Sei sulla pagina 1di 74

INCLUDES

47 TRACKS!

For Drummers, Percussionists, and All Musicians

~F~

by Maria Martinez & Ed Roscetti

ISBN 0-634-04 836-8

HAL-L EONARD "

.....~._ C O R P

RAT ION

7777 W. BLUI!:MOVNO Ro. P.O. BOX 138 19 MILW,o.UKEE. WI 532 1 3

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Copyright Cl 2oo3 by HAL LEONARD CORPORATION
International Copyright Secured All Rights Reserved
No pari of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without the prior written permission of the Publisher.
Visit Hal leonard Online at
www.halleonard.com

Foreword
Ed Roscetti and Maria Martinez have come up with a truly unique concept bringing together educators, students, professional s, and hobbyists of all ages with their "World Beat Rhythms Beyond the Drum Circle" book/CD series.
The books are easy to follow and each chapter is self-contained with instrument photos, rhythm indexes, grooves, and
percussion scores. They make the learn ing process fun and enjoyable. Ed and Maria's approach helps to increase
your rhythmic vocabulary, develop auth enticity, and open the door for you r own musical creativity. It's appropriate for
mu sicians of all leve ls who play any instrument, as well as drummers and percussionists.
This book/CD se ries is a great asset to all music educators and band directors to get their orchestras, band ensembles, and students of all ages grooving together.
I highly recommend this series to all music educators, students, professionals, and hobbyists.
Joe Porcaro

About the Authors


MARIA MARTINEZ, original ly from Camaguey, Cuba and raised in New Orleans, Louisiana, is a respected drummer,
percussionist, clinician, and educator now living and working in Los Angeles since 1981. She is the author of several educational publications, including Instant Guide to Drum Grooves (book/C D package), Brazilian Coordination for
Drumset, and Afro-Cuban Coordination for Drumset (video and book/CD packages), all published by Hal Leonard.

Maria is a contributing author for Modern Drummer, Percussive Notes, Drum Magazine, Latin Percussion
Educational Newsletter, and Drum Instructors Only Newsletter. She is co-founder and author of the "World Beat
Rhyth ms (WBR) Beyond the Drum Circle" Workshop Series and the WBR Beyond the Drum Circle book/CD series,
including WBR- Brazil, WBR-Africa , and WBR-Cuba (2003 Hal Leonard). She has taught master classes, conducted clinics, and played at events such as PASIC (Percussive Arts Society International Convention) , NAMM (National
Association of Music Merchants), and TCAP (The California Arts Project) among others.
Martinez pursues an active free-lance career, having performed and shared both stage and studio with such artists
as Barry White , EI Chicano, Rita Coolidge, Nel Carter, Angela Bofill, Klymaxx, Emmanuel , Joh nny Paycheck, and Trini
Lopez among others. Her television and recording appearances include The Late Show, The Drew Carey Show,
Dukes of Hazzard, Soul Train, Desde Hollywood (Univision). No Borders (C D) , and others.
Maria endorses Paiste Cymbals, Regal Tip Sticks, Latin Percussion , Pearl Drums, Remo Heads, E-Pad Company,
and Rhythm Tech .
Professional Affiliations:
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP)
American Federation of Musicians (AFM)
Percussive Arts Society (PAS)
ED ROSCETTI , originally from Niagara Falls, New York, is a drummer, composer, educator, author, and clin ician now
living and working in Los Angeles since 1979. His critical ly praised Hal Leonard book/CD, Drummers Guide to Odd
Meters, was chosen as the number two method book in Drum Magazine's 2001 readers poll. His Blues Drumming
book/CD package (2002 Hal Leonard) earned the review, "If you can't play the Blues after using this book, you should
be bl ue:' - Terri O'Mahoney, Percussive Notes. Ed's most recen tly released publication is Funk & Hip Hop Grooves
for Drums (book/CD package, 2003 Hal Leonard) . He's a contributing author for Modern Drummer magazine and curriculum author at Musicians Institute (PIT). Ed is also co-founder and author of the "World Beat Rhythms (WBR)
Beyond the Drum Circle" Workshop Series and the WBR Beyond the Drum Circle book/CD series.

Playing, composing, and/or arrangi ng credits include Saturday Night Live, General Hospital, Santa Barbara, Sunset
Beach, Knight Rider, Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, and numerous fi lm and movies of the week.
Record producer, arranger, and/or songwriter cred its include Bryan Savage (Catfood), Pocket Change
(Mediterranean Affair) , Clair Marlo (Let It Go), Ed Roscetti (Landscapes of Christmas and Utah Christmas) , World
Music for filmmakers , Ford/JBL Compilation , and ACTV Interactive.
Roscetti has worked or collaborated with Quincy Jones, Herbie Hancock, Joe Sample, the Cru saders, Barry
Mann/Cynthia Weil , Benny Golson, Robben Ford , Jeff Baxter, Tommy Tedesco, Joe Porcaro, and Jeff Porcaro,
among others.
Ed endorses Drum Workshop/Pacific, Paiste, Remo, Regal Tip, Shure Inc. , Event Electronics, Emagic, Digidesign,
Presonus, and Mountain Rythym .
Professional Affiliations:
American Society of Composers , Authors , and Publishers (ASCAP)
National Association of Recording Arts and Sciences (NARAS)
American Federation of Musicians (AFM)
Society of Composers and Lyricists (SCL)
Percussive Arts Society (PAS)

Dedication
This book is dedicated to Joe Porcaro for his friendship and generosity.

Special Thanks to:


Robin Wright, Claudia Dunn, John Hartmann, Joe Porcaro, Curt Bisquera, Matt Laug, Richie Garcia, Steve Ettinger,
Damon Tedesco, Dean Alling, Silvio Bruno, Hussain Jiffry, Tim Emmons, Todd Johnson, Tim Metz, Janis Wallin,
Corey Flanigan, Jeff Stern, Joey Cataldo, Scott Moyer, Markus Brox, Jeff Surga, Aime Moore, Louie Marino,
Groovetoons, Silvio Songs, Chad Johnson, MusiComp, and everyone at Hal Leonard.

Thanks for Your Support:


Scott Donnell (Drum Workshop/Pacific)
Rich Mangicaro and Andrew Shreve (Paiste)
Carol Calato and Dan Schieder (Regal Tip)
Gavin Carignan, Brock Kaericher, Bill Carson, Eduardo Chalo, Matt Connors, and Chris Hart (Remo)
Steve Nigohosian, Ray Tregellas, Terry Tlatelpa, and Kimberly Redl (Latin Percussion)
Spence Strand (Rhythm Tech)
Ed Eblen (E-Pad Company)
Mike Farriss and Stephen Bennett (Pearl)
Ryan Smith (Shure, Inc.)
Chrissy Laughlin (Emagic)
Chandra Lynn (DigiDesign)
Rick Naqvi (PreSonus)
Michael Marans (Event Electronics)
Terry Bissette and Lionel Barton (Sam Ash)
Ryan Goldin (Mountain Rythyms)

WBR Uses the Following Equipment and Software:


Pacific LX Series Drumset (Drum Workshop/Pacific) www.pacificdrums.com
Paiste Cymbals and Gongs (Paiste) www.paiste.com
Remo Drum Heads and World Percussion (Remo) www.remo.com
LP Udo Drums and Clay Tones and misc. hand percussion (Latin Percussion) www.lpmusic.com
Shakers (Canz) (Rhythm Tech) www.rhythmtech.com
Sticks, Brushes, and Mallets (Regal Tip) www.regaltip.com
KSM 32's, KSM 27's, and Beta Series Microphones (Shure, Inc.) www.shure.com
20/20 Biamplified Studio Monitors and 5.1 Surround (Event Electronics) www.event1.com
Protools LE (001) (DigiDesign) www.digidesign.com
Unitor II MK and Logic Platinum, EXS-24 and EVP-88 software (Emagic) www.emagic.de
Digimax Mic Pre (PreSonus) www.presonus.com
Pearl Drums, Percussion (Pearl) www.pearldrum.com
All percussion scores composed, arranged, and produced by Ed Roscetti and Maria Martinez, Groovetoons
(ASCAP) and Sugar Cube (ASCAP) 2002 All rights reserved
Drums and Percussion:
Bass:
Bass Arrangements:

Maria Martinez and Ed Roscetti


Hussain Jiffrey
Ed Roscetti

Recorded at Silvio Songs and Groovetoons, Studio City, California by Ed Roscetti and Silvio Bruno.
Mixed at Silvio Songs and Groovetoons, Studio City, California by Ed Roscetti and John Hartmann.
DAWTech:
CD Mastering:
Drum TeCh/Cartage:
Studio Tech:
Photographer:

John Hartmann
Damon Tedesco of Mobile Disc & Oat
Tim Metz, Corey Flanigan
Dean Alling
Larry Plumeri

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CD Track
INTRODUCTION ........... . . . . . . . .. . .... . ...
ABOUT THE RECORDING ... . . .... . . . .

2
3

3
4

5-6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11-13
14-15

16
17

18
18
19
20
21

22
23
23
24
24
25
26- 27
28- 30
31-32

33
34

35
35
36
37
38
39
40
40
41
42
43--45
46-47

Page
. ... . .. 6
.6

CHAPTER 1: ODOLUM
........
.......
. ... 7
Rhythm Indexes ...
.. .... ..
.8
.8
Quarter Note Equals 80 ..... ... .... . .. . . .. . ...
Quarle r Note Equals 90
. ... . .. ... .. ... ... . .. . . . .9
Olodum Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.12
Instrument Demonstrations ..... . . ..... . .............
.1 3
Shaker
. ... ... .. . .. . . . ... .. . ...
. .13
Drumset . . . . . .
. . . .. .. ... . . . .. . . .. ... . ... 14
Tom-Toms
. .... .. .. ... . .. . .. . . ... . . . . . . ... . . . .15
Surdos
. . . ... .. .. .
.. . .. . . . ...... .
. .16
.17
Repinique
. . . . . . .. . . . ... .. . . . ..
Triangle . . .......... . . . .... .. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. ... . .18
Ago-go Bells, Ago-go Drums
.......
.19
Caxixi (Baskets) . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
. .20
Djembe
.........
.......
. .21
Doumbek .. . ..... . .. .. .. . . .... . . . . .. . . . . ..... . .22
Snare Drum ....... .. . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .23
Klang Yaw . . . ..... . ....
. . . . . . ......... 24
Odolum Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. 25
Odolum Chart . . . . . . . . .... . .. .. . . .. . . . .. ... . ... . .26
CHAPTER 2: BAIAO ..
. . . . . . . ...... 28
Rhythm Indexes
... ... . .. ... ..
. .29
Half Note Equals 80 .... .. . ... . .... . .. .. ... . .. . ... ... 29
Half Note Equals 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .30
Baiao Score . . . .
. .. . . .... . . ... . .......... 33
Instrument Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. 34
Shaker . . . . . .
. ...... . . . . . . .. ... . .... ...... 34
Drumset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ..... .... . .... 35
Surdos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. 36
Repinique .... . . . .. ... . . . . .. .. . .... . ..... . . .... 37
. . . . . .
. .. 38
Djembe ......... . ... .. . . . .
Snare Drum ..... . ... .
..............
. .. 39
Pandeiro ... . .. . . .. ..... . ..
.......
. . .40
.. . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... .. .. .. .41
Klang Yaw
. . ... . .. . .. . .. ... .. . ..... . . . .. .... .42
Conga
Triangle ......... ....... ..... .. .... . ......... .43
Doumbek . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . ... .44
Sound Shapes
. . . ... ... .. . . . . .. .. . . ... . . ... . .45
Baiao Brea ks . .
. . . . . .
. .46
Baiao Chart . . . . .
. .......... . ..... . ...... . ........ .47
.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . .. . ....... 50
CHAPTER 3: SAMBA
Rhythm Indexes ..
. . . . .. ...... .. .. .. . . . . . ...... 51
Half Note Equals 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. .51
Half Note Equals 11 0
.....................
. .52
Samba Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.55
Instrument Demonstrations .... . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . ..... 56
Shaker. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.56
Surdos .. .. ...... . . .. ..... .. .. . ... . ..... . ......... 57
Djembe . . ... . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . .. ... . .... ... .58
Repinique ... . . . . . ...... . .. . . . ..
. . . .... .59
Pandeiro
..... .. ...... . ...... . ............... 60
Klang Yaw
.............................
.61
Snare Drum . . ..
. ......... . . . . . . ... .. . ..... . ... 62
Ago-go Bells, Ago-go Drums ... ...
. .. . . . .. 63
Sound Shapes
. . . . . ..
. . . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . . .. 64
Drumset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..
. .65
Samba Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .66
Samba Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.67
Cymbals ....... .. ..... . ...... .. . . . .........
.70
CONCLUSION ... . .... ... ... . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. .... 72

Introduction
"World Beat Rhythms (WBR) Beyond the Drum Circle-Brazil" is part of a book/CD series that explores rhythmic styles
from different regions of the world. The hybrid compositions and rhythms in this book are influenced by the popular
Samba, Olodum, and Baiao styles of Brazil.
In this workbook you will learn ethnic and hybrid rhythms on different percussion instruments including drumset. Both
traditional and non-traditional instruments were used to play the compositions, and we encourage you to use an alternate for any instrument you may not own. This hands-on approach will teach musicians and non-musicians of all levels how to feel and move time with each percussion part while gaining a rhythmic awareness that can be applied to
any musical instrument.
Specifically the book contains photographs of each percussion instrument, instruction on techniques used to play
each instrument, percussion scores, rhythm indexes played at different tempos, worksheets, percussion breaks,
charts, and audio examples of each rhythm demonstrated on their respective instruments. Each chapter is self-contained, and in addition you will be able to play along with the entire percussion ensemble (accompanied by bass guitar) on the CD, recorded with and without drumset.
The "World Beat Rhythms Beyond the Drum Circle" series includes WBR-Brazil, WBR-Africa, and WBR-Cuba. It's
an invaluable tool for all students from beginners to advanced levels and music educators who are teaching students
to have a deeper awareness of time and time-feel. This material can be used for teaching groups or a single student.
In addition to using this book/CD package we encourage you to play with other people and have a good time.

About the Recording


In order to assist you in developing the proper ''feel'' for the rhythms covered in this book, the accompanying compact
disc features demonstration and play-along tracks that can be used when learning and practicing the examples. The
demonstrations on the CD are identified with the corresponding track number under an icon next to the written
example.

CD Track Log
This log lists the specific instruments heard on each track on the
accompanying CD.
Chapter 1: Olodum
1) Rhythm Index (quarter note equals 80)
2) Rhythm Index (quarter note equals 90)
3) Shaker, Drumset, Bass Guitar
4) Shaker, 12" Tom-tom, 14" Tom-tom
5) Shaker, Large Surdo, Small Surdo
6) Shaker, Medium Surdo
7) Shaker, Two Repiniques, Two Triangles
8) Shaker, Ago-go Bells, Ago-go Drums, Caxixi (Baskets)
9) Shaker, 16" Djembe, 10" Dumbek
10) Shaker, Snare, Klang Yaw
11) Break #1
12) Break #2
13) Break #3
14) Chart with Drumset
15) Chart without Drumset
Chapter 2: Balao
16) Rhythm Index (half note equals 80)
17) Rhythm Index (half note equals 104)
18) Shaker, Drumset, Bass Guitar
19) Shaker, Large Surdo
20) Shaker, Two Repiniques

21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)

Shaker, 16" Djembe


Shaker, Snare
Shaker, Pandeiro, Klang Yaw
Shaker, Conga, Triangle
Shaker, Dumbek
Shaker, Sound Shapes
Shaker, Sound Shapes (Two Surdo Variations)
Break #1 with Caxixi
Break #2 with Caxixi
Break #3 with Shaker
Chart with Drumset
Chart without Drumset

Chapter 3: Samba
33) Rhythm Index (half note equals 80)
34) Rhythm Index (half note equals 110)
35) Shaker, Large Surdo, Small Surdo
36) Shaker, 16" Djeinbe
37) Shaker, Two Repinique
38) Shaker, Pandeiro
39) Shaker, Klang Yaw
40) Shaker, Snare Drum, Ago-go Bells, Ago-go Drums
41) Sound Shapes (Two Surdo Parts with Cowbell)
42) Shaker, Drumset, Bass Guitar
43) Break #1
44) Break #2
45) Break #3
46) Chart with Drumset
47) Chart without Drumset

CHAPTER 1: OLODUM
Salvador, the capital of Bahia, is recognized as one of the most unique and exciting cities in Brazi l. The Olodum (ohlow-dune) rhythmic style originated in the Northeast region of Brazil and is heavily influenced by African culture. The
word "Olodum" means "God" in the Loruba lang uage.
Like all of Brazil , Bah ia was first inhabited by indigenous groups, colonized by th e Portuguese, then subject to invasions by the Dutch. This racial and cultural melding continues to dominate the social landscape of present day
Salvador and Bahia.
The group Oiodum is one of the most popular and admired "bloco-Afro" performance groups, wh ich is best described
as a singing and percussion ensembl e. The music and lyrics of Olodu m carry a clear message that uniquely identifies the African cu lture of Northeast Brazil. Some of the traditional percussion instruments utilized in this style are the
surdo drums, repi niques, snare drums, and timbales. Paul Simon's 1990 release, The Rhythm of the Saints, helped
popularize the Olodum style.

Rhythm Indexes
The Rhythm Index is a breakdown of rhythms from the Olodum percussion score written in common time (4/4).
Common time means there are four beats per measure, and the quarter note gets the beat (pulse).
Listen to each two-bar example, then answer the rhythm played in the next two bars while tapping your foot to the
quarter note pulse. The twenty-two examples will take you through the entire Rhythm Index and will help build your
rhythmic vocabulary. Playing (locking in) with the shaker will help you to develop a strong time feel.

Q)
Track 1

J=80
4
4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10
>

>

>

>

11
>

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21
22

>

> >

> >

>

>

>

Track 2 is an example of all the rhythms in th e score at the tempo of the chart. First li ste n and th en play along with
the track. Remember to lock in with the shaker while tapping quarter notes with yo ur foot.

~=90
~ I

G
Track 2
o"'-~~~~~~~~~~~~~_+I~rJ~~~~cdJ_~~_Ij'~~~---LJJ_~~~-\

II

i----i~L
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I __~.LI___,JL-__~i---+ILJ--~JL-~JL-~i ~

II

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I .L1 -"LL

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J

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I . _1 J~LLLL~

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II

j- , ,_I---I-'CJ

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1 ---'F;..~.....
~J~iJ
' .,-,,
1J'--_i____I-7'--..~J~~- .....
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Now that you're familiar with the rhythms included in the Olodum percussion score, play one rhythm into the next, and
then play the bars at random one after another while tapping quarter notes with your foot. This will help you to develop improvising skills to be used with the score. Use the worksheet on the following page to document your own
rhythms. Experiment with different tempos and dynamics.
4
4

2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
>

>

II
>

>

12
>

>

>

>

>

13

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

10

hJ

J nJ nh

Worksheet

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

11

Olodum Score
The Olodum score shows all the percussion and drumset parts that are featured demonstrations on tracks 3-10 and
played on the chart (tracks 14 and 15).
Take the time to learn the following demonstrations and concentrate on your time feel, different tempos, and dynamics. After mastering the parts in the percussion score, return to the worksheet and write your own rhythms that can
be applied to the score.

Shakers

two MBlletss

Small Surdos

12" & 14"


Tom-Toms
L

R L

12" TomTom
14" Tom-Tom

o '" Open Tones


+ '" Muted Tones

Large Surdos

Open Tones
+ '" Muted Tones

0'"

Medium Surdos
L

>

R
>

>

R
>

>

Repiniques

+ +

+ +

+ '" Muted Tones

Triangles

0= Open Tones

Ago-go Bells
Ago-go Drums

High Bell
Low Bell

Caxixi Baskets

right = small Caxixi


left = large Caxixi

16" Djembes

x = Fist
o = Open Tones

+ = Muted Tones
0= Open Tones

10" Doumbeks

FIi1

KlongYaws

= Ghost Notes
+ = Muted Tones
0= Open Tones

Suspend
Snare Drums

I ~ Ghost Notes

J= Hi-Hat

I = Snare ghost notes

J. = Bass Drum Line


0= Open

Drumset
(4-Bar Phrase)

accent

12

Hi-Hat

Instrument Demonstrations
The following demonstrations are examples of the basic technique and hand positions used for each percussion
instru ment played in the Olodum score. Refer to CD tracks 3-10.

Sha ker

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Shakers are containers, usually made of plastic, metal, or wood, which are common ly filled with a variety of materials such as small pebbles, rice, sand, or beans. Th e function of the shaker is to move the time feel forward in the
ensemble. It can also be used for sound effects by shaking the instrument with a swift motion. Different techniques
can be used to play the shaker with either one hand (see figure 1 and figure 2) or both hands together (see figure 3).
The motion used will affect the overal l feel and can be played with or without accents. Accented notes require a broader movement, and unaccented notes utilize less motion.
Liste n to the time feel of the shaker demonstration on track 3 and then play alon g with track 14.

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Track 3
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) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) I) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

:11

13

Drumset

Percussion instruments have existed since 6000 B.C., all over the world. The drumset was invented in the nineteenth
century, after the invention of the bass drum pedal. This al lowed a single person to play multipl e percussion parts
simultaneously. The drumset took off with a bang at the beginning of the twentieth century, when drummers commonly
accompan ied jazz musicians.
The standard drumset consists of a bass drum, snare drum, two tom toms, hi-hat cymbals, ride cymbal , and two crash
cymbals. Sizes vary considerably from 24"-18" bass drums to 8"-18" toms and snare drums of all shapes and sizes.
Drummers such as Louie Bellson, Keith Moon , Ginger Baker, and Bi lly Cobham pioneered the two bass drum techniques. Rock drummers at times used large tom and cymbal setups. Calfskin drumheads were eventually replaced by
plastic heads, and a large variety of sticks and brushes were invented. Cymbals and gongs were made of different
types of metals or alloys such as brass, copper, bronze, tin , nickel, and zinc. Some drummers use triggers in their
drumsets and external pads to trigger samplers and other midi devices.
Listen to the drumset demonstration on track 3 and play along with track 15.

Track 3
4.0"r-l,4 II:
phrase rq- 1

>

JI J JJ

>

JFF9=J9J J

J I J

J :::: HiHal

>

IJ

I = Snare Ghost Noles


J. "" Bass Drum Line
0 =

>

-II
3

14

J I J

JJJ

J IJ

J J

~I

Snare
accent

Open I-Ii-H at

Tom-Toms

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 2

The tom-toms are cylinder drums with one or two heads and are part of the drumset. Although this is an indefinite
pitch instrument , larger drums do have a lower tone. The tone is influenced by the diameter of th e head, the head
tension, and the depth of the body.
Tom-toms are generally used in sets and are commonly used as part of the drumset but can also be played separately. Concert toms are used primarily in orchestras and also have been used by drumset players. They range in
sizes from 6" , 8",10",12", 13", 14", 15", 16", and 18" in diameter, and their depth sizes vary as well.
They are commonly played using sticks or mallets (see figure 1). Alternatively, they can be played with one mallet
while muting the drum with the other hand (see figure 2) or with an open tone (see figure 3) .
Listen to the tom-tom demonstration on track 4 and play along with track 14.

0>
Track 4
-II-!-II:

~ J~

"

J J
"

"

I -I'

~ J

J J J j
L

"

"

] J JL

"

12" Tom-Tom

.n 14" Tom-Tom

15

Surdos

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

The surdo is the pulse and provides the bottom or bass tone for the percussion ensemble. They are large two-headed drums usually made of wood or metal and are played with a soft mallet (see figure 1). While the mallet in one hand
plays the accented notes (see figure 2), the other hand plays muted or ghost notes (see figure 3) to accompany the
main pulse.
They come in a variety of sizes, categorized as small, medium, and large. Surdo marcana is the largest of the three
drums, and the approximate sizes are 24" x 20", 22" x 24" , and 20" x 22" (an 18-inch or 16-inch floor tom can be used
as a substitute for the large surdo) . The contra-surdo is the medium drum , and the sizes are approximately 15" x 16",
16" x 18", and 18" x 16" (a 14-inch or 13-inch tom-tom can be used as a substitute for the medium surdo). The surdocortador is the smallest of three, and the sizes vary from 12" x 13" to 13" x 14" (a 12-inch or 1Q-i nch tom-tom can be
used as a substitute for the small surdo) .
Listen to the large surdo demonstration on track 5 and then play along with track 14.

G
Track 5
+

-ft!-ll:

..I

..I

"

J J.

J J

"

"

J IJ.
L

"

"

J J.

J J.

. J.

"

.
L

Open Tones

:11"+ = Muted Tones

Listen to the small surdo demonstration on track 5 and then play along with track 14.

G
Track 5
)

-n-!-ll: "

J J'---"J'---'.!_------'--__ I-"-'_

J J J J

",---)__

:U two mallet s

G
Track 6

Now listen to the medium surdo demonstration on track 6 and then play along with track 14.

+r---';+

-n-!-ll

16

"

"

"

J
"

+r-_"'
O_ _+'r-_ "o

"

"

:11 0

= Open Tones
+ = Muted Tones

Repinique

The repiniqu e is a Brazilian percussion instrument often used as a lead, cue, or solo instru ment for the percussion
section of th e Samba. The small double-headed drum is usually made of metal (a snare drum without the snares can
be used as a substitute for the repinique drum) and is tradi tionally played with one stick in hand wh ile the oth er hand
plays ghost notes to accompany the main rhythm. The examples shown below are played with two sticks.
Listen to the repiniq ue demonstration on track 7 and then play along with track 14.

0>
Track 7
>

>

-II-a-"-: j j j

j j

J J J LLU _LLW

JJ

>

>

l L LLLLIJ J J

JJ j

:11

17

Triangle

Figure 1

Figure 2

The triangle is a metal bar that has been bent into a triangle with one open corner. They come in many different sizes.
Larger triangles produce deeper tones, whi le smaller ones produce high-pitched tones. The technique for playing the
instrument involves holding it with one hand, while the other (dominant) hand strikes it with a metal rod.
There are several ways to hold a triangle ; it can be suspended from a string or wire, or held with the index finger (see
figure 1). Cradling the tria.ngle between the index finger and the thumb is common ly used to play fast rhythms that
require open or semi-open notes. Muted notes can be achieved by closing the hand, which will dampen or mute the
tone (see figure 2). When played on a string or wire, the overtones sustain longer than when held with the index finger. Hold the triangle at approximately chest level and avoid moving the triangle up and down wh il e playing. Strike the
instrument on the top or outside with the rod (see figures 1 and 2) .
Listen to the triangle demonstration on track 7 and then play along with track 14.

G
Track 7
+

_I/-~II: 0

18

J oj

oj

oj

J ILJc.. . cJ"--.xJ_ -'<c..O. c"--.xJ-'l. ~


-

0
Open Tm",
:11 + = Muted TOiles

Ago-go Bells/Ago-go Drums

Figure 1

Figure 2

The ago-go bells (see figure 1) are cone-shaped bel ls connected together by a metal rod , which come in sets of two,
three, or four bells. The bells are played with a wooden or metal stick. Other variations of the metal ago-go bells
incl ude the wooden ago-go bells and the ago-go drums (see figure 2).
Listen to the ago-go bell and ago-go drum demonstration on track 8 and then play along with track 14.

Track 8
4

tl

Tl J

.
J--.J.
. -~
.'---'"--'"--"--~

-l-J-~.1 Low
High Pitc h
Pitch

19

Caxixi (Baskets)

Caxixi are woven baskets of grass or cane containing small rattles. The bottom surface of the basket is made of gourd,
metal, or plastic. The tone is produced by the material inside striking the bottom surface . The baske ts (one small and
one large) are held in each hand and traditionally played with a vertical motion (see photo) as opposed to the horizontal motion of a shaker, providing a different, softer sound.
Listen to the time feel of the caxixi demonstration on track 8 and then play along with track 14.

G
Track 8
-II-i-tl:

20

J~

right = small Cax ixi


. I left = large Cax ixi

Djembe

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

The djembe originated in West Africa and is one of the oldest drums in existence. It's traditionally crafted of wood with
a metal rim and tuning rods or rope. The sharp, bright sound and dynamic range of colors is played with bare hands
on animal skin (goat, cow, antelope) or plastic, which is stretched over one opening. Drum head sizes vary from 9 to
18 inches in diameter. Tuning can be achieved by a tuning key on metal rods or by tightening the knots on the rope.
The djembe can be used both as an accompanying instrument and as a solo instru ment.
There is a broad spectrum of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead. One is
the bass tone, which is the lowest frequen cy so und that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see figure 1) must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling. The middle tenor or open tone (see figure 2) can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. The slap is a sharp defined sou nd, which can be played muted (see figure 3) , open , or closed .
Finger strokes are also sometimes used to embellish the primary rhythms.
Listen to the 16" djembe demonstration on track 9 and then play along with track 14.

-Iltll:

, ,

Jj
R

j j
L

CO

, ,

Jj

j j
L

It

" CO

j -j

R Lit

, ,
I j -j
L R

0>
Track 9

, ,

jU'---_~j
-,.~I__+:U ox == OpcnToncs
Fis<
- -.
L

It

I.

R(j)

I = GhoSI NOlcs

21

Doumbek (Doumbec, Durbukah)

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 5

Figure 4

The doumbek or darbukah (see figure 1) is a Middle Eastern hand drum, originally played in Egypt, Turkey,
and Armenia. In many Middle Eastern cultures they serve as the main drums for classical and theatrical music, as
well as popular music. The doumbek's clear sound and combination of deep and high tones have made it
a popular drum for belly dancing and drum circles. It's also used in the sufi tradition to put people in a
trance state.
The doumbek has three basic sounds: DUM is the bass tone played with your left hand in the middle of the drum (see
figure 2). TEK is a high ringing sound played with your right hand (see figure 3). The tone is produced by striking the
outside edge of the head were the edge of the drum and the skin meet. KA is the same sound as tek, but played with
your left hand (see figure 4). Figure 5 shows a hybrid slap position.
Traditionally the doumbek is played while sitting down. The drum is placed in your lap with the head of the drum facing your right leg. Rest your left hand on top of the drum for support. If this seems uncomfortable, try placing the drum
between your legs while sitting (see figure 1) or standing. A third method is to weave a shoulder strap though the lacing; this is a great way to carry the drum and play at the same time. The doumbek is a hand drum and should never
be played with a stick or mallet of any kind. It's also important to remember to remove your rings before playing .
A note on tuning: All goatskin drums are affected by humidity. When the weather is wet and humid the skin soaks up
the moisture, giving the drum a deeper bass sound. When the weather is dry the skin becomes dry, giving the drum
a sharp ringing sound. If you feel that the goatskin on your doumbek has too much moisture in it, find a heat source
such as the sun, a fire, or your stove. Even the warmth of your hand can help dry out a goatskin. It's important not to
heat your drum too fast. Take your time, and let the skin dry slowly.
Remo Doumbeks are available in a tunable version with plastic heads, which allow the player pitch flexibility as well
as the ability to change heads quickly. Sizes include 15" x 8",16" x 9",16" x 10", and 18" x 10".
Listen to the 10" doumbek demonstration on track 9 and then play along with track 14.

Track 9
+

n
22

>

:;

sbp

+.r--~+

11

>

0'----~.n..,.
--"'---'t--L)-~.11 +0
sbp
i

=
=

Muted Tones
OpCIl Tones

Snare Drum

The snare drum is descended from military drum s and is still associated with march ing bands. It plays an important
role in Brazilian music as well as other music styles .
The drum is played in a horizontal position, supported by a stand or hanging at the player's side in a marching formation. Only the upper head is struck with a woode n stick. The bottom head has catgut or metal wires (snares)
stretched across, producing a rattling sound (when the drum is struck) as th ey vibrate against th e head. Commonly,
a lever on the side of the drum will loosen th e snares, eliminating the rattle. Special effects played by the snare drum
include playing with the snare s off, using different type sticks, playing the edge or middle of the head, and playing the
rim. The shells as well as the hoops are commonly made of metal or wood.
Listen to the snare drum demonstration on track 10 and then play along with track 14.

Track 10
>

>

>

I JI

>

>

Jj

>

Ij

>

Il j l l l j

III

-" l l f.-I:---'-'------~-j"-'----'----"----,-~
~ --t----'~'------"
----L~_ _---A.._ _ _' II

rm ~ ghoSl nolCs

23

KiongYaw

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

The klong yaw (see figure 1) is a drum from Thailand. Their unique shape , long body, and low tones add an original
character to the religious music of the Buddhist temples. Although they are traditionally pitched very low and originally
made of wood with an animal skinhead, Remo klong yaw heads come with high-pitched basic tuning and a rope tension system that gives them a wide range of tones from bass end lows to crisp highs. This gives them an even more
unique and cavernous sound. The Remo klong yaws are available in four sizes (8", 9.25 ", 11.25", and 13.25") with
instrument heights ranging from 27 to 31 inches.
There is a wide range of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead. One is the
bass tone, which is the lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see figure 2) must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling. The middle tenor or open tone (see figure 3) can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. The slap is a sharp defined sound, which can be played muted (see figure 4), open, or closed .
Finger strokes (tabla techniques) are also sometimes used to embellish the primary rhythms.
Listen to the 9.25" klong yaw demonstration on track 10 and then play along with track 14.

Q)
Track 10
+ +

JJ

-lItll:

>

24

JJ

>

L R
(slap)

I<

+ +

I I
L

di

I< L

( sl~p )

JJ
L

R L

R L

r=n=l = Ghost NOles

:11 o = Open Tones


+ = Muted Tones

Olodum Breaks
Listen to Break #1 on track 11 . The samba whistl e will cue the ensemble two bars before the break. Once you become
famii ar with the break, try improvising within the spaces.

G
Track 11
J

-II-a

<

<

<

t--1--1

t- t J

J J

J J

Listen to Break #2 on track 12. The samba whistle will cue the ensemble two bars before th e break. Once you become
famili ar with the break, try improvisin g within the spaces.

G
Track 12
J) II

-Ita ;

pick -up

<

.J~LI

<

i'

b~ r

Listen to Break #3 on track 13. Th e samba wh istle wi ll cue the ensemble two bars before the break. Th e quarter note
becomes the dotted quarter note in the 6/8 time signature, but the eighth note stays the same. There are six beats
per measure, and the eighth note gets the beat (pu lse). Practice this phrase while tapping the dotted quarter note
pu lse with your foot.

G
Track 13

It is important to memorize the breaks to be ready to play the chart.

25

Olodum Chart
Now that you've learned the breaks, listen to the Olodum composition on track 14 (with drumset) and play along with
the percussion instrument you've been working on. Then learn a different instrument and play along with the
ensemble.

0>

When you are ready to play drumset with the composition, play along with track 15.

Track 14 with drum set


Track 15 without drumset

\ Intro I

~ =90
Drumset, Tom Toms, Shaker

II

""7

""7

""7

""7

""7

""7

(Bass enters)
z~

II

""7

""7

ffi)
(Repinique enters)

II

""7

11

10

I/

12

(Triangle enters)

II

14

13

1111:

I/

""7

II

16

15

18
22

17
21

I/

19
23

""7

""7

:11

20
24

(Ago-go Bell & Ago-go Drums enter)

II

z~

""7

""7

27

26

25

""7

""7

28

(Caxixi enters)

II

29

I/

'7

31

30

""7

""7

32

(Large Surdo enters)


~

II

Z'

33

""7

I/

'7

35

34

I/

36

(Medium Surdo enters)


""7
c

II

37

38

I,

'7

40

39

(Small Surdo enters)


""7

II

'7

""7

'7

'7

41

ZZ

""7

'7

""7

42

I/

'7

43

I
44

""7

""7

""7

(All Percussion Instruments with Drumset & Bass)

II

'7

'7

45

II
49

26

I/

'7

""7

I/
50

'7

47

46

I
51

""7

48

I7
52

""7

'7

( J6 inch Djembe, 12 inch Djembc, 10 inch Djembe so los)

3El1: l~

z
I

Iz

53
57
61

Z
I

Play 3 fimes

Z
Z

Z
Z

54

,Z

I Z

Z
Z
55
59
63

58

61

/~===:II

z
Z

Z
Z
56

50
64

[]ill
(All Percu ss ion Instruments with Drum sct & Bass)

31 zz

,z

z=-.-----/

65

,,

I ,z

66

zz

3J

zz

,
z

zz

I ,,

67

I ,z

69

,
z

,z

,,

,z

68

(Samba whistle cues break)

,z

I zz

70

,Z

,l

I zC===Z===:=Z

71

72

1n""k#11
Unison break all in struments, so los

31

Id

,
z

,
z

,,

75

,l

zz

<

cl

Z
Z

74

<

,Z

t ; ;
~

Id

75

76

Gill

(All Percussion Instruments with Dnul1set & Bass)

3El1:

,z

,z

,z

Iz
I

77
85

"

Z
Z

79
87

78

Z
Z

zg

80

"

211c/rime
(Samba whistle cues break)

31

zl

,Z

Z
Z

Iz

.,

at

82

89

,z

83

84

91

92

,Z

Z
Z

:\1

IBrCllk #2 1
Unison break all instruments, drumset so los

cl

31

zz

)I

"!
l

Id

,,

,z

)I

"!

,z

)I

"!
Z

95

94

93

I cl

"!

)1

98

Gill

(All Percuss ion In strument s with Drumse t & Bass)

:lEI1:

zz

zz==----;<

108

zz

31

zZ

l
Z

101
109

Z
Z

Iz
Z

102

103

104

110

111

112

(Samba whistle cues break)

zz

31

zz

115

114

113

100
108

99
107

98

97
105

118

1c===z==Tjjl1

IBrea k #3 1

117

31

118

"

"
27

CHAPTER 2: BAIAO
The Baiao is one of many rhythmic styles from the Northeast region of Brazil. The rhythmic phrase is defined by the
zabumba drum, which is similar to a bass drum or surdo drum. Before radio was introduced to Western civilization ,
the traditional folkloric Baiao was the music that accompanied an African circle dance. Louis Gonzaga (an accordionist) popularized the style in 1946 and was referred to as the "King of Baiao."
The instrumentation of the Baiao style traditionally utilizes the accordion , triangle, and the zabumba, along with other
small hand percussion instruments such as pandeiro, caxixi, ago-go bells, and snare drum.
International success of the Baiao style came during the 1950s and influenced such artists as Stan Kenton, Percy
Faith , Joe Henderson, and Chick Corea, just to name a few.

28

Rhythm Indexes
The Rhythm Index is a breakdown of rhythms from the Baiao percussion score written in cut time (2/2). Cut time
means there are two beats per measure, and the half note gets the beat (pulse).
Listen to each four-bar example, then answer the rhythm played in the next four bars while tapping you r foot to the
half-note pulse. The twenty-one examples will take you through the entire Rhythm Index and will help build your rhythmic vocabulary. Playing (locking in) with the shaker will help you to develop a strong time fee/.

G
Track 16

J=80
2
2

11 11,...<'---------1--'------------<--/'-----

1111'-'1J"---__---"'JL-___ lj '_____ _~_ _ _~IIf____,~


' - - '---II -/'------"'/'------111

11411LJ_-"J~_.IL_ ____".,J'---_i-'ILI _ ______J_ -".LI _ -,J_-~IIJ,-I---,'/'----

1111J J

10

>-

>

>

J J )

,'<-'------c

'-----11-71'' ------<'/' ---

11

>

1 -'LI --"J-,,_I-11r-----,<-'- -----c '----_/-/'-----_"'/'-----~:I


1I11e-1).L-"-J---,,J~LI~JL---,,-J---".J-".LI -I1i-'JL~.LI_ ,,-J---".,J-"L..
:>:>

:>

:>

:>:>

):-J J=:J J )-/J---i ) J J

>.........,........,........:;>

->'/'----+I -/'----- '--------<ilil

"----11f____/ '----- - -1- / '----- '----II


:>

11

1:- -I,J ---.;IIr-----,<-'- -

1I1f.-!1- -...,J'----I:- -...


,J--+_
1I!- ---,J

- -1- / '------/

II.I~=:J-U J

J I J J_ )

.CL:U---ill

,'<-'-

---,1'---

III J J J~.;-I--lI.-- I-.-1._1J "'-J____".J'---_lt___ III-.- -/'-----

1- / '-----

'----II

'----_-I-I -/'---__//' --_

11

1 -')"--- IIII~'---//'---------, '-----+1-//' ---,,'-HI...;


' ;'~.LI_ ",-J____".J---'f;,~JL_J"-.LJ_!I--'1-7-"J'--')'_ )"--7, ---"-J-,,.L
' - ---41:1

1\

J ;'

12

III...;.7-"JL--'!;-,,)L--JL--Jif---II ;'

\J

III

r1

14

1111

15

1.1r.-..L
J __"O------"------LI _~J'----II ...J'-----'-O-'----"J-_ -,,-J-----1111~'--- '-_

16

1111, J

17

h -+
1111"-'.1
.L1_~,-".JLh-,J"-_ -'l-;'-"L..
1.L1 _ - ';,!--'_ .Lh __,I --l;,-".J~If____/'----- '----\-1-// '--- " .<' -~:I

18

1I11~-.L
J _ ---:J__~J._ ____';'I_____'Lh-11...J'____-'-J_ ----"-_--'l--_"

19

1111

20

11117 1>. I

J_ _

r1

J--"L
I-

-1- - -111-: - -/'----- '------ 1-/ '-----

II

I LLJ_ _J ) _.LJ- - IIf____/ '----- '-----I -/'--~,~'-~:I

O--.jI:I~---//'---- '---_+1-/'----//'--~II

;'

J.

+1 -/'--~,~'-~II

1 _ ....J_' _~~I-.--/'--~,~
h __L
1>. _"-J_ ----"-,J_-l-_"-_ '7--1CL
' -- I-/'--~,/'--~II

1>. l- ----J'----I,-..LJ~_ _".h i

'----- '---/-/ '-----

'---~H

J'---_ III- -/' - - - - -II -/------c

'-----~II

.L1- --11-_ _ 1
1--'1--1>. It---"---:I~--IIf____/'----- - -r.1-/- -->'/'-------<111

21

29

Track 17 is an example of aU the rhythms in the score at the tempo of the chart.
First listen and then play along with the track. Remember to lock in with the shaker while tapping half notes with
your foot.

Track 17
J;:104
2
2

~~---------------+~--------------~~------~------~~------~------~

30

Now that you're familiar with the rhythms included in the Saiao percussion score , play one rhythm into the next, and
then play the bars at random one after another while tapping half notes with your foot. This will help with you to develop improvising skills to be used with the score. Use the worksheet on the following page to document your own
rhyth ms. Experiment with different tempos and dynamics.

.I

.I

II

II

.I

J J J J J J J J---I

.I .
>

>

>

'"-

>

J J---l---l

.J

>

>

>

J J

J--!

.I

!-II

I-tl J J J

>

>

>

>

"---I

J_

10

II

it

J J J

II

"

il

i'

12

"

J J

13

II

,CJ

.J

.0

14

II

.0

,CJ

15

II-"

,CJ

16

II

,-~

17

).

'.

18

.J

j'

19

20

1/

.J

i'

>

21

-II

).

,>

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,i

'---I
).
1

>

>

~)--i

IJ

J~---I

31

Worksheet

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

32

Ba iao Score
The Baiao score shows all the percussion and drumset parts that are featured demonstrations on tracks 18-27 and
played on the chart (tracks 31 and 32).
Take the time to learn the following demonstrations and concentrate on your tim e fee l, different tempos, and dynamics. After mastering the parts in the percu ssion score, return to th e wo rk sheet and write your own rhythms that can
be applied to the score.

Sh'kers

J J_ --'J_L-_'J_ '---"_'---"
J"r -rJ'J__- -"-_J- -11-''----''-j
J
11_11--"---"-__ -"-

J J-~-"--'J"r-rJ'J ----'J . 11
-''----''-'---'-'---"--<l.

~
I
~ P/(lyJlime.f
I
J
-"'----JI---_tI-t~---',
--1If-----''--<l:11
II-I'-IT!" ~!S----'7'--.J.!-h
~

8-Bar Phrase

I
1I1----t~~--'' --..,l'-h-.J'----~.J__I- --HIB SIII-- -",W
- - . l -, L ---i~f-~:II
7
+

Large Sunlos
4-Ba r Ph rase

L
,,," C,,;.<;
R '" Sill:!!! Ca .~j .~i

C:u:ixi

I-I'I',. J
R

3 R

It

2R

I '

. ,1 _-I

+ '" /l. l ulcd T Oiles


0 = O pel1 TOiles

III-L.J~
. _ _ _ _...)~~i'--_ _~.LI__-+I....J---!...I-----'I'----~I'----+:II
: >

:>

' fl,"d ed
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&

4R
: > : >

..I J J I ..I'-~J-'-~-"--~-"---.
J
J
1
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-'-~..I
-,-~-'-~-'-~-'--j.~'--~..I
-'--~J
-,-~J
-"--..1
1

RCI)iniqllcs

Pa ndciros
4-0 3r Phrase

II-I"i,

Th

Th

Th '" Thumb
T " Tips (Fingers)
II '" Ill'cl

It

Th

S = Sbp

I ~I-"'.J~_____...hc.........!I___ ~.LI____tI....J--L.i-1_~.LI_~J"_____ ..j __~:11 0 0,,,,, Tm,,,


3 Th

Th

16" Djc mbc

-II-II j

R
sbp

JJ

LJ

"

-'-lia r

.n
R

LJ: II

"

(0) " Open Tone s


(x) '" Fi st
(+) "" MUled NOles

..I..._

1 _ ...
. t..
J_ ..JL..-I-I ....
I---~I--_-"I-----'I'-----ci:11

(x) '" Fist


Play with Finge rs

IHi

II-II

r=J

r=J
+

Dm",, "

(0 ) " Open Tones

g.

J"I""-""'J--...J"'"_- _-...,,;:.'-'I_
+

Co ngas

""
.J - "i.J

II

T riangles

g.

11-1: ..11 ""-."110" Klong Ya w


4-B:II" I)hrasc

4Th

r=J

.h J

.h

"

L
slap

slap
:>

J
+
1

I ~

.h

slap

:>

(0) " Opcn Tones

:11

,+) .

M",," T"""

(0) "" Open Tones

(... ) '" Muted Tones

"

:>

J=

:>

IHI~,--"-J-~~-'J'--...:.;-.LJ---,;,---"J'---+-i;r;.----J,---c:-;~J,,---:;,--_..J_-;-;_ L, r '"

lI i- li at W/Slick

J - Sn<lrc Drum

Bass Dnnll
o .. Open Tones

:>

Ph nlSt-

JJ

:>

OJ

IHIf-., J...,_~JL_L
' _ ...JL...._L'_

JJ

:>

J,

...JL....~)'---"-J_+l-"'J'--~J'----"-J-...:J'--I_~'

OJ

J_-,7_~.,,--h-l

10" & 12"


Doumb<'ks

4-b;lr Ph rase

{ III- L) _-*-j_..!.)_~.LI_ ,', __",J_-,,_


3

J-I_._I_LLJ~___'--_-;:II
4

33

Instrument Demonstrations
The following demonstrations are examples of the basic technique and hand positions used for each percussion
instrument played in the Baiao score. Refer to tracks 18-27.

Shaker

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Shakers are containers, usually made of plastic, metal , or wood, which are com monly filled with a variety of materi als such as small pebbles, rice , sand, or beans. The functi on of the shaker is to move the time feel forward in the
ensemble. It can also be used for sound effects by shaking the instrument with a swift motion. Different techniqu es
can be used to play the shaker with either one hand (see figure 1 and figure 2) or both hands together (see figure 3).
The motion used will affect the overal l feel and can be played with or without accents. Accented notes require a broader movement, and unaccented notes utilize less motion.
Try this basic exampl e first:

>~~--~~

>.~~--~~

>.~~--~--~

>~~--~~

-ifillI<: -"J__c::::J'-------"-J_--'J'--_~_J---L
J _-"J'-------"'-J_--'J'-_-"-J_-'J'------".J_~:II

Now listen to the time feel of the shaker demonstration on track 18 and then play along with track 3 1.

0)
Track 18
>

-I~-II:

34

>

>

>

IJ

>

>

>

:/1

Drumset

Percussion instruments have existed since 6000 B.C., all over the world. The drum set was invented in the nineteenth
centu ry, after the inve ntion of the bass drum pedal. This allowed a singl e person to play multipl e percussion parts
simultaneously. The drumset took off with a bang at the beginning of the twentieth century, whe n drummers commonly accompanied jazz musicians.
Th e standard drumset consists of a bass drum , snare drum, two tom toms, hi-hat cymbals, ride cymbal, and two
crash cymbals. Sizes vary considerably from 24"-18" bass drums to 8"-1 8" toms and snare drums of all shapes and
sizes. Drummers such as Lou ie Bellson, Keith Moon, Ginger Baker, and Billy Cobham pioneered the two bass drum
techniques. Rock drummers at times used large tom and cymbal setups. Calfskin drumheads we re eventually
replaced by plastic heads, and a large variety of sticks and brushes were invented. Cymbals and gongs we re made
of different types of metals or alloys such as brass, copper, bronze, tin , nickel, and zinc. Some drummers use triggers in their drumsets and external pads to trigger samplers and oth er midi devices.
Listen to the drumset demonstration on track 18 and then play along with track 32.

0>18

Track

35

Surdos

Figure 1

Figure 2

The surdo is the pulse and provides the bottom or bass tone for the percuss ion ensemble. They are large two-headed drums usually made of wood or metal and are played with a soft mallet. While the mallet in one hand plays the
accented notes (see figure 1), the other hand plays muted or ghost notes (see figure 2) to accompany the main pulse.
They come in a variety of sizes, categorized as small, medium, and large. Surdo marcana is the largest of the three
drums, and the approximate sizes are 24" x 20", 22" x 24", and 20" x 22" (an 18-inch or 16-inch floor tom can be used
as a substitute for the large surdo). The contra-surdo is the medium drum , and th e sizes are approximate ly 15" x 16",
16" x 18", and 18" x 16" (a 14-inch or 13-inch tom-tom can be used as a substitute for the medium surdo). The su rd ocortador is the smallest of three, and the sizes vary from 12" x 13" to 13" x 14" (a 12-inch or lO-inch tom-tom can be
used as a substitute for the smal l surdo).
Listen to the large surdo demonstration on track 19 and then play along with track 31.

0>

-I1-tJ1:

36

Track 19
+

~.

;,

"

"

I)
R

,i

,i

"II + = Muted Tones


.

-= Open Tones

Repinique

The repinique is a Brazilian percussion instrument often used as a lead , cue, or solo instrument for the percussion
section of the Samba. The small double-headed drum is usually made of metal (a snare drum without the snares can
used as a substitute for the repinique drum) and is traditionally played with one stick in hand whi le the other hand
plays ghost notes to accompany the main rhythm . The examples shown below are played with two sticks.
Listen to the repin ique demonstration on track 20 and then play along with track 31.

G
Track 20
>

2 Rcpin iqucs

-I~ I :

>

>

j~

>

J J

>

:11

37

Djembe

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

The djembe originated in West Africa and is one of the oldest drums in existence. It's traditionally crafted of wood with
a metal rim and tuning rods or rope. The sharp, bright sound and dynamic range of colors is played with bare hands
on animal skin (goat, cow, antelope) or plastic, wh ich is stretched over one openin g. Drum head sizes vary from 9 to
18 inches in diameter. Tuning can be achieved by a tuning key on metal rods or by tightening the knots on the rope.
The djembe can be used both as an accompanying instrument and as a solo instrument.
There is a broad spectrum of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumh ead . One is
the bass tone, which is the lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the cente r of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see figure 1) must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling. The middle tenor or open tone (see figure 2) can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. The slap is a sharp defined sound, which can be played muted (see figure 3), open, or closed.
Finger strokes are also sometimes used to embellish the prim ary rhythms.
Listen to the 16" djembe demonstration on track 21 and then play along with track 31.

0>
Track 21
+

--I'~--II :

,,

,,

slnp

38

IJ
R
slap

G,

(0) = Open Tones


(.~) '" Fist
(+) = ~'l lllCd Notes

Snare Drum

The snare drum is descended from mil itary drums and is sti ll associated with marching bands. It plays an important
role in Brazilian music as well as other music styles.
The drum is played in a horizontal position , supported by a stand or hanging at the player's side in a marching formation. Only the upper head is struck with a wooden stick. The bottom head has catgut or metal wires (snares)
stretched across, producing a rattling sound (when the drum is struck) as they vibrate against the head . Commonly,
a lever on the side of the drum will loosen the snares, eliminating the rattle. Special effects played by the snare drum
include playing with the snares off, using different type sticks, playing the edge or middle of the head, and playing the
rim. The shells as well as the hoops are commonly made of metal or wood.
Listen to the snare drum demonstration on track 22 and then play along with track 31.

G
Track 22
>

Suspended
Snare Drums

-tl~-f~

>

>

>

I.J

.J

>

>

:11

39

Pandeiro

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 5

The Pandeiro is a Brazilian instrument similar to the tambourine. It is a single-headed (calf-skin or plastic) frame drum
with loosely arranged jingles around the sides of the instrument. They vary in size, but the most common sizes are
10" and 12" .
The technique used to play the pandeiro requires practice and patience. It is held in one hand, which produces open
(see figure 1) and muted (see figure 2) tones. The other hand strikes the top of the head with the thumb (see figure
3) , fingertips (see figure 4) , or heel (see figure 5) . This technique wi ll produce a stream of quavers, which has a distinct sound.
Listen to the four-bar phrase pandeiro demonstration on track 23 and then play along with track 31.

G
Track23
o

I __L-_
J
4-Bar I' hnl,e -fl-ilf.-I:--"Je.-._~)YI--:~-/-___ _ -+-_~_~"-~
r
.

1 Th

40

Th

Th

Th

11

I j

JJ

I-"

Th

J J
Th

Th ; Thulllb
T = Tips (Fingm)
H = Heel

:11 S .; Sl3p

0 = Opcn Tones
+ = ,\!Ulcc.I Tones

Klon gYaw

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

The klong yaw (see figure 1) is a drum from Thailand. Their uniqu e shape , long body, and low tones add an original
character to the religious music of the Buddhist temp les. Although they are traditionally pitched very low and originally
made of wood with an an imal skinhead, Remo klong yaw heads come with high-pitched basic tuning and a rope tension system that gives them a wide range of tones from bass end lows to crisp highs. This gives them an even more
unique and cavernous
sound. Th e Remo klong yaws are available in four sizes (8", 9.25",11.25", and 13.25") with
,
instrument heights ranging from 27 to 31 inches.
There is a wide range of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead. One is the
bass tone, which is the lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see fi gure 2) must stri ke the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling. The middle tenor or open tone (see figure 3) can be ach ieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. Th e slap is a sha rp defined sound, which can be played muted (see fi gure 4) , open, or closed.
Finger strokes (tabla techniques) are also sometim es used to embellish the primary rhythm s.
Listen to the 9.25" klong yaw demonstration on track 23 and then play along with track 31.

0>

Track 23
g

-II~-ll:

Jr-""T"
J - j'l"""iJ
1

JJ

J I J J J j LLL .J

J J J

(0) = Oprn Tones

LLLJ~j'-++-L
.J _i,----,i~-,i _:ll (,)
= 1';"
l'by Wilh Fingers

41

Conga

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 5

The Conga drum, coming from African and Cuban influences, has played a major role in modern music.
These drums of African origin, first used by religious groups, are now very common in Afro-Cuban , Latin , and
Pop music.
The traditional Cuban Conga was made out of ol ive barrels or steamed bent staves of wood glued together. The heads
were made of calf or buffalo and tacked to the wood .
The smallest of the congas is called the "quinto" (30" x 11 ") , the middle one is called "conga;' "seguidor," or "tres
golpes" (30" x 11 3/4"), and the largest is called "tumbadora" or "salidor" (30" x 13"). Remo makes a "super tumba"
(30" x 13") as well as the common sizes.
Among the most popular of the hand drums, the conga has a rich history, and, due to their flexible tonal ranges and
playability, they are widely used in drum circles.
There is a broad range of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead. One is the
low tone, which is the lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or palm must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from muffling (see
figure 1). The middle tenor or open tone can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards the edge of
the drum (see figure 2). The slap is a sharp defined sound, which can be played muted (see figure 3), open, or closed.
The heel-toe technique-rocking between the palm (see figure 4) and the fingers (see figure 5)- consists of all
muted strokes.
Listen to the conga demonstration on track 24 and then play along with track 31.

Q)
Track 24
+

-11-2-11:

42

R
sbp

",

12

",

12
L
slap

R
slap

.,,

slap

:~

+ = Muted Tones
o = Open Tones

Triangle

Figure 1

Figure 2

The triangle is a metal bar that has been bent into a triangle with one open corner. They come in many different sizes.
Larger triangles produce deeper tones, while smaller ones produce high-pitched tones. The technique for playing the
instrument involves holding it with one hand, wh ile the other (dominant) hand strikes it with a metal rod.
There are several ways to hold a triangle; it can be suspended from a string or wi re , or held with the index finger (see
figure 1). Cradling the triangle between the index finger and the thumb is commonly used to play fast rhythms that
require open or semi-open notes. Muted notes can be achieved by closing the hand, which will dampen or mute the
tone (see figure 2). When played on a string or wire, the overtones sustain longer than when held with the index finger. Hold the triangle at approximately chest level and avoid moving the triangle up and down while playing. Strike
the instrument on the top or outside with the rod (see figures 1 and 2).
Listen to the triangle demonstration on track 24 and then play along with track 31.

0>

Track 24
+.----'1+

,,2 ,'I.: ->LJ_---"J_-->JL-_ _xJ=:-J


_---"_-->JL-_ _t'1r
"=
- _"--_xJ
J
_ _-".J:=-J
_-"'----'J<--_--.;:11I += Mutcd Toncs
"2"'F

0 =

Open Tones

43

Doumbek (Doumbec, Durbukah)

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 5

Figure 4

The doumbek or darbukah (see figure 1) is a Middle Eastern hand drum, originally played in Egypt, Turkey, and
Armenia. In many Middle Eastern cultures they serve as the main drums for classical and theatrical music,
as well as popular music. The doumbek's clear sound and combination of deep and high tones have made it
a popular drum for belly dancing and drum circles. It's also used in the sufi tradition to put people in a
trance state.
The doumbek has three basic sounds: DUM is the bass tone played with your left hand in the middle of the drum (see
figure 2). TEK is a high ringing sound played with your right hand (see figure 3). The tone is produced by striking the
outside edge of the head were the edge of the drum and the skin meet. KA is the same sound as tel<, but played with
your left hand (see figure 4). Figure 5 shows a hybrid slap position .
Traditionally the doumbek is played while sitting down. The drum is placed in your lap with the head of the drum facing your right leg. Rest your left hand on top of the drum for support. If this seems uncomfortable, try placing the drum
between your legs while sitting (see figure 1) or standing. A third method is to weave a shoulder strap though the lacing; this is a great way to carry the drum and play at the same time. The doumbek is a hand drum and should never
be played with a stick or mallet of any kind . It's also important to remember to remove your rings before playing.
A note on tuning : All goatskin drums are affected by humidity. When the weather is wet and humid the skin soaks up
the moisture, giving the drum a deeper bass sound. When the weather is dry the skin becomes dry, giving the drum
a sharp ringing sound . If you feel that the goatskin on your doumbek has too much moisture in it, find a heat source
such as the sun, a fire, or your stove. Even the warmth of your hand can help dry out a goatskin. It's important not to
heat your drum too fast. Take your time, and let the skin dry slowly.
Remo Doumbeks are available in a tunable version with plastic heads, which allow the player pitch flexibility as well
as the ability to change heads quickly. Sizes include 15" x S" , 16" x g", 16" x 10", and IS" x 10".
Listen to the 10" doumbek demonstration on track 25 and then play along with track 31.

0>
Track 25
10" & 12" Doumbek -111-11:
4-Bar-Phrasc

44

:.

:' 0

JJJ

Jl

I :'

~>

.r;:-l 1 J J J J J ,
)

:11

Sound Shapes

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

The Sound Shapes are lightweight and portable pre-tun ed hand drums manufactured by Remo. They ca n be played
with a stick or mallet and come in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes: circul ar (6" , 8", 10", 12" , 14" , and 16") , triangle (6.5" x 9"), rectangle (9" square). round (9") , and half-round (9"). They're fun for groups of any size, whether in
class or drum circles. Sound Shapes can be used as substitute instrum ents within the score .
The technique used to play the Sound Shapes is si mpl e in nature. Held in one hand, muted tones (see figures 1 and
4) or open tones (see figures 2 and 3) can be played. Ghost notes can be played by tapping the fingers on the head
(see figure 5) .
Below are examples of the breakdown rhythms played with the Sound Shapes. Listen to the demonstrations on tracks
26 and 27 and then play along with track 31 .

Track 26

Bn' aktlow n Rhythm #2

Breakdown Rhythm # 1

~'1H--"--j,:-~"I- -+,1- --,,,-1-I~--III

...j~.---")'--I~--I-",,,-I.-~)"---ol!-~j"--~II

~ : ~I:~~,:~;~;~"

G
Track 27
+

Mcd. Sunlu _11---.2_ ,..:_ __


J1:lrl
- 2 111

+
0
Ilreakdown
Rhythm #1
~----...
. - - _:,Ic - - - --''--- - III
R
R
It
o = OpcnToncs
... - Muted Tone,

+'____...I____1-1....j

La rge Surd o_fl-2 _ _....~


. _ _ __ _....'--__
I~a rl
-2
R
R

('

Il rCHkdowll

--I,~h
"--~o"--_c;1_,~)"---I
2

I-

It hYlhm 112

II o .. Open Tones
.. . 1I.'lulcd Tones

45

Baiao Breaks
Listen to Break #1 on track 28. In track 31, the samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break.

Q)
Track 28

Break #1
0

II

1 .

17

I~

II

II

Listen to Break # 2 on track 29. In track 31, the samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break. Once
you become familiar with the break, try improvising within the spaces.

Q)
Track 29

Break #2

II~ J.
II

Play 3 times

:11

J ~ J

I~

J ~ J I~

J t

Listen to Break #3 on track 30. In track 31, the samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break. Groups
of threes are played over the bar line to create syncopations. Practice this phrase while tapping the half-note pulse
with your foot.

Q)
Track 30

Break #3
>

II

!
>

II

J
p

>

>

J J J j j J j Ij

>

>

>

J J J j j j

>

j j

>

>

j Ij j

>

~ ~ J ~ ~
cresco

>

J J J

cresco

.ff
>

~ I~

>

~ ~

>

~ ~ ~

.ff

It is important to memorize the breaks to be ready to play the chart.

46

j j

J
p

~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ IJ ~ ~ ~
cresco

>

J
.ff

Baiao Chart
Now that you've learned the breaks, li sten to the Baiao composition on track 31 (with drumset) and play along with
the percussion instrument you 've been working on. Then learn a different in strument and play along with the
ensem ble.
Whe n you are read y to play drumset with the composition, play along with track 32.

Track 31 with Drumset


Track 32 without Drumset

J = 104
~~

InlrQ I

1IlIlro 21

Shakers & Click (tra ck 32 only)

Rubato

1 ::/

(Soundshapcs & 16 inch Djcmbe en tcr)


I

13

31

31

zI

Iz

zI

10

11

em

I Zz

Z
Z

"

"

Z
Z

z
I

16
32

zz

14

Drum set, Large Surdo, Snare,


Rcpini que, and Caxixi enter

15
31

13

11

zz

17

18

3J

"

"

"

19
35

"

(Bass ente rs)

31

z
Z

z
Z

z
Z

20

11

22

23

35

37

38

39

31

25

"

Z
Z

24
40

Z
Z

zZ

Iz

26

27

28

29

"

43

44

45

Z
Z

(Samba whistle cues break)

31
30

"

:IR
47

48

zz

49

50

"
47

\ Break #1 \
Unison break for all instruments

II

,h ~

,
I

,h ~

I/

I d

J.

,h ~

II

,h ~

I"

54

,h ~

J.

58

57

56

55

53

52

51

IA21
(Shaker & 16 inch Djembe enter, Caxixi tacet)

II

-,

II

2'

'7

'7

75

81

;'

71

'7

63

-,

-,

'7

-,

83

82

"

Iz

I
84

'7

"

ZZ

II

'7

74

79

-,

"

68

73

78

"

80

(Samba whistle cues break)

,
;

72

I7

Z'

67

77

62

I/

76

,I

66

70

61

I/

69

II

65

64

II

60

59

II

85

'7

'7

86

IBreak #2 I
Unison break for all instruments (Drumset Solo)

~ ~

.. II: &

I7

87
91
95

II
99

'7

88
92
96

~
/

~
2

'7

100

89
93
97

~
I

'7

J
I

101

48

_
'7

,
I

Play 3 times

:11

90
94
98

,
I

I
102

~
I

'7

J
.ff

(K long Ynw & Conga enter)

,<

3flf7

,<

f+'

103
111
119

104
112
120

,,

105

31=:7'

121

109

110

117

'"

125

"

106
114
122

113

Play 3 rimes
/

,,

:11 ,

I,

107
115

" ".

123

12'

116

12.

127

12'

13"

"

"

II

12'

I Breakdown I
(Sollndshapcs & 16 inch Djcmbe)

,,

3fl1:

131
135

,
<

,,

<

132
136
140

139

143

Play 4 rimes

133

134
138
142
146

137

141
145

'"

"

:11

(All Perclission In strulllents with Drulllset & Bass so lo)


(Triangle & Pandi cro enter)

3flf7

I <<

147
ISS
163

148
IS'
164
172

171

<

II

14'

"

IS"
156
16'

1S7
165
173

<

1S3
161
16'

IS'
162
170

177

'"

:IF/

<

IS'
167

175

I,

<

181

""

17'

"

,,

,,

152
16"
16.
17'

lSI

174

Play 4 rimes (Sa mba whist le cucs brcak)


<

'"

I lJreak 3 1

(unison brea k all in stnlll1Cnl s)


>

31

,1TJ

<

>

>

>

>

>

3 J J J ,,J J J J I ill ill


185

'"

"3

>

>

>

>

J Jp; J J J

'"
r.,

>

31

"7

,J J J

<

>

>

:7?

>

1
188

.J J

>

>

~ ~ ~

Id
'"

~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~

pi
190

.J. ~ ~

II
IEnd l

49

CHAPTER 3: SAMBA
The Samba rhythmic style is the most popular of the many Afro-Brazilian music and dance forms. The carnival celebrations in Rio de Janeiro gave the Samba worldwide recognition.
The Samba groups are referred to as Escola de Samba. Each group chooses the theme for the decoration of the
floats, costumes, dancers, marchers, music, and lyrics and is judged on different categories. These are big productions including organizers, choreographers, dancers, costume designers, drummers, singers, painte rs, sculptors, and
musicians.
Most Samba groups are quite large and can have up to 5000 members. The percussion section is called
the "bate ria" (which means the percussion section or drumset) and can include anywhere from 300 to 500
percussionists.
The influence of Brazilian music is heard in jazz as wel l as contemporary music. Some musicians and groups influenced by Brazilian music are Stan Getz, Charlie Byrd, Chick Corea, and Santana.
Some of the traditional percussion instruments include different sized surdos, shakers, tamborims, ago-go bells ,
cuica, snare drums, repinique, pandeiro, cymbals, triangle, and caxixi.
The Samba is felt in two and written in cut time (2/2) . The low-pitched percussion instruments (surdo) and bass play
the accent on beat 2.

50

Rhythm Indexes
The Rhythm Index is a breakdown of rhythms from the Samba percussion score written in cut time (2/2). Cut time
means there are two beats per measure, and the half note gets th e beat (pulse).
Listen to each four-bar example, then answer the rhythm played in the next four bars while tapping your foot to the
half-note pu lse. The twenty-two examples will take you through the enti re Rhythm Index and wi ll help build your rhythmic vocabulary. Playing (locki ng in) with the shaker will he lp you to develop a strong time feel.

0>

d= 80

I
2

Track 33
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51

Track 34 is an examp\e of aU the rhythms in the' score at the tempo of the chart.
First listen and then play along with the track. Remember to lock in with the shaker while tapping half notes with
your foot.

0>
Track 34

d=110

r--3------,

52

Now that you're familiar with the rhythms included in the Samba percussion score, play one rhythm into the next, and
then play the bars at random one after another wh ile tapping half notes with your foot. This wi ll help you to develop
improvising skills to be used with the score. Use the worksheet on the following page to document your own rhythms.
Experiment with different tempos and dynamics .
a

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53

Worksheet

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54

Samba Score
The Samba score shows all the percussion and drumset parts that are featured demonstrations on tracks 35-42 and
played on the chart (tracks 46 and 47).
Take the time to learn the following demonstrations and concentrate on your time feel, different tempos, and dynamics. After mastering the parts in the percussion score, retu rn to the worksheet and write your own rhythms that can
be applied to the score.

Large Su rdos 2
16" Floor To ms 2
L:lrgc SOll nd Shapes

III .I.R

~
I.

Sma ll Surdos
12" 1'oll1Toms
j\'icdi u lII SO ll lld Shapes

Shakers

Rcpiniqucs

i-IHI ~L

Snare Drums

Ago-go Dell s
Ago-go Dru llIs

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= Muted Tones

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Low

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T = Tips (Fingers)
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.... = Muted Tones
0 = Open TOile s

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0 = Open Tones

Snare Drum
Bass Drum

I-li-hat w/foou l3ass Dnall

J J J J :11
I(

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55

Instrument Demonstrations
The following demonstrations are examples of the basic technique and hand positions used for each percussion
instrument played in the Samba score. Refer to tracks 35- 42.

Shaker

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Shakers are containers, usually made of plastic, metal, or wood , which are commonly filled with a variety of materials such as small pebbles, rice, sand, or beans. The function of the shaker is to move the time feel forward in the
ensemble. It can also be used for sound effects by shaking the instrument with a swift motion. Different techniques
can be used to play the shaker with either one hand (see figure 1 and figure 2) or both hands together (see figure 3) .
The motion used will affect the overall feel and can be played with or without accents. Accented notes require a broader movement, and unaccented notes utilize less motion.
Let's review this basic example first:

>~--~--~--~

>r---~----r---~

>----~--~--~

>r---~----~--~

-')'--'-_-><J'------"-J_-'J"-------"J_--"-J_~J'-----><.J_-II..x.r_-"J _-><J'-------><.J_-'J>L_-><J'------"-J_-'J'--------<:II

-ftiJf.-l
:

Now listen to the time feel of the shaker demonstration on track 35 and then play along with track 46.

G
Track 35
>

-fl~-II :

56

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>

J=::J

>

IJ

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:11

Surdos

Figure 1

Figure 2

The surd o is the pulse and provides the bottom or bass tone for the percussion ensemble. They are large two-headed drums usually made of wood or metal and are played with a soft mallet. While the mallet in one hand plays the
accented notes (see figure 1), the other hand plays muted or ghost notes (see figure 2) to accompany the main pulse.
They come in a variety of sizes, categorized as small, medium, and larg e. Surdo marcana is the largest of the three
drums, and the approximate sizes are 24" x 20", 22" x 24", and 20" x 22" (an 18-inch or 16-inch floor tom can be used
as a substitute for the large surdo). The contra-surdo is the medium drum, and the sizes are approximately 15" x 16",
16" x 18", and 18" x 16" (a 14-inch or 13-inch tom-tom can be used as a substitute for the medium surdo) . The surdocortador is the smallest of three, and th e sizes vary from 12" x 13" to 13" x 14" (a 12-inch or 1O-inch tom-tom can be
used as a substitute for the small surdo).
Liste n to the large su rd o demonstration on track 35 and then play along with track 46.

-111-1:

I.

..

~~

0>
Track 35

~~

IJ

J.

I.

I.

:11

Now listen to the small surdo demonstration on track 35 and then play along with CD track 46.

_I~-II!;-:-'JL-L

--1I-_ _-,,--.J_ _
R

0>
Track 35

0 0

~J"----_-I-ILJ- --ll! - - ----.J'- - ---.-'\J'-----'f,_--"}'----;:II


R

f{

+ - Muted NOles
Open Tones

"

+. Muted Noles
0 - Opcn Tones

57

Ojembe

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

The djembe originated in West Africa and is one of the oldest drums in existence. It's traditionally crafted of wood with
a metal rim and tuning rods or rope. The sharp, bright sound and dynamic range of colors is played with bare hands
on animal skin (goat, cow, ante lope) or plastic, wh ich is stretched over one opening . Drum head sizes vary from 9 to
18 inches in diameter. Tuning can be achieved by a tu ning key on metal rods or by tightening the knots on the rope.
The djembe can be used both as an accompanying instrument and as a solo instrument.
There is a broad spectrum of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead . One is
the bass tone, which is th e lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see figure 1) must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling . The middle tenor or open tone (see figure 2) can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. The slap is a sharp defined sound , which can be played muted (see figu re 3) , open , or closed .
Finger strokes are also sometimes used to embellish the primary rhythms.
Listen to the 16" djembe demonstration on track 36 and then play along with track 46 .

0>

Track 36
s
-Ilfll:

j
R

58

It

It

I.

LI

It

It

I.

S " Slap

TOlles

-'- =

~ hH Cd

0 '"

Opcn Tones

Repinique

The repinique is a Brazilian percussion instrument often used as a lead, cue, or solo instrument for the percussion
section of the Samba. Th e small double-headed drum is usually made of metal (a snare drum without the snares can
used as a substitute for the repinique drum) and is traditionally played with one stick in hand wh ile the other hand
plays ghost notes to accompany the main rhythm. Th e examples shown below are played with two sticks.
Listen to the repinique demonstration on track 37 and then play along with track 46.

Q)
Track 37

2 Rcpiniqucs-u-!-tl:

>

>

>

>

>

:11

59

Pandeiro

Figure 3

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 5

The Pandeiro is a Brazilian instrument similar to the tambourine. It is a single-headed (calf-skin or plastic) frame drum
with loosely arranged jingles around the sides of the instrument. They vary in size, but the most common sizes are
10" and 12".
The technique used to play the pandeiro requires practice and patience. It is held in one hand, which produces open
(see figure 1) and muted (see figure 2) tones. The other hand strikes the top of the head with the thumb (see figure
3) , fingertips (see figure 4) , or heel (see figure 5). This technique will produce a stream of quavers, which has a distinct sound .
Listen to the four-bar phrase pandeiro demonstration on track 38 and then play along with track 46.

Track 38
+

_I~-II: J J
1

J JJ

T h T I-I

TTh

2 Th

il

Th

Th

11

Th

Til

4 Th

Th " Thumb

1--1-"1.J"-~J"-,.J,-,,JL..AJ'---~i_-t_.LJ-LJ_,J~J"-,J,--"J,--",J--",J-+-'IJ....-'J<-.. oJ'-"J'--"'J_ t..-;j'11T = Tip, (" ..001


TilT

Th

('.

H"' HccJ

0 "" Opcn Tones

+ = ~'IU1ed Tones

60

KlongYaw

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

The klong yaw (see figure 1) is a drum from Thailand . Their unique shape , long body, and low tones add an original
character to the religious music of the Buddhist temples. Although they are traditionally pitched very low and originally
made of wood with an animal skinhead , Remo klong yaw heads come with high-pitched basic tuning and a rope tension system that gives them a wide range of tones from bass end lows to crisp highs. This gives them an even more
unique and cavernous sound . The Remo klong yaws are available in four sizes (8" , 9.25" , 11.25", and 13.25") with
instrument heights ranging from 27 to 31 inches.
There is a wide range of sounds that can be produced by the different hand positions on the drumhead. One is the
bass tone, which is the lowest frequency sound that can be produced with the center of the drumhead. To get this
sound, one's hand or fist (see figure 2) must strike the drum with an immediate bounce to prevent the sound from
muffling. The midd le tenor or open tone (see figure 3) can be achieved by playing with the fingers and palm towards
the edge of the drum. The slap is a sharp defined sound , which can be played muted (see figure 4) , open, or closed.
Finger strokes (tabla techniques) are also sometimes used to embellish the primary rhythms.
Listen to the 9.25" klong yaw demonstration on track 39 and then play along with track 46.

Track 39
+

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)
J I ;' ) i' J
:'
-\ ' 2_1,: _J,--~J"-_+--_~)"'-_4"_ _ __~_-"._-I-+--_-"-_-'l-_-"-_~
~

~-

"

-;j:11 + = Muted Tones


o = Opcn Toncs

61

Snare Drum

The snare drum is descended from military drums and is still associated with marching bands. It plays an important
role in Brazilian music as well as other music styles.
The drum is played in a horizontal position , supported by a stand or hanging at the playeris side in a marching formation. Only the upper head is struck with a wooden stick . The bottom head has calgut or metal wires (snares)
stretched across, producing a rattling sound (when the drum is struck) as they vibrate against the head. Commonly,
a lever on the side of Ihe drum will loosen the snares, eliminating the rattle. Special effects played by the snare drum
include playing with the snares off, using different type sticks , playing the edge or middle of the head, and playing the
rim. The shells as well as the hoops are commonly made of metal or wood .
Listen to the snare drum demonstration on track 40 and then play along with track 46.

0>
Track 40
>

-1~11:

62

.J

>

>

>

.J

>

>

>

.J

:11

Ago-go Bells/Ago-go Drums

Figure 1

Figure 2

The ago-go bells (see figure 1) are cone-shaped bells connected together by a metal rod , which come in sets of two,
three , or four bells. The bells are played with a wooden or metal stick. Other variations of the metal ago-go bells
include the wooden ago-go bells and the ago-go drums (see figure 2).
Listen to the ago-go bell and ago-go drum demonstration on track 40 and then play along with track 46.

G
Track 40

..,

.,,

~!

High

:11 low

63

Sound Shapes

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Th e Sound Shapes are lightweight and portable pre-tuned hand drums manufactured by Remo. They can be played
with a stick or mallet and come in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes: circu lar (6" , 8",10",12", 14", and 16") , triang le (6.5" x 9") , rectangle (9" square) , round (9") , and half-round (9"). They're fun for groups of any size, whether in
class or drum circles. Sound Shapes can be used as substitute instruments within the score .
The technique used to play th e Sound Shapes is simple in nature. Held in one hand, muted tones (see figures 1 and
4) or open tones (see figures 2 and 3) can be played. Ghost notes can be played by tapping the fingers on the head
(see figure 5).
Below are examples of the large and smal l su rdo parts played with Sound Shapes. Listen to the Sound Shape
demonstration on track 41 and then play along with track 46.

G
Track 41
+

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64

+
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~
L

,
l

+
I

IJ
L

,
l

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Largo Surdo Pan

:'

..b
R

+ = i\'lutcd Tones
0 '"

r-l

:11

:11

Small 5 urdo Pan

Open Tones

Drumset

Percussion instruments have existed since 6000 B.C., all over the world. The drumset was invented in the nineteenth
century, after the invention of the bass drum pedal. This allowed a single person to play multiple percussion parts
simultaneously. The drumset took off with a bang at the beginning of the twentieth century, when drummers commonly
accompanied jazz musicians.
The standard drumset consists of a bass drum, snare drum, two tom toms, hi-hat cymbals, ride cymbal , and two crash
cymbals. Sizes vary considerably from 24"-18" bass drums to 8"-18" toms and snare drums of all shapes and sizes.
Dru mmers such as Louie Bellson, Keith Moon, Ginger Baker, and Billy Cobham pioneered the two bass drum techniques. Rock drummers at times used large tom and cymbal setups. Calfskin drumheads were eventually replaced by
plastic heads, and a large variety of sticks and brushes were invented. Cymbals and gongs were made of different
types of metals or alloys such as brass, copper, bronze, tin, nickel, and zinc. Some drummers use triggers in their
drumsets and external pads to trigger samplers and other midi devices.
Listen to the drumset demonstration on track 42 and play along with track 46.

G
Track 42
4-Bar Phrase

It

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r
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LR

J
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>------------------~

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4 :

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lUL
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Snare Dnlln

Uass Dnlln
IIi-ha1 w/footll3ass Drum

>

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R
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R

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11

65

Samba Breaks
Listen to Break #1 on track 43. The samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break. Once you become
familiar with the break, try improvising within the spaces.

0>
Track 43

IBreak #1\

.. i

Pick-up Bar

I~

.. j

Listen to Break #2 on track 44. The samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break. Play the top line
in unison with the ensemble. The surdos or other low tone instruments should play the bottom line.

0>
Track 44

IBreak #2 I
.---3---,

.---3---,

.. i

r
f

~3---,

J J ....J J J IJ

~
~

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IF J J ....J J J IJ~

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IGroup
Surdos

:
~3---,

II

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:>

,d

J J

.---3---,

:>

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J J ....J J J

I~

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IIGroup
Surdos

:>

Listen to Break #3 on track 45. The samba whistle will cue the ensemble four bars before the break. The fives and the
sevens shown in parenthesis indicate subdivided groups of twos and threes over the bar line to create syncopations.
Practice this phrase while tapping the half-note pulse with your foot, and then play only the accents while tapping the
half-note pulse with your foot.

0>
Track 45

IBreak #3 I

5---,

oj

:>

:>

:>

7
:>

II

J J J J

:>

j
.ff

cresco

:>

:>

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J J J

:>

.Iff

It is important to memorize the breaks to be ready to play the chart.

66

-----,

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mp

f
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:>

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cresco

5
:>

:>

:>

J J J

:>

:>

:>

J J J J

II

Samba Chart
Now that you 've lea rn ed the breaks, liste n to the Samba composition on track 46 (with drumset) and play along with
the perc uss ion instrument yo u've bee n wo rking on. Th en learn a differe nt in strum ent and play along with th e
ense mble.
When you are ready to play drumset with the composition, play along with track 47.

0)
Track 46 with Drumset
Track 47 without Drumset

I intro I

(So llndshnpes, 16 inch Djcmbe)

,,

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,,

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2
10

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13

14

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rm(Sha ker, Large Surdo


37

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31

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33

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44

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49

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32

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3B

37

(Ago-go Bel ls & Ago-Go Drums e nte r)

II: ,
I

(Sa mba \Vhist[c Cll e for break)


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43

42
45

45

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35

35

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29

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20

24

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(Small Surdo enters)

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2B

(Sn are Drum en ters)

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16

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& Rcpiniqllc ent er)

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51

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52

4B

67

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Unison Break for All Instruments (Drumset Solos)

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[A4] Repin ique Improv ises with Talking Drum


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69

Cymbals
The following is a description of the various cymbals used throughout the book and recording of the CD.

Exotic Percussion Series

Cup Chime set

Cup Chime single

The Cup Chimes are a set of five cymbals varying in pitch and size. These cymbals feature an exotic, dominant center tone with lively, fl anging over and undertones. The sound character can be described as bright, warm , and brilliant
with a soft, extremely responsive, shattering , glassy attack with modulating warm long fade.

Traditional Series

Medium Ughl Traditional Hi-Hats

Medium Heavy Traditional Ride

The Medium Light Traditi onal Hi -Hats consist of thin top and heavy bottom cymbals. Th e sound character can be
described as dark, warm, and silvery with a soft, responsive feel.
The Medium Heavy Traditional Ride sound character can be described as medium dark, ful l, and warm with a clear
stick sound. This instrument produces a lively, medium sustain with a fairly strong woody ping, which can be played
soft to medium loud vol umes.

Signature Series
The Fast Crash is extremely responsive and fades fast with beautiful , dark shimmer. The sound character can be
described as full , bright, silvery, and warm with a washy stick sound and short sustain.

Signature Fast Crash

70

Dimensions
The Thin Splash is a responsive, explosive, quick fading splash with a washy stick sound. This instrument produces
a slig htly dark, warm, airy sound also suited for hand playing.

Dimensions Thin Splash

Sound Creation Gongs


Each Sound Creation Gong has its own extraordinary and particular sound character. They offer various sounds, colors , and a wide range of harmonics and frequencies, from diffused crash-like timbres to defined and steady belllike tones.

Sound Creation Gong

71

Conclusion
In closing we would like to encourage you to focus on rhythmic awareness, time-feel, and self-expression through the
language of the drum. Good luck and keep groovin'.

Maria Martinez

Ed Roscetti

You can correspond with Maria and Ed and find out about their other Publications , CD's, videos,
workshops, and clinics by visiting their website at www.worldbeatrhythms.com

72

. . . . . . . CD . . . .......

.... natlClld.

r 5"