90
70.26
51.63
72.98
44.31

2003
..
87.64
..
..
32.55
..
..
..
113.53
130.49
..
..
..
..
..
48.09
45.29
58.42
..
..
..
..
..
56.63
47.00
..
..
..
..
75.26
73.39
70.29
40.73

1990
..
78.84
55.41
..
..
24.44
119.94
..
72.35
128.20
185.76
..
100.92
..
..
58.84
70.53
61.03
..
..
62.74
..
53.13
..
..
15.25
..
..
92.56
72.45
79.67
88.51
40.00

2004
..
171.25
..
..
53.28
..
..
..
140.81
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.13
67.16
57.88
..
..
..
..
..
65.40
..
..
..
..
..
110.08
67.16
86.76
46.79

1995
..
82.29
..
..
..
31.30
84.94
..
96.93
145.13
..
..
..
..
..
57.35
62.00
56.01
..
..
..
..
..
51.77
..
..
..
..
..
71.06
58.81
65.61
38.59

2005
..
178.69
..
..
55.22
..
..
..
146.63
..
..
..
..
..
..
83.23
81.25
66.77
..
..
..
..
..
71.39
..
..
..
..
..
110.03
78.71
99.65
56.31

1996
..
74.31
..
..
..
29.84
..
..
89.18
142.46
..
..
..
..
..
55.92
63.93
53.71
..
..
..
..
..
52.50
..
..
..
..
..
69.84
60.50
61.64
38.45

2006
..
181.33
..
..
53.65
..
..
..
149.81
..
..
..
..
..
..
78.59
87.10
61.12
..
..
..
..
..
81.68
..
..
..
..
..
111.25
79.99
99.17
61.57

1997
..
64.91
..
..
..
27.73
..
..
98.95
125.17
..
..
62.66
..
..
53.73
59.78
45.46
..
..
..
..
..
50.53
47.43
35.95
..
..
..
59.54
63.09
62.89
38.59

2007
..
203.12
..
..
56.79
..
..
..
166.59
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.48
97.98
75.29
..
..
..
..
..
96.83
..
..
..
..
..
145.85
115.02
113.43
64.85

1998
..
64.72
..
..
..
29.43
..
..
97.05
126.61
..
..
66.26
..
..
46.24
53.76
33.38
..
..
..
..
..
57.85
35.69
35.36
..
..
..
58.75
61.75
64.98
38.42

2008
..
249.48
..
..
97.55
..
..
..
249.09
..
..
..
..
..
..
163.22
167.62
124.80
..
..
..
..
..
135.19
..
..
..
..
..
252.48
152.51
130.55
75.60

1999
..
56.93
..
..
..
28.33
..
..
97.39
121.78
..
..
..
..
..
37.90
47.47
49.56
..
..
..
..
..
49.23
32.14
31.85
..
..
..
55.12
57.96
62.93
37.60

2009
..
243.64
..
..
79.87
..
..
..
192.19
..
..
..
..
..
..
129.51
151.91
94.12
..
..
..
..
..
122.71
..
..
..
..
..
160.86
139.04
110.97
77.28

2000
..
54.73
..
..
29.69
26.96
..
..
89.47
105.48
..
..
..
..
..
43.46
45.68
58.36
..
..
..
..
..
48.83
37.98
..
..
..
..
60.13
53.26
59.32
37.77

2010
..
236.50
..
..
70.24
..
..
..
193.76
..
..
..
..
..
..
127.19
144.06
..
..
..
..
..
..
125.20
..
..
..
..
..
181.26
137.83
130.49
76.20

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.48 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 4.9: Steam coal prices for electricity generation


(US$/tce)
1978
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

10.83
173.19
53.08
37.88
..
10.29
..
..
51.74
..
83.97
..
..
..
..
41.32
90.58
..
..
..
40.99
..
..
..
31.26
4.30
..
42.60
50.00
..
..
52.18
29.96

2001
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

..
48.41
49.46
21.27
..
22.10
..
..
53.62
51.04
52.51
..
..
39.99
..
..
53.65
..
..
51.94
..
..
..
43.31
44.23
..
..
..
..
..
35.92
57.50
32.33

1980
14.47
176.96
62.51
48.61
..
11.54
55.86
..
77.80
56.31
100.08
..
33.66
..
..
57.37
90.23
..
..
33.41
63.99
..
..
3.31
44.39
4.81
..
69.75
91.90
..
49.88
91.65
36.39

2002
..
55.78
45.21
22.02
..
23.40
..
..
50.59
48.35
46.27
..
..
42.37
..
..
49.77
..
..
51.56
..
..
..
44.13
37.06
..
..
..
..
..
53.19
55.10
32.91

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

1985
19.11
75.95
65.42
..
..
15.70
56.88
..
57.34
43.58
82.45
..
38.53
84.91
..
57.38
77.86
..
..
42.39
65.72
..
..
16.93
65.23
6.55
..
50.82
50.43
..
33.65
72.71
43.67

2003
..
68.29
47.13
24.15
..
..
..
..
55.49
47.85
50.64
..
..
40.16
..
43.38
..
..
..
49.13
..
..
..
49.33
44.00
..
..
..
..
..
66.45
56.85
33.33

1990
29.05
80.98
59.60
61.02
..
20.49
..
..
72.35
57.35
141.95
..
90.60
63.11
..
67.72
101.84
..
..
48.20
71.37
..
..
17.03
58.90
8.61
..
..
..
..
31.85
96.27
38.52

2004
..
86.09
95.02
23.34
..
..
..
..
76.99
71.64
70.87
..
..
75.99
..
70.11
..
50.51
..
56.83
..
..
..
54.89
65.92
..
..
..
..
..
90.65
73.98
35.48

1995
..
..
57.28
..
..
26.48
..
..
96.93
55.34
163.77
..
..
53.27
..
65.27
92.27
..
..
39.17
..
..
..
43.52
50.80
..
..
..
..
..
62.46
68.61
34.58

2005
..
92.70
105.36
28.16
..
..
..
..
82.82
84.41
80.73
..
..
79.21
..
83.45
..
58.44
..
62.69
..
..
..
65.19
77.51
..
..
..
..
..
88.29
81.19
40.50

1996
..
..
59.85
..
..
27.10
..
..
89.18
54.15
56.55
..
..
57.53
..
67.66
87.88
..
..
36.19
..
..
..
41.72
51.69
..
..
..
..
..
62.04
68.06
33.82

2006
..
98.23
82.93
30.19
..
..
..
..
85.36
82.15
78.92
..
..
69.22
..
79.24
..
54.73
..
64.79
..
..
..
69.75
66.84
..
..
..
..
..
86.87
86.73
44.47

1997
..
..
55.95
..
..
24.42
..
..
59.94
53.83
49.61
..
..
51.66
..
63.14
74.99
..
..
41.14
..
..
..
40.84
48.20
24.33
..
..
..
..
54.68
68.44
33.40

2007
..
101.93
99.07
31.97
..
..
..
..
96.21
94.53
91.38
..
..
94.31
..
100.83
..
63.96
..
70.26
..
..
..
79.21
87.61
..
..
..
..
..
97.12
102.00
46.45

1998
..
..
44.82
..
..
26.02
..
..
49.45
46.68
47.17
..
..
41.07
..
56.89
63.46
..
..
39.66
..
..
..
44.20
41.25
23.73
..
..
..
..
55.64
61.89
32.86

2008
..
129.35
171.19
..
..
..
..
..
164.25
153.44
154.47
..
..
112.40
169.74
169.04
..
96.49
..
80.19
..
..
..
110.19
162.01
..
..
..
..
..
113.22
148.68
54.32

1999
..
..
39.63
..
..
26.43
..
..
45.31
43.11
42.45
..
..
34.88
..
..
55.83
..
..
44.02
..
..
..
39.56
36.10
20.47
..
..
..
..
54.01
58.20
31.92

2009
..
141.37
100.77
..
..
..
..
..
111.56
128.44
111.47
..
..
128.53
165.17
122.09
..
87.54
..
78.20
..
..
..
109.84
93.31
..
..
..
..
..
112.43
105.08
57.97

2000
..
56.94
42.95
20.54
..
21.88
..
..
44.40
41.98
42.94
..
..
34.26
..
..
51.42
..
..
48.69
..
..
..
38.86
34.67
..
..
..
..
..
50.45
55.02
31.51

2010
..
124.64
..
..
..
..
..
..
116.89
122.05
119.27
..
..
94.21
130.46
127.81
..
..
..
83.49
..
..
..
107.21
101.19
..
..
..
..
..
127.32
119.15
59.42

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.49

5. COAL FOR OTHER USES

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.51

Table 5.1: OECD coal-fired and total electricity generating capacity, 1990 to 2009
(GW)
1990
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

24.92
1.89
4.90
19.24
0.92
12.11
7.54
..
5.79
14.23
42.73
3.89
2.24
..
0.87
..
9.03
40.47
..
0.09
1.61
3.77
1.09
0.05
25.99
1.47
..
..
10.41
..
0.01
5.58
41.17
307.96

Coal
2007
29.42
2.20
..
..
2.18
11.51
6.51
2.56
7.84
..
..
4.81
1.37
..
0.85
4.84
9.50
51.83
23.97
..
5.20
..
1.16
0.07
28.45
2.11
1.51
0.95
..
..
0.28
10.67
31.29
315.05

2008

2009

1990

30.15
3.07
..
..
2.21
11.58
6.25
2.60
7.80
..
..
4.81
1.29
..
0.86
4.84
10.32
53.73
27.40
..
5.20
..
1.16
0.02
28.37
2.13
1.50
0.90
..
..
0.26
10.66
29.89
315.32

30.54
2.97
..
..
2.21
11.65
6.41
2.55
7.53
..
..
4.81
1.28
..
0.85
4.84
10.40
56.28
27.84
..
5.20
..
1.16
0.02
28.51
2.17
1.50
0.90
..
..
0.25
11.01
29.88
316.23

38.45
16.69
14.14
104.14
5.10
15.28
9.14
..
13.22
103.41
97.75
8.51
7.18
0.94
3.81
5.07
56.56
194.73
2.34
1.24
27.37
17.56
7.18
27.13
27.97
7.40
..
..
43.42
34.19
16.56
16.32
73.21
733.59

Total
2007
53.19
19.10
16.38
126.38
13.56
17.56
12.99
2.63
16.70
116.55
134.07
13.69
8.54
2.36
7.49
11.57
93.60
279.15
73.37
1.69
57.84
23.80
9.41
30.12
32.50
14.99
7.35
3.04
88.71
34.30
19.22
40.84
84.28
995.88

2008

2009

54.63
20.56
16.76
127.61
14.04
17.74
13.00
2.69
16.65
117.75
139.28
14.25
8.63
2.57
7.40
11.66
98.63
280.53
79.86
1.70
58.30
24.88
9.37
30.57
32.68
15.76
7.36
2.99
93.53
33.94
19.40
41.82
85.53
1011.26

56.95
20.85
17.50
131.48
15.52
18.33
13.40
2.67
16.32
119.10
146.95
14.22
8.81
2.57
7.60
12.13
101.45
284.49
80.61
1.70
59.33
25.99
9.49
31.14
33.03
17.39
7.15
3.05
96.27
35.29
19.54
44.76
88.02
1026.87

Notes: Includes multi-fired units.


Notes: Includes autoproducers for all countries except Japan.
Notes: For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Electricity Information

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.52 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Table 5.2: OECD coal and peat use for electricity production and heat sold
(Mtce)

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

19.7
1.2
3.9
11.9
0.4
11.9
2.3
..
1.7
14.8
104.2
2.0
5.8
0.9
1.9
17.1
0.5
0.4
0.1
1.1
0.5
52.9
0.3
2.7
..
4.3
0.1

28.8
1.2
5.5
21.5
0.7
15.5
8.0
..
4.9
24.4
115.9
3.8
6.9
0.8
6.0
15.0
1.2
0.2
2.6
0.2
77.0
0.1
4.1
..
11.2
0.1

33.7
1.7
5.3
28.3
0.7
16.5
9.7
..
4.5
15.0
123.3
6.9
6.0
1.2
2.6
9.9
30.0
6.9
0.2
1.0
5.3
0.3
82.9
0.3
4.1
..
17.2
1.9

41.3
2.4
6.5
30.0
2.5
20.5
8.1
6.8
4.7
12.0
115.6
9.8
4.5
2.6
3.2
11.4
36.3
8.5
0.2
2.6
8.3
0.2
74.9
2.9
3.3
1.6
20.3
1.6

46.3
2.0
6.3
31.3
2.1
21.3
8.7
3.4
5.9
9.6
103.2
11.1
4.0
3.0
5.8
8.8
51.5
16.9
0.1
5.3
9.1
0.3
60.0
4.2
3.1
1.5
21.9
1.4

60.0
2.0
4.7
39.7
3.1
21.3
5.2
3.2
4.9
10.9
98.8
11.8
4.1
2.7
8.9
9.6
69.1
38.7
6.8
7.9
0.5
56.2
4.6
2.4
1.8
26.7
1.1

71.9
2.6
3.5
35.6
2.4
20.6
4.9
3.7
4.8
10.3
97.3
12.4
3.1
2.7
11.1
16.5
89.7
51.9
11.4
8.0
2.0
56.4
4.8
2.5
2.0
25.7
1.2

74.0
2.6
3.2
36.0
3.4
20.6
7.6
3.3
8.5
8.9
99.6
11.4
2.9
2.5
11.0
19.9
87.5
54.0
11.0
7.7
1.9
58.4
4.7
2.4
2.1
22.0
1.2

70.8
2.4
3.0
35.6
4.3
22.4
6.3
4.4
8.0
9.6
102.7
11.9
3.1
2.3
11.5
16.7
91.7
54.5
10.9
8.3
1.1
57.0
3.9
2.2
2.1
25.1
1.1

70.8
2.1
2.7
32.8
5.0
21.1
5.5
4.0
5.7
9.6
95.5
11.7
3.0
2.3
10.9
16.6
86.6
61.6
7.6
7.8
1.6
54.9
3.5
2.1
2.0
16.1
1.2

71.6
1.6
2.1
26.6
4.8
19.6
5.6
3.4
6.1
9.1
87.3
11.8
2.6
2.0
10.6
14.4
83.1
71.1
10.2
7.7
1.1
52.8
4.0
1.8
1.9
12.2
1.0

Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

1.8
65.0
309.9

2.6
74.3
417.2

6.0
61.4
501.8

7.8
68.3
565.7

10.5
49.7
636.7

14.1
41.1
716.5

13.5
46.0
718.7

16.2
50.5
706.9

19.0
46.4
717.5

20.5
42.2
707.3

19.3
35.2
628.2

IEA Americas
IEA Asia Oceania
IEA Europe
OECD Americas
OECD Asia Oceania
OECD Europe

321.7
37.8
279.3
322.2
37.8
279.3

438.7
45.2
365.1
439.3
45.2
365.1

530.1
70.9
379.1
531.7
73.6
379.1

595.8
86.3
386.0
600.8
89.6
394.4

668.0
115.0
344.0
675.4
120.8
348.9

756.2
168.3
330.2
766.1
177.2
335.2

754.3
215.5
336.8
768.1
226.6
342.5

742.9
217.5
350.9
757.3
228.5
356.3

753.1
218.1
351.2
768.2
229.6
357.8

740.1
220.6
324.0
752.6
231.5
330.1

654.8
226.9
296.3
669.8
237.5
301.6

IEA Total
OECD Total

638.9
639.4

849
849.6

980.1
984.4

1068.1
1084.9

1127
1145.1

1254.8
1278.6

1306.5
1337.2

1311.3
1342

1322.4
1355.6

1284.7
1314.1

1177.9
1208.8

Note:
Note:
Note:
Note:
Note:

"Coal" refers to all coal types, primary (including hard and brown coal), and derived fuels (including patent fuel, coke
oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, BKB, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas) as well as peat,
peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce units using calorific values largely submitted in
annual questionnaires to the IEA Secretariat by OECD member countries.
For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.53

Table 5.3: OECD coal use in coke ovens

(1)

(million tonnes)

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
Japan
Korea
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
IEA Total
OECD Total

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

9.5
2.3
9.9
7.7
0.5
18.6
x
15.3
46.3
1.6
10.4
62.3
0.4
2.8
3.4
0.4
21.6
0.4
2.8
6.4
0.7
2.0
24.0
87.3
0.5
333.5
336.8

7.0
2.4
7.9
7.3
0.5
12.2
x
14.6
38.7
1.4
11.2
65.7
4.0
4.0
3.7
0.4
25.3
0.3
2.1
5.2
1.7
2.6
13.5
60.5
0.4
288.1
292.5

5.5
2.4
7.8
6.3
0.4
10.6
x
11.3
31.5
0.9
10.1
67.6
7.0
3.8
4.1
0.4
20.5
0.4
2.5
4.9
1.6
3.7
9.7
37.2
246.0
250.2

5.9
2.3
7.2
5.0
0.5
8.5
0.2
0.7
9.5
24.1
1.0
8.6
65.2
11.7
2.9
3.8
0.6
18.2
0.3
2.9
4.5
1.5
4.7
10.1
35.3
231.8
235.4

5.9
1.9
4.7
4.2
0.7
6.6
0.2
1.7
7.7
13.7
1.4
6.7
60.8
14.1
2.7
4.0
0.7
15.4
0.5
2.4
3.3
1.6
4.2
8.1
29.9
199.7
203.2

4.8
1.9
3.9
4.2
0.7
4.6
0.1
1.3
6.5
11.4
1.3
6.4
57.4
16.4
2.7
3.0
0.7
12.4
0.5
2.2
3.6
1.8
4.2
8.2
26.0
182.6
186.1

5.4
1.9
3.4
4.3
0.7
4.3
0.1
1.3
5.8
10.2
0.8
5.1
59.4
15.4
2.4
3.2
0.8
11.4
2.4
3.6
1.8
4.2
5.6
18.4
168.6
171.9

4.7
1.9
3.7
4.3
0.7
4.3
0.2
1.2
5.9
10.4
1.3
5.8
59.9
15.1
2.5
3.0
0.8
12.9
2.4
3.7
2.2
4.7
5.9
18.6
172.7
176.1

4.6
1.9
3.4
4.3
0.7
4.1
0.2
1.2
6.0
10.4
1.5
5.9
59.7
15.5
2.5
3.1
0.8
13.8
2.4
3.7
2.0
4.4
5.9
18.2
172.9
176.2

4.5
1.9
2.8
4.3
0.7
4.3
0.2
1.2
6.0
10.3
1.4
5.6
56.6
16.8
2.9
3.1
0.7
13.3
2.2
3.5
2.0
5.5
5.9
20.0
171.9
175.6

3.4
1.7
2.0
3.0
0.6
3.0
0.1
1.1
4.4
8.4
1.0
3.4
53.5
14.8
2.4
2.5
0.8
9.4
2.0
2.3
1.5
4.9
4.9
13.9
141.9
145.0

(1) For further information, see notes and definitions in Part I.


Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

Table 5.4: World consumption of pulverised coal injection (PCI) coals

Australia
Belgium
France
Germany
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Colombia
India
Chinese Taipei
Russian Federation
Total World

(thousand tonnes)
2002
2003

1990

1995

2001

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

..
513
1310
1730
170
5252
..
680
219
..
210
..
767
200
487
..
130
..

..
859
2305
1843
1230
8286
2181
845
313
..
245
..
585
2300
443
..
472
..

..
1040
2251
2293
1139
11165
3741
1203
511
764
462
..
764
2836e
231
2119
1319
309

..
824
2506
2287
996
11045
4663
1240
427
689
487
..
726
2563
215
2328
1253
238

655
712
2439
3060
1223
11097
5005
1330
404
542
471
..
882
2501
336
2428
1267
259

807
642
2534
2641
1628
10416
5065e
1468
412
649
548
..
895
2405
231
2059
1292
410

881
522
2936
2770
1678
10440
5481
1522
388
717
506
..
1039
1519
233
2160
1156
2683

790
514
3193
2975
1818
10670
5852
1324
470
511
493
..
1121
1814
198
2266
1409
2841

808
450
3110
3115
1030
11594
6284
1593
468
769
532
293
1242
1959
198
2377
1445
3500

825
478
2636
3071
1102
9705
6997
1353
406
661
515
444
1170
2482
255
2493
1113
3996

647
46
1343
1833
942
8625
6381
938
383
269
275
462
852
1501
300
2615
678
3315

11668

21907

32147

32487

34611

34102

36631

38259

40767

39702

31405

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.55

6. CHARTS

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.57

Figure 1: World steam and coking coal production


(million tonnes)
7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

Hard coal

Steam coal

Coking coal

Figure 2: World steam and coking coal trade


(million tonnes)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Steam coal exports

Coking coal exports

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.58 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Figure 3: Coking coal price


CIF Japan and CIF EU member states (US$/t)
250

200

150

100

50

CIF Japan

CIF EU member states

Figure 4: Steam coal price


CIF Japan and CIF EU member states (US$/t)
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

CIF Japan

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

CIF EU member states

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.59

Figure 5: Steam coal price


US FOB vs. US domestic (US$/t)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009

US domestic

US FOB

Figure 6: Steam coal price CIF EU member states (US$/t)


and US exports (million tonnes)
45

160

40

140
120

30
100
25
80
20

US$/t

Million tonnes

35

60
15
40

10
5

20

US export volume

CIF EU member states

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.60 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Figure 7: OECD total primary energy supply


(Mtce)

9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1973

1980

1990

Coal

Oil

2000

Natural Gas

2007

Nuclear

2008

2009

Hydro

Others

Figure 8: OECD coal consumption and indicators


(2005=100)

120

100

80

60

40

20

GDP

Industrial production

Coal supply

Electricity generation

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Total TPES

2010e

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.61

Figure 9: Japan steam coal supply, imports,


GDP annual growth rates
12%

25%

10%

20%

8%

15%

6%

10%

4%

5%

2%

0%

0%

-5%

-2%

-10%

-4%

-15%

-6%

Steam coal import

Steam coal supply

% change GDP

30%

GDP

25%

8%

20%

6%

15%

5%

10%

3%

5%

2%

0%

0%

-5%

-2%

-10%

-3%

-15%

-5%

-20%

-6%

Steam coal import

Steam coal supply

% change GDP

% change

Figure 10: EU member states steam coal supply,


Imports, GDP annual growth rates

GDP

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

III.62 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III

Figure 11: Hard coal production by region


(million tonnes)
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010e

OECD Americas
Africa/Middle East
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia

OECD Europe
Latin America

OECD Asia Oceania


Asia

Figure 12: Hard coal consumption by region


(million tonnes)

6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010e

OECD Americas
Africa/Middle East
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

OECD Europe
Latin America

OECD Asia Oceania


Asia

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART III - III.63

Figure 13: Hard coal imports by region


(million tonnes)
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010e

OECD Americas
Africa/Middle East
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia

OECD Europe
Latin America

OECD Asia Oceania


Asia

Figure 14: Hard coal exports by region


(million tonnes)

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010e

OECD Americas
Africa/Middle East
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia

OECD Europe
Latin America

OECD Asia Oceania


Asia

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.1

PART IV
DETAILED OECD COAL DATA

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.3

DIRECTORY OF PART IV FIGURES AND


TABLES
Part IV of Coal Information contains detailed statistical information on coal for the 34 Member countries
of the OECD and for regional aggregates (OECD Total, OECD Americas, OECD Asia Oceania, OECD
Europe, IEA Total, IEA Americas, IEA Asia Oceania,
and IEA Europe). The figures and tables of regional
aggregates are presented before the country tables
which are set out in alphabetical order.
Data for each OECD and IEA region and country are
illustrated in figures at the beginning of each section.
This is followed by detailed statistical information
presented in several tables for each region and country.

Figures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Total primary energy supply by fuel


Coal supply indicators
Primary coal supply
Coal consumption
Electricity generation by fuel
CO2 emissions by fuel

It should be noted that not all tables are shown for all
countries. For example, in the case where a country
has no or very few coal exports, the related tables (on
volumes and values) are omitted.
In each table, hard coal is the sum of coking coal and
steam coal. Data for 2010 are provisional with the
exception of Tables 7, 12 and 13 where data for 2010
are final. US$ refers to dollars used in the United
States of America. Prices for regional totals are calculated as weighted average of available price data in

the region and therefore prices shown should be considered only indicative. Consumption is used as
weight. Data are converted from unit prices to tonnes
of coal equivalent (tce) using the country specific
calorific values.

Tables:
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel
2. Energy supply, GDP and population
3. Coal production by type
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel
5. Coal balance
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses
7. Fuel prices to end users
8. Coal trade by type of coal
9. Hard coal imports by origin
10. Coking coal exports by destination
11. Steam coal exports by destination
12. Coal import values by origin
13. Coal export values by destination
Interpreting energy data and comparing statistics between countries is made difficult by differences in
definitions used by countries in the collection and
reporting of data. In Part I, such differences are explained. The conventions used by the Secretariat in
presenting energy data are also reported. In particular,
readers are strongly advised to read the country notes.
Conversion factors are also included for reference.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.5

OECD TOTAL*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


9000

140

8000

120

7000

100

6000
80

5000
4000

60

3000

40

2000

20

1000
0

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


1800

1800

1600

1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


12000

14000

10000

12000
10000

8000

8000
6000
6000
4000

4000

2000

2000
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.6 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD TOTAL
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

5343.69
1206.61
2810.63
1009.03
124.81
70.31
112.77
8.68
0.07
0.77
-

5811.80
1380.35
2779.29
1111.54
158.03
231.79
134.23
14.55
0.10
1.91
-

6460.15
1543.45
2671.30
1203.89
209.08
644.59
145.17
37.55
3.21
1.84
0.08

7560.21
1572.02
3021.27
1651.39
260.35
837.40
164.67
43.35
9.15
0.02
0.60

7829.68
1635.09
2941.73
1826.92
337.98
848.50
163.68
42.34
31.65
0.92
0.88

7482.46
1476.14
2797.39
1783.40
345.46
835.03
162.26
43.69
37.24
1.11
0.74

7732.58
1565.21
2806.20
1891.19
364.07
852.02
164.57
45.11
42.96
0.55
0.71

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
1.12
1.46
-0.30
1.04
3.08
13.92
1.50
9.00
25.38
5.28
-

0.78
-0.23
0.24
2.09
2.68
1.37
0.59
0.80
13.77
-2.62
12.27

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
12129
0.44
915.7
5.84
152.8
165.9
97.8
4472
..

1980
14689
0.40
980.0
5.93
137.2
156.8
101.9
5668
60.7

1990
20182
0.32
1064.1
6.07
111.0
127.6
100.0
7629
76.9

2000
26223
0.29
1151.8
6.56
100.0
100.0
100.0
9727
100.0

2008
30712
0.25
1217.5
6.43
88.4
88.8
95.7
10810
110.6

2009
29633
0.25
1224.9
6.11
87.6
83.1
95.3
10403
97.2

2010e
30508
0.25
1230.9
6.28
87.9
85.6
..
10772
104.7

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
3.04
2.04
-1.86
-1.24
0.89
0.74
0.23
0.03
-1.86
-1.24
-1.54
-2.23
0.13
-0.25
3.19
1.65
1.24

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

290.52
741.29
213.10
2.30

304.93
846.82
230.27
2.67

281.49
970.89
274.53
5.52

228.76
935.50
212.85
3.49

250.28
1018.53
212.67
2.85

218.71
971.14
208.51
4.37

267.49
957.34
203.35
4.73

-0.26
2.27
2.13
7.57

-1.32
0.00
-1.44
-1.22

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

296.47
891.53
666.19
8.05

310.10
1026.16
699.47
9.34

282.54
1175.31
834.61
16.41

234.94
1163.77
630.72
10.71

261.20
1271.56
630.66
8.44

228.54
1207.25
617.01
12.77

279.45
1187.54
598.54
14.06

-0.40
2.33
1.90
6.11

-1.11
0.14
-1.58
-1.31

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.7

OECD TOTAL
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

4022.09
433.10
2262.88
712.11
120.43
0.51
463.47
29.59

4202.30
369.87
2247.91
798.19
149.81
0.73
0.04
584.81
50.93

4442.25
337.10
2275.28
841.53
133.64
2.83
2.58
788.42
60.88

5209.22
201.86
2643.74
1066.07
193.64
3.95
5.25
1024.89
69.81

5429.50
199.33
2706.84
1048.49
226.42
5.21
6.00
1150.50
86.72

5338.19
191.60
2605.43
1058.30
237.48
4.22
6.75
1148.26
86.15

5117.05
164.05
2502.22
1012.35
238.88
4.90
6.89
1103.17
84.59

0.59
-1.46
0.03
0.99
0.61
10.63
3.17
4.34

0.75
-3.72
0.50
0.98
3.10
2.95
5.30
1.78
1.75

1368.66
260.96
447.56
357.77
60.36
0.04
226.45
15.52

1345.23
229.06
398.14
358.53
70.87
0.04
266.54
22.05

1185.14
229.65
241.92
322.58
52.17
0.23
0.01
317.39
21.19

1304.12
173.09
206.84
402.70
101.06
0.45
0.14
396.76
23.09

1269.05
170.14
190.03
371.09
107.39
0.42
0.19
392.65
37.14

1225.17
155.60
180.56
364.43
104.95
0.42
0.19
383.23
35.78

1103.93
129.19
162.25
337.57
98.27
0.41
0.02
341.99
34.23

-0.84
-0.75
-3.55
-0.61
-0.85
10.47
2.01
1.85

-0.37
-2.98
-2.08
0.24
3.39
3.09
1.23
0.39
2.56

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

993.31
10.48
950.97
24.28

1117.56
3.71
1080.95
24.22

1343.71
0.41
1305.52
26.69

1639.07
0.14
1590.07
29.97

1774.57
0.14
1697.58
31.74

1723.36
0.12
1634.45
31.93

1673.66
0.14
1579.69
29.74

1.79
-17.34
1.88
0.56

1.16
-5.66
1.01
0.57

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.00
7.58
784.51
109.53
283.83
205.91

0.00
8.67
794.90
91.24
214.22
248.46

0.01
11.09
856.65
67.79
172.24
283.81

5.76
13.13
993.85
19.53
183.31
367.98

31.25
13.86
1008.75
17.76
141.03
378.60

42.88
13.98
1029.24
21.88
145.07
387.86

50.43
13.66
1014.46
23.12
136.16
378.92

5.41
2.26
0.52
-2.78
-2.90
1.91

x
1.11
0.89
-5.50
-1.23
1.53

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

40.41
0.42
133.34
11.07
406.66
28.49
186.43
99.94

42.99
0.64
0.04
177.88
19.42
420.03
28.68
151.20
111.41

58.74
1.40
2.44
242.45
27.78
504.33
23.23
120.54
143.57

78.87
2.24
4.88
307.96
29.07
623.28
4.44
119.21
187.97

79.10
3.15
5.49
356.63
26.98
683.26
5.26
98.42
203.05

80.51
2.51
6.21
358.26
26.94
699.26
6.99
100.01
211.72

80.52
3.19
6.45
358.16
27.95
692.17
6.69
97.01
209.13

2.22
7.38
3.58
5.56
1.27
-1.19
-2.53
2.15

1.67
4.44
5.25
2.07
0.03
1.68
-6.34
-1.14
2.00

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.16
0.02
89.41
1.21
315.18
4.42
302.79
7.97

1.54
0.02
123.98
3.21
348.59
3.27
320.84
24.48

1.04
0.30
0.10
206.94
8.60
415.01
3.51
360.36
51.15

3.86
0.71
0.13
295.77
11.18
531.19
2.65
467.06
61.48

5.91
1.06
0.24
353.98
15.34
555.09
4.26
505.10
45.73

6.31
0.73
0.25
356.99
16.27
520.52
4.19
472.22
44.11

6.61
0.74
0.31
356.64
15.06
499.07
2.91
457.26
38.89

-0.62
17.85
5.06
12.25
1.63
-1.36
1.03
11.56

10.22
4.89
5.99
2.91
2.99
0.98
-0.97
1.26
-1.43

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:
Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.8 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD TOTAL
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

1170.4
174.2
-158.7
20.8

1384.7
236.9
-215.0
-26.3

1532.4
319.0
-286.6
-21.3

1380.6
442.2
-308.1
57.4

1484.3
563.4
-386.2
-26.5

1402.7
490.0
-367.0
-49.6

1432.9
529.0
-428.2
31.5

1.6
3.6
3.5
x

-0.5
2.3
1.3
x

Primary supply

1206.6

1380.4

1543.4

1572.0

1635.1

1476.1

1565.2

1.5

-0.2

Statistical difference

21.2

-20.9

2.1

24.7

-20.1

-14.6

..

Total transformation

-754.2

-959.5

-1185.7

-1374.5

-1400.9

-1279.0

..

2.7

0.4

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-639.4
-618.2
-21.1

-849.6
-786.0
-63.6

-1084.9
-1016.8
-68.1

-1278.6
-1224.9
-53.7

-1314.1
-1271.0
-43.2

-1208.8
-1172.2
-36.6

..
..
..

3.2
3.0
7.1

0.6
0.8
-3.2

15.7

7.8

-0.5

-2.7

-2.8

-2.9

..

9.5

-130.6
2.2
-93.8
-38.2
-0.8

-117.6
1.4
-80.1
-39.0
0.1

-100.1
-1.1
-77.2
-17.2
-4.6

-92.7
-0.2
-78.5
-13.3
-0.8

-83.2
-0.2
-70.6
-12.4
0.0

-66.3
0.5
-56.7
-10.1
0.0

..
..
..
..
..

-1.6
-1.1
-4.6
11.2

-2.1
-1.6
-2.8
-

-0.3

-0.5

-0.8

-1.0

..

7.3

-35.0

-27.7

-21.5

-19.1

-21.2

-17.4

..

-2.8

-1.1

-5.4

-2.4

-1.2

-1.1

-1.3

-1.1

..

Final consumption

433.1

369.9

337.1

201.9

191.6

164.0

..

-1.5

-3.7

Industry(5)

261.0
133.9
26.6
21.2
11.6

229.1
106.3
24.9
32.7
11.2

229.6
82.8
28.2
41.8
16.2

173.1
64.6
18.3
36.2
8.3

155.6
58.4
16.6
31.0
11.0

129.2
47.0
14.8
23.7
9.6

..
..
..
..
..

-0.7
-2.8
0.3
4.1
2.0

-3.0
-2.9
-3.3
-2.9
-2.7

10.5

3.7

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

..

-17.3

-5.7

157.2
28.5
109.5

133.8
28.7
91.2

103.5
23.2
67.8

26.0
4.4
19.5

31.7
7.0
21.9

31.8
6.7
23.1

..
..
..

-2.4
-1.2
-2.8

-6.0
-6.3
-5.5

4.4

3.3

3.5

2.6

4.2

2.9

..

-1.4

-1.0

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Other transformation(3)
Energy ind. own use
Losses
(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.9

OECD TOTAL
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

914.63
701.79
652.08
49.71
25.21
2.40
0.01
1.85
93.37
9.59
13.82
27.29
9.02
33.66
57.64
0.08

1214.97
1016.57
966.75
49.82
22.83
6.61
3.76
0.41
119.49
8.01
22.55
41.99
15.80
31.14
35.40
0.33

1394.51
1253.98
1220.89
33.09
3.25
13.92
9.69
102.79
9.00
17.49
36.77
8.57
30.96
18.24
0.34

1516.55
1244.14
1217.30
26.84
122.25
14.18
9.71
96.83
10.31
14.64
31.67
11.37
28.85
17.39
0.69

1548.17
1263.83
1237.50
26.33
130.14
14.84
10.01
104.14
10.54
14.51
33.52
11.34
34.23
17.99
0.75

1518.78
1357.34
1331.57
25.77
2.67
13.13
10.27
94.92
9.74
15.95
31.83
11.88
25.53
23.10
0.65

1386.17
1248.28
1224.95
23.33
2.29
10.74
6.06
78.07
7.56
14.15
23.98
10.41
21.97
23.45
0.41

2.39
3.14
3.34
0.02
-0.82
8.80
73.63
-11.86
2.08
-1.49
4.17
3.66
4.78
-0.64
-3.98
12.80

0.70
1.09
1.25
-3.91
-11.39
2.58
2.55
-2.22
-0.30
-2.42
-2.91
-2.17
-1.82
-2.15
1.11

293.19
7.14
6.19
0.95
275.86
6.91
0.26
0.07
0.01
0.00
0.18
0.28
-

256.00
18.23
14.32
3.91
228.57
6.71
0.26
1.98
1.63
0.01
0.34
0.14
-

206.17
13.37
10.17
3.20
172.12
15.75
2.65
0.24
0.00
0.02
2.39
0.10
0.23

191.26
12.70
10.73
1.97
2.81
157.57
18.73
0.80
0.23
0.01
0.55
0.13
0.22

199.03
13.48
11.40
2.08
2.37
161.22
21.10
0.67
0.38
0.04
0.25
0.08
0.23

196.41
10.49
8.76
1.73
162.31
19.17
1.05
0.84
0.06
0.16
0.12
0.22

160.65
7.70
6.71
0.98
134.22
16.75
1.92
0.91
0.02
0.05
0.94
0.12
0.14

-1.12
8.12
7.23
12.52
-1.55
-23.92
18.48
30.01
13.00
5.54
-5.70
-

-2.42
-4.44
-3.91
-7.01
-2.76
4.94
-0.18
-3.04
7.00
5.58
-0.91
-

666.50
427.99
410.94
17.05
137.19
6.40
51.14
1.12
14.39
1.65
4.51
29.47
28.94
0.83

847.54
637.19
608.48
28.70
111.07
0.19
9.12
43.70
1.42
10.98
1.65
2.14
27.51
40.16
0.67

642.58
597.08
588.30
8.79
13.13
0.10
7.64
15.96
0.22
3.37
0.87
0.63
10.88
8.09
0.31

644.96
602.56
594.27
8.29
13.33
0.15
7.71
9.71
0.09
3.23
0.62
0.56
5.23
7.85
0.29

653.48
606.19
600.69
5.50
12.91
0.17
7.83
9.75
0.09
2.12
0.92
0.43
6.20
9.36
0.05

637.60
593.99
587.24
6.75
13.45
0.15
8.04
9.46
0.07
2.23
0.91
0.40
5.84
7.70
0.04

618.99
570.37
564.45
5.92
12.76
0.08
7.84
11.07
0.06
3.12
0.72
0.46
6.71
9.07
0.09

2.02
3.37
3.33
4.44
-1.74
2.99
-1.30
2.05
-2.23
-0.02
-6.01
-0.57
2.77
-1.78

-1.64
-0.58
-0.39
-7.97
-10.76
-4.64
-0.79
-6.97
-15.21
-6.41
-4.30
-7.74
-7.16
-7.53
-10.18

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.10 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD TOTAL
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

174.18
144.96
..
..
5.30
23.91

236.92
210.51
126.14
84.36
5.73
20.68

318.96
298.87
141.36
157.51
5.92
0.10
14.07

442.17
415.24
136.15
279.09
5.31
0.10
21.52

554.29
529.90
137.69
392.21
4.52
0.12
19.75

564.06
538.21
142.38
395.84
6.38
0.19
19.28

563.40
535.98
143.30
392.68
8.12
0.23
19.08

489.95
475.05
114.59
360.46
4.63
0.23
10.04

529.00
510.08
139.18
370.89
3.95
0.19
14.79

158.67
131.78
..
..
1.44
25.46

214.95
187.26
124.91
62.34
4.57
0.00
23.12

286.63
264.95
161.23
103.72
4.37
0.12
17.19

308.13
294.27
162.62
131.65
1.34
0.08
12.44

345.62
328.60
171.56
157.04
1.12
0.05
15.84

361.68
345.71
186.82
158.89
1.10
0.04
14.83

386.16
370.14
200.37
169.77
1.99
0.02
14.01

366.98
354.47
179.68
174.79
0.97
0.02
11.53

428.23
414.40
229.44
184.96
0.63
0.05
13.16

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.11

OECD TOTAL
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)

Hard Coal
Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

165186

273690

313378

360442

458527

606574

603271

538562

575711

99172
29796
11598
909
10948
6619
79
25075
116

136741
43475
20623
695
5219
5025
87
44013
686

136986
49601
16250
774
3141
2570
65
43205
305

134521
52923
17183
2985
37
6573
32737
689

139299
67155
17972
3388
2
3125
24038
398

145237
74871
17941
4677
3246
18630
302

146288
73224
16629
4366
2532
23296
385

117468
57906
11575
3968
15
2313
2
19558
687

141619
63669
17250
2504
1
1365
1
27294
474

420
2566
5249
5797

1211
50
103
5342
4216
5996

2803
177
714
3213
8569
5599

5339
137
4843
3643
3267
990
3175

9557
140
6327
991
4825
26
454
80
821

5877
163
10659
284
6350
660
1059
518

5785
338
11070
542
5497
648
1023
75
878

2834
281
10690
635
5233
629
599
31
512

2406
724
13352
574
7606
1009
97
37
3256

66014
4556
970
243
6716
16292
2285
9296
980

136949
30433
4051
462
3526
15429
2394
26912
2718

176392
34664
9885
327
2123
13084
2428
35894
3652

225921
51101
13926
1517
835
15620
713
33335
2074

319228
79138
11454
2393
432
18593
593
21907
4474

461337
106218
10456
1369
457
10868
204
11495
5972

456983
108087
9257
1520
587
8530
395
22469
7066

421094
108517
10437
1763
375
7409
486
18073
5176

434092
121985
8266
2326
456
9583
220
19219
3994

534
11967
3012
9163

2663
2083
306
32671
2915
157
10229

6287
10450
1000
33156
9866
1752
150
11674

15372
14281
11656
39460
10561
647
3506
1860
9457

35874
29428
23697
46469
20985
845
5152
1639
16155

30264
57170
70093
49448
73306
1906
5036
3209
23866

26686
60403
68829
40308
74222
2833
3504
2816
19471

13712
56325
69465
32934
70515
2392
1892
3533
18089

12253
58809
73307
25638
70242
2864
1358
3466
20106

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.12 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD TOTAL
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)

Total Exports
Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

107072

152492

162292

169662

168603

196284

210734

188534

241057

90313
1283
3860
5410
32
8972
714
245
8393
43380
2503
286
10
3347
193
387
5126
3257
840
18
498
1402
157

123858
1582
5031
6360
345
8609
950
7
13
62
10228
59198
7014
498
5206
232
369
4183
4283
1564
5
2232
5777
110

122656
1351
7450
3988
492
50
330
8494
877
28
3
50
8734
55167
7852
3
5261
99
805
3681
4499
1568
3
2869
8230
772

128045
2
1897
5890
4039
733
871
9
1249
6177
999
1
1287
39
3
127
7824
53462
15647
10
517
5766
239
896
434
2657
3267
2006
3
3681
7577
736

127268
1844
4551
3501
775
214
1005
6629
4891
1075
48
4
56
7381
52111
15305
1406
4660
95
538
198
1570
4163
2128
3954
8626
540

129639
1583
3363
3299
1211
1024
5
719
5645
2805
580
30
273
6595
57119
11482
1565
10034
18
2264
2820
136
3323
1741
3
3826
6708
1468

140515
1036
4702
3266
924
949
219
970
5532
4029
276
676
50
68
281
5948
60078
14404
2194
9930
78
3452
2585
72
3871
1825
257
4504
6772
1567

114160
1610
3443
2168
623
650
73
686
3541
3444
422
46
147
3822
49458
18775
1171
6895
36
2044
219
1748
2175
1414
127
4100
4375
948

142213
1724
2995
3091
512
720
934
4983
4127
542
59
5143
57167
25420
77
1353
9849
75
3136
2359
223
3168
2151
37
4310
6674
1384

8808
2121
1186
218
232
1348
521
919
69

22793
7958
2772
769
2080
1646
1564
1484
192
1041

30016
8867
3155
1009
5128
3915
1068
2129
860
963

39821
11064
5451
1672
9555
2455
947
784
211
1366

36371
10695
7713
1211
10610
505
1825
781
174
1051

53978
10314
9270
1951
20334
543
2789
914
3115
496

56749
10769
7610
1737
25668
1998
2664
1068
2013
681

66145
11732
3510
833
25880
294
1567
1296
19335
488

94858
13007
8254
1110
34563
812
1611
1140
30002
620

2194

3287

2922

6316

1806

4252

2541

1210

3739

7951

5841

9620

1796

4964

12667

13470

8229

3986

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.13

OECD TOTAL
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

49931

105530

113416

128950

146889

170813

179233

182697

193584

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

40497
275
2660
8782
274
4620
4095
6755
4157
1
540
1552
1732
356
52
1285
167
15
237
21
244
90
79
1081
1427

83710
2
1001
2856
8508
99
1378
8297
3669
3461
5228
1278
28
1622
998
5070
18173
7942
107
44
6539
429
805
79
1630
1896
295
275
1846
155

95379
2
1216
3778
10083
514
2282
5857
2815
3859
5451
33
2248
1058
5051
30637
4352
3
188
9559
1
401
1
1572
198
762
1040
81
15
2097
225

108337
12
1050
3480
4541
1230
1874
6195
3089
2049
7364
1
374
20
1636
1257
4122
40735
13462
50
5194
336
304
1977
404
2
2350
861
11
216
3901
240

127167
1643
1467
13524
1349
864
2594
3
1228
3413
16478
112
322
7
1208
2623
1430
51874
13730
164
373
3556
16
677
117
348
1217
12
2327
255
20
110
3866
240

138957
2331
773
13418
1327
1377
1053
450
3434
18310
172
254
91
892
679
941
60912
16041
96
5217
3950
85
387
291
486
578
7
1171
404
2
1
3567
260

149904
1931
1510
17558
1270
937
778
340
3985
12859
142
216
59
1420
177
1864
69265
20736
81
1350
4279
80
358
591
646
556
2
1663
489
250
34
4270
208

142720
24
1975
823
7455
662
829
676
368
4083
8669
152
150
51
568
672
1451
65181
33878
162
3056
4040
93
235
758
1066
543
3
665
352
74
177
3519
310

145563
105
1446
948
7291
1745
685
875
355
3524
9802
47
158
56
546
516
2124
71478
30405
48
3637
2238
54
448
1621
776
448
185
424
575
29
438
2108
428

384
11
76
32
82
129

13445
91
6336
93
253
113
2695
2229

13032
345
6866
1
48
49
1057
128
2554
1621

19718
190
7953
1
1
381
1099
3420
1672

19134
22
10034
2
2469
828
89
1440
3303

31853
206
16235
16
746
1151
2487
137
3241
7489

29145
435
18559
23
734
73
1737
160
1879
5159

39151
10
20646
91
816
227
632
159
9962
6381

47499
118
21329
167
736
9
1075
135
17906
5760

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

54

1635

363

5001

947

145

386

227

264

9050

8375

5005

895

588

184

826

522

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.14 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD TOTAL
12. Coal import values by origin*
(average unit value, CIF, US$/tonne)

Coking coal

(1)

Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Steam coal(3)
Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

62.27

56.28

42.45

97.30

106.60

103.65

189.81

168.33

169.38

57.64
70.37
67.03
63.98
64.21
54.50
60.89
50.58
57.45

52.80
62.94
82.00
59.26
61.25
49.58
50.11
49.57
54.95

40.80
45.22
x
50.43
53.13
38.32
36.28
39.35
43.26

102.50
109.46
242.07
138.92
108.46
109.89
105.35
71.77
104.12

115.11
129.35
112.10
118.82
125.05
98.79
88.44
66.18
101.81

105.33
116.80
133.32
139.47
126.15
110.31
92.53
96.82
98.26

210.45
220.71
235.16
245.85
191.98
263.49
..
141.18
211.14

194.80
200.49
160.08
137.24
165.30
147.32
87.36
81.99
143.56

180.60
192.44
210.67
194.36
182.88
182.33
137.52
95.76
155.68

51.81
52.17
43.38
65.54
61.05
54.63
48.34
50.88
45.38
45.48
.. ..

47.14
48.23
40.99
63.84
46.78
49.60
44.63
41.58
44.19
42.87
.. ..

33.65
34.76
33.74
40.98
35.30
40.96
30.62
32.77
33.80
32.14
.. ..

63.71
64.10
77.47
113.59
78.34
49.31
62.75
59.23
67.68
67.35
.. ..

63.29
64.97
61.24
102.69
75.65
76.26
60.32
58.63
66.20
66.19
.. ..

72.80
71.58
70.15
112.36
94.13
94.49
71.25
65.80
80.16
77.44
.. ..

120.27
122.96
109.39
158.65
155.92
135.17
117.72
..
140.90
129.53
.. ..

97.47
107.12
90.72
140.77
114.49
103.06
110.69
86.48
95.58
92.97
.. ..

99.23
111.02
96.47
140.68
104.05
106.06
107.61
87.54
98.40
98.31
..

Note: On occasion, shipment of extremely small quantities of high valued coal results in high import costs.
(1) Weighted average of individual countries using import volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
(2) Former Soviet Union until 1991, Russian Federation starting in 1992.
(3) Bituminous steam coal only. Weighted average of individual countries using volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.15

OECD AMERICAS*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


4500

140

4000

120

3500

100

3000
80

2500
2000

60

1500

40

1000

20

500
0

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


1000

900

900

800

800

700

700

600

600

500

500
400

400

300

300
200

200

100

100

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Industry

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


6000

Other transformation

2009

8000
7000

5000

6000
4000

5000
4000

3000

3000

2000

2000
1000

1000
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.16 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD AMERICAS
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

2786.22
470.49
1334.74
804.01
75.49
39.01
59.20
3.21
0.07
-

3002.67
572.92
1364.24
774.55
101.15
113.96
68.15
7.70
0.01
-

3228.01
700.63
1314.42
738.89
116.63
256.50
74.00
26.44
0.49
0.03
-

3849.44
821.72
1512.79
937.06
140.16
327.15
81.50
25.94
3.07
0.04
-

3934.22
836.69
1517.01
957.19
157.15
350.54
85.31
20.24
9.92
0.17
-

3743.51
743.13
1433.10
948.02
155.17
346.65
84.95
19.94
12.44
0.11
-

3844.87
783.67
1440.01
993.35
162.96
348.15
82.26
20.14
15.24
-0.92
-

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.87
2.37
-0.09
-0.50
2.59
11.71
1.32
13.21
-4.38
-

0.78
0.31
0.46
1.32
1.51
1.60
0.73
-1.47
18.60
6.84
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
4913
0.57
297.8
9.36
167.0
132.1
106.3
2281
..

1980
5960
0.50
329.1
9.12
148.3
132.6
109.0
2879
..

1990
8101
0.40
372.3
8.67
117.3
119.3
106.0
3819
..

2000
11336
0.34
426.8
9.02
100.0
100.0
100.0
4876
..

2008
13412
0.29
461.5
8.52
86.4
86.1
92.4
5305
..

2009
13032
0.29
465.6
8.04
84.6
78.7
91.0
5090
..

2010e
13427
0.29
469.8
8.18
84.3
80.5
..
5266
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.98
2.53
-2.05
-1.71
1.32
1.18
-0.45
-0.40
-2.05
-1.71
-0.60
-2.17
-0.02
-0.80
3.08
1.52
-

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

109.25
422.10
23.39
-

135.46
506.76
30.55
-

125.74
655.58
54.51
-

81.69
685.52
56.96
-

80.75
750.07
54.05
-

65.59
691.88
52.54
-

90.95
683.16
51.64
-

1.18
3.74
7.31
-

-3.37
0.28
-0.19
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

109.07
489.09
44.54
-

134.96
599.61
59.34
-

123.88
776.55
110.57
-

84.67
854.82
112.98
-

87.55
964.61
103.57
-

71.33
889.61
100.73
-

98.28
878.30
99.04
-

1.07
3.93
7.87
-

-2.86
0.72
-0.49
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.17

OECD AMERICAS
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

2132.67
116.26
1135.96
568.57
75.08
236.66
0.14

2199.38
89.52
1161.21
552.24
100.62
294.32
1.47

2210.69
87.04
1155.40
516.22
58.41
0.48
0.02
389.14
3.98

2648.88
54.43
1350.07
613.62
105.64
0.74
2.12
513.55
8.70

2746.35
52.14
1437.01
560.22
119.32
1.48
2.05
562.71
11.43

2680.33
50.15
1365.16
565.50
124.73
0.35
2.15
561.26
11.03

2555.99
39.41
1300.25
542.77
122.94
0.31
2.19
537.47
10.65

0.21
-1.69
0.10
-0.57
-1.47
2.97
21.94

0.77
-4.08
0.62
0.26
3.99
-2.22
26.61
1.71
5.32

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

651.05
95.40
129.96
279.20
51.20
95.15
0.14

660.64
77.70
154.80
254.56
59.31
112.84
1.43

515.13
72.55
85.46
196.52
24.81
0.00
134.90
0.90

602.41
50.76
59.49
238.38
65.83
0.16
0.00
180.68
7.11

559.66
49.03
69.30
212.27
63.84
0.17
0.01
155.89
9.14

546.44
47.16
68.19
208.98
60.75
0.17
0.01
152.36
8.82

492.95
36.74
58.80
197.24
55.93
0.15
0.01
135.53
8.55

-1.37
-1.60
-2.44
-2.04
-4.17
2.07
11.73

-0.23
-3.52
-1.95
0.02
4.37
12.41
0.02
12.58

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

660.16
0.36
634.74
24.06

706.40
0.07
682.18
23.41

803.23
776.04
26.16

974.58
940.07
28.50

1060.87
1010.23
27.51

1023.53
965.92
27.03

986.22
927.05
24.76

1.16
1.19
0.49

1.09
0.94
-0.29

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.99
390.93
5.16
125.22
170.56

0.74
367.46
2.41
81.86
171.05

1.03
367.55
2.27
54.79
164.07

4.74
1.26
453.83
1.98
62.68
186.93

21.46
1.68
460.30
0.06
50.31
180.12

28.97
1.61
461.67
0.06
46.80
185.46

32.81
1.60
452.04
0.06
44.74
180.44

0.24
-0.36
-4.71
-4.75
-0.23

2.32
1.10
-17.71
-1.06
0.50

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

11.24
78.76
237.74
4.91
79.66
94.02

12.11
100.02
232.80
2.66
54.63
96.77

13.89
0.01
132.51
0.00
261.36
3.47
37.21
99.42

31.16
0.31
2.09
168.68
320.75
1.30
34.75
120.31

30.48
0.79
1.98
196.55
0.00
343.24
2.46
35.07
114.57

31.19
0.05
2.06
196.04
347.74
2.50
34.01
119.38

30.48
0.05
2.10
194.19
346.91
2.29
36.64
118.51

1.25
3.11
0.56
-2.03
-4.38
0.33

4.22
30.10
2.03
1.50
-2.16
-0.08
0.93

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

59.15
140.55
139.82
0.73

78.70
0.04
169.41
0.18
163.17
6.06

0.38
0.01
117.80
3.08
205.80
0.50
175.96
29.34

1.78
0.27
0.02
160.72
1.59
264.67
0.38
225.62
38.67

3.01
0.52
0.06
185.26
2.29
267.36
0.50
241.80
25.05

3.30
0.13
0.07
186.15
2.22
245.25
0.41
220.88
23.96

3.24
0.12
0.09
183.93
2.10
227.35
0.31
205.97
21.07

4.14
2.27
1.36
24.30

11.99
12.45
2.37
-1.99
0.53
-2.42
0.83
-1.73

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.18 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD AMERICAS
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

496.5
16.7
-55.2
12.6

672.8
18.8
-98.0
-20.6

835.8
18.6
-127.8
-26.1

824.2
42.4
-82.3
37.4

884.9
57.3
-96.5
-8.9

810.0
39.0
-74.1
-31.8

825.7
39.2
-97.1
15.8

3.1
0.7
5.1
x

-0.2
4.0
-2.8
x

Primary supply

470.5

572.9

700.6

821.7

836.7

743.1

783.7

2.4

0.3

Statistical difference

18.6

-11.1

10.9

22.8

-13.9

-20.3

..

Total transformation

-364.0

-468.5

-622.4

-787.7

-769.4

-681.4

..

3.2

0.5

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-322.2
-322.2
-0.0

-439.3
-439.3
-0.0

-600.8
-593.8
-7.0

-766.1
-748.6
-17.5

-752.6
-747.2
-5.4

-669.8
-665.2
-4.6

..
..
..

3.7
3.7
51.8

0.6
0.6
-2.2

0.5

0.0

-2.6

-2.6

-2.7

-2.8

..

0.4

-42.3
-27.8
-14.4
-

-29.2
-18.5
-10.7
-

-19.0
-13.2
-5.9
-

-19.0
-13.3
-5.7
-

-14.1
-9.4
-4.7
-

-8.9
-5.8
-3.1
-

..
..
..
..
..

-4.6
-4.3
-5.2
-

-3.9
-4.2
-3.3
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-8.8

-3.7

-2.1

-2.3

-3.2

-2.0

..

-8.1

-0.2

Losses

-0.1

-0.1

-0.0

-0.1

-0.0

-0.0

..

116.3

89.5

87.0

54.4

50.2

39.4

..

-1.7

-4.1

95.4
54.2
11.9
6.0
7.1

77.7
36.2
11.2
10.5
7.4

72.5
22.4
12.5
11.9
10.5

50.8
15.7
9.6
12.7
3.8

47.2
10.7
7.2
10.3
6.7

36.7
7.8
6.0
6.9
5.6

..
..
..
..
..

-1.6
-5.1
0.3
4.1
2.3

-3.5
-5.4
-3.8
-2.8
-3.3

0.4

0.1

..

20.5
4.9
5.2

11.6
2.7
2.4

14.0
3.5
2.3

3.3
1.3
2.0

2.6
2.5
0.1

2.4
2.3
0.1

..
..
..

-2.2
-2.0
-4.7

-9.0
-2.2
-17.7

0.2

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

..

-2.4

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

(4)

Final consumption
Industry(5)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.19

OECD AMERICAS
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

497.23
418.80
418.78
0.03
0.03
46.42
3.73
10.34
12.00
7.82
12.52
8.58
-

722.72
655.66
648.58
7.08
0.17
54.07
1.71
14.26
12.85
11.38
13.88
6.06
0.26

899.44
863.98
848.49
15.49
1.79
2.39
38.34
1.46
10.51
13.50
4.14
8.74
3.70
0.33

969.60
794.19
787.66
6.52
119.79
1.77
1.20
38.38
0.32
7.23
12.94
6.84
11.04
3.61
0.53

964.36
791.42
786.79
4.63
127.67
1.49
1.48
38.64
0.48
7.38
12.27
7.04
11.48
2.78
0.55

958.89
908.16
903.21
4.95
1.85
1.83
40.22
0.65
7.96
11.30
7.48
12.82
2.85
0.45

866.53
816.57
812.04
4.53
0.54
1.03
32.08
0.47
6.68
7.61
6.22
11.09
2.63
0.33

3.17
3.81
3.71
60.08
1.28
-6.32
2.71
0.57
3.17
0.86
-2.86
-

0.96
1.16
1.19
-2.32
9.82
-2.71
-6.57
-3.91
-2.72
-3.13
-1.17
-4.30
1.23

80.10
76.10
-

43.70
43.65
-

32.07
31.84
-

26.56
2.81
24.11
-

26.96
2.37
24.26
-

26.76
25.96
-

19.88
19.44
-

-4.92
-4.53
-

-4.06
-4.17
-

43.97
41.13
41.13
2.47
0.17
2.31
0.34
-

109.28
101.99
100.89
1.10
5.64
1.41
0.23
0.00
0.10
1.08
0.17
0.09

114.73
110.09
108.85
1.25
0.00
5.67
1.59
0.24
0.00
0.10
1.25
0.12
0.14

115.90
109.76
107.70
2.06
0.00
5.39
0.39
0.24
0.01
0.06
0.08
0.06
0.16

116.08
110.18
110.18
0.00
5.33
0.32
0.26
0.01
0.05
0.19
-

113.36
108.16
108.16
0.00
5.30
0.28
0.24
0.04
0.09
-

103.34
96.87
96.87
0.00
5.43
0.29
0.26
0.03
0.08
-

7.88
7.86
7.76
-4.57
-4.60
-6.12
-5.64
-

-0.29
-0.27
-0.21
-0.20
-7.98
0.54
-16.91
-3.77
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.20 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD AMERICAS
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

16.66
15.25
..
..
1.41

18.79
17.72
7.46
10.27
1.07

18.62
17.47
4.91
12.55
1.15

42.44
35.08
6.43
28.65
2.80
4.56

61.23
53.34
6.25
47.09
3.04
4.86

56.39
48.27
5.35
42.93
4.93
3.18

57.29
46.67
5.40
41.27
6.28
4.34

38.99
34.73
3.59
31.14
3.03
1.22

39.21
34.53
4.85
29.68
2.54
2.14

55.24
53.62
..
..
0.00
1.62

98.01
96.02
71.71
24.31
0.03
1.95

127.76
127.03
85.76
41.27
0.04
0.69

82.31
80.94
54.83
26.11
0.03
1.34

66.21
64.43
44.87
19.57
0.22
1.55

75.90
74.04
50.12
23.93
0.36
1.50

96.53
93.60
58.78
34.82
1.10
1.83

74.06
72.54
49.97
22.58
0.28
1.24

97.11
95.55
71.10
24.45
0.17
1.38

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.21

OECD AMERICAS
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)

Hard Coal
Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

17684

17312

18506

19295

36895

55456

53591

41016

41113

6209
5924
-

7150
195
6491
-

5211
122
4497
-

4844
4129
-

6557
1511
4296
-

5551
450
1733
3322
46

5584
421
1877
3286
-

3711
334
1136
2241
-

5016
336
1558
3122
-

285

464

592

715

36
714

11475
933
49
645
8796
-

10162
35
367
8391
6

13295
22
883
5
9639
-

14451
192
2015
5095
39

30338
2556
1498
14787
164

49905
5649
968
1
5880
227

48007
1062
664
5
8264
102

37305
3981
322
200
6148
214

36097
3479
608
4
7520
371

996
56

539
824
-

1296
277
1173

2994
924
1675
1517

236
6928
1282
182
92
2071
542

48
25387
5068
401
98
3731
2447

42
30527
3720
1123
226
53
2161
58

10
21693
2466
815
157
59
1177
63

52
17871
2498
1274
12
189
560
1659

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.22 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD AMERICAS
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

40450

77198

84425

75819

58166

55872

65242

55346

78434

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

36030
1103
5410
1468
560
3069
19925
1173
929
68
265
838
453
409
360
-

65898
3443
6360
281
3823
709
7
13
54
5734
29639
3950
498
2975
98
244
2460
1310
1716
2474
110

67629
5538
3988
292
50
127
4880
708
28
50
6536
26588
2908
3
3975
99
753
3156
866
1957
4355
772

61804
3807
4039
267
715
3233
433
36
127
5054
22688
6615
517
4068
83
188
2313
1161
1895
3831
734

45504
2717
3501
312
288
2782
1211
65
48
56
4467
12937
4947
740
2143
42
198
2331
642
2403
3134
540

42115
125
1424
3299
344
435
2176
2789
30
4202
8430
5228
546
2895
10
401
915
136
1563
483
2263
2953
1468

48383
294
1650
3266
411
210
666
2453
2411
126
175
50
68
3693
9875
6048
1337
3671
78
1552
877
72
1407
523
257
2659
2987
1567

37615
280
1829
2168
284
25
73
389
2058
2033
31
46
2372
7344
6003
693
3488
31
889
219
161
1432
434
127
2126
2132
948

52378
412
1737
3091
215
678
1958
2728
40
59
3403
11388
8010
77
1002
5636
75
2149
260
223
1453
401
37
2915
3047
1384

4420
1942
205
218
200
673
1
914
24

11300
6139
782
457
38
1051
872
588
353

11592
6327
357
586
1559
614
580
300
229

13631
6826
1600
1165
1528
350
400
548

9437
5564
1440
682
22
443
269
184
-

13757
7262
1234
1453
800
209
500
308
140
100

16859
6903
1218
1371
1439
1588
648
524
479
180

17712
7649
871
693
1869
294
440
417
4578
160

25915
8762
864
1042
2299
812
161
321
8150
109

243

1020

1040

1214

833

1751

2509

741

3395

5204

384

3225

19

141

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.23

OECD AMERICAS
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

10808

34228

42493

38503

26926

27917

39966

26505

28770

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

10341
27
8782
309
38
528
22
243
356
27
5
4

30501
1
712
8508
2286
1208
978
595
1138
7
335
421
3633
2847
2489
44
2793
143
626
786
230
8
275
283
155

36299
1
2178
10083
394
3321
1758
384
15
1322
530
4451
4007
719
188
3982
1
62
1386
282
21
15
1005
194

34885
950
4541
207
1905
530
621
1648
829
562
3449
6179
3800
3015
25
1562
2111
8
191
2705
47

25449
429
13524
48
70
564
522
456
79
4425
2275
373
643
74
343
441
55
1016
112

24325
75
483
13386
656
72
176
584
1009
74
172
135
2099
980
148
2278
258
1
1578
161

36757
1144
17555
850
139
185
1263
1256
66
402
287
2306
2184
532
3279
109
391
990
144
149
34
3352
140

24211
24
602
7447
662
218
71
1111
729
152
217
2390
3767
752
2682
801
149
1
2344
92

24123
105
367
7245
1098
73
166
1080
935
47
612
2178
4192
1378
1699
65
531
182
373
275
220
1219
83

95
11
1
82
1

3727
78
2575
176
110
506
2

4967
177
3820
682
128
108
5

3616
153
2033
1
271
1099
-

923
22
825
1
9
-

3592
95
2
1
1069
2212
133
12
-

3082
401
72
73
1715
120
399
-

2159
6
255
1
630
159
962
1

4647
118
146
171
1044
120
2938
77

280

47

59

66

68

302

145

33

372

1227

554

127

135

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.24 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD ASIA OCEANIA*


Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


250

1400
1200

200

1000
150
800
600

100

400
50
200
0

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


400

400

350

350

300

300

250

250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

50

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


2500

2500

2000

2000

1500

1500

1000

1000

500

500

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Oil

Natural Gas

Other

2009

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.25

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

592.50
128.34
429.59
12.54
5.04
3.61
11.52
1.86
-0.01
-

674.49
144.83
431.60
42.55
5.91
32.04
15.01
2.56
0.03
-0.02
-

918.47
200.87
491.06
93.67
14.87
94.99
16.34
4.36
2.31
-0.06
0.05

1214.57
277.74
579.10
152.84
19.01
160.46
16.23
7.04
2.27
-0.18
0.05

1273.52
344.17
513.97
213.94
24.41
152.30
13.98
7.34
3.75
-0.45
0.11

1244.56
328.70
496.42
210.74
23.61
159.16
14.06
8.10
4.07
-0.46
0.15

1296.39
356.58
503.35
224.79
22.27
162.63
14.13
8.73
4.21
-0.46
0.15

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.61
2.67
0.79
12.55
6.57
21.20
2.08
5.15
13.01
-

1.61
2.63
0.06
4.36
2.46
2.75
-0.79
3.32
3.03
11.78
5.53

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
2405
0.25
162.9
3.64
117.4
111.2
83.5
572
..

1980
3048
0.22
177.0
3.81
105.5
99.0
85.8
740
..

1990
4833
0.19
191.7
4.79
90.6
86.6
84.1
1148
..

2000
5790
0.21
203.4
5.97
100.0
100.0
100.0
1629
..

2008
6648
0.19
209.3
6.08
91.3
107.9
99.8
1877
..

2009
6390
0.19
209.9
5.93
92.8
107.2
102.1
1852
..

2010e
6651
0.19
209.8
6.18
92.9
111.8
..
1908
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
4.19
1.48
-1.51
0.13
0.96
0.48
1.63
1.13
-1.51
0.13
-1.46
1.13
0.04
1.03
4.19
2.55
-

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

44.87
42.82
9.73
-

45.94
46.11
11.01
-

63.05
93.02
14.71
-

102.26
122.09
21.09
-

138.54
175.46
21.13
-

128.32
193.36
21.84
-

150.29
191.68
21.54
-

2.87
6.68
3.50
-

3.81
3.93
2.10
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

46.34
60.93
30.66
-

47.20
62.99
33.13
-

65.21
120.98
46.45
-

105.06
148.88
67.90
-

142.39
190.33
66.71
-

131.89
209.56
68.96
-

154.48
205.68
67.98
-

2.89
5.88
3.52
-

3.78
2.93
2.10
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.26 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

429.33
52.37
302.31
7.70
4.99
61.92
0.04

459.12
57.60
298.95
16.21
5.64
0.03
80.56
0.15

626.32
70.58
379.55
37.69
10.29
0.35
2.31
125.26
0.29

809.39
58.34
482.13
69.14
13.10
0.59
2.18
178.44
5.47

845.35
64.46
455.84
92.17
14.62
0.63
2.05
208.16
7.41

815.46
61.26
431.86
92.47
14.71
0.64
2.49
204.46
7.56

808.22
55.16
434.04
93.40
14.21
0.66
2.52
201.11
7.13

2.25
1.77
1.35
9.80
4.34
4.23
12.32

1.35
-1.29
0.71
4.89
1.71
3.28
0.45
2.52
18.46

185.18
35.20
102.88
4.26
2.13
40.71
-

175.36
39.16
76.29
8.31
3.17
48.43
-

209.32
55.60
73.85
15.12
6.76
0.16
57.84
-

239.22
55.77
71.76
23.28
9.81
0.19
75.37
3.04

243.22
60.72
53.71
30.61
11.43
0.21
0.00
82.26
4.28

230.36
57.40
48.58
31.24
11.39
0.21
0.00
77.26
4.28

219.44
51.82
49.06
31.68
10.65
0.22
0.00
72.15
3.86

0.72
2.73
-1.93
7.74
7.02
2.09
-

0.25
-0.37
-2.13
3.97
2.42
1.66
1.17
-

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

84.68
0.33
82.62
-

113.22
0.01
111.17
0.01

160.87
0.11
158.24
0.10

210.42
0.13
207.03
0.44

213.97
0.14
209.21
1.39

208.20
0.12
203.09
1.60

206.11
0.13
200.43
1.87

3.85
-6.54
3.90
-

1.31
1.03
1.25
16.96

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.73
47.65
15.17
13.98
2.24

2.03
60.63
16.84
15.88
5.62

2.42
87.06
12.63
23.27
13.97

2.83
109.28
0.87
31.00
25.60

0.27
2.96
116.74
1.47
26.78
29.32

0.45
2.94
115.51
1.53
25.32
29.09

0.66
3.02
114.80
1.31
24.36
29.22

2.01
3.61
-1.07
3.04
11.37

1.16
1.47
-11.23
0.24
3.96

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

2.86
13.40
32.48
1.56
24.66
0.85

2.43
0.03
19.83
37.53
1.59
24.45
1.61

3.45
0.01
2.24
31.44
0.04
85.00
1.67
43.47
6.94

3.05
0.01
2.14
45.03
1.57
123.23
1.05
50.54
17.14

2.40
0.01
2.01
52.70
2.03
135.43
0.97
35.81
28.88

2.33
0.01
2.45
52.65
2.14
134.09
0.97
33.57
28.45

2.22
0.01
2.47
52.95
2.25
132.43
0.86
30.65
28.49

1.11
5.15
5.82
0.39
3.39
13.17

-2.30
-0.14
0.52
2.78
23.02
2.36
-3.43
-1.82
7.71

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

5.38
0.04
58.67
58.35
0.32

0.03
9.70
0.15
50.34
49.71
0.63

0.08
0.13
0.07
32.41
0.24
66.55
0.57
64.44
1.54

0.24
0.24
0.04
53.11
0.87
106.12
0.50
102.97
2.65

0.51
0.27
0.04
67.86
1.10
117.90
1.11
114.89
1.90

0.54
0.27
0.04
69.12
1.14
110.64
1.19
107.42
2.03

0.67
0.28
0.05
70.41
1.03
118.42
1.01
115.35
2.07

11.14
11.22
0.74
0.59
9.66

12.21
4.24
-2.08
4.17
7.91
3.08
3.05
3.11
1.57

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:
Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.27

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

94.4
59.6
-26.0
0.3

103.1
75.0
-41.9
8.7

170.8
130.8
-98.3
-2.4

245.4
203.5
-177.7
6.5

335.1
263.5
-250.1
-4.4

343.5
246.4
-259.1
-2.1

363.5
280.3
-293.9
6.7

3.5
4.7
8.1
x

3.7
3.4
5.2
x

Primary supply

128.3

144.8

200.9

277.7

344.2

328.7

356.6

2.7

2.6

Statistical difference

-2.5

-2.3

3.2

1.5

-7.6

5.1

..

Total transformation

-68.7

-79.1

-127.4

-214.2

-267.2

-271.1

..

3.7

4.1

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-37.8
-37.8
-0.1

-45.2
-40.9
-4.3

-89.6
-78.6
-11.0

-177.2
-161.0
-16.3

-231.5
-212.9
-18.5

-237.5
-219.4
-18.1

..
..
..

5.2
4.4
36.1

5.3
5.6
2.7

3.7

5.2

-0.3

-0.2

0.1

0.1

..

-34.7
-0.2
-27.1
-5.8
-1.5

-39.1
-0.2
-23.7
-14.5
-0.6

-37.5
-0.0
-31.1
-1.6
-4.8

-36.7
-0.0
-35.2
-0.6
-0.9

-35.8
-0.1
-34.0
-1.8
-

-33.7
-0.1
-30.4
-3.2
-

..
..
..
..
..

0.5
-8.3
0.8
-7.3
6.9

-0.6
4.6
-0.1
3.6
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-4.6

-5.5

-6.0

-6.8

-8.1

-7.6

..

1.7

1.2

Losses

-0.1

-0.3

-0.0

-0.0

-0.0

-0.0

..

Final consumption

52.4

57.6

70.6

58.3

61.3

55.2

..

1.8

-1.3

Industry(5)

35.2
26.9
0.4
0.9
0.3

39.2
27.3
0.8
5.9
0.5

55.6
21.0
4.3
11.9
1.9

55.8
21.3
4.4
12.1
2.3

57.4
23.9
4.9
11.5
2.4

51.8
22.1
4.5
10.0
2.4

..
..
..
..
..

2.7
-1.4
15.3
16.4
10.8

-0.4
0.3
0.1
-0.9
1.2

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

..

-6.5

1.0

16.8
1.6
15.2

18.4
1.6
16.8

14.3
1.7
12.6

1.9
1.1
0.9

2.6
1.0
1.5

2.2
0.9
1.3

..
..
..

-1.0
0.4
-1.1

-9.4
-3.4
-11.2

0.6

0.5

1.2

1.0

..

3.0

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.28 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

57.24
30.57
30.21
0.36
18.64
0.13
0.19
7.37
1.46
0.34
1.88
0.35
3.34
1.49
-

132.00
80.92
75.93
4.99
20.81
6.53
25.08
2.05
2.63
12.63
2.25
5.53
1.12
0.02

216.90
165.65
157.93
7.72
2.41
12.13
32.36
3.42
3.92
13.30
2.64
9.07
1.09
-

260.42
216.88
205.59
11.29
2.01
12.41
0.83
28.88
4.79
4.11
12.37
2.90
4.71
1.02
-

280.54
229.37
217.65
11.72
2.09
13.34
0.81
30.65
5.41
4.54
12.49
2.93
5.27
1.01
-

286.34
231.64
219.72
11.91
2.29
11.28
0.83
30.29
4.90
4.26
12.64
2.92
5.57
1.01
-

275.88
235.78
223.29
12.49
1.94
10.20
0.50
26.66
4.10
4.04
10.94
2.89
4.69
0.91
-

7.21
8.45
7.98
24.49
0.92
38.86
10.75
2.86
18.50
17.23
16.65
4.30
-2.34
-

3.96
5.79
5.84
4.95
-11.74
2.38
0.32
3.72
2.29
-0.75
1.34
-0.86
-1.13
-

67.95
64.35
4.45
0.12
0.06
0.01
0.04
0.01
-

82.85
77.00
5.25
-

81.30
67.15
13.97
-

82.89
68.56
15.92
-

84.49
67.19
17.71
0.17
0.17
-

85.97
67.45
16.37
0.33
0.33
-

77.10
62.25
14.75
0.32
0.26
0.00
0.06
-

1.67
1.51
-

-0.38
-1.11
5.58
-

30.64
27.32
26.32
0.99
2.85
0.42
0.03
0.00
0.30
0.10
0.05
-

46.45
44.45
43.37
1.08
1.78
0.19
0.03
0.00
0.16
0.08
-

67.90
66.81
65.52
1.29
0.96
0.17
0.17
0.08
-

67.83
66.74
66.55
0.19
0.90
0.21
0.00
0.20
0.06
-

66.30
62.12
61.93
0.19
0.65
0.22
0.00
0.22
0.05
-

66.71
64.09
63.64
0.45
0.61
0.26
0.00
0.25
0.05
-

68.96
66.31
65.85
0.46
0.54
0.21
0.00
0.21
0.03
-

3.53
4.14
4.25
0.72
-3.84
-6.64
-1.23
-3.32
4.39
3.49
-

2.10
2.13
2.22
-4.37
-6.08
0.74
1.53
-4.55
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.29

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

59.64
59.61
..
..
0.04

74.95
74.83
69.12
5.71
0.12

130.83
130.32
79.51
50.82
0.51

203.54
200.95
73.04
127.91
2.60

244.38
242.05
74.30
167.76
2.33

257.36
254.59
77.60
176.99
2.77

263.54
261.43
78.50
182.93
2.12

246.45
245.76
70.33
175.43
0.69

280.32
278.68
82.08
196.60
1.64

26.00
25.38
..
..
0.61

41.86
39.73
32.25
7.47
2.13

98.33
95.87
55.90
39.96
2.46

177.73
175.05
98.03
77.02
2.68

231.72
229.74
118.82
110.93
1.97

238.91
237.52
129.64
107.89
1.39

250.08
249.12
135.72
113.40
0.95

259.14
257.98
123.83
134.15
1.15

293.93
293.28
152.67
140.61
0.65

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.30 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

55041

113643

134653

180279

225183

289508

297366

280057

317302

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

52885
25299
11304
398
429
10406
11

77367
33741
19321
14729
401

76229
39558
13316
10275
225

76954
39880
13007
7541
298

76671
45398
9389
2841
367

80745
50888
8637
253
138

81674
51000
8326
1718
202

73178
46446
7428
2019
139

85386
46854
11939
5516
382

420
2360
2244
14

1211
103
5086
2775
-

2802
153
668
3055
6150
27

5327
52
4629
3437
2741
42

9555
5886
603
2498
27
107

5810
9
10659
134
4203
14

5627
10
11070
48
3594
79

2834
10
10690
181
3390
31
10

2403
24
13352
4868
48

2156
668
105
1
-

36276
19238
2249
1980
14

58424
24852
8170
5751
138

103325
43431
11604
1
7780
319

148512
67166
9944
2396
637

208763
92844
8684
73
298

215692
100581
8322
1282
426

206879
100107
9559
967
283

231916
115200
6907
494
-

513
157
149
563

2427
306
5508
1020
157
3377

3504
94
806
7057
3402
150
4500

13065
56
8323
6493
3189
1496
7568

33751
14185
3448
5497
1079
10409

27690
19
47895
584
13393
3025
14258

24831
21
49638
710
13519
2740
13622

12840
20
54979
987
10170
3523
13444

11842
3333
61683
5516
16658
3442
6841

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.31

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

31085

49698

58086

75625

100690

133178

139485

127272

156924

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

29188
374
32
1173
191
1319
22651
1330
10
992
593
469
54

42067
16
64
2106
2055
29559
3064
1380
1186
516
2121
-

44002
1054
200
1917
25
1181
28579
4944
713
694
702
912
3081
-

54258
1524
466
2310
204
2752
30774
9032
703
129
896
535
1608
3325
-

73658
1833
463
3739
2619
2914
39174
10358
666
2194
1767
992
1451
5488
-

80490
1923
867
284
3444
273
2287
48689
6254
1019
7139
1735
1258
1563
3755
-

86158
2927
513
304
3056
1618
150
281
2255
50203
8356
857
6242
2464
1302
1845
3785
-

70944
1578
339
297
1441
1351
147
1450
42114
12772
478
3407
675
980
1672
2243
-

84266
1242
297
256
3025
1290
1740
45779
17410
351
4213
254
1715
1750
1317
3627
-

1897
164
981
32
675
45

7631
958
1990
312
2042
595
688
35
192
688

13748
1291
2798
323
4844
2256
454
300
560
734

20033
3448
3851
459
9555
710
597
384
211
818

25293
4988
6273
10588
1554
595
174
1051

40022
3052
8036
498
19534
334
2289
606
2975
396

39858
3866
6392
366
24229
410
2016
544
1534
501

48223
4083
2639
140
24011
1117
879
14757
327

68813
4245
7390
68
32264
1450
819
21852
510

131

188

70

2302

270

215

336

1334

1739

12666

13469

8105

3845

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.32 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD ASIA OCEANIA


11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

5533

39339

45647

62413

87804

112428

115268

136579

143171

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

4809
150
682
458
1489
320
932
778

29593
771
99
2557
508
591
125
577
226
15326
5453
2464
455
441
-

38304
129
120
1149
934
125
133
528
26569
3633
4236
205
155
29
328
31

51291
1116
1023
1076
276
61
121
695
366
34556
9662
1562
264
110
44
25
142
192

70501
428
1301
142
434
72
110
284
2623
428
47449
11455
2550
16
1445
83
55
1499
127

84556
54
671
160
1202
129
254
507
58813
15061
5069
797
85
986
101
600
67

89382
41
420
684
527
177
66959
18552
818
187
80
545
253
71
68

99213
20
151
73
1031
672
62791
30111
2304
802
93
309
277
361
218

100514
647
564
109
516
340
69300
26213
2259
94
54
73
345

204
76
128

8082
3761
93
2189
2039

7343
158
3046
47
33
2443
1616

11122
5920
110
3420
1672

17303
10034
2469
72
1429
3299

27872
111
16233
744
82
3229
7473

25886
29
18559
661
1480
5157

36883
4
20391
70
814
224
9000
6380

42539
21329
563
14968
5679

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

520

1664

483

118

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.33

OECD EUROPE*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


3000

120

2500

100

2000

80

1500

60

1000

40
20

500

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


800

800

700

700

600

600

500

500

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


4000

4500

3500

4000
3500

3000

3000

2500

2500
2000
2000
1500

1500

1000

1000

500

500
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.34 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD EUROPE
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

1964.97
607.78
1046.31
192.47
44.27
27.69
42.06
3.62
0.07
0.71
-

2134.63
662.60
983.46
294.44
50.97
85.79
51.07
4.30
0.07
1.92
-

2313.67
641.95
865.82
371.33
77.58
293.10
54.83
6.76
0.41
1.86
0.03

2496.20
472.56
929.38
561.48
101.17
349.79
66.95
10.36
3.81
0.16
0.54

2621.93
454.23
910.75
655.79
156.42
345.66
64.39
14.75
17.98
1.20
0.77

2494.39
404.31
867.86
624.64
166.69
329.21
63.25
15.64
20.73
1.46
0.59

2591.33
424.95
862.84
673.05
178.84
341.24
68.17
16.23
23.50
1.94
0.56

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.97
0.32
-1.11
3.94
3.35
14.89
1.57
3.74
11.14
5.88
-

0.40
-2.40
0.01
2.78
4.11
0.61
0.75
4.52
22.88
-1.27
17.51

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
4810
0.41
455.0
4.32
148.9
243.2
93.7
1618
60.7

1980
5680
0.38
473.8
4.51
137.0
224.6
101.0
2049
68.3

1990
7248
0.32
500.1
4.63
116.3
170.5
103.3
2662
83.0

2000
9097
0.27
521.7
4.78
100.0
100.0
100.0
3222
100.0

2008
10651
0.25
546.6
4.80
89.7
82.1
98.1
3627
113.3

2009
10212
0.24
549.3
4.54
89.0
76.2
97.6
3461
98.4

2010e
10430
0.25
551.2
4.70
90.5
78.4
..
3599
105.2

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.44
1.82
-1.44
-1.40
0.56
0.50
0.41
-0.10
-1.44
-1.40
-2.07
-4.15
0.58
-0.30
2.97
1.39
1.86
0.90

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

136.40
276.37
179.98
2.30

123.53
293.95
188.71
2.67

92.69
222.29
205.30
5.52

44.80
127.89
134.80
3.49

30.98
93.00
137.48
2.85

24.80
85.90
134.12
4.37

26.25
82.51
130.17
4.73

-3.17
-1.80
1.10
7.57

-6.70
-4.88
-2.22
-1.22

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

141.07
341.51
590.99
8.05

127.95
363.56
607.01
9.34

93.45
277.78
677.59
16.41

45.21
160.07
449.85
10.71

31.26
116.61
460.38
8.44

25.31
108.07
447.33
12.77

26.70
103.57
431.52
14.06

-3.37
-1.71
1.15
6.11

-6.64
-4.85
-2.16
-1.31

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.35

OECD EUROPE
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

1460.09
264.47
824.60
135.85
40.36
0.51
164.90
29.41

1543.79
222.75
787.76
229.74
43.56
0.73
0.01
209.93
49.31

1605.25
179.48
740.33
287.62
64.94
1.99
0.25
274.02
56.61

1750.94
89.09
811.55
383.31
74.89
2.61
0.95
332.90
55.63

1837.81
82.73
813.99
396.11
92.48
3.10
1.90
379.63
67.88

1842.39
80.19
808.41
400.33
98.04
3.23
2.11
382.53
67.55

1752.83
69.48
767.93
376.18
101.72
3.94
2.18
364.60
66.81

0.56
-2.25
-0.63
4.51
2.84
8.38
3.03
3.93

0.46
-4.87
0.19
1.42
2.39
3.65
12.16
1.51
0.88

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

532.43
130.36
214.72
74.30
7.03
0.04
90.59
15.38

509.24
112.20
167.06
95.66
8.39
0.04
105.28
20.62

460.68
101.50
82.61
110.94
20.60
0.07
0.01
124.65
20.29

462.49
66.55
75.59
141.03
25.42
0.09
0.14
140.71
12.94

466.17
60.38
67.03
128.21
32.11
0.04
0.18
154.50
23.72

448.37
51.04
63.79
124.21
32.80
0.04
0.18
153.62
22.69

391.54
40.63
54.39
108.65
31.68
0.04
0.00
134.32
21.82

-0.85
-1.46
-5.46
2.39
6.53
3.16
1.90
1.64

-0.85
-4.70
-2.18
-0.11
2.29
-2.77
-4.68
0.39
0.38

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

248.48
9.79
233.60
0.22

297.93
3.63
287.60
0.81

379.61
0.31
371.23
0.43

454.07
0.01
442.97
1.04

499.73
0.00
478.15
2.85

491.63
0.01
465.44
3.31

481.33
0.01
452.20
3.11

2.52
-18.44
2.76
3.99

1.26
-17.45
1.04
10.90

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.00
4.86
345.93
89.20
144.63
33.12

0.00
5.89
366.81
71.99
116.48
71.78

0.01
7.63
402.05
52.89
94.19
105.76

1.02
9.03
430.73
16.68
89.63
155.46

9.51
9.22
431.71
16.22
63.93
169.16

13.46
9.42
452.06
20.29
72.96
173.31

16.97
9.05
447.62
21.76
67.06
169.26

5.41
2.69
0.89
-3.03
-2.49
7.07

48.92
0.90
0.57
-4.57
-1.77
2.51

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

26.32
0.42
41.18
11.07
136.43
22.02
82.12
5.07

28.45
0.64
0.01
58.03
19.42
149.71
24.44
72.12
13.02

41.40
1.39
0.18
78.50
27.74
157.97
18.09
39.86
37.21

44.67
1.92
0.64
94.24
27.50
179.30
2.09
33.91
50.53

46.22
2.35
1.50
107.38
24.95
204.59
1.83
27.54
59.60

46.99
2.45
1.70
109.58
24.79
217.42
3.53
32.44
63.89

47.81
3.13
1.88
111.01
25.71
212.83
3.54
29.72
62.12

2.70
7.34
3.87
5.55
0.87
-1.15
-4.16
12.44

0.76
4.38
13.07
1.84
-0.40
1.58
-8.23
-1.53
2.73

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.16
0.02
24.88
1.17
115.96
4.42
104.62
6.92

1.50
0.02
35.58
3.03
128.83
3.08
107.96
17.79

0.59
0.17
0.02
56.74
5.28
142.67
2.44
119.96
20.28

1.85
0.20
0.07
81.93
8.72
160.41
1.77
138.47
20.16

2.39
0.27
0.14
100.86
11.95
169.83
2.65
148.41
18.78

2.47
0.33
0.14
101.73
12.91
164.63
2.58
143.93
18.12

2.70
0.34
0.17
102.30
11.93
153.30
1.59
135.95
15.76

-3.90
14.04
4.97
9.29
1.23
-3.45
0.81
6.53

8.35
3.73
11.11
3.15
4.38
0.38
-2.22
0.66
-1.32

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.36 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD EUROPE
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

579.5
97.9
-77.5
7.9

608.9
143.2
-75.1
-14.3

525.8
169.5
-60.6
7.2

311.0
196.2
-48.1
13.5

264.3
242.6
-39.6
-13.1

249.2
204.5
-33.8
-15.6

243.7
209.5
-37.2
9.0

-0.6
3.3
-1.4
x

-3.9
1.0
-3.0
x

Primary supply

607.8

662.6

642.0

472.6

454.2

404.3

425.0

0.3

-2.4

Statistical difference

5.1

-7.5

-12.0

0.3

1.4

0.5

..

Total transformation

-321.5

-411.9

-435.9

-372.6

-364.3

-326.5

..

1.8

-1.5

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-279.3
-258.3
-21.1

-365.1
-305.8
-59.3

-394.4
-344.4
-50.1

-335.2
-315.3
-19.9

-330.1
-310.8
-19.2

-301.6
-287.7
-13.9

..
..
..

2.1
1.7
5.2

-1.4
-0.9
-6.5

11.5

2.5

2.4

0.1

-0.3

-0.2

..

-8.9

-53.7
2.4
-38.9
-17.9
0.8

-49.4
1.6
-37.9
-13.8
0.7

-43.6
-1.0
-33.0
-9.7
0.2

-37.0
-0.2
-30.1
-6.9
0.2

-33.2
-0.1
-27.3
-5.9
0.0

-23.7
0.6
-20.5
-3.8
0.0

..
..
..
..
..

-1.2
-1.0
-3.5
-7.4

-3.2
-2.5
-4.8
-8.4

-0.3

-0.5

-0.8

-1.0

..

7.3

-21.7

-18.5

-13.4

-10.1

-9.9

-7.8

..

-2.8

-2.8

-5.2

-2.0

-1.2

-1.1

-1.3

-1.0

..

Final consumption

264.5

222.7

179.5

89.1

80.2

69.5

..

-2.3

-4.9

Industry(5)

130.4
52.8
14.3
14.3
4.2

112.2
42.9
12.9
16.3
3.4

101.5
39.4
11.4
18.0
3.8

66.6
27.7
4.4
11.4
2.2

51.0
23.9
4.5
9.3
1.9

40.6
17.0
4.4
6.8
1.7

..
..
..
..
..

-1.5
-1.7
-1.3
1.4
-0.5

-4.7
-4.3
-4.9
-5.0
-4.3

9.8

3.6

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

-18.4

-17.5

119.9
22.0
89.2

103.8
24.4
72.0

75.2
18.1
52.9

20.8
2.1
16.7

26.6
3.5
20.3

27.3
3.5
21.8

..
..
..

-2.7
-1.1
-3.0

-5.2
-8.2
-4.6

4.4

3.1

2.4

1.8

2.6

1.6

..

-3.4

-2.2

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Other transformation(3)
Energy ind. own use
Losses
(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.37

OECD EUROPE
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

360.16
252.42
203.10
49.33
6.57
2.28
0.01
1.63
39.59
4.40
3.13
13.41
0.84
17.80
47.57
0.08

360.26
280.00
242.25
37.75
2.02
0.09
3.58
0.41
40.35
4.26
5.66
16.52
2.18
11.73
28.22
0.05

278.16
224.35
214.47
9.88
0.84
7.29
32.09
4.12
3.06
9.98
1.79
13.15
13.45
0.01

286.53
233.08
224.05
9.03
0.45
7.69
29.58
5.20
3.30
6.35
1.63
13.10
12.76
0.16

303.27
243.04
233.06
9.98
0.38
7.71
34.85
4.66
2.59
8.76
1.37
17.48
14.21
0.20

273.55
217.55
208.64
8.91
0.38
7.62
24.42
4.18
3.73
7.89
1.48
7.13
19.24
0.20

243.77
195.93
189.62
6.31
0.35
4.53
19.33
3.00
3.43
5.42
1.29
6.19
19.91
0.08

0.00
0.87
1.48
-2.20
-9.37
-23.82
72.95
-10.93
0.16
-0.27
5.06
1.75
8.26
-3.41
-4.26
-3.32

-2.03
-1.86
-1.28
-8.99
-8.80
1.25
-3.80
-1.84
-2.60
-5.70
-2.71
-3.31
-1.82
2.36

145.14
7.14
6.19
0.95
135.41
2.46
0.14
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.27
-

129.45
18.23
14.32
3.91
107.92
1.45
0.26
1.98
1.63
0.01
0.34
0.14
-

92.81
13.37
10.17
3.20
73.13
1.78
2.65
0.24
0.00
0.02
2.39
0.10
0.23

81.81
12.70
10.73
1.97
64.90
2.81
0.80
0.23
0.01
0.55
0.13
0.22

87.58
13.48
11.40
2.08
69.78
3.38
0.50
0.21
0.04
0.25
0.08
0.23

83.69
10.49
8.76
1.73
68.90
2.80
0.72
0.50
0.06
0.16
0.12
0.22

63.67
7.70
6.71
0.98
52.53
2.00
1.60
0.65
0.02
0.05
0.88
0.12
0.14

-0.95
8.12
7.23
12.52
-1.87
-17.08
24.49
57.52
13.00
8.10
-5.56
-

-3.67
-4.44
-3.91
-7.01
-3.72
1.70
-1.12
-4.73
6.88
5.22
-0.91
-

591.89
359.55
343.49
16.06
134.34
6.40
48.24
1.12
14.37
1.65
4.04
27.07
28.55
0.83

691.80
490.75
464.22
26.53
109.29
0.19
3.48
42.10
1.42
10.72
1.64
2.05
26.27
39.91
0.58

459.95
420.18
413.93
6.25
12.18
0.09
1.97
14.21
0.22
3.13
0.87
0.53
9.46
7.89
0.17

461.23
426.07
420.02
6.05
12.44
0.15
2.32
9.12
0.09
2.99
0.61
0.50
4.94
7.73
0.12

471.10
433.90
428.59
5.31
12.26
0.17
2.50
9.21
0.09
1.87
0.90
0.43
5.93
9.11
0.05

457.53
421.74
415.43
6.31
12.84
0.15
2.74
8.93
0.07
2.00
0.91
0.40
5.55
7.55
0.04

446.69
407.19
401.73
5.46
12.22
0.07
2.42
10.56
0.06
2.86
0.71
0.46
6.46
8.96
0.09

1.31
2.63
2.54
4.27
-1.70
-4.95
-1.13
2.05
-2.41
-0.03
-5.52
-0.25
2.83
-2.94

-2.28
-0.98
-0.76
-7.98
-10.89
-4.91
-1.91
-7.02
-15.21
-6.72
-4.30
-7.52
-7.12
-7.56
-9.50

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.38 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD EUROPE
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

97.87
70.11
..
..
5.30
22.46

143.17
117.95
49.56
68.38
5.73
19.49

169.51
151.08
56.94
94.14
5.92
0.10
12.40

196.19
179.22
56.69
122.53
2.52
0.10
14.36

248.68
234.51
57.14
177.37
1.48
0.12
12.56

250.31
235.35
59.43
175.92
1.45
0.19
13.33

242.57
227.89
59.40
168.49
1.84
0.23
12.62

204.52
194.56
40.68
153.89
1.59
0.23
8.13

209.47
196.87
52.26
144.61
1.41
0.19
11.01

77.44
52.78
..
..
1.43
23.23

75.08
51.51
20.95
30.56
4.54
0.00
19.03

60.54
42.05
19.56
22.49
4.33
0.12
14.04

48.09
38.28
9.76
28.52
1.31
0.08
8.42

47.69
34.42
7.88
26.54
0.90
0.05
12.32

46.86
34.14
7.07
27.07
0.74
0.04
11.94

39.55
27.42
5.87
21.55
0.90
0.02
11.23

33.79
23.94
5.88
18.06
0.69
0.02
9.14

37.19
25.57
5.67
19.90
0.46
0.05
11.12

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.39

OECD EUROPE
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

92461

142735

160219

160868

196449

261610

252314

217489

217296

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

40078
4497
294
909
10550
6190
79
8745
105

52224
9734
1107
695
5219
5025
87
22793
285

55546
10043
2812
774
3141
2570
65
28433
80

52723
13043
4176
2985
37
6573
21067
391

56071
21757
7072
3388
2
3125
16901
31

58941
23533
7571
4677
3246
15055
118

59030
21803
6426
4366
2532
18292
183

40579
11126
3011
3968
15
2313
2
15298
548

51217
16479
3753
2504
1
1365
1
18656
92

206
3005
5498

50
256
1441
5532

1
24
46
158
2419
4980

12
85
214
206
526
990
2418

2
140
441
388
2327
26
418
53
-

67
154
150
2147
660
1059
504

158
328
494
1903
648
1023
75
799

271
454
1843
629
599
502

3
700
574
2738
1009
97
37
3208

52383
2955
816
243
6716
15647
2285
499
980

90511
11160
1435
462
3526
15429
2394
16541
2698

104673
9790
832
327
2123
13084
2423
20504
3514

108145
7478
307
1517
834
15620
713
20460
1716

140378
9416
12
2393
432
18593
593
4724
3673

202669
7725
804
1369
457
10868
203
5542
5447

193284
6444
271
1520
587
8530
390
12923
6538

176910
4429
556
1763
375
7409
286
10958
4679

166079
3306
751
2326
456
9583
216
11205
3623

21
10814
2863
8544

236
1544
26339
1895
6852

2783
9060
194
26099
6464
1475
6001

2307
11231
2409
32967
7372
647
1831
364
372

1887
22500
8230
42839
15396
845
3081
560
5204

2526
31764
17130
48864
59512
1808
1305
184
7161

1813
29855
15471
38475
60477
2780
1343
76
5791

862
34612
12020
31132
60188
2333
715
10
4582

359
37605
9126
18848
53572
2675
798
24
11606

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.40 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD EUROPE
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

35537

25596

19781

18218

9747

7234

6007

5916

5699

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

25095
1283
2383
6331
154
54
4005
804
286
1426
125
122
5126
1826
387
18
89
573
103

15893
1582
1572
2680
241
8
2439
851
134
125
4183
637
254
5
1182
-

11025
1351
858
203
1697
144
3
1017
573
52
3681
649
3
794
-

11983
2
1897
559
871
9
534
634
362
1
1287
3
3
18
10
995
156
896
117
2657
58
310
3
178
421
2

8106
1844
1
214
717
108
1061
1010
4
323
53
538
1570
65
494
100
4
-

7034
1458
16
1024
5
25
16
580
106
8
1863
1905
25
3
-

5974
742
125
949
9
23
501
17
1900
1708
-

5601
1330
36
625
42
60
391
5
1155
1587
68
302
-

5569
1312
16
720
109
502
733
2099
78
-

2491
15
520
5
-

3862
861
4
861
-

4676
1249
100
284
100
1249
-

6157
790
48
217
-

1641
143
529
62
2
2
-

199
-

32
-

210
10
1

130
1

1951

2136

1694

5102

903

199

32

199

129

7951

5841

4080

78

105

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.41

OECD EUROPE
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

33590

31963

25276

28034

32159

30468

23999

19613

21643

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

25347
275
2633
274
4161
4095
6035
3171
1
540
1530
52
938
167
15
237
21
244
90
74
149
645

23616
1
1001
1373
1378
3454
2461
1975
4042
15
21
1287
1211
107
1282
286
179
79
389
1666
287
1122
-

20776
1
1216
1471
2282
1387
2815
1167
4942
18
793
600
61
3
1341
339
1
186
198
275
864
52
764
-

22161
12
1050
1414
1874
3214
2559
1152
5655
1
374
20
686
307
50
617
311
304
151
404
2
129
809
11
1054
1

31217
1643
610
864
2382
3
1228
2415
15884
2
322
7
468
923
164
363
603
117
5
1217
12
441
172
20
1351
1

30076
2256
236
32
1377
821
274
1648
17172
172
254
91
564
806
96
875
387
291
228
578
7
185
303
2
1389
32

23765
1931
325
3
937
639
155
2038
11603
76
216
59
491
1577
81
813
358
482
255
556
2
128
92
101
847
-

19296
1975
201
8
829
307
224
1941
7940
150
51
568
1234
162
556
235
758
265
543
3
207
75
74
176
814
-

20926
1446
581
46
685
802
189
1880
8758
158
56
546
1172
48
445
448
1556
245
448
3
51
227
29
218
889
-

85
31
-

1636
13
77
3
188

722
10
1
1
16
375
3
-

4980
37
1
-

908
2
3
16
2
4

389
16
1
275
4
16

177
5
23
1
22
40
2

109
21
1
3
2
-

313
21
2
9
31
15
4

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

54

1355

316

4942

881

77

84

82

231

8158

6711

3778

893

34

57

208

404

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.42 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

OECD EUROPE
12. Coal import values by origin*
(average unit value, CIF, US$/tonne)

Coking coal

(1)

Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Steam coal(3)
Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

65.01

58.49

47.88

109.61

125.86

126.10

197.62

187.35

194.02

67.29
64.53
67.03
63.98
63.07
63.56
68.65
58.81
57.44

57.03
57.02
82.00
59.26
61.20
51.72
59.04
49.65
56.00

45.45
45.92
..
50.43
52.91
43.24
35.62
39.09
42.02

114.89
113.81
242.07
138.92
110.91
219.14
104.26
71.77
86.05

135.52
137.66
112.10
118.82
123.44
146.38
2611.31
66.18
81.32

127.97
129.45
133.32
139.47
126.16
238.11
92.53
96.82
86.75

219.74
218.81
235.16
245.85
174.66
276.79
..
141.18
142.20

243.76
223.39
160.08
137.24
159.91
..
86.35
81.99
109.45

213.42
205.20
210.67
194.36
191.43
253.86
136.20
95.76
128.19

52.64
52.03
52.72
65.54
61.05
54.69
49.36
52.60
45.18
44.69
.. ..

47.51
45.06
44.71
63.84
46.78
49.12
45.29
43.42
43.76
42.55
.. ..

35.22
39.04
37.33
40.97
35.30
41.07
31.45
34.22
33.83
33.59
.. ..

71.27
106.40
119.03
113.59
78.34
86.75
93.41
67.98
67.64
68.46
.. ..

82.28
103.93
112.33
112.36
94.13
97.50
73.02
78.16
80.25
79.09
.. ..

137.61
185.19
180.46
158.65
155.92
138.02
161.11
..
142.17
132.66
.. ..

100.24
149.29
167.55
140.77
114.49
107.28
552.50
95.79
95.51
92.18
.. ..

104.11
197.74
214.66
140.68
104.05
117.53
829.37
95.82
98.45
97.47
..

69.83
109.71
146.42
102.69
75.65
82.08
150.20
66.07
66.24
68.02
.. ..

Note: On occasion, shipment of extremely small quantities of high valued coal results in high import costs.
(1) Weighted average of individual countries using import volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
(2) Former Soviet Union until 1991, Russian Federation starting in 1992.
(3) Bituminous steam coal only. Weighted average of individual countries using volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.43

IEA TOTAL*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


8000

140

7000

120

6000

100

5000

80

4000

60

3000
40
2000
20

1000

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


1800

1800

1600

1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


12000

14000

10000

12000
10000

8000

8000
6000
6000
4000

4000

2000

2000
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.44 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA TOTAL
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

5243.76
1202.27
2745.29
993.22
114.04
70.31
109.83
7.98
0.07
0.74
-

5649.06
1375.20
2668.15
1083.00
145.64
231.79
130.81
12.52
0.10
1.86
-

6224.11
1520.55
2527.16
1166.35
192.38
641.77
140.31
29.78
2.67
3.05
0.08

7271.21
1542.36
2855.98
1600.50
240.10
832.57
157.07
33.59
8.23
0.22
0.60

7470.94
1599.42
2749.19
1747.52
317.00
842.52
153.87
28.98
29.88
1.68
0.88

7136.88
1442.82
2614.01
1704.09
324.51
828.98
153.78
30.63
35.42
1.89
0.74

7388.41
1529.08
2632.31
1805.83
342.79
847.72
155.23
32.00
41.07
1.68
0.71

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
1.01
1.39
-0.49
0.95
3.12
13.89
1.45
8.05
24.04
8.72
-

0.72
-0.28
0.18
2.02
2.79
1.36
0.48
0.15
14.57
-2.49
12.27

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
11821
0.44
848.8
6.18
154.7
167.2
98.8
4415
..

1980
14229
0.40
898.9
6.28
138.4
158.9
103.2
5574
..

1990
19589
0.32
961.1
6.48
110.8
127.6
100.3
7440
..

2000
25352
0.29
1028.2
7.07
100.0
100.0
100.0
9410
..

2008
29626
0.25
1083.1
6.90
87.9
88.7
95.4
10388
..

2009
28599
0.25
1089.4
6.55
87.0
82.9
94.8
9984
..

2010e
29421
0.25
1094.2
6.75
87.6
85.4
..
10338
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
3.02
2.01
-1.94
-1.26
0.73
0.66
0.28
0.06
-1.94
-1.26
-1.58
-2.24
0.09
-0.29
3.12
1.56
-

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

288.05
740.20
213.08
2.30

302.45
845.73
230.24
2.67

279.11
966.35
265.66
4.96

226.98
929.19
207.60
3.38

248.80
1011.81
206.05
2.78

217.27
964.84
202.22
4.25

266.30
951.23
196.13
4.60

-0.26
2.25
1.85
6.61

-1.31
-0.01
-1.43
-0.80

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

293.39
890.40
666.16
8.05

307.01
1025.03
699.43
9.34

279.57
1169.16
806.24
14.68

232.72
1154.28
614.12
10.36

259.36
1261.30
609.59
8.23

226.74
1197.85
597.20
12.44

277.97
1178.43
575.71
13.70

-0.40
2.30
1.60
5.13

-1.10
0.13
-1.57
-0.87

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.45

IEA TOTAL
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

3949.38
430.14
2220.77
701.61
109.69
0.07
457.50
29.59

4089.42
366.74
2179.77
779.52
137.48
0.10
0.04
574.89
50.88

4280.35
332.52
2181.32
818.33
117.11
2.04
2.04
769.50
57.48

5009.69
198.48
2525.60
1041.49
175.11
3.17
4.34
992.96
68.55

5199.93
196.24
2564.87
1025.65
208.23
4.56
4.78
1110.12
85.49

5105.37
188.50
2460.79
1036.89
218.99
3.68
5.04
1106.66
84.82

4892.60
161.72
2363.05
991.95
220.98
4.31
5.17
1062.12
83.29

0.47
-1.50
-0.11
0.91
0.39
21.81
3.11
3.98

0.71
-3.72
0.42
1.02
3.40
4.02
5.01
1.71
1.97

1343.25
258.34
439.42
348.67
58.14
223.17
15.52

1307.27
226.11
386.25
343.58
67.91
261.37
22.05

1134.17
225.90
226.54
306.03
48.33
0.17
0.01
307.52
19.68

1248.92
169.88
191.75
388.00
97.25
0.36
0.14
378.55
22.99

1209.53
167.16
173.66
357.13
103.23
0.40
0.18
370.80
36.98

1166.41
152.58
165.37
351.05
100.50
0.40
0.18
360.72
35.60

1049.16
126.95
148.35
324.56
94.43
0.39
0.01
320.43
34.06

-0.99
-0.79
-3.82
-0.76
-1.08
1.90
1.41

-0.41
-2.99
-2.20
0.31
3.59
4.64
-4.02
0.22
2.93

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

971.14
10.30
929.04
24.28

1079.79
3.64
1043.34
24.22

1292.70
0.40
1254.69
26.68

1571.67
0.14
1522.89
29.95

1682.06
0.14
1605.37
31.68

1627.07
0.12
1538.45
31.89

1579.60
0.14
1485.94
29.70

1.70
-17.35
1.78
0.56

1.06
-5.56
0.89
0.57

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.00
7.51
768.16
109.47
278.51
205.31

0.00
8.59
774.51
91.18
206.54
247.68

0.01
10.91
824.45
67.30
160.42
282.35

5.76
12.92
954.06
19.45
169.07
366.75

31.23
13.64
968.28
17.73
128.16
376.80

42.84
13.75
988.39
21.85
132.35
386.08

50.38
13.45
973.72
23.10
123.73
377.19

5.41
2.22
0.42
-2.82
-3.19
1.89

x
1.10
0.88
-5.47
-1.36
1.54

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

31.90
0.07
131.82
11.07
405.47
28.47
185.43
99.93

33.61
0.10
0.04
175.98
19.38
416.59
28.66
149.36
111.38

46.59
0.77
1.91
238.31
26.81
499.90
23.14
119.53
143.37

64.17
1.67
3.99
300.77
28.19
614.72
4.41
116.08
187.61

65.12
2.67
4.34
347.37
26.10
673.56
5.23
95.62
202.51

66.54
2.14
4.59
348.76
26.08
689.04
6.96
97.04
211.18

66.54
2.78
4.83
348.44
27.11
681.92
6.66
94.15
208.58

2.25
15.03
3.54
5.34
1.24
-1.21
-2.55
2.15

1.89
6.99
5.00
2.02
0.06
1.65
-6.34
-1.25
1.99

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.16
89.28
1.21
311.38
4.42
299.79
7.18

1.54
122.44
3.21
340.49
3.27
315.66
21.56

0.51
0.27
0.09
204.71
8.27
399.21
3.47
349.55
46.19

3.85
0.66
0.10
291.09
10.93
510.52
2.60
454.70
53.22

5.88
0.99
0.18
348.00
15.15
537.03
4.23
493.52
39.28

6.27
0.63
0.18
350.77
16.01
503.23
4.18
460.61
38.45

6.59
0.63
0.22
350.29
14.80
483.93
2.89
447.17
33.86

-4.67
5.00
12.00
1.47
-1.41
0.91
11.58

14.38
4.62
4.65
2.87
3.11
1.02
-0.96
1.30
-1.62

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:
Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.46 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA TOTAL
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

1166.8
173.5
-158.7
20.6

1381.1
235.0
-214.8
-26.1

1516.1
312.2
-286.5
-21.2

1367.2
426.0
-308.0
57.3

1469.4
542.1
-386.0
-26.0

1388.6
469.9
-366.9
-48.7

1418.3
507.2
-428.1
31.7

1.6
3.5
3.5
x

-0.5
2.2
1.3
x

Primary supply

1202.3

1375.2

1520.6

1542.4

1599.4

1442.8

1529.1

1.4

-0.3

Statistical difference

21.2

-20.7

2.6

25.1

-19.0

-16.8

..

Total transformation

-753.1

-957.8

-1168.2

-1348.9

-1369.7

-1246.2

..

2.6

0.3

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-638.9
-617.7
-21.1

-849.0
-785.4
-63.6

-1068.1
-1000.9
-67.3

-1254.8
-1201.7
-53.1

-1284.7
-1241.8
-42.9

-1177.9
-1141.6
-36.4

..
..
..

3.1
2.9
7.0

0.5
0.7
-3.2

15.7

7.8

-0.5

-2.7

-2.7

-2.8

..

9.3

-129.9
2.2
-93.7
-37.6
-0.8

-116.6
1.4
-80.0
-38.1
0.1

-99.6
-1.0
-77.0
-17.0
-4.6

-91.5
-0.2
-77.5
-13.0
-0.8

-82.3
-0.2
-70.2
-11.9
0.0

-65.5
0.5
-56.3
-9.8
0.0

..
..
..
..
..

-1.6
-1.1
-4.6
11.2

-2.2
-1.6
-2.9
-

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

-34.9

-27.7

-21.2

-18.9

-21.0

-17.1

..

-2.9

-1.1

-5.4

-2.3

-1.2

-1.1

-1.3

-1.1

..

Final consumption

430.1

366.7

332.5

198.5

188.5

161.7

..

-1.5

-3.7

Industry(5)

258.3
131.8
26.6
21.0
11.6

226.1
103.8
24.9
32.5
11.2

225.9
80.6
28.2
41.6
16.2

169.9
62.6
18.3
35.8
8.2

152.6
56.6
16.6
30.2
11.0

126.9
45.4
14.8
23.3
9.6

..
..
..
..
..

-0.8
-2.8
0.3
4.1
2.0

-3.0
-3.0
-3.3
-3.0
-2.7

10.3

3.6

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

..

-17.3

-5.6

157.1
28.5
109.5

133.7
28.7
91.2

102.7
23.1
67.3

25.9
4.4
19.4

31.6
7.0
21.9

31.7
6.7
23.1

..
..
..

-2.5
-1.2
-2.8

-6.0
-6.3
-5.5

4.4

3.3

3.5

2.6

4.2

2.9

..

-1.4

-1.0

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Other transformation(3)
Energy ind. own use
Losses
(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.47

IEA TOTAL
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

913.64
701.37
651.67
49.70
25.21
2.40
0.01
1.83
92.99
9.59
13.82
27.16
9.02
33.41
57.64
0.08

1203.59
1006.25
957.22
49.03
22.83
6.61
3.76
0.41
118.65
7.95
22.55
41.80
15.79
30.56
35.37
0.33

1368.50
1231.05
1197.98
33.07
3.25
12.13
9.69
101.90
8.91
17.49
36.49
8.53
30.47
18.19
0.34

1483.47
1213.32
1186.50
26.83
122.25
12.41
9.71
95.84
10.21
14.64
31.22
11.37
28.40
17.34
0.68

1513.08
1231.30
1204.98
26.32
130.14
13.34
10.01
103.08
10.44
14.51
32.81
11.34
33.99
17.97
0.74

1485.55
1327.86
1302.10
25.76
2.67
11.28
10.27
93.78
9.68
15.95
31.08
11.87
25.21
23.08
0.65

1353.00
1216.43
1193.10
23.33
2.29
10.20
6.06
77.49
7.51
14.15
23.62
10.40
21.81
23.43
0.41

2.32
3.05
3.26
-0.11
-0.82
8.80
73.63
-11.75
2.05
-1.55
4.17
3.66
4.78
-0.74
-3.99
12.80

0.62
1.00
1.17
-3.83
-11.39
2.31
2.55
-2.22
-0.30
-2.42
-2.96
-2.17
-1.76
-2.14
1.11

288.75
7.14
6.19
0.95
271.50
6.91
0.26
0.07
0.01
0.00
0.18
0.28
-

252.58
18.23
14.32
3.91
225.18
6.71
0.26
1.97
1.63
0.34
0.14
-

204.51
13.37
10.17
3.20
170.47
15.75
2.64
0.24
0.00
0.00
2.39
0.10
0.23

189.86
12.70
10.73
1.97
2.81
156.19
18.73
0.79
0.23
0.55
0.13
0.22

197.29
13.48
11.40
2.08
2.37
159.51
21.10
0.64
0.38
0.01
0.25
0.08
0.23

194.68
10.49
8.76
1.73
160.63
19.17
1.00
0.84
0.01
0.16
0.12
0.22

158.11
7.70
6.71
0.98
131.72
16.75
1.87
0.91
0.02
0.00
0.94
0.12
0.14

-1.11
8.12
7.23
12.52
-1.55
-23.92
18.41
30.01
5.51
-5.70
-

-2.44
-4.44
-3.91
-7.01
-2.78
4.94
-0.27
-3.04
5.59
-0.91
-

666.47
427.96
410.91
17.05
137.19
6.40
51.14
1.12
14.39
1.65
4.51
29.47
28.94
0.83

815.22
609.01
580.39
28.62
111.07
8.47
42.04
1.40
10.98
1.65
2.06
25.95
39.71
0.67

624.04
580.95
572.38
8.57
13.13
7.02
15.67
0.22
3.37
0.65
0.57
10.87
8.08
0.16

624.58
585.44
577.34
8.09
13.33
6.88
9.37
0.09
3.23
0.35
0.49
5.22
7.85
0.21

631.04
587.12
581.84
5.28
12.91
6.82
9.40
0.09
2.12
0.62
0.37
6.20
9.36
0.04

616.34
576.38
570.11
6.27
13.45
6.94
9.13
0.07
2.23
0.62
0.36
5.84
7.70
0.04

599.86
555.21
549.79
5.43
12.76
6.94
10.85
0.06
3.12
0.55
0.42
6.71
9.07
0.03

1.69
2.98
2.92
4.41
-1.74
2.36
-1.62
1.91
-2.23
-0.02
-6.32
-1.05
2.67
-1.78

-1.60
-0.49
-0.28
-8.38
-10.76
-1.04
-6.88
-15.13
-6.41
-5.61
-8.07
-6.87
-7.48
-14.65

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.48 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA TOTAL
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

173.50
144.44
..
..
5.30
23.75

235.02
208.89
124.90
83.99
5.73
20.40

312.18
293.19
140.66
152.53
5.08
0.10
13.81

425.96
400.38
135.46
264.93
4.67
0.10
20.81

532.60
508.96
137.01
371.95
4.14
0.12
19.38

542.01
516.89
141.67
375.22
6.02
0.19
18.92

542.05
515.60
142.55
373.05
7.58
0.23
18.65

469.86
455.52
114.00
341.52
4.30
0.23
9.81

507.21
489.03
138.65
350.38
3.60
0.19
14.39

158.67
131.78
..
..
1.44
25.46

214.83
187.26
124.91
62.34
4.57
0.00
23.00

286.54
264.94
161.22
103.72
4.32
0.12
17.15

308.01
294.27
162.62
131.65
1.33
0.06
12.35

345.49
328.60
171.56
157.03
1.10
0.04
15.76

361.50
345.70
186.82
158.88
1.10
0.02
14.69

386.05
370.13
200.37
169.76
1.99
0.01
13.91

366.93
354.46
179.68
174.78
0.97
0.02
11.49

428.14
414.40
229.44
184.95
0.63
0.01
13.10

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.49

IEA TOTAL
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)

Hard Coal
Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

164431

269596

307031

350153

441561

580502

578538

513827

548848

98417
29796
11598
909
10948
6619
79
24605
116

135759
43471
20428
695
5219
5025
71
43710
686

136252
49601
16128
774
3141
2570
52
43199
305

133799
52923
17183
2985
37
6573
32737
682

138571
67155
17972
3388
2
3118
24038
391

144493
74421
17677
4677
3246
18630
278

145520
72803
16332
4366
2532
23246
385

116862
57572
11386
3968
15
2313
2
19475
687

141066
63333
17077
2504
1
1365
1
27294
474

420
2566
5249
5512

1211
50
103
5342
4216
5532

2803
177
714
3213
8569
5006

5339
137
4843
3643
3267
990
2460

9557
140
6327
991
4825
26
454
80
107

5877
163
10659
284
6350
654
1059
518

5785
338
11070
542
5497
648
1023
75
878

2834
281
10690
635
5233
629
599
31
512

2406
724
13352
574
7606
1009
97
37
3212

66014
4556
970
243
6716
16292
2285
9296
980

133837
30433
4051
462
3523
15429
2394
26870
2716

170779
34664
9885
327
2123
13084
2428
35842
3652

216354
51101
13108
1517
835
15609
713
33298
2064

302990
76734
10111
2393
426
18590
589
21162
4297

436009
100629
9697
1368
388
10862
197
10737
5759

433018
107160
8733
1519
583
8530
395
20242
6900

396965
104674
10207
1762
373
7409
486
16383
4975

407782
117990
7744
2324
454
9583
220
15587
3989

534
11967
3012
9163

2663
2081
306
32671
2915
157
7166

6287
10450
1000
33156
9493
1752
150
6486

15372
14281
11656
39460
10474
647
3506
1860
853

35811
29418
23066
46348
20821
845
4985
1639
5755

30262
57120
68348
49405
73112
1906
5036
3209
7974

26684
55090
68169
39161
74166
2727
3504
2816
6639

13710
51989
68888
32119
70462
2392
1892
3533
5710

12249
50974
72537
21538
69291
2864
1347
3466
15625

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.50 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA TOTAL
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)

Total Exports
Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

107072

152492

162286

169662

168603

196284

210734

188534

241057

90313
1283
3860
5410
32
8972
714
245
8393
43380
2503
286
10
3347
193
387
5126
3257
840
18
498
1402
157

123858
1582
5031
6360
345
8609
950
7
13
62
10228
59198
7014
498
5206
232
369
4183
4283
1564
5
2232
5777
110

122656
1351
7450
3988
492
50
330
8494
877
28
3
50
8734
55167
7852
3
5261
99
805
3681
4499
1568
3
2869
8230
772

128045
2
1897
5890
4039
733
871
9
1249
6177
999
1
1287
39
3
127
7824
53462
15647
10
517
5766
239
896
434
2657
3267
2006
3
3681
7577
736

127268
1844
4551
3501
775
214
1005
6629
4891
1075
48
4
56
7381
52111
15305
1406
4660
95
538
198
1570
4163
2128
3954
8626
540

129639
1583
3363
3299
1211
1024
5
719
5645
2805
580
30
273
6595
57119
11482
1565
10034
18
2264
2820
136
3323
1741
3
3826
6708
1468

140515
1036
4702
3266
924
949
219
970
5532
4029
276
676
50
68
281
5948
60078
14404
2194
9930
78
3452
2585
72
3871
1825
257
4504
6772
1567

114160
1610
3443
2168
623
650
73
686
3541
3444
422
46
147
3822
49458
18775
1171
6895
36
2044
219
1748
2175
1414
127
4100
4375
948

142213
1724
2995
3091
512
720
934
4983
4127
542
59
5143
57167
25420
77
1353
9849
75
3136
2359
223
3168
2151
37
4310
6674
1384

8808
2121
1186
218
232
1348
521
919
69

22793
7958
2772
769
2080
1646
1564
1484
192
1041

30016
8867
3155
1009
5128
3915
1068
2129
860
963

39821
11064
5451
1672
9555
2455
947
784
211
1366

36371
10695
7713
1211
10610
505
1825
781
174
1051

53978
10314
9270
1951
20334
543
2789
914
3115
496

56749
10769
7610
1737
25668
1998
2664
1068
2013
681

66145
11732
3510
833
25880
294
1567
1296
19335
488

94858
13007
8254
1110
34563
812
1611
1140
30002
620

2194

3287

2922

6316

1806

4252

2541

1210

3739

7951

5841

9614

1796

4964

12667

13470

8229

3986

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.51

IEA TOTAL
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

49931

105530

113416

128950

146885

170804

179225

182687

193579

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

40497
275
2660
8782
274
4620
4095
6755
4157
1
540
1552
1732
356
52
1285
167
15
237
21
244
90
79
1081
1427

83710
2
1001
2856
8508
99
1378
8297
3669
3461
5228
1278
28
1622
998
5070
18173
7942
107
44
6539
429
805
79
1630
1896
295
275
1846
155

95379
2
1216
3778
10083
514
2282
5857
2815
3859
5451
33
2248
1058
5051
30637
4352
3
188
9559
1
401
1
1572
198
762
1040
81
15
2097
225

108337
12
1050
3480
4541
1230
1874
6195
3089
2049
7364
1
374
20
1636
1257
4122
40735
13462
50
5194
336
304
1977
404
2
2350
861
11
216
3901
240

127163
1643
1467
13524
1349
864
2594
3
1228
3413
16478
112
322
7
1208
2623
1430
51874
13730
164
373
3556
16
677
117
348
1217
12
2327
255
20
110
3866
236

138948
2330
773
13418
1327
1377
1053
450
3434
18310
172
254
91
892
679
941
60912
16041
96
5217
3950
85
387
291
486
578
7
1171
404
2
1
3567
252

149903
1930
1510
17558
1270
937
778
340
3985
12859
142
216
59
1420
177
1864
69265
20736
81
1350
4279
80
358
591
646
556
2
1663
489
250
34
4270
208

142715
24
1975
823
7455
662
829
676
368
4083
8669
152
145
51
568
672
1451
65181
33878
162
3056
4040
93
235
758
1066
543
3
665
352
74
177
3519
310

145563
105
1446
948
7291
1745
685
875
355
3524
9802
47
158
56
546
516
2124
71478
30405
48
3637
2238
54
448
1621
776
448
185
424
575
29
438
2108
428

384
11
76
32
82
129

13445
91
6336
93
253
113
2695
2229

13032
345
6866
1
48
49
1057
128
2554
1621

19718
190
7953
1
1
381
1099
3420
1672

19134
22
10034
2
2469
828
89
1440
3303

31853
206
16235
16
746
1151
2487
137
3241
7489

29138
435
18559
23
734
73
1737
153
1879
5159

39146
10
20646
91
816
227
632
154
9962
6381

47494
118
21329
167
736
9
1075
130
17906
5760

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

54

1635

363

5001

947

145

386

227

264

9050

8375

5005

895

588

184

826

522

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.52 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA AMERICAS*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


4000

160

3500

140

3000

120

2500

100

2000

80

1500

60
40

1000

20

500

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


1000

900

900

800

800

700

700

600

600

500

500
400

400

300

300
200

200

100

100

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


6000

7000

5000

6000
5000

4000

4000
3000
3000
2000

2000

1000

1000
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Oil

Natural Gas

Other

2009

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.53

IEA AMERICAS
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

2698.98
466.16
1281.25
788.27
64.73
39.01
56.52
3.01
0.03
-

2853.25
567.80
1264.93
746.19
88.77
113.96
65.11
6.57
-0.06
-

3033.66
692.11
1190.51
704.23
100.59
255.40
70.01
20.14
0.46
0.20
-

3606.83
807.55
1368.92
888.31
121.31
324.09
75.15
18.70
3.00
-0.21
-

3633.68
819.38
1346.08
884.53
137.84
346.89
77.52
11.57
9.69
0.17
-

3452.91
726.86
1269.39
875.53
135.97
342.74
78.56
11.67
12.13
0.06
-

3557.60
765.52
1285.28
916.26
143.57
345.96
75.03
12.02
14.87
-0.92
-

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.69
2.35
-0.43
-0.66
2.63
11.69
1.27
11.83
11.90
-

0.68
0.26
0.34
1.15
1.60
1.56
0.61
-2.83
18.77
-6.28
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
4647
0.58
234.4
11.51
171.1
132.0
108.4
2236
..

1980
5554
0.51
252.2
11.31
151.3
134.5
111.9
2801
..

1990
7608
0.40
277.9
10.92
117.5
119.7
107.0
3685
..

2000
10624
0.34
313.1
11.52
100.0
100.0
100.0
4631
..

2008
12537
0.29
338.2
10.75
85.4
86.0
91.8
4984
..

2009
12204
0.28
341.2
10.12
83.3
78.4
90.1
4769
..

2010e
12554
0.28
344.4
10.33
83.5
80.2
..
4935
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.94
2.52
-2.19
-1.79
1.01
1.09
-0.31
-0.40
-2.19
-1.79
-0.57
-2.20
-0.07
-0.90
2.98
1.37
-

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

106.78
421.01
23.37
-

132.98
505.67
30.53
-

123.37
651.04
54.51
-

79.92
679.21
56.96
-

79.28
743.35
54.05
-

64.16
685.58
52.54
-

89.76
677.04
51.64
-

1.21
3.70
7.31
-

-3.38
0.27
-0.19
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

105.98
487.96
44.51
-

131.87
598.48
59.30
-

120.92
770.40
110.57
-

82.45
845.33
112.98
-

85.71
954.35
103.57
-

69.54
880.22
100.73
-

96.80
869.18
99.04
-

1.10
3.88
7.88
-

-2.87
0.70
-0.49
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.54 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA AMERICAS
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

2066.58
113.30
1098.78
558.13
64.35
231.88
0.14

2094.79
86.42
1098.76
533.76
88.28
286.10
1.47

2074.94
83.92
1074.40
494.70
42.53
0.48
374.92
3.98

2479.80
51.56
1248.86
590.42
88.35
0.74
2.06
489.11
8.70

2551.94
49.61
1314.20
539.04
102.46
1.48
1.89
531.82
11.43

2484.05
47.56
1240.04
545.64
107.64
0.35
1.96
529.84
11.03

2366.71
37.44
1179.96
523.84
106.42
0.31
1.96
506.12
10.65

0.02
-1.75
-0.13
-0.71
-2.41
2.87
21.94

0.69
-4.16
0.49
0.30
4.95
-2.22
1.59
5.32

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

627.58
92.78
123.24
270.11
48.97
92.35
0.14

624.92
74.78
144.40
239.61
56.35
108.34
1.43

472.63
69.61
72.91
181.05
21.06
127.09
0.90

553.21
47.96
45.88
224.56
62.25
0.16
165.29
7.11

506.56
46.57
53.56
199.34
59.95
0.17
137.83
9.14

494.43
44.63
53.61
196.55
56.60
0.17
134.05
8.82

444.26
34.81
45.41
185.25
52.33
0.15
117.77
8.55

-1.65
-1.68
-3.04
-2.33
-4.84
1.90
11.73

-0.33
-3.58
-2.46
0.12
4.91
-0.40
12.58

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

639.81
0.18
614.65
24.06

670.84
646.77
23.41

758.12
731.07
26.15

914.83
880.51
28.48

980.61
930.20
27.45

939.73
882.35
26.99

904.27
845.34
24.72

1.00
1.03
0.49

0.93
0.77
-0.30

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.92
375.63
5.11
120.29
169.96

0.66
348.39
2.35
74.47
170.28

0.91
340.85
2.19
44.32
162.73

4.74
1.10
421.31
1.95
50.22
185.84

21.46
1.50
427.80
0.04
39.22
178.50

28.97
1.42
429.27
0.05
35.93
183.90

32.81
1.41
419.75
0.04
34.16
178.93

-0.10
-0.57
-4.86
-5.70
-0.26

2.33
1.10
-18.84
-1.36
0.50

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

2.73
77.55
236.58
4.89
78.65
94.01

2.73
98.57
229.78
2.63
52.80
96.74

2.13
129.47
0.00
258.56
3.45
36.26
99.39

17.45
0.31
2.06
163.48
314.96
1.27
32.05
119.98

17.52
0.79
1.89
189.83
0.00
336.66
2.43
32.48
114.11

18.25
0.05
1.96
189.13
341.05
2.48
31.37
118.91

17.56
0.05
1.96
187.05
340.17
2.27
34.10
118.03

-1.44
3.06
0.52
-2.03
-4.45
0.33

11.74
1.96
1.45
-2.18
-0.32
0.91

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

59.03
137.18
137.18
-

77.57
0.04
162.28
0.18
158.76
3.33

116.38
3.08
191.52
0.47
166.39
24.67

1.77
0.27
158.01
1.59
247.17
0.38
216.07
30.73

3.01
0.52
181.82
2.29
251.82
0.50
232.37
18.95

3.30
0.13
182.65
2.22
230.52
0.41
211.51
18.60

3.24
0.12
180.32
2.10
214.61
0.31
198.11
16.19

4.07
1.98
1.14
-

2.33
-1.99
0.60
-2.07
0.92
-2.19

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.55

IEA AMERICAS
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

492.9
16.0
-55.2
12.5

669.2
16.9
-97.9
-20.4

828.9
16.7
-127.8
-25.7

816.1
35.8
-82.3
37.9

876.7
47.8
-96.5
-8.5

802.3
30.0
-74.1
-31.3

818.4
28.1
-97.1
16.0

3.1
0.2
5.1
x

-0.2
3.1
-2.8
x

Primary supply

466.2

567.8

692.1

807.6

819.4

726.9

765.5

2.4

0.3

Statistical difference

18.7

-10.9

10.7

22.9

-12.8

-21.9

..

Total transformation

-362.8

-466.8

-617.0

-776.7

-756.1

-665.7

..

3.2

0.4

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-321.7
-321.7
-

-438.7
-438.7
-0.0

-595.8
-589.5
-6.2

-756.2
-739.3
-17.0

-740.1
-734.9
-5.2

-654.8
-650.3
-4.5

..
..
..

3.7
3.6
-

0.5
0.5
-1.7

0.5

-2.6

-2.7

-2.7

-2.8

..

0.3

-41.6
-27.7
-13.9
-

-28.2
-18.4
-9.8
-

-18.6
-12.9
-5.7
-

-17.8
-12.3
-5.5
-

-13.3
-9.0
-4.3
-

-8.2
-5.4
-2.8
-

..
..
..
..
..

-4.6
-4.4
-5.1
-

-4.2
-4.5
-3.7
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-8.7

-3.6

-1.9

-2.1

-3.0

-1.8

..

-8.5

-0.5

..

113.3

86.4

83.9

51.6

47.6

37.4

..

-1.8

-4.2

92.8
52.1
11.9
5.9
7.1

74.8
33.7
11.2
10.3
7.4

69.6
20.4
12.5
11.7
10.5

48.0
13.8
9.6
12.4
3.7

44.6
8.9
7.2
9.9
6.7

34.8
6.3
6.0
6.7
5.6

..
..
..
..
..

-1.7
-5.4
0.3
4.2
2.3

-3.6
-6.0
-3.8
-2.9
-3.3

0.2

..

20.3
4.9
5.1

11.5
2.6
2.4

13.8
3.5
2.2

3.2
1.3
1.9

2.5
2.5
0.0

2.3
2.3
0.0

..
..
..

-2.2
-2.0
-4.9

-9.0
-2.2
-18.8

0.2

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

..

-2.1

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Losses
(4)

Final consumption
Industry(5)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.56 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA AMERICAS
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

496.24
418.38
418.37
0.01
46.04
3.73
10.34
11.88
7.82
12.27
8.58
-

715.52
649.21
642.91
6.29
0.17
53.40
1.71
14.26
12.65
11.37
13.42
6.03
0.26

884.21
851.28
835.80
15.48
2.39
37.62
1.46
10.51
13.26
4.10
8.29
3.70
0.33

948.85
776.07
769.56
6.51
119.79
1.20
37.54
0.32
7.23
12.55
6.84
10.60
3.60
0.53

942.86
772.25
767.63
4.62
127.67
1.48
37.85
0.48
7.38
11.73
7.04
11.24
2.77
0.55

938.85
891.35
886.41
4.94
1.83
39.31
0.65
7.96
10.72
7.47
12.51
2.85
0.45

845.84
797.04
792.51
4.53
1.03
31.65
0.47
6.68
7.35
6.22
10.93
2.63
0.33

3.10
3.73
3.65
66.36
1.24
-6.32
2.71
0.53
3.17
0.75
-2.90
-

0.88
1.09
1.11
-1.71
9.82
-2.72
-6.57
-3.91
-2.82
-3.13
-1.07
-4.28
1.23

75.66
71.74
-

40.29
40.27
-

30.42
30.20
-

25.18
2.81
22.73
-

25.25
2.37
22.55
-

25.07
24.28
-

17.39
16.95
-

-5.12
-4.70
-

-4.33
-4.45
-

43.94
41.10
41.10
2.47
0.17
2.31
0.34
-

109.28
101.99
100.89
1.10
5.64
1.41
0.23
0.00
0.10
1.08
0.17
0.09

114.73
110.09
108.85
1.25
5.67
1.59
0.24
0.00
0.10
1.25
0.12
0.14

115.90
109.76
107.70
2.06
5.39
0.39
0.24
0.01
0.06
0.08
0.06
0.16

116.07
110.18
110.18
5.33
0.32
0.26
0.01
0.05
0.19
-

113.36
108.16
108.16
5.30
0.28
0.24
0.04
0.09
-

103.34
96.87
96.87
5.43
0.29
0.26
0.03
0.08
-

7.89
7.87
7.77
-4.57
-4.60
-6.12
-5.64
-

-0.29
-0.27
-0.21
-0.20
-7.98
0.54
-16.91
-3.77
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.57

IEA AMERICAS
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

15.98
14.72
..
..
1.26

16.93
16.12
6.21
9.91
0.81

16.67
15.67
4.22
11.44
1.00

35.80
29.04
5.75
23.30
2.79
3.97

51.26
43.66
5.59
38.07
3.03
4.56

46.72
38.89
4.67
34.22
4.93
2.90

47.76
37.51
4.70
32.81
6.28
3.97

29.99
25.92
3.04
22.88
3.03
1.04

28.14
23.81
4.35
19.46
2.54
1.78

55.24
53.62
..
..
0.00
1.62

97.89
96.02
71.71
24.31
0.03
1.84

127.76
127.03
85.76
41.27
0.04
0.69

82.26
80.93
54.83
26.11
0.03
1.30

66.20
64.43
44.87
19.56
0.22
1.54

75.85
74.04
50.12
23.92
0.36
1.46

96.51
93.59
58.78
34.81
1.10
1.81

74.06
72.54
49.97
22.57
0.28
1.24

97.10
95.55
71.10
24.45
0.17
1.38

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.58 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA AMERICAS
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)

Hard Coal
Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

16929

16350

16618

16268

30061

43264

41939

28761

26268

5454
5454
-

6188
6188
-

4491
4491
-

4129
4129
-

5843
1511
4296
-

4837
1469
3322
46

4866
1580
3286
-

3151
947
2204
-

4507
1385
3122
-

36
-

11475
933
49
645
8796
-

10162
35
367
8391
6

12127
22
883
5
9639
-

12139
192
1197
5095
39

24218
152
155
14090
6

38427
60
209
1
5142
32

37073
135
140
5
6037
1

25610
138
92
200
4458
73

21761
86
4
3888
371

996
56

539
824
-

1296
277
5

2994
924
1675
23

173
6928
651
61
26
1904
72

46
25338
3323
401
98
3731
46

41
25214
3060
226
53
2161
-

8
17357
1891
157
59
1177
-

48
13230
1728
12
189
560
1645

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.59

IEA AMERICAS
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

40450

77198

84419

75819

58166

55872

65242

55346

78434

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

36030
1103
5410
1468
560
3069
19925
1173
929
68
265
838
453
409
360
-

65898
3443
6360
281
3823
709
7
13
54
5734
29639
3950
498
2975
98
244
2460
1310
1716
2474
110

67629
5538
3988
292
50
127
4880
708
28
50
6536
26588
2908
3
3975
99
753
3156
866
1957
4355
772

61804
3807
4039
267
715
3233
433
36
127
5054
22688
6615
517
4068
83
188
2313
1161
1895
3831
734

45504
2717
3501
312
288
2782
1211
65
48
56
4467
12937
4947
740
2143
42
198
2331
642
2403
3134
540

42115
125
1424
3299
344
435
2176
2789
30
4202
8430
5228
546
2895
10
401
915
136
1563
483
2263
2953
1468

48383
294
1650
3266
411
210
666
2453
2411
126
175
50
68
3693
9875
6048
1337
3671
78
1552
877
72
1407
523
257
2659
2987
1567

37615
280
1829
2168
284
25
73
389
2058
2033
31
46
2372
7344
6003
693
3488
31
889
219
161
1432
434
127
2126
2132
948

52378
412
1737
3091
215
678
1958
2728
40
59
3403
11388
8010
77
1002
5636
75
2149
260
223
1453
401
37
2915
3047
1384

4420
1942
205
218
200
673
1
914
24

11300
6139
782
457
38
1051
872
588
353

11592
6327
357
586
1559
614
580
300
229

13631
6826
1600
1165
1528
350
400
548

9437
5564
1440
682
22
443
269
184
-

13757
7262
1234
1453
800
209
500
308
140
100

16859
6903
1218
1371
1439
1588
648
524
479
180

17712
7649
871
693
1869
294
440
417
4578
160

25915
8762
864
1042
2299
812
161
321
8150
109

243

1020

1040

1214

833

1751

2509

741

3395

5198

384

3225

19

141

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

e
e
e

e
e
e
e
e

e
e

e
e
e
e
e
e

e
e

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.60 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA AMERICAS
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

10808

34228

42493

38503

26922

27909 e

39959

26500

28765

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

10341
27
8782
309
38
528
22
243
356
27
5
4

30501
1
712
8508
2286
1208
978
595
1138
7
335
421
3633
2847
2489
44
2793
143
626
786
230
8
275
283
155

36299
1
2178
10083
394
3321
1758
384
15
1322
530
4451
4007
719
188
3982
1
62
1386
282
21
15
1005
194

34885
950
4541
207
1905
530
621
1648
829
562
3449
6179
3800
3015
25
1562
2111
8
191
2705
47

25445
429
13524
48
70
564
522
456
79
4425
2275
373
643
74
343
441
55
1016
108

24317
75
483
13386
656
72
176
584
1009
74
172
135
2099
980
148
2278
258
1
1578
153

e
e

36757
1144
17555
850
139
185
1263
1256
66
402
287
2306
2184
532
3279
109
391
990
144
149
34
3352
140

24211
24
602
7447
662
218
71
1111
729
152
217
2390
3767
752
2682
801
149
1
2344
92

24123
105
367
7245
1098
73
166
1080
935
47
612
2178
4192
1378
1699
65
531
182
373
275
220
1219
83

95
11
1
82
1

3727
78
2575
176
110
506
2

4967
177
3820
682
128
108
5

3616
153
2033
1
271
1099
-

923
22
825
1
9
-

3592 e
95
2
1
1069
2212
133
12 e
-

3075
401
72
73
1715
113
399
-

2154
6
255
1
630
154
962
1

4642
118
146
171
1044
115
2938
77

280

47

59

66

68

302

145

33

372

1227

554

127

135

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

e
e
e

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.61

IEA ASIA OCEANIA*


Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


250

1400
1200

200

1000
150
800
600

100

400
50
200
0

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


400

350

350

300

300

250

250
200
200
150
150
100

100
50

50

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Industry

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


2000

Other transformation

2009

2500

1800
1600

2000

1400
1500

1200
1000

1000

800
600

500

400
200

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.62 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

581.41
128.34
418.56
12.48
5.04
3.61
11.52
1.86
-

663.32
144.83
420.59
42.36
5.90
32.04
15.01
2.56
0.03
-

902.08
197.60
478.43
93.63
14.87
94.99
16.34
4.36
1.80
0.05

2000

2008

2009

2010e

1188.50
1241.65
1213.78
1265.09
268.49
333.05
318.08
346.39
562.98
498.69
482.20
489.55
152.83
209.56
205.86
218.55
19.00
24.39
23.57
22.23
160.46
152.30
159.16
162.63
16.22
13.98
14.06
14.13
7.04
7.34
8.10
8.73
1.42 e
2.23 e
2.58 e
2.72
0.05
0.11
0.15
0.15

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.62
2.57
0.79
12.59
6.57
21.20
2.08
5.15
-

1.57
2.54
0.04
4.23
2.46
2.75
-0.79
3.32
1.92
5.53

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
2367
0.25
159.6
3.64
117.1
114.4
84.0
563
15.7

1980
3000
0.22
173.1
3.83
105.4
101.9
86.1
728
55.9

1990
4763
0.19
187.0
4.82
90.3
87.5
84.3
1127
77.5

2000
5665
0.21
197.1
6.03
100.0
100.0
100.0
1587
100.0

2008
6487
0.19
202.0
6.15
91.2
108.3
99.8
1820
120.7

2009
6228
0.19
202.5
5.99
92.9
107.8
102.4
1797
111.8

2010e
6481
0.20
202.3
6.25
93.0
112.8
..
1850
122.4

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
4.20
1.42
-1.52
0.15
0.94
0.42
1.66
1.15
-1.52
0.15
-1.56
1.10
0.02
1.03
4.17
2.48
9.84
1.95

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

44.87
42.82
9.73
-

45.94
46.11
11.01
-

63.05
93.02
14.68
-

102.26
122.09
21.05
-

138.54
175.46
21.09
-

128.32
193.36
21.80
-

150.29
191.68
21.49
-

2.87
6.68
3.49
-

3.81
3.93
2.10
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

0.10
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.63

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

424.17
52.37
298.16
7.63
4.99
60.98
0.04

452.67
57.60
294.04
16.02
5.63
0.03
79.21
0.15

616.37
70.56
372.40
37.65
10.29
0.35
1.80
123.03
0.29

792.28
58.31
470.65
69.13
13.09
0.59
1.33
173.70
5.47

825.70
64.46
442.97
92.17
14.61
0.63
0.98
202.47
7.41

795.34
61.26
419.14
92.47
14.70
0.64
0.97
198.59
7.56

788.00
55.16
421.15
93.16
14.20
0.66
1.03
195.52
7.13

2.22
1.77
1.32
9.84
4.35
4.21
12.32

1.30
-1.29
0.65
4.88
1.71
3.28
-2.88
2.47
18.46

183.62
35.20
101.61
4.26
2.13
40.43
-

173.62
39.16
74.98
8.31
3.17
48.00
-

207.27
55.58
72.46
15.12
6.76
0.16
57.19
-

237.10
55.75
70.95
23.28
9.81
0.19
74.09
3.04

241.62
60.72
53.61
30.61
11.43
0.21
0.00
80.75
4.28

228.73
57.40
48.48
31.24
11.39
0.21
0.00
75.72
4.28

217.83
51.82
48.99
31.44
10.65
0.22
0.00
70.86
3.86

0.72
2.72
-1.97
7.74
7.02
2.06
-

0.26
-0.37
-2.04
3.93
2.42
1.66
1.13
-

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

83.03
0.33
80.97
-

111.24
0.01
109.19
0.01

157.71
0.11
155.08
0.10

205.61
0.13
202.21
0.44

205.80
0.14
201.04
1.39

200.15
0.12
195.05
1.60

197.92
0.13
192.24
1.87

3.85
-6.54
3.90
-

1.20
1.03
1.14
16.96

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.73
47.24
15.17
13.84
2.24

2.03
60.07
16.84
15.69
5.62

2.42
85.17
12.63
22.55
13.97

2.83
105.81
0.87
29.81
25.60

0.27
2.96
112.45
1.47
25.42
29.32

0.45
2.94
110.74
1.53
23.94
29.09

0.66
3.02
110.04
1.31
22.96
29.22

2.01
3.53
-1.07
2.91
11.37

1.16
1.36
-11.23
0.09
3.96

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

2.86
13.13
32.48
1.56
24.66
0.85

2.43
0.03
19.46
37.14
1.59
24.45
1.61

3.45
0.01
1.73
30.79
0.04
84.37
1.67
43.47
6.94

3.04
0.01
1.29
43.61
1.57
121.79
1.05
50.54
17.14

2.39
0.01
0.95
50.85
2.03
133.62
0.97
35.81
28.88

2.32
0.01
0.93
50.78
2.14
132.19
0.97
33.57
28.45

2.21
0.01
0.99
51.09
2.25
130.51
0.86
30.65
28.49

1.11
5.14
5.78
0.39
3.39
13.17

-2.30
-0.14
-2.91
2.70
23.02
2.32
-3.43
-1.82
7.71

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

5.38
0.04
58.27
58.02
0.26

0.03
9.32
0.15
49.41
48.96
0.45

0.08
0.13
0.07
31.78
0.24
65.49
0.57
63.42
1.50

0.24
0.24
0.04
51.67
0.87
103.72
0.50
100.57
2.64

0.51
0.27
0.04
66.04
1.10
116.35
1.11
113.34
1.90

0.54
0.27
0.04
67.22
1.14
108.99
1.19
105.77
2.03

0.67
0.28
0.05
68.49
1.03
116.68
1.01
113.60
2.07

11.02
11.22
0.69
0.53
10.96

12.21
4.24
-2.08
4.12
7.91
3.09
3.05
3.12
1.70

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:
Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.64 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

94.4
59.6
-26.0
0.3

103.1
74.9
-41.9
8.7

170.8
127.4
-98.3
-2.2

245.4
194.9
-177.7
5.9

335.1
252.6
-250.1
-4.6

343.5
235.9
-259.1
-2.1

363.5
270.2
-293.9
6.7

3.5
4.6
8.1
x

3.7
3.3
5.2
x

Primary supply

128.3

144.8

197.6

268.5

333.0

318.1

346.4

2.6

2.5

Statistical difference

-2.5

-2.3

3.2

1.8

-7.4

5.1

..

Total transformation

-68.7

-79.1

-124.2

-205.2

-256.3

-260.5

..

3.5

4.0

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-37.8
-37.8
-0.1

-45.2
-40.9
-4.3

-86.3
-75.3
-11.0

-168.3
-152.1
-16.3

-220.6
-202.1
-18.5

-226.9
-208.8
-18.1

..
..
..

5.0
4.1
36.1

5.2
5.5
2.7

3.7

5.2

-0.3

-0.2

0.1

0.1

..

-34.7
-0.2
-27.1
-5.8
-1.5

-39.1
-0.2
-23.8
-14.5
-0.6

-37.5
-0.0
-31.1
-1.6
-4.8

-36.7
-0.0
-35.2
-0.6
-0.9

-35.8
-0.1
-34.0
-1.8
-

-33.7
-0.1
-30.4
-3.2
-

..
..
..
..
..

0.5
-8.3
0.8
-7.3
6.9

-0.6
4.6
-0.1
3.6
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-4.6

-5.5

-6.0

-6.8

-8.1

-7.6

..

1.7

1.2

Losses

-0.1

-0.3

-0.0

-0.0

-0.0

-0.0

..

Final consumption

52.4

57.6

70.6

58.3

61.3

55.2

..

1.8

-1.3

Industry(5)

35.2
26.9
0.4
0.9
0.3

39.2
27.3
0.8
5.9
0.5

55.6
21.0
4.3
11.9
1.9

55.7
21.3
4.4
12.1
2.3

57.4
23.9
4.9
11.5
2.4

51.8
22.1
4.5
10.0
2.4

..
..
..
..
..

2.7
-1.4
15.3
16.4
10.8

-0.4
0.3
0.1
-0.9
1.2

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

..

-6.5

1.0

16.8
1.6
15.2

18.4
1.6
16.8

14.3
1.7
12.6

1.9
1.1
0.9

2.6
1.0
1.5

2.2
0.9
1.3

..
..
..

-1.0
0.4
-1.1

-9.4
-3.4
-11.2

0.6

0.5

1.2

1.0

..

3.0

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.65

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

57.24
30.57
30.21
0.36
18.64
0.13
0.19
7.37
1.46
0.34
1.88
0.35
3.34
1.49
-

128.28
77.21
72.22
4.99
20.81
6.53
25.06
2.05
2.63
12.63
2.25
5.51
1.12
0.02

206.31
155.44
147.71
7.72
2.41
12.13
32.33
3.42
3.92
13.30
2.64
9.04
1.09
-

248.29
204.18
192.89
11.29
2.01
12.41
0.83
28.88
4.79
4.11
12.37
2.90
4.71
1.02
-

267.25
216.02
204.30
11.72
2.09
13.34
0.81
30.65
5.41
4.54
12.49
2.93
5.27
1.01
-

273.40
218.96
207.05
11.91
2.29
11.28
0.83
30.29
4.90
4.26
12.64
2.92
5.57
1.01
-

263.56
223.47
210.98
12.49
1.94
10.20
0.50
26.66
4.10
4.04
10.94
2.89
4.69
0.91
-

6.96
8.03
7.53
24.49
0.92
38.86
10.74
2.86
18.50
17.23
16.65
4.27
-2.34
-

3.86
5.75
5.80
4.95
-11.74
2.38
0.33
3.72
2.29
-0.75
1.34
-0.85
-1.13
-

67.95
64.35
4.45
0.12
0.06
0.01
0.04
0.01
-

82.85
77.00
5.25
-

81.30
67.15
13.97
-

82.89
68.56
15.92
-

84.49
67.19
17.71
0.17
0.17
-

85.97
67.45
16.37
0.33
0.33
-

77.10
62.25
14.75
0.32
0.26
0.00
0.06
-

1.67
1.51
-

-0.38
-1.11
5.58
-

30.64
27.32
26.32
0.99
2.85
0.42
0.03
0.00
0.30
0.10
0.05
-

46.15
44.15
43.07
1.08
1.78
0.19
0.03
0.00
0.16
0.08
-

67.51
66.35
65.25
1.10
0.96
0.17
0.17
0.08
-

67.40
66.31
66.29
0.01
0.90
0.21
0.00
0.20
0.06
-

65.87
61.69
61.67
0.02
0.65
0.22
0.00
0.22
0.05
-

66.29
63.66
63.64
0.02
0.61
0.26
0.00
0.25
0.05
-

68.51
65.87
65.85
0.02
0.54
0.21
0.00
0.21
0.03
-

3.47
4.08
4.19
0.72
-3.84
-6.64
-1.23
-3.32
4.39
3.49
-

2.10
2.13
2.26
-19.16
-6.08
0.74
1.53
-4.55
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.66 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

59.64
59.61
..
..
0.04

74.95
74.83
69.12 e
5.71 e
0.12

127.36
126.85
79.51 e
47.34 e
0.51

194.92
192.32
73.04
119.29
2.60

233.35
231.02
74.30
156.72
2.33

245.79
243.02
77.60
165.42
2.77

252.60
250.48
78.50
171.98
2.12

235.88
235.19
70.33
164.86
0.69

270.18
268.54
82.08
186.46
1.64

26.00
25.38
..
..
0.61

41.86
39.73
32.25
7.47
2.13

98.33
95.87
55.90
39.96
2.46

177.73
175.05
98.03
77.02
2.68

231.72
229.74
118.82
110.93
1.97

238.91
237.52
129.64
107.89
1.39

250.08
249.12
135.72
113.40
0.95

259.14
257.98
123.83
134.15
1.15

293.93
293.28
152.67
140.61
0.65

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.67

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

55041

110580

130655

173189

215266

276018

284592

267741

305479

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

52885
25299
11304
398
429
10406
11

77367
33741
19321
14729
401

76229
39558
13316
10275
225

76954
39880
13007
7541
298

76671
45398
9389
2841
367

80745
50888
8637
253
138

81674
51000
8326
1718
202

73178
46446
7428
2019
139

85386
46854
11939
5516
382

420
2360
2244
14

1211
103
5086
2775
-

2802
153
668
3055
6150
27

5327
52
4629
3437
2741
42

9555
5886
603
2498
27
107

5810
9
10659
134
4203
14

5627
10
11070
48
3594
79

2834
10
10690
181
3390
31
10

2403
24
13352
4868
48

2156
668
105
1
-

33213
19238
2249
1980
14

54426
24852
8170
5751
138

96235
43431
11604
1
7780
319

138595
67166
9944
2396
637

195273
92844
8684
73
298

202918
100581
8322
1282
426

194563
100107
9559
967
283

220093
114684
6907
494
-

513
157
149
563

2427
306
5508
1020
157
314

3504
94
806
7057
3402
150
502

13065
56
8323
6493
3189
1496
478

33751
14185
3448
5497
1079
492

27690
19
47895
584
13393
3025
768

24831
21
49638
710
13519
2740
848

12840
20
54979
987
10170
3523
1128

11842
139
61683
2690
15784
3442
2428

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.68 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

31085

49698

58086

75625

100690

133178

139485

127272

156924

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

29188
374
32
1173
191
1319
22651
1330
10
992
593
469
54

42067
16
64
2106
2055
29559
3064
1380
1186
516
2121
-

44002
1054
200
1917
25
1181
28579
4944
713
694
702
912
3081
-

54258
1524
466
2310
204
2752
30774
9032
703
129
896
535
1608
3325
-

73658
1833
463
3739
2619
2914
39174
10358
666
2194
1767
992
1451
5488
-

80490
1923
867
284
3444
273
2287
48689
6254
1019
7139
1735
1258
1563
3755
-

86158
2927
513
304
3056
1618
150
281
2255
50203
8356
857
6242
2464
1302
1845
3785
-

70944
1578
339
297
1441
1351
147
1450
42114
12772
478
3407
675
980
1672
2243
-

84266
1242
297
256
3025
1290
1740
45779
17410
351
4213
254
1715
1750
1317
3627
-

1897
164
981
32
675
45

7631
958
1990
312
2042
595
688
35
192
688

13748
1291
2798
323
4844
2256
454
300
560
734

20033
3448
3851
459
9555
710
597
384
211
818

25293
4988
6273
10588
1554
595
174
1051

40022
3052
8036
498
19534
334
2289
606
2975
396

39858
3866
6392
366
24229
410
2016
544
1534
501

48223
4083
2639
140
24011
1117
879
14757
327

68813
4245
7390
68
32264
1450
819
21852
510

131

188

70

2302

270

215

336

1334

1739

12666

13469

8105

3845

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.69

IEA ASIA OCEANIA


11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

5533

39339

45647

62413

87804

112428

115268

136579

143171

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

4809
150
682
458
1489
320
932
778

29593
771
99
2557
508
591
125
577
226
15326
5453
2464
455
441
-

38304
129
120
1149
934
125
133
528
26569
3633
4236
205
155
29
328
31

51291
1116
1023
1076
276
61
121
695
366
34556
9662
1562
264
110
44
25
142
192

70501
428
1301
142
434
72
110
284
2623
428
47449
11455
2550
16
1445
83
55
1499
127

84556
54
671
160
1202
129
254
507
58813
15061
5069
797
85
986
101
600
67

89382
41
420
684
527
177
66959
18552
818
187
80
545
253
71
68

99213
20
151
73
1031
672
62791
30111
2304
802
93
309
277
361
218

100514
647
564
109
516
340
69300
26213
2259
94
54
73
345

204
76
128

8082
3761
93
2189
2039

7343
158
3046
47
33
2443
1616

11122
5920
110
3420
1672

17303
10034
2469
72
1429
3299

27872
111
16233
744
82
3229
7473

25886
29
18559
661
1480
5157

36883
4
20391
70
814
224
9000
6380

42539
21329
563
14968
5679

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

520

1664

483

118

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.70 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA EUROPE*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


3000

120

2500

100

2000

80

1500

60

1000

40
20

500

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


800

800

700

700

600

600

500

500

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


4000

4500

3500

4000
3500

3000

3000

2500

2500
2000
2000
1500

1500

1000

1000

500

500
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Oil

Natural Gas

Other

2009

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.71

IEA EUROPE
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

1963.37
607.78
1045.48
192.47
44.27
27.69
41.79
3.12
0.07
0.71
-

2132.49
662.58
982.63
294.44
50.97
85.79
50.69
3.38
0.07
1.92
-

2288.37
630.85
858.22
368.49
76.93
291.38
53.95
5.27
0.41
2.85
0.03

2475.87
466.31
924.08
559.36
99.79
348.01
65.69
7.85
3.81
0.43
0.54

2595.61
446.99
904.43
653.44
154.77
343.33
62.36
10.06
17.96
1.51
0.77

2470.19
397.88
862.41
622.70
164.97
327.08
61.16
10.86
20.71
1.83
0.59

2565.73
417.17
857.48
671.01
176.99
339.14
66.07
11.25
23.47
2.60
0.56

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.91
0.22
-1.15
3.89
3.30
14.85
1.51
3.14
11.14
8.55
-

0.40
-2.40
0.03
2.80
4.10
0.61
0.66
3.88
22.87
-2.30
17.51

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
4806
0.41
454.8
4.32
149.5
245.8
94.0
1616
..

1980
5675
0.38
473.6
4.50
137.6
226.9
101.4
2046
..

1990
7219
0.32
496.2
4.61
116.0
169.8
103.3
2628
..

2000
9063
0.27
518.1
4.78
100.0
100.0
100.0
3192
..

2008
10602
0.24
542.9
4.78
89.6
81.9
97.9
3584
..

2009
10167
0.24
545.6
4.53
88.9
76.1
97.3
3419
..

2010e
10385
0.25
547.5
4.69
90.4
78.1
..
3552
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.42
1.82
-1.48
-1.39
0.51
0.50
0.39
-0.10
-1.48
-1.39
-2.15
-4.14
0.55
-0.31
2.90
1.40
-

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

136.40
276.37
179.98
2.30

123.53
293.95
188.71
2.67

92.69
222.29
196.46
4.96

44.80
127.89
129.59
3.38

30.98
93.00
130.91
2.78

24.80
85.90
127.88
4.25

26.25
82.51
123.01
4.60

-3.17
-1.80
0.73
6.61

-6.70
-4.88
-2.23
-0.80

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

141.07
341.51
590.99
8.05

127.95
363.56
607.01
9.34

93.45
277.78
649.52
14.68

45.21
160.07
433.64
10.36

31.26
116.61
439.74
8.23

25.31
108.07
427.96
12.44

26.70
103.57
409.15
13.70

-3.37
-1.71
0.79
5.13

-6.64
-4.85
-2.17
-0.87

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.72 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA EUROPE
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

1458.63
264.47
823.83
135.85
40.36
0.07
164.64
29.41

1541.96
222.72
786.98
229.74
43.56
0.10
0.01
209.58
49.26

1589.05
178.04
734.52
285.98
64.30
1.21
0.25
271.55
53.22

1737.61
88.61
806.09
381.94
73.66
1.83
0.95
330.15
54.37

1822.29
82.16
807.71
394.45
91.16
2.45
1.90
375.83
66.64

1825.98
79.67
801.62
398.78
96.65
2.69
2.11
378.23
66.22

1737.89
69.12
761.95
374.95
100.36
3.34
2.18
360.47
65.51

0.51
-2.30
-0.67
4.48
2.78
18.09
2.99
3.55

0.47
-4.86
0.19
1.44
2.37
5.52
12.16
1.50
1.10

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

532.04
130.36
214.57
74.30
7.03
90.40
15.38

508.73
112.17
166.86
95.66
8.39
105.03
20.62

454.27
100.71
81.17
109.85
20.51
0.01
0.01
123.24
18.78

458.61
66.18
74.92
140.16
25.20
0.01
0.14
139.16
12.84

461.35
59.87
66.49
127.18
31.85
0.02
0.18
152.21
23.55

443.25
50.55
63.28
123.25
32.50
0.02
0.18
150.95
22.50

387.07
40.31
53.95
107.87
31.45
0.02
0.00
131.81
21.65

-0.93
-1.51
-5.56
2.33
6.50
1.84
1.18

-0.84
-4.70
-2.13
-0.10
2.27
6.53
-4.68
0.35
0.75

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

248.29
9.79
233.42
0.22

297.71
3.63
287.37
0.81

376.86
0.30
368.54
0.43

451.24
0.01
440.18
1.04

495.66
0.00
474.13
2.85

487.19
0.01
461.06
3.31

477.42
0.01
448.37
3.11

2.48
-18.56
2.72
3.99

1.25
-17.35
1.04
10.90

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.00
4.86
345.30
89.20
144.38
33.12

0.00
5.89
366.05
71.99
116.38
71.78

0.01
7.58
398.43
52.48
93.54
105.64

1.02
8.99
426.94
16.63
89.03
155.31

9.49
9.18
428.02
16.21
63.51
168.97

13.43
9.38
448.39
20.27
72.49
173.09

16.92
9.02
443.92
21.75
66.62
169.04

5.41
2.65
0.85
-3.07
-2.52
7.06

48.90
0.92
0.57
-4.53
-1.77
2.50

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

26.32
0.07
41.14
11.07
136.40
22.02
82.12
5.07

28.45
0.10
0.01
57.95
19.38
149.66
24.44
72.12
13.02

41.01
0.76
0.18
78.04
26.77
156.97
18.02
39.80
37.04

43.68
1.35
0.64
93.67
26.61
177.97
2.09
33.49
50.48

45.22
1.87
1.50
106.69
24.06
203.29
1.83
27.33
59.52

45.97
2.08
1.70
108.85
23.94
215.80
3.52
32.10
63.82

46.76
2.72
1.88
110.29
24.86
211.24
3.54
29.40
62.06

2.64
14.94
3.84
5.33
0.83
-1.17
-4.17
12.41

0.69
6.95
13.07
1.84
-0.39
1.58
-8.22
-1.58
2.75

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.16
24.87
1.17
115.93
4.42
104.59
6.92

1.50
35.55
3.03
128.81
3.08
107.94
17.79

0.44
0.14
0.02
56.55
4.95
142.19
2.44
119.74
20.02

1.83
0.14
0.07
81.41
8.47
159.63
1.72
138.06
19.85

2.36
0.20
0.14
100.13
11.77
168.86
2.62
147.82
18.43

2.44
0.23
0.14
100.90
12.65
163.72
2.57
143.33
17.82

2.68
0.23
0.17
101.49
11.67
152.63
1.57
135.46
15.61

-5.56
4.95
8.88
1.21
-3.45
0.80
6.45

10.00
2.74
11.11
3.13
4.62
0.37
-2.30
0.65
-1.30

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.73

IEA EUROPE
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

579.5
97.9
-77.5
7.9

608.9
143.1
-75.1
-14.3

516.4
168.2
-60.5
6.7

305.7
195.2
-48.0
13.4

257.7
241.7
-39.5
-12.9

242.8
204.0
-33.7
-15.2

236.4
208.9
-37.1
9.0

-0.7
3.2
-1.4
x

-3.9
1.0
-3.0
x

Primary supply

607.8

662.6

630.8

466.3

447.0

397.9

417.2

0.2

-2.4

Statistical difference

5.1

-7.5

-11.4

0.4

1.1

0.1

..

Total transformation

-321.5

-411.9

-427.0

-367.0

-357.3

-320.0

..

1.7

-1.5

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-279.3
-258.3
-21.1

-365.1
-305.8
-59.3

-386.0
-336.0
-50.1

-330.2
-310.3
-19.9

-324.0
-304.8
-19.2

-296.3
-282.4
-13.8

..
..
..

1.9
1.6
5.2

-1.4
-0.9
-6.5

11.5

2.5

2.4

0.1

-0.1

-0.1

..

-8.7

-53.7
2.4
-38.9
-17.9
0.8

-49.4
1.6
-37.9
-13.8
0.7

-43.4
-1.0
-33.0
-9.7
0.2

-36.9
-0.2
-30.1
-6.9
0.2

-33.2
-0.1
-27.3
-5.8
0.0

-23.7
0.6
-20.5
-3.8
0.0

..
..
..
..
..

-1.2
-1.0
-3.5
-7.4

-3.1
-2.5
-4.8
-8.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

-21.7

-18.5

-13.2

-10.0

-9.8

-7.8

..

-2.9

-2.7

-5.2

-2.0

-1.2

-1.1

-1.3

-1.0

..

Final consumption

264.5

222.7

178.0

88.6

79.7

69.1

..

-2.3

-4.9

Industry(5)

130.4
52.8
14.3
14.3
4.2

112.2
42.8
12.9
16.3
3.4

100.7
39.2
11.4
17.9
3.8

66.2
27.5
4.4
11.3
2.2

50.6
23.8
4.5
8.9
1.9

40.3
17.0
4.4
6.6
1.6

..
..
..
..
..

-1.5
-1.7
-1.3
1.4
-0.6

-4.7
-4.3
-4.9
-5.1
-4.3

9.8

3.6

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

-18.6

-17.3

119.9
22.0
89.2

103.8
24.4
72.0

74.6
18.0
52.5

20.7
2.1
16.6

26.5
3.5
20.3

27.2
3.5
21.7

..
..
..

-2.8
-1.2
-3.1

-5.2
-8.2
-4.5

4.4

3.1

2.4

1.7

2.6

1.6

..

-3.4

-2.3

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Other transformation(3)
Energy ind. own use
Losses
(4)

Iron and steel


Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Transport(6)
(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.74 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA EUROPE
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

360.16
252.42
203.10
49.33
6.57
2.28
0.01
1.63
39.59
4.40
3.13
13.41
0.84
17.80
47.57
0.08

359.80
279.83
242.08
37.75
2.02
0.09
3.58
0.41
40.18
4.20
5.66
16.52
2.18
11.63
28.22
0.05

277.98
224.33
214.47
9.87
0.84
7.29
31.96
4.04
3.06
9.94
1.79
13.14
13.41
0.01

286.32
233.08
224.05
9.03
0.45
7.69
29.42
5.10
3.30
6.30
1.63
13.09
12.72
0.15

302.97
243.04
233.06
9.98
0.38
7.71
34.57
4.55
2.59
8.59
1.37
17.48
14.19
0.20

273.30
217.55
208.64
8.91
0.38
7.62
24.18
4.12
3.73
7.72
1.48
7.13
19.23
0.20

243.60
195.93
189.62
6.31
0.35
4.53
19.18
2.94
3.43
5.33
1.29
6.19
19.90
0.08

-0.01
0.86
1.47
-2.20
-9.37
-23.82
72.95
-10.93
0.12
-0.40
5.05
1.75
8.26
-3.48
-4.26
-3.32

-2.03
-1.86
-1.28
-8.99
-8.80
1.25
-3.82
-1.86
-2.60
-5.78
-2.71
-3.26
-1.82
2.36

145.14
7.14
6.19
0.95
135.41
2.46
0.14
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.27
-

129.44
18.23
14.32
3.91
107.92
1.45
0.26
1.97
1.63
0.34
0.14
-

92.80
13.37
10.17
3.20
73.13
1.78
2.64
0.24
0.00
0.00
2.39
0.10
0.23

81.79
12.70
10.73
1.97
64.90
2.81
0.79
0.23
0.55
0.13
0.22

87.55
13.48
11.40
2.08
69.78
3.38
0.47
0.21
0.01
0.25
0.08
0.23

83.64
10.49
8.76
1.73
68.90
2.80
0.67
0.50
0.01
0.16
0.12
0.22

63.62
7.70
6.71
0.98
52.53
2.00
1.55
0.65
0.02
0.88
0.12
0.14

-0.95
8.12
7.23
12.52
-1.87
-17.08
24.42
57.52
8.07
-5.56
-

-3.67
-4.44
-3.91
-7.01
-3.72
1.70
-1.24
-4.73
5.24
-0.91
-

591.89
359.55
343.49
16.06
134.34
6.40
48.24
1.12
14.37
1.65
4.04
27.07
28.55
0.83

659.79
462.88
436.44
26.44
109.29
2.83
40.44
1.40
10.72
1.64
1.96
24.71
39.46
0.58

441.80
404.51
398.29
6.22
12.18
1.35
13.92
0.22
3.13
0.65
0.47
9.46
7.88
0.02

441.29
409.37
403.35
6.02
12.44
1.49
8.78
0.09
2.99
0.34
0.43
4.94
7.73
0.04

449.09
415.26
410.00
5.26
12.26
1.49
8.86
0.09
1.87
0.61
0.37
5.93
9.11
0.04

436.69
404.55
398.30
6.25
12.84
1.64
8.60
0.07
2.00
0.62
0.36
5.55
7.55
0.04

428.01
392.48
387.07
5.41
12.22
1.51
10.35
0.06
2.86
0.55
0.42
6.46
8.96
0.03

0.91
2.13
2.02
4.24
-1.70
-6.57
-1.46
1.91
-2.41
-0.03
-5.84
-0.76
2.73
-2.94

-2.25
-0.86
-0.63
-8.01
-10.89
-3.24
-6.92
-15.13
-6.72
-5.62
-7.84
-6.82
-7.51
-14.00

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.75

IEA EUROPE
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(US dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

97.87
70.11
..
..
5.30
22.46

143.14
117.94
49.56
68.37
5.73
19.48

168.15
150.67
56.93
93.74
5.08
0.10
12.30

195.23
179.02
56.67
122.34
1.87
0.10
14.24

247.99
234.28
57.13
177.15
1.10
0.12
12.49

249.51
234.99
59.40
175.59
1.09
0.19
13.25

241.70
227.60
59.35
168.25
1.30
0.23
12.56

204.00
194.41
40.63
153.78
1.27
0.23
8.09

208.89
196.68
52.22
144.47
1.06
0.19
10.96

77.44
52.78
..
..
1.43
23.23

75.08
51.51
20.95
30.56
4.54
0.00
19.03

60.46
42.05
19.56
22.49
4.28
0.12
14.00

48.02
38.28
9.76
28.52
1.31
0.06
8.37

47.58
34.42
7.88
26.54
0.87
0.04
12.25

46.74
34.14
7.07
27.07
0.74
0.02
11.85

39.47
27.42
5.87
21.55
0.90
0.01
11.15

33.74
23.93
5.88
18.05
0.69
0.02
9.10

37.10
25.57
5.67
19.90
0.46
0.01
11.06

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.76 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA EUROPE
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

92461

142666

159758

160696

196234

261220

252007

217325

217101

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

40078
4497
294
909
10550
6190
79
8745
105

52204
9730
1107
695
5219
5025
71
22793
285

55532
10043
2812
774
3141
2570
52
28433
80

52716
13043
4176
2985
37
6573
21067
384

56057
21757
7072
3388
2
3118
16901
24

58911
23533
7571
4677
3246
15055
94

58980
21803
6426
4366
2532
18242
183

40533
11126
3011
3968
15
2313
2
15252
548

51173
16479
3753
2504
1
1365
1
18656
92

206
3005
5498

50
256
1441
5532

1
24
46
158
2419
4979

12
85
214
206
526
990
2418

2
140
441
388
2327
26
418
53
-

67
154
150
2147
654
1059
504

158
328
494
1903
648
1023
75
799

271
454
1843
629
599
502

3
700
574
2738
1009
97
37
3164

52383
2955
816
243
6716
15647
2285
499
980

90462
11160
1435
462
3523
15429
2394
16499
2696

104226
9790
832
327
2123
13084
2423
20452
3514

107980
7478
307
1517
834
15609
713
20423
1706

140177
9416
12
2393
426
18590
589
4676
3654

202309
7725
804
1368
388
10862
196
5522
5429

193027
6444
271
1519
583
8530
390
12923
6473

176792
4429
556
1762
373
7409
286
10958
4619

165928
3306
751
2324
454
9583
216
11205
3618

21
10814
2863
8544

236
1542
26339
1895
6852

2783
9060
194
26099
6091
1475
5979

2307
11231
2409
32967
7285
647
1831
364
352

1887
22490
8230
42839
15298
845
3081
560
5191

2526
31763
17130
48821
59318
1808
1305
184
7160

1812
29855
15471
38451
60421
2674
1343
76
5791

862
34612
12018
31132
60135
2333
715
10
4582

359
37605
9126
18848
53495
2675
787
24
11552

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.77

IEA EUROPE
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

35537

25596

19781

18218

9747

7234

6007

5916

5699

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

25095
1283
2383
6331
154
54
4005
804
286
1426
125
122
5126
1826
387
18
89
573
103

15893
1582
1572
2680
241
8
2439
851
134
125
4183
637
254
5
1182
-

11025
1351
858
203
1697
144
3
1017
573
52
3681
649
3
794
-

11983
2
1897
559
871
9
534
634
362
1
1287
3
3
18
10
995
156
896
117
2657
58
310
3
178
421
2

8106
1844
1
214
717
108
1061
1010
4
323
53
538
1570
65
494
100
4
-

7034
1458
16
1024
5
25
16
580
106
8
1863
1905
25
3
-

5974
742
125
949
9
23
501
17
1900
1708
-

5601
1330
36
625
42
60
391
5
1155
1587
68
302
-

5569
1312
16
720
109
502
733
2099
78
-

2491
15
520
5
-

3862
861
4
861
-

4676
1249
100
284
100
1249
-

6157
790
48
217
-

1641
143
529
62
2
2
-

199
-

32
-

210
10
1

130
1

1951

2136

1694

5102

903

199

32

199

129

7951

5841

4080

78

105

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.78 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

IEA EUROPE
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

33590

31963

25276

28034

32159

30467

23998

19608

21643

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

25347
275
2633
274
4161
4095
6035
3171
1
540
1530
52
938
167
15
237
21
244
90
74
149
645

23616
1
1001
1373
1378
3454
2461
1975
4042
15
21
1287
1211
107
1282
286
179
79
389
1666
287
1122
-

20776
1
1216
1471
2282
1387
2815
1167
4942
18
793
600
61
3
1341
339
1
186
198
275
864
52
764
-

22161
12
1050
1414
1874
3214
2559
1152
5655
1
374
20
686
307
50
617
311
304
151
404
2
129
809
11
1054
1

31217
1643
610
864
2382
3
1228
2415
15884
2
322
7
468
923
164
363
603
117
5
1217
12
441
172
20
1351
1

30075
2255
236
32
1377
821
274
1648
17172
172
254
91
564
806
96
875
387
291
228
578
7
185
303
2
1389
32

23764
1930
325
3
937
639
155
2038
11603
76
216
59
491
1577
81
813
358
482
255
556
2
128
92
101
847
-

19291
1975
201
8
829
307
224
1941
7940
145
51
568
1234
162
556
235
758
265
543
3
207
75
74
176
814
-

20926
1446
581
46
685
802
189
1880
8758
158
56
546
1172
48
445
448
1556
245
448
3
51
227
29
218
889
-

85
31
-

1636
13
77
3
188

722
10
1
1
16
375
3
-

4980
37
1
-

908
2
3
16
2
4

389
16
1
275
4
16

177
5
23
1
22
40
2

109
21
1
3
2
-

313
21
2
9
31
15
4

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

54

1355

316

4942

881

77

84

82

231

8158

6711

3778

893

34

57

208

404

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.79

AUSTRALIA*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


200

180

180

160

160

140

140

120

120

100

100

80

80

60

60

40

40
20

20

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


400

90

350

80
70

300

60

250

50
200
40
150

30

100

20

50

10

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


450

300

400
250
350
300

200

250
150
200
150

100

100
50
50
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.80 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRALIA
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

81.51
32.26
37.98
4.83
5.04
1.40
-

99.43
39.03
42.96
10.66
5.16
1.59
0.03
-

123.18
49.97
44.57
21.12
5.66
1.74
0.12
-

154.44
68.80
48.79
27.53
7.19
2.01
0.13
-

184.86
78.49
56.25
39.62
8.41
1.46
0.62
-

187.24
78.65
57.65
40.40
8.26
1.50
0.78
-

179.77
75.58
57.60
37.15
7.06
1.53
0.84
-

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.46
2.61
0.95
9.07
0.68
1.27
-

2.23
2.42
1.36
3.47
2.01
-0.76
10.56
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
180
0.45
13.6
5.99
120.4
107.0
69.3
64
..

1980
217
0.46
14.8
6.72
122.0
107.5
86.9
95
60.6

1990
289
0.43
17.2
7.17
113.3
103.2
106.3
154
77.8

2000
411
0.38
19.3
8.01
100.0
100.0
100.0
210
100.0

2008
529
0.35
21.6
8.54
93.0
88.7
95.5
257
114.8

2009
535
0.35
22.1
8.47
93.1
87.8
95.0
261
112.9

2010e
549
0.33
22.2
8.11
87.1
82.2
..
256
117.7

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.82
3.29
-0.36
-1.03
1.37
1.34
1.07
0.88
-0.36
-1.03
-0.21
-0.85
2.55
-0.59
5.27
2.80
1.98

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

36.14
22.71
9.64
-

38.48
24.76
10.90
-

62.50
74.47
14.61
-

100.89
113.27
20.95
-

136.25
172.00
20.98
-

126.41
189.97
21.68
-

147.94
188.35
21.36
-

4.67
10.40
3.52
-

3.78
5.05
2.10
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

37.67
30.88
30.47
-

40.09
31.52
32.89
-

64.63
93.94
45.99
-

103.75
135.68
67.29
-

140.11
185.27
66.03
-

129.99
204.64
68.25
-

152.14
200.90
67.23
-

4.60
9.72
3.49
-

3.75
4.18
2.10
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.81

AUSTRALIA
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

56.54
7.42
34.66
3.02
4.99
6.45
-

66.84
6.44
38.46
7.18
5.00
0.03
9.73
-

80.80
6.39
41.43
12.35
4.65
0.12
15.87
-

99.39
5.99
49.59
16.27
6.20
0.12
21.22
-

108.80
5.44
53.00
18.75
6.02
0.20
25.38
-

111.49
5.83
54.34
18.92
6.11
0.22
26.06
-

111.02
5.83
53.82
18.81
6.02
0.28
26.26
-

2.12
-0.88
1.05
8.64
-0.42
5.45
-

1.69
-0.48
1.39
2.24
1.37
4.76
2.69
-

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

21.81
6.99
7.96
1.88
2.13
2.85
-

25.12
5.85
7.69
4.89
2.71
3.99
-

27.46
6.00
4.13
7.95
2.12
7.27
-

33.97
5.76
5.07
10.16
3.51
9.46
-

37.52
5.20
5.30
11.87
3.76
11.40
-

38.58
5.63
5.62
11.84
3.83
11.66
-

38.01
5.64
5.52
11.59
3.72
11.54
-

1.36
-0.90
-3.79
8.86
-0.04
5.67
-

1.73
-0.32
1.55
2.00
3.01
2.46
-

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

18.47
0.03
18.36
-

24.04
0.01
23.92
-

30.16
0.10
29.82
0.01

36.65
0.13
35.81
0.43

40.07
0.14
38.88
0.56

41.11
0.11
39.84
0.58

40.86
0.13
39.44
0.60

2.93
7.63
2.89
-

1.61
1.11
1.48
21.73

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.08
7.21
0.27
1.13
0.67

0.11
8.63
0.28
1.12
1.38

0.22
10.70
0.08
0.54
2.70

0.29
12.94
0.03 e
0.50
3.64

0.16
0.33
13.81
0.03
0.45
4.13

0.23
0.35
14.12
0.02
0.49
4.20

0.34
0.35
14.30
0.01
0.49
4.29

6.13
2.35
-6.73
-4.23
8.58

2.45
1.54
-10.37
-0.49
2.47

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

2.86
2.29
1.61
0.13
0.16
0.22

2.26
0.03
3.56
3.43
0.31
0.72
0.46

2.53
0.12
4.74
4.98
0.21
0.37
1.04

2.67
0.12
5.99
7.20
0.07 e
0.45
1.54

2.09
0.20
6.91
8.75
0.08
0.84
1.29

2.04
0.22
7.15
8.92
0.07
0.85
1.31

1.94
0.27
7.29
9.26
0.06
0.87
1.45

-0.72
4.35
6.86
2.75
5.00
9.62

-1.37
4.57
2.30
3.32
-6.84
4.64
1.74

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

1.10
3.63
3.38
0.26

0.03
1.90
4.12
3.67
0.45

3.35
5.65
5.01
0.64

0.01
5.13
6.32
5.84
0.49

0.01
0.01
6.52
5.67
4.77
0.89

0.01
0.01
6.68
5.75
4.76
0.99

0.01
0.01
6.87
5.50
4.62
0.88

6.79
2.63
2.35
5.54

3.85
-0.14
-0.43
1.69

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.82 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRALIA
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)
1973

1980

1990

2000

57.5
-25.2
-0.0

74.1
0.0
-39.7
4.6

151.6
-96.1
-5.5

235.1 e
-173.5
7.1

32.3

39.0

50.0

68.8

Statistical difference

0.0

0.0

0.1

Total transformation

-24.8 e

-31.9 e

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-19.7
-19.7
-

-28.8
-28.1
-0.7

0.3

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

2008

2009

2010e

329.2
0.0
-246.6
-4.2

338.1
-255.9
-3.5

357.6
-290.9
8.8

5.9
8.2
x

4.3
5.3
x

78.5

78.6

75.6

2.6

2.4

-0.4 e

0.8

0.9

..

-43.2 e

-62.0 e

-72.4

-73.0 e

..

3.3

2.8

-41.3
-40.4
-0.9

-60.0 e
-59.4 e
-0.7 e

-70.8
-70.7
-0.0

-71.6
-71.6
-0.0

..
..
..

4.4
4.3
-

2.9
3.1
-17.6

0.5

0.3

0.1 e

0.1

0.1

..

-0.4

-5.6

-5.4 e
-0.2
-2.4 e
-2.8
-

-3.6 e
-0.2
-2.2 e
-1.2
-

-2.2 e
-0.0
-1.4 e
-0.8
-

-2.0 e
-0.0 e
-1.5
-0.5
-

-1.8
-0.1
-1.7
-0.0
-

-1.4 e
-0.1
-1.4 e
0.0
-

..
..
..
..
..

-5.2
-8.3
-3.3
-7.3
-

-2.3
4.6
-0.1
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-0.0

-0.7

-0.5

-1.0

-0.7

..

19.7

1.9

..

Final consumption

7.4

6.4

6.4

6.0

5.8

5.8

..

-0.9

-0.5

Industry(5)
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print

7.0
3.0 e
0.4
0.9
0.3

5.8
2.9 e
0.4
0.8
0.3

6.0
2.1 e
0.4
0.8
0.3

5.8
1.8 e
0.3 e
0.7 e
0.3

5.6
0.7
0.5
1.1
0.3

5.6
1.3 e
0.4
1.0
0.3

..
..
..
..
..

-0.9
-2.1
0.3
-0.7
-0.3

-0.3
-2.7
-0.2
1.4
-0.6

Transport(6)

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

..

7.6

1.1

0.4
0.1
0.3

0.6
0.3
0.3

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.1
0.1 e
0.0 e

0.1
0.1
0.0

0.1
0.1
0.0

..
..
..

-1.8
2.8
-6.7

-7.6
-6.8
-10.4

..

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes
Primary supply

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Losses
(4)

(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

-0.5 e

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.83

AUSTRALIA
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

24.24
20.89
20.53
0.36
0.04
3.17
0.37
0.15
0.88
0.28
1.49
0.25
-

43.37
38.20
37.75
0.45
4.85
0.34
0.13
0.97
0.35
3.06
0.15
-

56.03
51.10
50.91
0.19
4.69
0.10
0.09
0.79
0.33
3.39
0.04
-

62.52
56.75
56.75
0.83
4.68
0.10
0.09
1.17
0.41
2.92
0.05
-

65.32
59.60
59.60
0.81
4.68
0.02
0.09
1.12
0.44
3.02
0.04
-

64.32
58.11
58.11
0.83
5.20
0.02
0.09
1.15
0.42
3.53
0.03
-

63.64
58.16
58.16
0.50
4.81
0.17
0.08
1.09
0.40
3.07
0.02
-

4.97
5.16
5.21
1.82
3.59
-0.73
-1.34
0.83
1.89
6.15
-3.93
-

2.04
2.24
2.30
-0.04
-3.64
-2.69
0.61
0.75
0.02
-9.32
-

7.22
7.22
-

5.93
5.93
-

4.80
4.80
-

5.35
5.35
-

4.55
4.55
-

4.55
4.55
-

3.40
3.40
-

-1.62
-1.62
-

-2.88
-2.88
-

30.47
27.32
26.32
0.99
2.85
0.31
0.26
0.04
0.00
-

45.99
44.14
43.07
1.07
1.78
0.07
0.03
0.00
0.05
-

67.29
66.34
65.25
1.09
0.96
-

67.15
66.29
66.29
0.90
0.00
0.00
-

65.61
61.67
61.67
0.65
0.00
0.00
-

66.03
63.64
63.64
0.61
0.00
0.00
-

68.25
65.85
65.85
0.54
0.00
0.00
-

3.49
4.08
4.19
0.62
-3.84
-11.23
0.96
-

2.10
2.13
2.26
-6.08
-17.25
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.84 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRALIA
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

10.83
67.03
..

14.47
144.85
..

29.05
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
29.69
67.03
..
34.33

..
29.57
144.85
..
56.81

..
..
..
..
95.78

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(Australian dollars / unit)(2)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

8.91
80.22
..

11.97
174.24
..

35.11
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
..
..

..
25.19
80.22
..
38.52

..
25.22
174.24
..
64.06

..
..
..
..
157.84

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

..
..
-

0.00
0.00
0.00
-

0.04
0.04

0.04
0.04

0.01
0.01

25.21
25.21
..
..
-

39.73
39.60
32.15
7.45
0.12

96.07
95.54
55.58
39.96
0.53

173.46
173.45
96.43
77.02
0.02

226.95
226.95
116.02
110.93
-

235.43
235.43
127.55
107.88
-

246.55
246.55
133.15
113.40
-

255.89
255.89
121.79
134.10
-

290.86
290.86
150.36
140.49
-

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.85

AUSTRALIA
10. Coking coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

31029

49382

57750

74291

99161

131164

136924

125238

154623

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

29177
374
32
1173
191
1319
22640
1330
10
992
593
469
54

41759
16
64
2106
2055
29251
3064
1380
1186
516
2121
-

44002
1054
200
1917
25
1181
28579
4944
713
694
702
912
3081
-

54258
1524
466
2310
204
2752
30774
9032
703
129
896
535
1608
3325
-

73658
1833
463
3739
2619
2914
39174
10358
666
2194
1767
992
1451
5488
-

80490
1923
867
284
3444
273
2287
48689
6254
1019
7139
1735
1258
1563
3755
-

86158
2927
513
304
3056
1618
150
281
2255
50203
8356
857
6242
2464
1302
1845
3785
-

70944
1578
339
297
1441
1351
147
1450
42114
12772
478
3407
675
980
1672
2243
-

84266
1242
297
256
3025
1290
1740
45779
17410
351
4213
254
1715
1750
1317
3627
-

1852
164
981
32
675
-

7623
958
1990
312
2042
595
688
35
192
680

13748
1291
2798
323
4844
2256
454
300
560
734

20033
3448
3851
459
9555
710
597
384
211
818

25293
4988
6273
10588
1554
595
174
1051

40022
3052
8036
498
19534
334
2289
606
2975
396

39858
3866
6392
366
24229
410
2016
544
1534
501

48223
4083
2639
140
24011
1117
879
14757
327

68813
4245
7390
68
32264
1450
819
21852
510

131

188

70

2302

270

215

210

10652

10908

6071

1544

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.86 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRALIA
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

5522

39259

45646

62411

87801

112424

115265

136504

143053

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

4809
150
682
458
1489
320
932
778

29523
771
99
2557
508
591
125
577
226
15256
5453
2464
455
441
-

38304
129
120
1149
934
125
133
528
26569
3633
4236
205
155
29
328
31

51291
1116
1023
1076
276
61
121
695
366
34556
9662
1562
264
110
44
25
142
192

70498
428
1301
142
434
72
110
284
2623
428
47449
11452
2550
16
1445
83
55
1499
127

84556
54
671
160
1202
129
254
507
58813
15061
5069
797
85
986
101
600
67

89382
41
420
684
527
177
66959
18552
818
187
80
545
253
71
68

99213
20
151
73
1031
672
62791
30111
2304
802
93
309
277
361
218

100514
647
564
109
516
340
69300
26213
2259
94
54
73
345

193
76
117

8072
3761
93
2189
2029

7342
158
3046
47
33
2443
1615

11120
5920
110
3420
1670

17303
10034
2469
72
1429
3299

27868
111
16233
744
82
3229
7469

25883
29
18559
661
1480
5154

36881
4
20391
70
814
224
9000
6378

42539
21329
563
14968
5679

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

520

1664

410

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.87

AUSTRALIA
13. Coal export values by destination*
(average unit value, FOB, US$/tonne)

Coking coal

(1)

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

47.72

44.23

32.85

88.94

98.27

84.16

194.87

143.83

171.75

Exports to:
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other OECD
Non-OECD

51.66
x
x
x
47.00
46.30
x
x
46.76
46.98
50.32
x
x
48.27
50.15
x
50.25
47.25
x
x

44.65
x
x
x
43.07
43.41
x
x
42.06
43.37
44.75
x
49.00
48.65
48.95
x
44.26
45.13
x
x

31.01
x
x
x
33.37
30.46
x
x
34.97
31.64
34.10
x
x
34.81
38.71
x
32.55
33.80
x
x

104.61
x
x
125.25
96.94
99.12
x
x
102.14
83.74
98.18
x
x
98.95
117.03
x
108.84
100.80
x
x

102.26
x
x
114.87
100.91
117.71
x
x
116.96
94.04
102.32
x
x
111.44
114.40
x
92.04
104.06
x
x

89.48
x
x
104.79
89.99
102.27
66.59
x
99.64
79.50
92.15
x
x
95.80
96.65
x
77.14
91.38
x
x

193.95
x
x
303.82
193.92
240.18
x
x
229.97
193.79
213.20
x
x
231.74
275.66
x
237.21
200.63
x
x

133.96
x
x
151.00
193.51
165.59
x
x
174.51
165.07
196.55
x
x
160.60
146.05
x
161.37
149.63
x
x

198.00
x
x
x
220.90
184.82
x
x
208.24
154.53
197.71
x
x
188.97
198.20
x
160.25
163.56
x
x

Steam coal(1)

38.34

34.99

24.27

48.86

47.05

51.11

92.23

80.03

85.81

Exports to:
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other OECD
Non-OECD

38.42
x
32.29
x
33.82
37.74
x
x
x
40.03
36.31
x
x
32.00
x
x
x
35.45
x
x

33.43
x
24.73
x
32.97
29.61
x
34.14
37.75
36.85
33.03
x
31.12
x
37.85
x
x
x
x
x

20.72
x
17.01
x
19.14
x
24.07
21.21
21.30
24.72
20.65
x
x
21.16
29.22
x
27.11
20.98
x
x

x
x
44.09
x
45.88
x
x
29.92
x
49.42
60.71
x
x
42.82
67.75
x
x
54.27
x
x

67.08
x
55.39
x
46.28
42.03
x
x
x
50.59
50.50
x
x
51.11
66.81
x
x
46.30
x
x

x
x
x
x
44.93
x
x
75.25
x
54.61
49.60
x
x
71.08
60.32
x
x
x
x
x

153.74
x
x
x
75.81
x
x
129.29
x
103.23
86.94
x
x
122.95
109.33
x
x
125.83
x
x

x
x
87.04
x
67.68
x
x
x
x
88.54
78.94
x
x
44.47
90.88
x
x
65.52
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
89.03
x
x
x
x
120.56
x
x
x
x
x

Note: On occasion, shipment of extremely small quantities of high valued coal results in high export costs.
(1) Weighted average of individual countries using import volumes as weights.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.88 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRIA*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


60

120

50

100

40

80

30

60

20

40
20

10

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


7

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Other transformation

Industry

2009

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10
0

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Oil

Natural Gas

Other

2009

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.89

AUSTRIA
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

30.68
5.53
17.30
4.72
1.02
2.30
-0.19
-

33.08
5.22
17.26
5.93
1.62
3.53
-0.49
-

35.40
5.85
14.77
7.40
3.54
3.87
0.01
0.02
-0.06
-

40.81
5.13
16.78
9.31
4.48
5.14
0.04
0.10
-0.17
0.01

47.84
5.38
18.17
10.67
7.90
4.66
0.05
0.42
0.60
0.01

45.23
4.15
17.37
10.23
7.96
4.95
0.05
0.42
0.10
0.00

47.24
4.52
17.67
11.73
8.24
4.27
0.05
0.47
0.27
0.00

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.85
0.33
-0.93
2.68
7.57
3.10
-6.89
-

1.30
-1.80
0.86
1.72
4.36
1.30
12.45
17.05
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
99
0.31
7.6
4.04
145.6
208.6
95.1
31
43.4

1980
120
0.27
7.5
4.38
128.8
161.5
101.8
42
53.3

1990
149
0.24
7.7
4.61
111.3
146.2
106.5
49
69.9

2000
191
0.21
8.0
5.09
100.0
100.0
100.0
60
100.0

2008
227
0.21
8.3
5.74
98.6
88.2
99.4
64
135.8

2009
218
0.21
8.4
5.41
97.0
70.7
100.0
66
120.7

2010e
223
0.21
8.4
5.63
99.4
75.6
..
67
128.8

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.45
2.03
-1.57
-0.72
0.07
0.45
0.77
0.84
-1.57
-0.72
-2.07
-3.75
0.67
-0.33
2.78
1.52
2.84
2.92

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

1.35
-

1.20
-

0.91
0.00

0.42
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-3.25
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

3.08
-

2.87
-

2.45
0.00

1.25
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-1.88
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.90 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRIA
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

23.73
3.35
14.21
2.07
0.99
3.11
-

26.63
2.81
13.94
4.04
1.51
4.06
0.27

28.18
1.93
12.65
4.34
3.12
0.01
0.02
5.25
0.87

33.63
1.25
14.83
6.10
3.56
0.01
0.09
6.33
1.46

38.74
0.92
16.92
6.35
4.93
0.01
0.15
7.56
1.90

39.05
1.00
16.29
6.73
5.33
0.01
0.16
7.48
2.06

37.55
0.86
15.69
6.11
5.29
0.01
0.18
7.23
2.17

1.02
-3.21
-0.68
4.45
7.00
3.14
-

1.52
-4.13
1.14
1.83
2.83
3.32
11.77
1.69
4.89

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

7.46
1.09
3.19
1.65
0.05
1.49
-

7.04
1.31
1.42
2.27
0.30
1.74
-

7.39
0.91
0.96
2.33
0.87
2.21
0.11

8.61
0.89
0.81
2.99
1.20
2.54
0.17

10.69
0.77
1.00
3.36
1.95
3.33
0.28

10.99
0.86
0.99
3.47
2.17
3.22
0.28

10.47
0.72
1.03
3.25
1.99
3.14
0.34

-0.05
-1.05
-6.80
2.07
18.45
2.35
-

1.85
-1.19
0.36
1.76
4.48
1.87
5.91

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

5.53
0.16
5.12
0.03

5.84
0.02
5.49
0.05

6.95
0.00
6.46
0.14

9.40
0.00
8.62
0.33

12.19
11.03
0.28

11.63
10.29
0.35

11.43
10.06
0.27

1.36
-21.12
1.38
9.94

2.65
2.36
3.55

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.00
0.22
8.17
2.03
4.33
0.13

0.00
0.28
7.28
1.33
3.11
0.55

0.01
0.34
8.28
0.94
2.44
1.09

0.02
0.43
8.83
0.30
2.45
1.60

0.44
0.43
8.66
0.11
1.87
1.62

0.55
0.43
8.87
0.11
1.93
1.65

0.70
0.41
8.92
0.11
1.92
1.67

5.41
2.73
0.08
-4.39
-3.33
13.14

25.89
0.95
0.39
-10.57
-1.23
2.28

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.93
0.75
0.71
0.06
0.02
0.07

1.21
1.08
2.62
0.15
1.20
0.43

1.98
0.01
1.46
0.35
2.50
0.04
0.56
0.26

2.05
0.05
1.84
0.53
3.78
0.04
0.62
0.80

2.15
0.10
2.10
0.71
3.95
0.01
0.52
0.74

2.22
0.11
2.12
0.73
4.40
0.01
0.71
0.86

2.22
0.12
2.14
0.73
3.65
0.01
0.38
0.56

4.54
4.03
7.70
-3.05
21.96
8.17

0.60
12.80
2.02
3.92
2.01
-7.97
-1.94
4.12

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.56
1.76
0.00
1.56
0.19

0.83
2.30
0.00
1.56
0.73

0.11
0.01
0.01
1.12
0.40
2.22
0.01
1.70
0.50

0.11
0.01
0.04
1.42
0.74
2.25
0.01
1.89
0.35

0.11
0.01
0.06
1.60
0.90
2.50
0.02
2.13
0.34

0.10
0.01
0.06
1.62
1.03
2.41
0.02
2.00
0.38

0.10
0.01
0.06
1.44
1.09
2.32
0.02
1.96
0.35

4.15
1.39
12.38
0.50
5.85

-0.69
3.32
10.16
1.37
5.35
0.24
1.39
0.73
-1.92

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.91

AUSTRIA
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

1.5
4.4
-0.1
-0.2

1.2
4.0
-0.0
0.0

0.9
4.5
-0.0
0.4

0.4
4.4
-0.1
0.4

0.0
5.6
-0.0
-0.2

0.0
4.0
-0.0
0.2

0.0
4.4
-0.0
0.1

-2.7
0.2
-17.0
x

-34.4
-0.7
8.5
x

Primary supply

5.5

5.2

5.9

5.1

5.4

4.1

4.5

0.3

-1.8

Statistical difference

0.0

0.0

-0.0

-0.1

-0.0

-0.1

..

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

Total transformation

-1.8 e

-2.2 e

-3.3 e

-3.1 e

-3.3

-2.5

..

3.6

-1.3

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-1.2
-1.0
-0.2

-1.2
-1.0
-0.2

-2.4
-2.1
-0.3

-2.0
-1.6
-0.4

-2.1
-1.6
-0.5

-1.6
-1.1
-0.5

..
..
..

4.0
4.2
3.3

-2.2
-3.3
1.9

0.5

-0.0

0.0

..

-15.7

-1.2
-1.1
-0.1
-

-1.0
-0.9
-0.1
-

..
..
..
..
..

-1.1
-2.1
3.0
-

0.5
0.9
-2.1
-

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation

-1.1 e
0.1
-1.0 e
-0.1
-

-1.0 e
-0.9 e
-0.1
-

-0.9 e
-0.7 e
-0.1
-

-1.1 e
-1.0 e
-0.1
-

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-0.3

-0.1

-0.7

-0.7

-1.0

-0.6

..

5.4

-0.4

Losses

-0.1

-0.0

-0.0

-0.1

-0.0

..

Final consumption

3.4

2.8

1.9

1.3

1.0

0.9

..

-3.2

-4.1

Industry(5)
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print

1.1
0.7 e
0.0
0.1
0.0

1.3
1.1 e
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.9
0.6 e
0.0
0.2
0.1

0.9
0.5 e
0.1
0.2
0.1

0.9
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.1

0.7
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.1

..
..
..
..
..

-1.1
-1.6
-1.6
7.5
4.4

-1.2
-2.2
-0.7
0.3
0.7

Transport(6)

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

-21.1

Comm. and pub. services


Residential

2.1
0.1
2.0

1.5
0.2
1.3

1.0
0.0
0.9

0.3
0.0
0.3

0.1
0.0
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.1

..
..
..

-4.3
-3.1
-4.4

-10.5
-8.0
-10.6

Non-energy use

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

..

12.4

1.4

BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

(4)

(7)

Other

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.92 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRIA
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

0.37
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.00
0.32
-

1.82
1.42
1.37
0.05
0.21
0.01
0.20
0.00
0.19
0.00

1.85
1.42
1.36
0.06
0.31
0.06
0.17
0.09
0.08
0.00

2.15
1.89
1.84
0.04
0.21
0.00
0.04
0.09
0.09
0.05
0.00

2.37
1.98
1.94
0.04
0.36
0.09
0.02
0.16
0.10
0.03
0.00

2.16
1.74
1.70
0.04
0.40
0.18
0.02
0.14
0.06
0.00
0.01
0.00

1.59
1.20
1.16
0.04
0.36
0.11
0.02
0.14
0.09
0.00
0.02
0.00

14.21
83.11
82.59
15.22
21.10
-4.28
-

-0.72
-0.89
-0.88
-0.95
2.96
5.10
-1.72
22.11
-11.10
-3.58

2.01
2.01
-

2.34
2.34
-

1.88
1.88
-

1.90
1.90
-

1.90
1.90
-

1.86
1.86
-

1.69
1.69
-

1.28
1.28
-

-1.68
-1.68
-

2.99
2.03
1.99
0.04
0.03
0.21
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.15
0.03
0.63
-

2.50
2.13
2.08
0.05
0.15
0.01
0.13
0.00
0.22
-

1.38
1.23
1.19
0.04
0.11
0.04
0.07
0.05
-

1.28
1.14
1.12
0.02
0.13
0.07
0.06
0.01
-

0.10
0.09
0.09
0.00
0.00
-

0.09
0.09
0.09
0.00
-

0.08
0.08
0.08
0.00
-

-1.47
0.43
0.37
2.75
-2.72
2.69
-1.05
-15.69
-8.51
-

-16.63
-3.45
10.71
-20.17
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.93

AUSTRIA
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

173.19
69.15
74.24

176.96
120.07
164.82

80.98
92.64
115.57

56.94
51.28
..

98.23
164.85
..

101.93
160.66
..

129.35
249.60
..

141.37
153.71
..

124.64
191.32
..

90.20
..
74.62
..
73.76

119.83
..
131.06
..
118.88

78.84
..
87.74
..
121.26

54.73
..
..
128.14
..

181.33
..
..
305.62
..

203.12
..
..
346.28
..

249.48
..
..
490.10
..

243.64
..
..
355.95
..

236.50
..
..
438.29
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(Euro / unit)(2)
For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

172.67
100.14
100.80

157.05
154.79
199.20

63.15
104.94
122.74

58.33
76.31
..

73.92
180.19
..

70.25
160.84
..

83.53
234.14
..

96.07
151.74
..

88.84
198.10
..

93.75
..
108.06
..
100.14

110.87
..
168.96
..
143.67

64.10
..
99.39
..
128.78

58.45
..
..
190.67
..

142.25
..
..
334.05
..

145.95
..
..
346.68
..

167.96
..
..
459.75
..

172.62
..
..
351.38
..

175.75
..
..
453.82
..

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

4.38
2.87
..
..
0.20
1.31

4.01
2.71
2.23
0.48
0.12
1.18

4.54
3.53
2.36
1.18
0.01
0.99

4.38
3.32
1.72
1.60
0.03
1.03

5.41
4.02
1.79
2.23
0.08
1.31

5.85
4.32
1.84
2.48
0.07
1.46

5.57
3.99
1.92
2.07
0.08
1.51

3.99
3.07
1.65
1.42
0.07
0.85

4.44
3.10
1.82
1.27
0.07
1.28

0.08
..
..
0.00
0.08

0.01
0.01
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.07
0.07

0.05
0.05

0.03
0.00
0.00
0.02

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-

0.02
0.00
0.02

0.01
0.01

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.94 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

AUSTRIA
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

2307

3599

3609

2994

3409

4426

4063

3146

3166

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

2006
662
205
470
-

2483
652
147
784
503
-

2376
746
566
456
-

1778
1778
-

1738
1187
551
-

1859
849
605
405
-

1931
1044
377
510
-

1661
1003
372
286
-

1838
-

669
-

397
-

608
-

1838

301
8
260
-

1116
66
57
949
19
-

1233
29
1189
9

1216
15
10
1087
9

1671
307
6
1358
-

2567
909
26
1448
55
1

2132
944
28
1050
16

1485
657
21
730
11

1328
482
5
165
540
2

33
-

25

6
-

95
-

121
7
-

53
41
-

37
29
-

16
97
1
20
-

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.95

AUSTRIA
12. Coal import values by origin*
(average unit value, CIF, US$/tonne)

Coking coal

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

..

214.20

68.06

85.39

206.11

..

307.83

295.92

289.94

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
242.07
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
206.11
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

116.18
..
406.70
129.52
100.29
155.09
..
..
133.90
70.33
.. ..

106.63
..
401.61
115.10
95.32
141.99
291.30
..
..
84.00
.. ..

(1)

Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Steam coal(3)
Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. ..

66.80
..
..
63.72
73.62
..
..
..
..
..
.. ..

44.57
..
..
43.50
45.11
..
..
..
..
..
.. ..

114.81
135.44
..
116.79
106.74
159.43
472.80
..
117.62
118.57
.. ..

170.22
..
321.27
165.34
165.52
185.60
505.58
..
..
177.48
.. ..

148.12
..
..
144.57
133.63
173.85
..
..
..
175.05
.. ..

161.66
..
..
152.93
138.27
226.78
..
241.64
..
126.39
..

Note: On occasion, shipment of extremely small quantities of high valued coal results in high import costs.
(1) Weighted average of individual countries using import volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
(2) Former Soviet Union until 1991, Russian Federation starting in 1992.
(3) Bituminous steam coal only. Weighted average of individual countries using volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.96 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

BELGIUM*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


90

140

80

120

70

100

60
80

50
40

60

30

40

20

20

10
0

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


20

20

18

18

16

16

14

14

12

12

10

10

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Industry

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


100

Other transformation

2009

140

90

120

80
100

70
60

80

50
60

40
30

40

20
20

10

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

Oil

Natural Gas

Other

2009

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.97

BELGIUM
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

65.70
15.97
39.55
10.20
0.01
0.03
0.02
-0.09
-

66.81
16.28
33.34
12.73
0.08
4.67
0.03
-0.32
-

68.98
15.10
25.65
11.67
1.08
15.91
0.03
0.00
0.00
-0.46
-

83.58
11.25
33.23
19.09
1.48
17.93
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.53
-

83.68
6.21
34.40
21.19
3.38
16.96
0.05
0.00
0.09
1.30
0.09

81.74
4.25
34.30
21.58
4.01
17.58
0.04
0.01
0.16
-0.23
0.03

81.14
2.72
31.09
24.99
4.03
17.85
0.04
0.01
0.26
0.07
0.09

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
0.29
-0.33
-2.52
0.79
30.09
45.13
2.63
9.84
-

0.90
-6.45
1.54
3.29
7.16
0.53
1.11
3.47
25.70
-3.66
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
127
0.52
9.7
6.76
143.6
259.4
80.6
41
65.6

1980
153
0.44
9.9
6.78
121.5
219.9
85.0
53
70.5

1990
187
0.37
10.0
6.92
102.8
167.1
93.2
70
85.9

2000
232
0.36
10.2
8.16
100.0
100.0
100.0
83
100.0

2008
268
0.31
10.7
7.82
86.7
47.8
92.4
84
111.4

2009
261
0.31
10.8
7.58
87.1
33.7
88.8
90
96.5

2010e
266
0.30
10.9
7.47
84.7
21.1
..
95
..

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
2.28
1.78
-1.95
-0.87
0.15
0.42
0.14
0.48
-1.95
-0.87
-2.55
-8.09
0.86
-0.25
3.28
1.30
1.59
0.61

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

3.81
3.19
-

4.04
2.69
-

1.69
-

0.29
-

-5.18
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

3.81
4.90
-

4.04
3.98
-

2.36
-

0.38
-

-5.92
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.98 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

BELGIUM
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

48.19
8.15
28.80
6.57
4.20
0.46

46.12
6.05
24.08
10.11
5.33
0.56

45.81
5.05
23.04
9.74
0.54
0.00
7.12
0.32

59.12
3.68
29.93
14.52
0.76
0.00
9.53
0.70

56.64
1.44
28.12
15.11
1.20
0.01
10.18
0.58

60.51
1.72
31.32
15.23
1.39
0.01
10.16
0.68

56.03
1.07
28.47
14.45
1.72
0.02
9.49
0.82

-0.30
-2.78
-1.30
2.34
3.15
-2.14

1.07
-7.87
1.12
2.10
6.32
14.57
1.52
5.15

19.41
5.06
7.46
3.68
2.75
0.46

16.00
4.57
3.65
4.33
2.94
0.51

15.02
4.30
2.31
4.12
0.27
3.75
0.27

18.32
3.40
2.29
6.58
0.54
4.90
0.61

15.78
1.26
1.43
6.94
0.75
4.93
0.47

15.29
1.47
1.02
6.59
0.89
4.79
0.53

12.97
0.71
0.93
5.71
0.93
4.01
0.67

-1.50
-0.95
-6.67
0.67
1.83
-3.08

-0.77
-9.04
-4.64
1.73
6.68
0.36
4.91

6.31
0.02
6.20
-

7.72
0.00
7.60
-

9.69
9.53
-

11.69
11.52
-

12.11
11.78
-

13.10
12.75
-

13.06
12.44
-

2.55
2.57
-

1.59
1.41
-

0.10
15.78
3.07
10.21
1.56

0.12
13.70
1.48
7.00
3.58

0.15
11.82
0.75
4.98
3.55

0.18
13.53
0.28
5.39
4.70

0.13
0.21
11.58
0.16
3.74
4.68

0.14
0.21
12.54
0.22
4.80
4.71

0.41
0.22
11.83
0.33
3.93
4.73

2.53
-1.68
-7.99
-4.14
4.95

1.83
0.00
-4.21
-1.24
1.53

Biofuels and wastes


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Comm & public services
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.93
1.52
0.00
0.59
0.51

1.61
0.02
4.25
0.00
2.23
1.34

0.26
2.26
0.03
4.11
1.65
1.48

0.22
0.00
2.92
0.02
4.92
1.19
2.21

0.29
0.01
2.69
0.02
5.59
1.33
1.95

0.32
0.01
2.45
0.02
6.74
1.65
2.42

0.32
0.01
2.48
0.02
6.57
1.36
2.46

5.34
6.02
6.20
6.42

1.05
0.49
-1.78
2.50
-1.03
2.72

Biofuels and waste


Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Non-energy use
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.41
4.52
3.69
0.83

0.65
0.03
3.73
2.87
0.86

0.96
0.02
4.48
3.88
0.60

0.00
0.00
1.50
0.02
9.63
8.60
1.03

0.01
0.00
2.23
0.07
10.28
0.03
8.95
1.30

0.01
0.00
2.56
0.10
11.63
0.03
10.33
1.27

0.01
0.00
2.64
0.10
10.36
0.01
9.13
1.21

5.08
-0.06
0.29
-1.87

5.48
8.59
4.51
4.61
3.79

TFC(1)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
of which:
Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat
Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

(1) Total Final Consumption (TFC) excludes use in transformation processes and energy industry own use.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.99

BELGIUM
5. Coal balance*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Production
Imports
Exports
Stock changes

9.2
7.6
-1.1
0.3

6.7
11.5
-1.2
-0.7

1.7
15.3
-1.6
-0.3

0.3
11.8
-1.6
0.7

7.8
-1.2
-0.4

4.6
-1.2
0.8

2.6
-0.5
0.7

-9.5
4.2
2.2
x

-6.1
-1.7
x

Primary supply

16.0

16.3

15.1

11.3

6.2

4.3

2.7

-0.3

-6.4

Statistical difference

1.5

-0.4

-0.0

-0.5

0.2

-0.0

..

Total transformation

-8.2

-9.1 e

-9.4 e

-6.7 e

-4.4 e

-3.0 e

..

0.8

-5.7

Electricity and heat gen.


Main activity producers (1)

-3.9
-3.9
-

-5.5
-4.8
-0.7

-6.5
-6.0
-0.5

-4.7
-4.5
-0.2

-2.7
-2.2
-0.5

-2.1
-2.0
-0.1

..
..
..

3.0
2.5
-

-5.8
-5.7
-7.6

-0.0

0.0

..

-4.3
-3.8
-0.6
0.1

-3.6 e
-2.9 e
-0.8
0.0

-2.9 e
-2.3 e
-0.5
0.0 e

-2.0 e
-2.0 e
-0.0
0.0

-1.8 e
-1.7 e
-0.1
-0.0

-1.0 e
-0.7 e
-0.2
-

..
..
..
..
..

-2.3
-2.7
-0.6
-34.9

-5.5
-5.9
-3.9
-

Autoproducers
Gas works
(2)

Coal transformation
BKB plants
Blast furnaces
Coke ovens
Patent fuel plants

Other transformation(3)

..

Energy ind. own use

-1.1

-0.8

-0.7

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

..

-2.6

-8.4

Losses

-0.0

-0.0

..

Final consumption

8.2

6.0

5.1

3.7

1.7

1.1

..

-2.8

-7.9

Industry(5)
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print

5.1
3.5
0.1
1.0
-

4.6
2.9 e
0.1
1.5
0.0

4.3
2.9 e
0.2
0.8
0.0

3.4
2.8 e
0.0
0.4
0.0

1.5
1.1 e
0.2
0.0

0.7
0.3 e
0.0
0.2
0.0

..
..
..
..
..

-1.0
-1.1
2.2
-1.0
-

-9.0
-10.6
-23.4
-7.0
-0.7

Transport(6)

0.0

0.0

..

3.1
0.0
3.1

1.5
0.0
1.5

0.7
0.7

0.3
0.3

0.2
0.2

0.3
0.3

..
..
..

-8.0
-8.0

-4.1
-4.2

0.0

0.0

..

(4)

(7)

Other

Comm. and pub. services


Residential
Non-energy use

(1) Main activity electricity and heat generation includes district heating.
(2) Coal transformation refers to the transformation of coal and peat to secondary and tertiary products (mainly coke,
(2) briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas).
(3) Other transformation includes liquefaction and non-specified transformation processes.
(4) Final Consumption includes non-energy use and energy use (industry, transport and other).
(5) Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I for detailed explanation.
(6) Transport includes rail and inland waterways.
(7) Other includes commercial and public services, agriculture, and residential.
* "Coal" refers to all types of coal, primary (anthracite, coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
* (including patent fuel, BKB, coke oven coke, gas coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, gas works gas, blast furnace gas and oxygen steel furnace gas),
* as well as peat, peat briquettes and oil shale. Quantities have been converted to Mtce using calorific values reported by the respective countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.100 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

BELGIUM
6. Use of coal for selected end-uses*
(million tonnes)

Steam coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Coking coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Blast furnace inputs
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use
Brown coal
Total electricity and heat
Main activity producers
Autoproducers
Patent fuel/BKB plants
Coke ovens
Gas manufacture
Industry
Iron and steel
Chemical
Non-metallic minerals
Paper, pulp and print
Other industry
Res, comm & pub serv(1)
Non-energy use

1978

1990

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

8.76
4.44
4.18
0.26
0.12
0.03
2.66
0.17
0.03
2.44
0.02
1.63
-

9.00
6.64
6.34
0.30
0.00
0.41
1.37
0.10
0.14
0.87
0.05
0.22
0.70
-

7.00
4.37
4.31
0.07
0.01
0.98
0.98
0.48
0.36
0.04
0.10
0.30
-

4.29
3.05
2.98
0.06
0.01
0.48
0.36
0.12
0.12
0.04
0.08
0.19
0.01

3.07
2.25
2.19
0.05
0.00
0.40
0.28
0.05
0.10
0.05
0.09
0.16
0.03

2.97
1.95
1.87
0.09
0.01
0.40
0.37
0.08
0.17
0.04
0.08
0.23
0.03

2.72
1.74
1.66
0.08
0.05
0.30
0.00
0.17
0.05
0.09
0.36
0.02

0.22
3.41
3.53
1.22
-32.76
-5.39
-4.36
13.74
-8.25
20.19
-6.77
-

-6.09
-6.80
-6.80
-6.78
-11.02
-7.66
-21.48
-8.27
-4.84
-3.48
-

7.52
0.20
0.18
0.02
7.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
-

7.16
7.16
-

4.05
3.86
-

3.26
3.37
-

3.45
3.43
0.01
0.01
0.00
-

2.91
2.82
-

1.96
2.05
-

-0.42
-0.03
-

-6.59
-6.38
-

0.28
0.28
0.28
-

0.22
0.22
0.22
-

0.21
0.21
0.01
0.20
-

0.32
0.32
0.32
-

0.28
0.28
0.28
0.00
-

0.17
0.15
0.00
0.14
0.00
-

-2.43
-3.09
-3.37
-

(1) Residential, commercial and public services.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.101

BELGIUM
7. Fuel prices to end users*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

(US dollars / tce)


For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

53.08
66.67
65.42

62.51
128.76
123.12

59.60
91.13
96.10

42.95
129.79
c

82.93
x
c

99.07
x
c

171.19
x
c

100.77
x
c

..
x
c

29.62
63.67
66.67
..
71.79

42.87
66.51
128.76
..
117.89

55.41
61.72
91.13
102.02
112.22

..
47.21
129.79
117.76
c

..
..
x
251.62
c

..
..
x
289.79
..

..
..
x
444.57
435.38

..
..
x
300.97
324.61

..
..
x
384.64
276.04

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(Euro / unit)(2)
For electricity generation
Steam coal
Heavy fuel oil
Natural gas

31.61
72.53
65.69

34.56
130.02
114.77

37.68
105.23
102.43

35.54
196.15
c

50.40
x
c

55.15
x
c

89.29
x
c

55.31
x
c

..
x
c

18.34
49.73
72.53
..
72.09

24.64
48.22
130.02
..
109.89

36.42
51.17
105.23
117.80
119.61

..
51.22
196.15
177.97
c

..
..
x
279.32
c

..
..
x
294.66
..

..
..
x
423.54
382.89

..
..
x
301.74
300.41

..
..
x
404.49
267.96

For industry
Steam coal
Coking coal
High sulphur fuel oil
Low sulphur fuel oil
Natural gas

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For steam coal, coking coal and heavy fuel oil per metric tonne; for natural gas per 107 kilocalories GCV.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Prices & Taxes

8. Coal and peat trade by type of coal*


(Mtce)

Total imports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

Total exports
Hard coal
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat
Coal products(1)

1973

1980

1990

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010e

7.60
6.36
..
..
1.24

11.49
10.13
4.17
5.96
0.03
1.33

15.33
14.37
7.13
7.24
0.08
0.88

11.84
10.66
3.82
6.84
0.06
1.12

7.67
7.49
3.49
4.00
0.08
0.10

7.21
6.89
3.25
3.64
0.09
0.23

7.79
6.88
2.99
3.88
0.08
0.83

4.64
4.41
1.67
2.74
0.05
0.19

2.57
2.38
1.34
1.04
0.03
0.17

1.10
0.60
..
..
0.50

1.23
0.47
0.18
0.30
0.76

1.60
0.68
0.68
0.92

1.59
1.28
0.09
1.20
0.30

1.12
0.93
0.01
0.92
0.19

1.39
1.28
0.01
1.27
0.11

1.17
1.05
1.05
0.12

1.16
0.77
0.01
0.76
0.39

0.54
0.40
0.40
0.14

(1) Coal products includes products derived from coal, for example: coke, coal tar, briquettes, patent fuels.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.102 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

BELGIUM
9. Hard coal imports by origin*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Hard Coal

7007

9320

14761

14099

11347

7415

7431

4806

2533

Coking Coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD

3490
209
148
59
1751
392
22
833
15

4663
16
94
1028
540
2951
-

7132
1015
236
690
105
32
4897
-

5267
1614
205
20
66
3171
15

3818
1109
678
74
1898
-

3247
1739
175
1326
6

2993
1624
60
1221
65

1666
300
140
14
2
1147
63

1339
520
729
90

15
46
-

34
-

157
-

176
-

59
-

16
6
1

3517
26
2316
105
129
72

4657
205
28
1067
59
39
671
246

7629
388
66
721
242
67
981
60

8832
1283
20
301
318
66
983
75

7529
2354
12
118
225
76
309
48

4168
581
11
97
6
38
403
46

4438
631
141
49
632
44

3140
77
140
86
36
471
20

1194
76
23
27
140
36

606
233
30

112
51
2078
73
28

292
170
6
4365
234
1
36

299
269
4855
154
111
17
81
-

167
431
11
3028
705
19
3
23
-

15
27
275
1641
1010
17
1

24
209
1931
548
218
10
1

114
1900
206
90

57
780
33
22

China, People's Rep.


Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other
Steam coal
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Germany
Poland
United Kingdom
United States
Other OECD
China, People's Rep.
Colombia
Indonesia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Russian Federation (3)
Other FSU (3)
Venezuela
Vietnam
Non-specified/other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) For years prior to 1990, or if no details for individual Former Soviet Union republics.
(3) Data for former republics are not available separately for some OECD member countries.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.103

BELGIUM
11. Steam coal exports by destination*
(thousand tonnes)
1978(1)

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

2008

2009

2010e

Total Exports

122

1075

724

818

1340

1464

1213

876

462

Total OECD
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

122
61
1
21
1
13
6
18
1
-

1021
2
317
345
14
2
79
87
21
7
28
18
101
-

724
1
360
67
5
61
179
4
43
4
-

818
352
204
50
182
25
3
2
-

1340
2
609
495
7
40
136
6
15
15
15
-

1462
263
409
1
46
737
2
1
3
-

1213
293
208
24
582
12
92
2
-

876
406
204
136
129
1
-

454
229
113
30
82
-

54
2
-

52

Total Non-OECD
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Egypt
India
Romania
Oth. Africa & Mid. East
Other Latin America
(2)
China
Other Asia & Oceania
Other Non-OECD Europe
and Eurasia
Non-Specified/Other

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


(2) China includes the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong, China.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.104 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

BELGIUM
12. Coal import values by origin*
(average unit value, CIF, US$/tonne)

Coking coal

(1)

Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)
Steam coal(3)
Imports from:
Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
Poland
United States
China
Colombia
South Africa
Former Soviet Union(2)

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

63.93

57.74

44.05

108.68

126.85

120.51

163.26

146.61

180.40

63.54
63.80
254.00
60.08
62.61
..
..
54.18
..

58.30
56.91
..
57.96
58.28
63.59
..
49.03
..

38.58
43.97
..
..
52.54
..
..
41.49
..

125.12
148.24
..
133.14
96.51
285.09
..
67.23
75.13

150.51
153.27
..
131.24
101.04
229.39
..
59.63
67.34

135.93
136.78
..
..
104.33
163.87
..
78.76
91.44

184.60
..
..
..
141.00
241.46
..
139.94
172.22

314.05
166.36
..
..
140.30
..
..
79.53
..

215.58
109.55
..
..
186.51
..
..
91.21
139.54

47.94
45.93
66.64
..
46.66
49.77
45.65
53.17
43.64
43.65
.. ..

39.88
40.41
42.87
..
31.66
48.91
58.92
35.18
36.80
37.03
.. ..

70.83
97.75
102.49
..
63.56
..
..
73.98
68.15
67.19
.. ..

70.95
100.18
..
..
57.55
66.92
..
68.14
66.67
63.23
.. ..

82.81
90.32
72.46
..
158.69
90.95
653.12
84.14
80.05
82.65
.. ..

150.58
199.82
..
..
270.57
140.60
..
..
128.43
139.75
.. ..

109.92
272.28
95.33
..
72.53
139.10
x
152.05
97.91
89.68
.. ..

114.02
160.77
111.61
..
89.28
141.31
x
96.91
97.65
106.33
..

45.57
50.57
57.14
..
48.40
51.01
48.49
51.92
44.88
44.83
.. ..

Note: On occasion, shipment of extremely small quantities of high valued coal results in high import costs.
(1) Weighted average of individual countries using import volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
(2) Former Soviet Union until 1991, Russian Federation starting in 1992.
(3) Bituminous steam coal only. Weighted average of individual countries using volumes as weights. Prices exclude intra-EU trade.
* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.

Source: IEA/OECD Coal Statistics

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.105

CANADA*
Figure 2: Coal supply indicators (1971 = 100)

Figure 1: TPES by fuel (Mtce)


450

160

400

140

350

120

300

100

250

80

200

60

150
40
100
20

50

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

Coal/TPES

Renewables

2010e

Coal/population

Coal/GDP

Figure 4: Coal consumption (Mtce)

Figure 3: Primary coal supply (Mtce)


50

70

45

60

40
50

35
30

40

25
30

20
15

20

10
10

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Production

Coal supply

Exports

Imports

2010e

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Electricity and heat

Industry

Other use

Figure 6: CO2 emissions by fuel (Mt CO2)

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel (TWh)


700

600

600

500

500

Other transformation

2009

400

400
300
300
200

200

100

100

0
1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hydro

Nuclear

2010e
Other

1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001


Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

2009

Other

*Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I. Peat is included in coal for all figures.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

IV.106 - COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV

CANADA
1. Total primary energy supply (TPES) by fuel*

TPES (Mtce)
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and waste
Nuclear
Hydro
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Net electricity trade(1)
Heat(2)

1973

1980

1990

227.63
21.80
113.41
53.25
11.16
5.82
23.91
-1.72
-

275.14
30.32
126.46
65.07
10.92
14.86
30.86
-3.35
-

297.95
34.68
109.31
78.18
11.65
27.71
36.46
0.00
-0.04
-

2000
359.21
45.23
124.43
106.05
16.70
27.10
44.05
0.04 e
-4.38
-

2008

2009

2010e

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

380.77
39.72
134.55
111.80
17.15
34.98
45.98
0.46
-3.87
-

363.03
34.03
125.55
112.37
16.26
33.66
44.70
0.58
-4.13
-

364.75
32.67
131.08
110.13
16.54
33.63
43.18
0.73
-3.22
-

1.60
2.77
-0.22
2.28
0.25
9.62
2.51
-19.53
-

2010e
873
0.42
33.9
10.75
84.3
60.0
..
598
89.1

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09
3.07
2.36
-1.43
-1.28
1.23
1.05
0.36
-0.00
-1.43
-1.28
-0.29
-2.40
0.76
-1.62
3.47
1.19
1.77
1.04

Average annual
percent change
78-90
90-09

1.05
-0.10
0.73
1.93
1.77
1.03
1.08
31.47
27.17
-

(1) Net trade between OECD and non-OECD countries.


(2) Ambient heat from heat pumps used in the transformation sector.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries

2. Energy supply, GDP and population*

GDP (2000 bil. US$)


TPES/GDP(1)
Population (millions)
TPES/population(1)
TPES/GDP(2)
Coal and peat supply/GDP(2)
Elec. consumption/GDP(2)
Elec. generation (TWh)
Industrial production(2)

1973
325
0.70
22.5
10.12
141.3
107.5
101.9
270
51.3

1980
412
0.67
24.5
11.22
134.8
117.9
110.8
373
56.2

1990
544
0.55
27.7
10.76
110.6
102.2
115.8
482
69.1

2000
725
0.50
30.7
11.71
100.0
100.0
100.0
606
100.0

2008
868
0.44
33.3
11.43
88.5
73.3
86.6
641
94.1

2009
847
0.43
33.7
10.76
86.5
64.4
84.8
603
84.0

(1) TPES/GDP in units of tce/2000 thousand US$, TPES/population in units of tce/capita.


(2) As index, 2000 = 100
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries , OECD Main Economic Indicators

3. Coal and peat production by type*

1978(1)

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

2010e

Mtce:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

13.39
3.25
7.82
-

13.75
5.82
9.72
-

27.17
9.83
17.18
-

23.92
4.79
20.44
-

23.91
3.79
21.40
-

19.38
4.20
21.36
-

23.75
4.68
20.89
-

6.07
9.66
6.78
-

-1.76
-4.38
1.15
-

Mt:
Coking coal
Steam coal
Brown coal
Peat

13.78
3.36
13.34
-

14.15
6.02
16.52
-

27.66
10.01
30.66
-

28.16
5.64
35.36
-

28.35
4.50
34.91
-

22.98
4.98
34.98
-

28.15
5.55
34.19
-

5.98
9.52
7.18
-

-0.97
-3.61
0.70
-

(1) Earliest year for which split by coal type is available.


* Please refer to notes and definitions in Part I.
Source: IEA/OECD Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

COAL INFORMATION (2011 Edition) PART IV - IV.107

CANADA
4. Final consumption of energy by fuel*
(Mtce)

Average annual
percent change
73-90
90-09

1973

1980

1990

2000

2007

2008

2009

187.48
7.46
108.07
33.89
10.88
27.04
0.14

221.52
6.18
114.27
51.75
10.60
37.25
1.47

227.07
4.41
98.27
61.86
10.26
51.37
0.91

270.90
5.02
115.40
76.30
13.85
59.17
1.16

292.48
5.30
130.20
79.47
14.57
61.80
1.15

286.37
4.59
128.53
76.02
14.72
61.41
1.09

277.39
3.81
121.88
78.14
13.96
58.65
0.95

1.13
-3.04
-0.56
3.60
-0.35
3.85
11.78

1.06
-0.77
1.14
1.24
1.63
0.70
0.23

Total industry
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Biofuels and wastes
Geothermal
Solar, wind, tide
Electricity
Heat

65.02
6.71
20.06
16.95
8.15
13.01
0.14

71.52
5.85
16.56
23.14
7.87
16.67
1.43

67.30
3.87
9.70
24.07
8.13
20.63
0.90

78.56
4.59
9.22
27.59
11.03
24.98
1.15

81.80
4.76
9.09
32.42
10.80
23.72
1.02

75.93
4.13
8.33
30.01
10.85
21.65
0.96

74.39
3.46
6.23
34.26
9.96
19.59
0.88

0.20
-3.18
-4.19
2.08
-0.02
2.75
11.73

0.53
-0.60
-2.30
1.88
1.08
-0.27
-0.11

Total transport
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

48.00
0.18
47.42
-

63.31
60.70
2.33

61.60
57.06
4.14

74.49
66.95
6.79

82.39
75.03
5.92

81.09
75.04
4.57

78.90
73.43
3.89

1.48
1.09
-

1.31
1.34
-0.33

Biofuels and wastes


Electricity
Residential
Coal and peat
Oil
Natural Gas

0.40
36.34
0.57
17.92
8.73

0.28
40.43
0.11
14.67
12.49

0.40
41.03
0.07
6.66
16.22

0.19
0.56
44.10
0.05
4.64
19.80

0.95
0.50
45.89
0.04
3.30
20.95

1.00
0.48
46.61
0.05
2.95
21.15

1.13
0.45
45.36
0.04
2.50
20.27

0.06
0.72
-11.87
-5.66
3.71

0.58
0.53
-2.46
-5.02
1.18