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Connection Handbook 1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel

Connection Handbook 1

BACKGROUND AND THEORY

Connection Handbook 1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections
Connection Handbook 1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections
Handbook 1: First Edition 2007
Handbook 1:
First Edition 2007
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.
1 BACKGROUND AND THEORY Handbook 1: First Edition 2007 Design of Structural Steel Connections Author T.J.

Design of Structural Steel Connections

Author T.J. Hogan Contributing author and editor S.A. Munter

Handbook 1. Design of structural steel connections.

by

T.J.Hogan

contributing author & editor S.A.Munter

first edition - 2007

1. Design of structural steel connections. by T.J.Hogan contributing author & editor S.A.Munter first edition -

AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE (ABN)/ACN (94) 000 973 839

Handbook 1. Design of structural steel connections

Copyright © 2007 by AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

Published by: AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of Australian Steel Institute.

Note to commercial software developers: Copyright of the information contained within this publication is held by Australian Steel Institute (ASI). Written permission must be obtained from ASI for the use of any information contained herein which is subsequently used in any commercially available software package.

FIRST EDITION 2007 (LIMIT STATES)

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry:

Hogan, T.J. Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections

1 st ed.

Bibliography.

ISBN 978 0 909945947 (pbk.).

1. Steel, Structural—Standards - Australia.

2. Steel, Structural—Specifications - Australia.

3. Joints, (Engineering)—Design and construction.

I. Munter, S.A.

II. Australian Steel Institute.

III. Title

(Series: Structural steel connection series; 1).

This publication originated as part of Design of structural connections First edition 1978 Second edition 1981 Third edition 1988 Fourth edition 1994

Also in this series:

Design capacity tables for structural steel, Volume 3: Simple connections – open sections Design Guide 1: Bolting in structural steel connections Design Guide 2: Welding in structural steel connections Design Guide 3: Web side plate connections Design Guide 4: Flexible end plate connections Design Guide 5: Angle cleat connections Design Guide 6: Seated connections

Disclaimer: The information presented by the Australian Steel Institute in this publication has been prepared for general information only and does not in any way constitute recommendations or professional advice. While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without investigation and verification as to its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a competent professional person in this regard. The Australian Steel Institute, its officers and employees and the authors and editors of this publication do not give any warranties or make any representations in relation to the information provided herein and to the extent permitted by law (a) will not be held liable or responsible in any way; and (b) expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for any loss or damage costs or expenses incurred in connection with this publication by any person, whether that person is the purchaser of this publication or not. Without limitation, this includes loss, damage, costs and expenses incurred as a result of the negligence of the authors, editors or publishers.

The information in this publication should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent due diligence, professional or legal advice and in this regards the services of a competent professional person or persons should be sought.

a competent professional person or persons should be sought. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

professional person or persons should be sought. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

ii

CONTENTS

 

Page

List of figures

iv

List of tables

v

Preface

vi

About the author

vii

About the contributing author and editor

vii

Acknowledgements

viii

1 CONCEPT OF DESIGN GUIDES

1

1.1

Background

1

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2

2.1 General considerations

2

2.2 Forms of construction

3

2.3 Connection design models

6

2.4 Connection characteristics

7

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

10

3.1 Bolt types and bolting categories

10

3.2 Bolt dimensions

11

3.3 Dimensions of wrenches for installing bolts

12

3.4 Bolt mechanical properties

14

3.5 Design requirements for bolts

15

3.6 AS 4100 Design requirements— Strength limit state

17

3.7 AS 4100 design requirements— Serviceability limit state

23

3.8 Geometric requirements of AS 4100 for bolted connections

26

3.9 Bolt group loaded in-plane

28

3.10 Design example No. 1— Design of bolts in lap splice connection

39

3.11 Design example No. 2— Design of bolt group loaded in-plane

41

3.12 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane

44

3.13 Prying action

46

3.14 Design example No. 3— Design of bolt group loaded out-of-plane

50

4 WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

52

4.1 Weld types

52

4.2 Standard weld symbols

53

4.3 Selection of prequalified welding consumables

54

4.4 Weld categories

55

4.5 Design of butt welds— Strength limit state

56

4.6 Design of fillet welds— Strength limit state

58

4.7 Weld group loaded in-plane

62

4.8 Weld group loaded out-of-plane

66

 

Page

4.9 Weld group loaded by general set of design actions

67

4.10 Properties of common fillet weld groups

69

4.11 Practical fillet weld groups

71

4.12 Design example No. 4— Design of fillet weld group loaded in-plane

75

4.13 Design example No. 5— Design of fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane

76

5 CONNECTION COMPONENTS

77

5.1 Angle components

77

5.2 Flat bar components

79

5.3 Plate components

80

5.4 Design capacities

81

6 SUPPORTED MEMBERS

86

6.1 General

86

6.2 Uncoped sections

87

6.3 Design example No. 6— UB unholed and holed moment and shear capacity

93

6.4 Single web coped sections

95

6.5 Design example No. 7— UB single web coped moment and shear capacity

101

6.6 Double web coped sections

102

6.7 Design example No. 8— UB double web coped moment and shear capacity

105

6.8 Lateral torsional buckling

106

6.9 Block shear failure of coped sections

107

6.10 Web reinforcement of coped supported members

109

7 SUPPORTING MEMBERS

110

7.1 Rationalised dimensions

110

7.2 Gauge lines

113

8 MINIMUM DESIGN ACTIONS ON CONNECTIONS 116

8.1 AS 4100 Requirements 116

9 REFERENCES

118

APPENDICES

A Limcon software

120

B ASI Handbook 1 comment form

125

software 120 B ASI Handbook 1 comment form 125 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

120 B ASI Handbook 1 comment form 125 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

iii

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Page

Page

Figure 1

Rigid connections

4

Figure 33 Design forces per unit length

Figure 2

Simple connections

5

parallel to weld group axes x, y, z .61

Figure 3

Moment rotation characteristics

Figure 34 Fillet weld subject to longitudinal

of typical connections

7

and transverse shear forces

61

Figure 4

End plate tear-out failure edge

Figure 35 General fillet weld group 63

distances

16

Figure 36 Horizontal and vertical weld

Figure 5

End plate tear-out failure force

component forces at a point

components

16

in a weld group 65

Figure 6

End plate tear-out, simple case

16

Figure 37 Fillet weld group loaded

Figure 7

Lap joint and brace/gusset

out-of-plane

66

connection

21

Figure 38 General fillet weld group 67

Figure 8

Bolt group subject to in-plane

Figure 39 Possible critical points in

moment

28

particular fillet weld group 71

Figure 9

Bolt group subject to shear

Figure 40 Fillet weld group loaded in-

 

forces at centroid

in-plane

29

and out-of-plane

72

Figure 10 Bolt group subject to a general load set

29

Figure 41 Two parallel vertical welds loaded out-of-plane

72

Figure 11 Graphical relationship—Bolt force to component displacement

30

Figure 42 Two parallel horizontal welds loaded out-of-plane

74

Figure 12 Horizontal and vertical bolt forces at an extreme bolt

31

Figure 43 Fillet weld group loaded in-plane 75 Figure 44 Fillet weld group loaded

Figure 13 Single bolt column loaded

out-of-plane

76

in-plane

32

Figure 45 Rectangular connection

Figure 14 Single bolt column–Forces and edge distances for end plate tear-out or bearing failure

33

component geometry 81 Figure 46 Rectangular component design moment capacity—Major axis 82

Figure 15 Double bolt column loaded

35

Figure 47 Rectangular component design moment capacity—Minor axis 82

Figure 16 Double bolt column–Forces and edge distances for end plate

Figure 48 Rectangular component design capacity in axial tension

83

tear-out or bearing failure

36

Figure 49 Examples of block shear

Figure 17 Bolted plate splice

39

failure in components

84

Figure 18

Bolt group loaded in-plane

41

Figure 50 Block shear area in components

85

Figure 19 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane—

Figure 51 Section with holes in both flanges .88

Design actons

44

Figure 52 Section with holes in one flange

88

Figure 20 Double bolt column geometry

45

Figure 53 Section with holes in one flange

89

Figure 21 Prying mechanism in T-stub

Figure 54 Single web coped (SWC) sections 95

connection Figure 22 Graphical relationship—Bolt

46

Figure 55 SWC universal beam (UB) Figure 56 T-Section of SWC UB showing

95

load/applied load for a stiff T-stub flange

47

elastic neutral axis 96 Figure 57 SWC UB T-section with plastic

Figure 23 Graphical relationship—Bolt load/applied load for a flexible

neutral axis in web Figure 58 SWC UB T-section with plastic

96

T-stub flange

47

neutral axis in the flange

97

Figure 24 T-stub critical dimensions and

Figure 59 SWC universal beam example

101

design actions

48

Figure 60 Double web coped (DWC)

Figure 25 T-stub parameters

48

sections 102

Figure 26 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane

50

Figure 61 Elastic neutral axis in

 

Figure 27 T-stub geometry

51

DWC

section

103

Figure 28

Weld types

52

Figure 62 DWC universal beam example

105

Figure 29 Symbols for welds on drawings

53

Figure 63 Block shear failure in DWC

Figure 30 Design throat thickness of

members

107

incomplete penetration butt weld

57

Figure 64 Block shear area in SWC

Figure 31 Design throat thickness of fillet welds

58

and DWC members 108 Figure 65 Web reinforcement of coped

Figure 32 Design actions on a fillet weld

60

supported members 109

actions on a fillet weld 60 supported members 109 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

on a fillet weld 60 supported members 109 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

iv

LIST OF TABLES

 

Page

Page

Table 1

Bolt category identification

12,13

Table 28

Gauge lines

for angles

78

system

10

Table 29

Strengths of angles to

Table 2

Dimensions of commercial

AS/NZS 3679.1 Grade 300 78

bolts and nuts

11

Table

30

Flats

79

Table 3

Dimensions of high strength

Table 31

Strength of plate to AS/NZS 3678

structural bolts and nuts

11

Grade 250

80

Table 4

Dimensions of wrenches for determining erection

Table 32A Universal beams, Grade 300— Design section moment and

clearances

web capacities

91

Table 5

Metric hexagon commercial bolts . 14

Table 32B Parallel flange channels,

Table 6

High strength structural bolts

14

Grade 300—Design section

Table 7

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2 provisions,

moment and web capacities

91

strength limit state, static loads

17

Table 32C Welded beams, Grade 300—

Table 8

Design areas of bolts

18

Design section moment and

Table 9

Strength limit state commercial

web capacities

92

bolts 4.6/S bolting category

19

Table 33A Single web coped universal

Table 10

Strength limit state high strength structural bolts 8.8/S, 8.8/TB,

beams, Grade 300—Design section moment and shear

8.8/TF bolting categories

20

capacities

99

Table 11

Reduction factor for lap

Table 33B Single web coped parallel

connections

22

flange channels, Grade 300—

Table 12

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.3

Design section moment and

provisions serviceability

shear capacities

100

limit state—Static loads

24

Table 34A Double web coped universal

Table 13

Serviceability limit state high strength structural bolts 8.8/TF

beams, Grade 300—Design section moment and shear

bolting category

25

capacities

104

Table 14

Minimum edge distances

26

Table 34B Double web coped parallel

Table 15

AS 4100 provisions for slotted

flange channels, Grade 300—

and oversize holes

27

Design section moment and

Table 16

Single bolt column

32

shear capacities

104

Table 17

Bolt group design factors

Table 35

Universal beams rationalised

for single column of bolts

34

dimensions for detailing 110

Table 18

Double bolt column

35

Table 36

Universal columns rationalised

Table 19

Bolt group factors for double

dimensions for detailing 110

column of bolts

37

Table 37

Welded beams rationalised

Table 20

Bolt group factors for double

dimensions for detailing 111

column of bolts

38

Table 38

Welded columns rationalised

Table 21

Prequalified welding

dimensions for detailing 111

consumables

54

Table 39

Parallel flange channels

Table 22

Strength of weld metal

54

rationalised dimensions for

Table 23

Design capacities of equal

detailing 112

leg fillet welds per unit length

Table 40

Gauge lines for universal

Category SP

59

sections 113

Table 24

Design capacities of equal leg fillet welds per unit length

Table 41

Gauge lines for welded section flanges 114

Category GP

59

Table 42

Gauge lines for welded section

Table 25

Properties of common fillet weld

webs 114

groups treated as line elements

69

Table 43

Gauge lines for parallel flange

Table 26

Equal angles—Rationalised

channels 115

dimensions for detailing

77

Table 27

Unequal angles—Rationalised

dimensions for detailing

77

angles—Rationalised dimensions for detailing 77 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

dimensions for detailing 77 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition v

v

PREFACE

This new series of connection publications by the Australian Institute of Steel (ASI) covering capacity tables, theory and design of individual simple connections will be known as the Structural Steel Connections Series, Part 1: 1 st ed. 2007 (“Connection Series, Part 1”). This Connection Series, Part 1 details the method of design and provides capacity tables and detailing parameters for a range of simple connections commonly used for structural steelwork in Australia. Connections have a major engineering and economic importance in steel structures influencing design, detailing, fabrication and erection costs. Standardisation of design approach integrated with industry detailing is the key to minimum costs at each stage. This Connections Series, Part 1 in conjunction with the future Connection Series, Part 2 for rigid connections (collectively the Structural Steel Connections Series or “Connection Series”) replaces and enhances an ASI flagship publication first released in 1978 at which time connection design theories were developed for the purpose of generating and releasing connection capacity tables. The first three editions were released in permissible stress format. The fourth edition Design of Structural Connections (often referred to as the Green Book) was released in 1994 in limit state format but there was no subsequent release of a limit state companion document containing connection design capacity tables.

Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections is the hub of a new Connections Series expanding and revising the elemental connection theory contained in previous editions of Design of Structural Connections. This has been achieved through extensive local and international literature reviews using ASI’s close association with like organisations and searching the wealth of material contained in the ASI Library facility (the largest in the Southern Hemisphere). This process consolidated industry best practice, references and research papers. Handbook 1 formulates the elemental equations and procedures for the assessment of bolts, bolt groups, welds, weld groups, connection components and supporting members in standardised structural connections. Dimensions and clearances for bolt installation have been revised and new theory for bolt groups loaded out-of-plane added.

The new Connections Series format with separate design guides for individual connection types is intended to facilitate addition to or revision of connection model theory using relevant new local or international research as deemed appropriate by the ASI. Connection models developed using the Handbook 1 theory follow a stylised page format with a numbered DESIGN CHECK procedure to simplify connection capacity assessment. This Connection Series, Part 1 also revises the third edition of Bolting of steel structures in Design Guide 1 now known as Bolting in structural steel connections. Another important design guide (Design Guide 2) has been specifically developed called Welding in structural steel connections. Design Capacity Tables V3: Simple Connections – Open Sections consolidates design capacity tables contained in the individual connection design guides (specifically Design Guide 3: Web Side Plate, Design Guide 4: Flexible End Plate and Design Guide 5: Angle Cleat Connections) and is known as the Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel V3, Simple Connections (“Simple Connection DCTs

V3).

Engineering Systems has worked closely with the ASI to further develop Limcon as the companion program for this new Connection Series. The latest version of Limcon (V3.5) fully implements the new connection design models and was employed in checking the design tables. The Limcon output for one or more of the worked examples is included in an appendix to each design guide for each connection design type. The program is an efficient tool covering the full range of structural connections, including those beyond the scope of capacity tables provided in the Connection Series.

An appendix to each publication in the series also contains an ASI comment form. Users of this Connections Series are encouraged to photocopy this one page form and forward any suggested improvements which may be incorporated into future editions.

improvements which may be incorporated into future editions. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

T.J. Hogan

S.A. Munter

into future editions. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition T.J. Hogan S.A. Munter

vi

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Tim Hogan is Director of SCP Consulting Pty Ltd. His academic achievements include a Bachelor of Engineering from the University of NSW with 1 st Class Honours and the University Medal. Post graduate qualifications include a Master of Engineering Science and a Master of Business Administration. Tim is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CPEng and FIE Aust. status.

His early experience was on bridge design and construction with the NSW Public Works Department and subsequently as Development Engineer and then Engineering Manager with the Australian Institute of Steel Construction until 1980. Consulting experience with SCP Consulting since 1980 has included design and supervision of large steel framed buildings, industrial buildings, mill buildings, retail developments, defence infrastructure and composite steel-concrete buildings. His published works deal primarily with the areas of composite construction, steel connections, fabrication and erection of steel structures and he was a major contributor and editor of the Commentary to AS 4100. He is a member of a number of Standards Australia Committees dealing with steel and composite structures and is currently Chairman of Committee BD-001 Steel Structures and BD-032 Composite Construction. He received an award from Standards Australia for his contributions to writing of Australian Standards.

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR AND EDITOR

Scott Munter is now the National Structural Decking Manager for BlueScope Lysaght. He was formerly the National Manager—Engineering & Construction for the Australian Steel Institute (ASI) and worked in this role from 2000 to 2007. This key role involved setting the technical leadership of ASI in support of design and construction to enable the efficient specification and use of steel in construction. Responsibilities included ASI technical publications, advice on industry best practice, ASI and Code committees, presentations and lecturing.

Scott is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CP Eng & NPER (Structural) status. He holds a Bachelor of Structural Engineering from the University of Technology, Sydney with 1 st Class Honours and the University Medal. His professional career includes 15 years in consulting civil and structural engineering working for Tim Hogan at SCP Consulting. His consulting experience includes a strong steel focus with major infrastructure, industrial and commercial developments plus domestic construction.

and commercial developments plus domestic construction. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

commercial developments plus domestic construction. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition vii

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to extend special thanks to:

The ASI Connections Steering Ccommittee consisting of Richard Collins (Engineering Systems), Anthony Ng (OneSteel Market Mills), Arun Syam (Smorgon Steel Tube Mills) for their respective contributions with the development and review of the technical and editorial content of the revised ASI Connection Manual.

Significant contributions were made by:

Richard Collins—Engineering Systems in the development and upgrade of the Limcon software code in parallel with the design theory aiding in the editing and validation of the revised models.

Standards Australia for providing their technical typesetting expertise.

Whizzcad Pty Ltd with drafting and graphics for publishing.

ASI State Engineering & Construction Special Sub-Committees for progressive engineering and industry review of manuscripts.

Together with support of:

All facets of the ASI membership including design engineers, steelwork detailers and fabricators in contributing industry best practice and standards through ASI surveys and direct consultation to establish the theory and geometry in this new ASI Connection Manual.

the theory and geometry in this new ASI Connection Manual. handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

and geometry in this new ASI Connection Manual. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

viii

1 CONCEPT OF DESIGN GUIDES

1.1

Background

The ASI was formed in 2002 through the merger of Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and Steel Institute of Australia (SIA). The former AISC published a design manual giving guidance on the design of structural connections in steelwork (Ref. 2).

ASI is updating Reference 2 by way of the Connection Series including design guides, dealing with connection parts and individual connection types. The overall series of connections publications will be known as the Connections Series.

The former AISC also published a manual containing standardised detailing for simple connections, accompanied by load tables (Ref. 3).

Wherever possible each design guide for individual connection types contains standardised detailing and design capacity tables for the connection type covered by that design guide derived using the design models in that design guide.

The Connection Series is a specialist series devoted to the design of connections in structural steel in accordance with current Australian Standard AS4100 (Ref 1.), reflecting the current state of knowledge of connection behaviour from test results. In some instances, the test evidence is sparse and in other instances the evidence is contradictory or clouded. Each design guide in the Connection Series has been written by weighing the evidence to provide recommended design procedures based in part on the design procedures used in equivalent manuals and/or published papers.

Each design guide is intended to provide a design model which gives a reasonable estimate of connection design capacity and effort has been expended in researching and developing design models which can be justified on the basis of the available research and current design practice. It is to be emphasised that for the connections model presented, the design model is not the only possible model. It is therefore not intended to suggest that other models may not result in adequate connection capacity and further reference is made to the Disclaimer on page ii of this publication as to the required investigation and verification by a competent professional person or persons in regards to the accuracy, suitability and applicability of the materials provided in this Connections Series.

The connections dealt with are those presently in common use in Australia and reflect the types of connections covered within the earlier AISC Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 3).

earlier AISC Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 3). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

AISC Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 3). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 1

1

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.1

General considerations

In structural steel connections, there are two fundamental considerations:

(a)

the connection designer requires a realistic estimate of connection strength in order that a connection will be economical (not over-designed) and safe (design capacity exceeds design actions); and

(b)

the connection must be detailed in such a way that it is economic to fabricate and erect, while recognising that the connection detailing may have an important impact on the strength of the connection.

Any design model for assessing the strength of a connection must take account of the following four elements:

(i)

the strength of the fasteners (bolts and welds);

(ii)

the strength of the connection components (plates, flat bars, angles, gusset plates);

(iii)

the strength of the connected member in the vicinity of the connection;

(iv)

the strength of the supporting member in the vicinity of the connection.

Codes for the design of steel structures primarily deal with member design as a whole, rather than specifically allowing for local effects, and provide only the basic information on fastener design. No code specifies a detailed design procedure for any type of connection, leaving the assessment of how a connection behaves and how its behaviour should be allowed for in design to the individual designer. This presents the designer with a considerable task considering the large number of different connection types that may be encountered, each requiring individual research and assessment. A series such as this seeks to assist the designer by providing guidance in order to reduce the task considerably.

providing guidance in order to reduce the task considerably. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

guidance in order to reduce the task considerably. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

2

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.2

Forms of construction

AS 4100 allows for three forms of construction which relate to the behaviour of the connections. It then requires that the design of the connections be such that the structure is capable of resisting all design actions, calculated by assuming that the connections are appropriate to the form of construction of the structure or structural part. The design of the connections required is to be consistent with the form of construction assumed.

The three forms of construction are:

Rigid construction—For rigid construction, the connections are assumed to have sufficient rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged. The joint deformations must be such that they have no significant influence on the distribution of the action effects nor on the overall deformation of the frame.

Semi-rigid construction—For semi-rigid construction, the connections may not have sufficient rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged, but are required to have the capacity to furnish dependable and known degree of flexural restraint. The relationship between the degree of flexural restraint and the level of the load effects is required to be established by methods based on test results.

Simple construction—For simple construction, the connections at the ends of members are assumed not to develop bending moments. Connections between members in simple construction must be capable of deforming to provide the required rotation at the connection and are required to not develop a level of restraining bending moment which adversely affects any part of the structure. The rotation capacity of the connection must be provided by the detailing of the connection and must have been demonstrated experimentally. The connection is then required to be considered as subject to reaction shear forces acting at an eccentricity appropriate to the connection detailing.

Examples of rigid connections include (Figure 1):

—welded moment connection

—bolted moment end plate

—moment splice (bolted or welded)

—moment transmitting base plate.

Examples of simple connections include (Figure 2):

—angle seat

—bearing pad

—flexible end plate

—angle cleat

—web side plate or fin plate.

end plate —angle cleat —web side plate or fin plate. handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

plate —angle cleat —web side plate or fin plate. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

3

FIGURE 1 RIGID CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 4
FIGURE 1 RIGID CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 4

FIGURE 1

RIGID CONNECTIONS

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

FIGURE 1 RIGID CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 4

4

FIGURE 2 SIMPLE CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 5
FIGURE 2 SIMPLE CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 5

FIGURE 2

SIMPLE CONNECTIONS

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

FIGURE 2 SIMPLE CONNECTIONS handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 5

5

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.3

Connection design models

Clause 9.1.3 of AS 4100 (Ref. 1) nominates the basic requirements that any design model must have for the design of a steel connection if the design model is to be acceptable. These requirements are as follows:

‘Each element in a connection shall be designed so that the structure is capable of resisting all design actions. The design capacities of each element shall be not less than the calculated design action effects.

Connections and the adjacent areas of members shall be designed by distributing the design action effects so that they comply with the following requirements:

(a)

The distributed design action effects are in equilibrium with the design action effects acting on the connection.

(b)

The deformations in the connection are within the deformation capacities of the connection elements.

(c)

All of the connection elements and the adjacent areas of members are capable of resisting the design action effects acting on them.

(d)

The connection elements shall remain stable under the design action effects and deformations.

Design shall be on the basis of a recognised method supported by experimental evidence.

Residual actions due to the installation of bolts need not be considered.’

The onus is placed on the structural steel designer to ensure that the actual behaviour of a connection does not have a deleterious effect on the members of the steel frame and that the connection conforms to the requirements specified in AS 4100 (Ref. 1).

AS 4100 attempts to correct for the difference between assumed and real behaviour only in the case of simple construction. AS 4100 recognises that real simple connections will actually transmit some bending moment as well as the shear force for which such connections are designed (see Section 2.4).

These bending moments are conservatively neglected in proportioning the beams, since their magnitudes are at present not reliably known, but they are accounted for in proportioning the columns through the application of AS 4100 Clause 4.3.4, which requires the line of action of a beam reaction to be taken at 100 mm from the face of the column towards the span, or at the centre of bearing, whichever is the greater. Thus all building columns in practice become beam- columns, being designed for at least this minimum level of bending moment from a connection.

Note that loss of rigidity in real ‘rigid’ connections will cause a redistribution of bending moments in a frame which may adversely affect some members (see Section 2.4).

which may adversely affect some members (see Section 2.4). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

may adversely affect some members (see Section 2.4). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

6

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.4

Connection characteristics

Figure 3 illustrates typical moment-rotation characteristics for a variety of both ‘simple’ and ‘rigid’ connections. It is clear from this figure that no connection is either fully rigid (vertical axis) or truly pinned (horizontal axis) and it is also apparent that whether a connection is ‘rigid’ or ‘simple’ may well depend on the rotation which is imposed on it by the supported member.

Although no connections are ideal pins, all of the typical simple connections would be suitable for simple design within the meaning of Clause 4.2 of AS 4100. Connections connect a ‘member’ to a ‘support’. In the case of simple connections, supports may be considered to be ‘flexible’ or ‘stiff’, in the extreme. In practice, no support is purely ‘flexible’ (i.e. all beam end rotation is accommodated by movement of the support) nor purely ‘stiff’ (i.e. all beam end rotation is accommodated by deformation within the connection), but rather lies somewhere between the two extremes.

but rather lies somewhere between the two extremes. FIGURE 3 MOMENT ROTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL

FIGURE 3

but rather lies somewhere between the two extremes. FIGURE 3 MOMENT ROTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL CONNECTIONS

MOMENT ROTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL CONNECTIONS

In a true flexible support situation, the laws of statics demand that the bolt or weld groups and the connection components must resist the full effect of the bending moment and shear at the position of the connection.

The bending moment at the support is a function of the stiffness and strength of the support and of the supported member, the detailing and strength of the bolt and weld groups, and the stiffness and strength of the connection components. Significant rotation may take place in the bolt group or in the connection components.

There are two extremes of design approach possible with a stiff support situation:

(a)

maintain a significant stiffness and strength throughout all elements of the connection;

(b)

arrange that some element of the connection is rotationally flexible (while not impairing the load carrying capability of the connection).

impairing the load carrying capability of the connection). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

the load carrying capability of the connection). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

7

It is generally assumed that the angle seat, bearing pad, flexible end plate and the angle cleat

connections can be detailed into category (b). It is, however, necessary in dimensioning the components for these connections to ensure that as much flexibility as possible is achieved. Making the ‘flexible’ component too stiff places unnecessary rotation requirements and bending moments on the other components and the support.

The web side plate connection nominally seems to fit into category (a). The weld is stiff and

possesses little ductile rotational capacity. The plate may be capable of significant rotation if a plastic hinge can form in it. The bolt group is also capable of significant rotation and tests suggest that most of the rotation occurs in the bolt group. Obviously, where the rotation occurs

is a function of the relative stiffnesses and strengths of the components, and their interactions.

A further complication is that it is possible to have two extremes of behaviour with a simple

connection attached to a stiff support:

(a)

rotation capacity provided directly adjacent to the support (flexible end plate, flexible angle cleat);

(b)

rotation capacity provided at a distance from the support (angle seat, web side plate).

Note that case (b) requires that the support and the components between the hinge and the

support always be subject to bending moment as well as shear force. Using the recommended design models for simple connections in relevant Design Guides of this Manual, the possibility

of either a stiff or a flexible support is accounted for in the formulation of the design model.

Another observation also should be made. In determining the design model to be adopted for a simple or rigid connection, the detailing practice, the effect of tolerances and the magnitude of the design capacities of connection elements must all be considered. Connection detailing practice differs between countries, as do the tolerances on the lengths of members, the tolerances on the positioning of members and the design capacities in many of the connection elements.

These factors may alter the significance of some aspects of any design model and consequently different design models may be appropriate in different countries. These factors can also create problems with the analysis of results from much of the research data, as the failure loads of the connection are often compared with the relevant design capacities of the time rather than being compared with the measured strength of the individual components within the connection.

It is very important to note that virtually all of the reported testing of simple connections has

been carried out in the stiff support situation. This is of some significance in assessing the

results and the reported connection behaviour, and is another reason why there is no distinction

in any of the Design Guides of this Manual between a stiff and a flexible support condition in the

recommended design models for any simple connection.

This Manual meets the requirements of AS 4100 by providing a rational and recognised design model for a range of common steel connections, each design model reflecting engineering principles and known connection behaviour from experimental data in each Design Guide. The emphasis in this Manual is on practical design models whose assumptions are transparent to the user. The model in each Design Guide is related to current codes of Standards Australia in respect of member and fastener design, and member and fastener mechanical properties, which are presented in this Design Guide.

The philosophy of the Manual is the same as that espoused in Reference 4, being as follows:

(i)

take into account overall connection behaviour, carry out an appropriate analysis in order to determine a realistic distribution of forces within the connection;

(ii)

ensure that each component or fastener in each action path has sufficient capacity to transmit the applied action;

(iii)

recognise that this procedure can only give a connection where equilibrium is capable of being achieved but where compatibility is unlikely to be satisfied, and therefore ensure that the connection elements are capable of ductile behaviour.

the connection elements are capable of ductile behaviour. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

connection elements are capable of ductile behaviour. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

8

Connections are considered in the Manual and in AS 4100 to consist of the following connection elements:

(A)

fasteners (bolts or welds);

(B)

components (plates, gussets, cleats);

(C)

supported members;

(D)

supporting members,

all of whose design capacities must be evaluated in order to estimate the design capacity of a connection. This Guide deals with the design capacity of these elements as isolated elements so that the formulae derived can be used in later Guides concerned with individual connections.

The design models contained within this Manual are considered to be applicable only to connections which are essentially statically loaded. Connections subject to dynamic loads, earthquake loads or fatigue applications may require additional considerations.

fatigue applications may require additional considerations. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

applications may require additional considerations. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 9

9

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.1

Bolt types and bolting categories

In Australia a standard bolting category identification system has been adopted in AS 4100 for use by designers and detailers. This system is summarised in Table 1.

TABLE

1

BOLT CATEGORY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

   

Details of bolt used

   

Bolting

 

Min. bolt

Min. bolt

   

Remarks

category

Property

tensile

yield

Bolt name

Australian

class

strength

strength

Standard

 

(MPa)

(MPa)

4.6/S

 

4.6

400

240

Commercial

AS 1111.1

Least costly and most commonly available is Grade 4.6 bolt. Use Snug tightened.

 

bolt

(Ref. 5)

8.8/S

 

8.8

830

660

High strength

AS/NZS 1252

Bolts are used Snug tightened. Now the most common procedure used in simple connections in Australia.

 

Structural

(Ref. 6)

Bolt

 

8.8/TF

8.8

830

660

High

 

In both applications, bolts are fully Tensioned to the requirements of AS 4100. Cost of tensioning is an important consideration in the use of these bolting procedures.

Strength

Structural

Bolt—Friction

type

AS/NZS 1252

(Ref. 6)

8.8/T

connection

8.8/TB

8.8

830

660

High strength

Structural

 

Bolt—

Bearing type

connection

 

The use of the various bolting categories is discussed in Reference 7 while the appropriate bolting category for each connection type is identified in the Design Guide for that connection type.

Generally, bolting categories 4.6/S and 8.8/S are used in simple connections while category 8.8/TB is used in rigid connections and bolted splices. Category 8.8/TF is recommended only

for use in connections where a no-slip connection under serviceability loads is essential. 8.8/TF

is

the only bolting category which requires consideration of the condition of the contact surfaces

in

a bolted connection.

Design drawings and shop detail drawings should both contain notes summarising Table 1.

The dimensions of bolts conforming to AS 1111.1 may be found in Table 2, while the dimensions of bolts conforming to AS/NZS 1252 may be found in Table 3. These dimensions are required for checking clearances in connections.

Connections also require detailing so that there is sufficient clearance for wrenches used to tighten the nut. Clearances for three common types of wrench are given in Table 4.

The mechanical properties of bolts specified in AS 1111.1 and AS/NZS 1252 are given in Tables 5 and 6.

A more detailed discussion of bolting generally may be found in Design Guide 1 (Reference 7).

generally may be found in Design Guide 1 (Reference 7). handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

may be found in Design Guide 1 (Reference 7). handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

10

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.2

Bolt dimensions

TABLE

2

DIMENSIONS OF COMMERCIAL BOLTS AND NUTS AS 1111.1 Bolts (Ref. 5), AS 1112.3 Nuts (Ref. 33)

 

Bolt

   

Nut

Washer

Desig-

Thread

Shank

Width

Width

Height

Width

Width

Height of

Outside

Nominal

nation

pitch

dia.

across

across

of head

across

across

normal

dia.

thickness

flats

corners

flats

corners

nuts

nom.

max.

min.

nom.

max.

min.

max.

max.

M12

1.75

12

18

20

8

18

20

12

24

2.5

M16

2.0

16

24

26

10

24

26

16

30

3

M20

2.5

20

30

33

13

30

33

19

37

3

M24

3.0

24

36

40

15

36

40

22

44

4

M30

3.5

30

46

51

19

46

51

26

56

4

M36

4.0

36

55

61

23

55

61

32

66

5

 

TABLE

3

 
 

DIMENSIONS OF HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS AND NUTS AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

 
 

Bolt

   

Nut

Washer

Desig-

Thread

Shank

Width

Width

Height

Width

Width

Height of

Outside

Nominal

nation

pitch

dia.

across

across

of head

across

across

normal

dia.

thickness

flats

corners

flats

corners

nuts

nom.

max.

max.

max.

max.

max.

max.

max.

nom.

M16

2.0

16

27

31

11

27

31

17

34

4

M20*

2.5

20

34

39

13

32

39

21

42

4

M24

3.0

24

41

47

16

41

47

24

50

4

M30

3.5

30

50

58

20

50

58

31

60

4

M36

4.0

36

60

69

24

60

69

37

72

4

*NOTE: At the time of developing this design guide M20 high strength structural bolts and nuts are still typically being supplied in Australia with dimensions complying to AS 1252—1983 despite this code being superseded by the ISO aligned standard AS/NZS 1252:1996. The 1996 Standard specified a new across flat (AF) dimension of 34 mm for M20 bolts compared to 32 mm specified in the 1983 Standard. The dimensions listed in Table 3 are in accordance with the current 1996 standard. International manufacturers have been reluctant to adopt the ISO AF sizes. Australian suppliers of structural bolts are typically ordering the mechanical properties to AS/NZS 1252:1996.

M Used in this guide to designate metric bolts with thread complying with AS 1275.

designate metric bolts with thread complying with AS 1275. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

metric bolts with thread complying with AS 1275. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

11

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.3

Dimensions of wrenches for installing bolts

TABLE

4

DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES

DIMENSIONS OF OPEN ENDED WRENCHES ISO 3318 (Ref. 34)

CLEARANCES—4.6/S CATEGORY

Nom. bolt

dia.

AF

(mm)

Clearance

X max.

(mm)

12

16

20

24

30

36

18

24

30

36

46

55

45

57

70

83

104

123

CLEARANCES—8.8/S CATEGORY

Nom. bolt

dia.

AF

(mm)

Clearance

X max.

(mm)

16

20

24

30

36

27

34

41

50

60

64

78

93

112

133

X max. (mm) 16 20 24 30 36 27 34 41 50 60 64 78 93

DIMENSIONS OF SOCKETS—HAND WRENCHES ISO 2725-1 (Ref. 35)

CLEARANCES—8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES

 

Sockets* 20 mm drive

 

Clearance

Nom.

C max.

C min.

D max.

E

bolt dia.

(Normal)

(Long)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

85

40

25

20

65

85

48.3

30

24

70

85

57.1

35

*Bolt diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with a hand wrench.

diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with a hand wrench. Please Note: Australian rigging crews can
diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with a hand wrench. Please Note: Australian rigging crews can
diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with a hand wrench. Please Note: Australian rigging crews can
diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with a hand wrench. Please Note: Australian rigging crews can

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3. handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

12

TABLE

4

(continued)

DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES

DIMENSIONS OF IMPACT WRENCHES ISO 2725-2 (Ref. 36)

CLEARANCES—8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES

Impact wrench

B

A

type

(mm)

(mm)

Normal

to 370

55

wrenches

some

Heavy wrenches

to 600

65

55 wrenches some Heavy wrenches to 600 65   Sockets   20 mm drive   Clearance
 

Sockets

 

20

mm drive

 

Clearance

Nom.

C

 

D

E

bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

54

 

48

30

20

57

58

35

24

58

61.1

35

 

Sockets

 

25

mm drive

 

Clearance

Nom.

C

 

D

E

bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

 

58

35

20

63

58

35

24

70

68

40

58 35 20 63 58 35 24 70 68 40 Please Note: Australian rigging crews can

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3. handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3. handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

13

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.4

Bolt mechanical properties

TABLE

5

METRIC HEXAGON COMMERCIAL BOLTS

properties TABLE 5 METRIC HEXAGON COMMERCIAL BOLTS STANDARD SPECIFICATION: AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5) PROPERTY

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:

AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)

PROPERTY CLASS:

4.6

NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:

Hot or cold forging (generally cold)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

MOST COMMONLY USED SIZES:

Tensile strength Yield stress Stress under proof load

M12, M16, M20, M24, M30, M36

400 MPa (nom. and min.) 240 MPa (min.) 225 MPa (min.)

TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

Tensile

Minimum

Proof load

 

Designation

stress area

breaking load

 

(mm

2 )

(kN)

(kN)

 

M12

84.3

33.7

19.0

M16

157

62.8

35.3

M20

245

98.0

55.1

M24

353

141

79.4

M30

561

224

126

M36

817

327

184

NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 22% min. Hardness = 114 HB min.

TABLE

6

HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

= 114 HB min. TABLE 6 HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS STANDARD SPECIFICATION: PROPERTY CLASS: NORMAL METHOD

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:

PROPERTY CLASS:

NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

MOST COMMONLY USED SIZES:

AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

8.8

Hot or cold forging, hardened and tempered

Tensile strength Stress at perm. set Stress under proof load

(M16), M20, M24, (M30), (M36)/ ( )available but rarely used

800 MPa (nom.), 830 MPa (min.) 640 MPa (nom.), 660 MPa (min.) 600 MPa

TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

Tensile

Minimum

Proof load

 

Designation

stress area

breaking load

 

(mm

2 )

(kN)

(kN)

 

M16

157

130

94.5

M20

245

203

147

M24

353

293

212

M30

561

466

337

M36

817

678

490

M30 561 466 337 M36 817 678 490 NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 12% min. Impact

NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 12% min. Impact strength = 30 J min. Hardness = 242 HB min.

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

Impact strength = 30 J min. Hardness = 242 HB min. handbook 1 design of structural

14

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.5

Design requirements for bolts

AS 4100 is a design code written in limit state format, in which two limit states might require consideration in the design of bolted connections:

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE (requires consideration for all bolted connections)

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE (requires consideration only for that class of connections which are required not to slip under serviceability loads)

A

commentary on AS 4100 is found in Reference 8.

In

any bolted connection, there are three modes of force transfer to be considered, these modes

being:

(a)

shear/bearing mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis and are transferred by shear and bearing on the bolt and bearing on the ply material;

(b)

friction mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis but are transferred by frictional resistance between the mating surfaces, the frictional resistance being improved by applying an initial clamping force;

(c)

axial tension where the forces to be transferred are parallel to the bolt axis.

Most connections have bolts which transfer load in the shear/bearing mode, with the exception

of the bolted moment end plate and the column base plate in which the bolts can be subject to

both shear force and axial tension.

A bolt in shear/bearing mode (bolting categories 4.6/S, 8.8/S and 8.8/TB) bears against the

sides of the bolt holes and load is transferred by shear in the bolts and bearing on the connected plies. The shear strength of the bolt is affected by the strength of the bolt material and by the available bolt area across the shear plane. Consequently, the situation of whether plain shank or thread intercepts the shear plane affects the strength of the connection, as discussed in detail in Reference 7. In practice, it is very difficult to ensure that threads are

excluded from the shear plane in many practical connections for reasons discussed in Reference 7, since the practice requires that the erector install a bolt of the correct minimum length into the bolt hole and the practice often leads to bolts of excessive length. Most connections—especially the simple connections—are designed on the assumption that threads will be included in the shear plane, as this assumption most accurately reflects the field situation and is a conservative basis for design.

The failure in the connected plies may occur in one of two ways:

(i)

local bearing failure;

(ii)

tear-out failure of the plies behind a bolt.

Local bearing type failures involve a piling up of ply material in front of the hole around the bolt shank, either the plain shank or threaded length.

End plate tear-out failure occurs in connections in which the end distance (a e1 or a e2 in Figure 4) falls below 3.2 times the bolt diameter, the end distance representing the length of ply which must fail in shear for failure of the connected ply to occur. The end distance is defined in AS 4100 as ‘the minimum distance from the edge of a hole to the edge of a ply in the direction

of

the component of force plus half the bolt diameter.’ Plate tear-out type failures are observed

in

joints subject to a force which acts towards a free edge.

joints subject to a force which acts towards a free edge. handbook 1 design of structural

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

subject to a force which acts towards a free edge. handbook 1 design of structural steel

15

Defining— d h = hole diameter = d f + 2 mm d f =
Defining—
d h
=
hole diameter = d f + 2 mm
d f
=
bolt diameter
s
=
bolt pitch
p
a
=
e
distance from hole edge to an
edge in the direction of a
component of force plus half the
hole diameter

Since the end distance is defined from the hole edge and the hole is usually 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter then:

a e1 = (a e – 1 mm)

a e2 = (s p – 0.5d h – 1 mm)

FIGURE 4

END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE EDGE DISTANCES

Note that an edge may not only mean the physical edge of a connection component or a beam web or flange, but may also include the edge of an adjacent hole (see Figure 4), which reflects the fact that plate tear-out is theoretically possible between holes, although in practice bolt centres are such that it is normally not observed.

In many cases, the end tear-out mode is relatively straightforward, as in Figure 4 or Figures 5 and 6. However, in bolt groups components of force may act in many directions if the bolt group is subject to an in-plane moment. It is to be remembered that end tear-out design requirements apply to connection components, connected members and supporting members as appropriate, each of which will have a different end distance and ply thickness.

which will have a different end distance and ply thickness. FIGURE 5 END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE

FIGURE 5

END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE FORCE COMPONENTS

FIGURE 5 END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE FORCE COMPONENTS FIGURE 6 END PLATE TEAR- OUT, SIMPLE CASE
FIGURE 5 END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE FORCE COMPONENTS FIGURE 6 END PLATE TEAR- OUT, SIMPLE CASE

FIGURE 6

END PLATE TEAR-

OUT, SIMPLE CASE

FORCE COMPONENTS FIGURE 6 END PLATE TEAR- OUT, SIMPLE CASE handbook 1 design of structural steel

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

COMPONENTS FIGURE 6 END PLATE TEAR- OUT, SIMPLE CASE handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

16

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.6

AS 4100 Design requirements— Strength limit state

The strength limit state design provisions which apply for static load applications are found in Clause 9.3.2 of AS 4100. These provisions are summarised in Table 7.

TABLE

7

AS 4100 CLAUSE 9.3.2 PROVISIONS, STRENGTH LIMIT STATE, STATIC LOADS

Limit state

AS 4100 Clause

 

Design requirement

Bolt in shear

9.3.2.1

V

f

*

φV f

 

V

f

*

=

design shear force

V f

=

nominal capacity in shear

=

0.62 f uf k r A v

 

φ

=

capacity factor = 0.8

f uf

=

minimum tensile strength of bolt (Tables 1, 5, 6)

=

400 MPa Property Class 4.6 to AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)

=

830 MPa Property Class 8.8 to AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

k r

=

reduction factor for bolted lap splice connections. For all other connections, k r = 1.0.

A v

=

available bolt shear area.

 

For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads included,

A

v = A c core area.

For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads excluded, A v = A o shank area.

   

*

Bolt in tension

9.3.2.2

N

tf

φN tf

 

*

N

tf

=

design tension force

N tf

=

nominal capacity in tension

=

A

s f uf

φ

=

capacity factor = 0.8

A s

=

tensile stress area

Bolt in shear and tension

9.3.2.3

V

*

f

φ V

f

2

 

N

⎢ ⎣

*

tf

φ N

tf

 

+

2

1.0

   

*

Ply in bearing

9.3.2.4

V ≤ φV b

b

 

*

V

b

=

design bearing force on a ply

V b

=

nominal capacity of ply in bearing

V b

3.2 d f t p f up (local failure in bearing)

a e t p f up (tear-out failure)

φ

=

capacity factor = 0.9

d f

=

bolt diameter

 

t p

=

thickness of the ply

a e

=

minimum distance from the edge of a hole to the edge of a ply in the direction of the component of force plus half the bolt diameter

f up

=

tensile strength of the ply

Note—Filler plates: Where filler plates exceed 6 mm but are less than 20 mm in total thickness, the

nominal shear capacity

15%. Filler plates greater than 20 mm in total thickness should not be used as no design guidance is available in AS 4100.

specified in Table 7 is required by Clause 9.3.2.5 of AS 4100 to be reduced by

V

f

required by Clause 9.3.2.5 of AS 4100 to be reduced by V f handbook 1 design

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

by Clause 9.3.2.5 of AS 4100 to be reduced by V f handbook 1 design of

17

Design areas of bolts

Bolted connections subject to shear may be either installed with the threads of the bolt crossing the shear plane or with the plain shank of the bolt crossing the shear plane. The alternative arrangements are discussed in Reference 7. In a joint with a number of shear planes, some shear planes may cross the threaded part of the bolt while other shear planes may cross the shank.

Clause 9.3.2.1 of AS 4100 recognises that the strength of the bolt across any shear plane is dependent upon the available shear area of the bolt at that plane. It allows for all possible combinations by defining the shear area as:

A

v

=

available bolt shear area

=

n

A

+ n

A

where:

n

c

x

o

A

c

=

core area (see Table 8)

A

n

n

Usually either:

=

plain shank area (see Table 8)

=

number of shear planes with threads intercepting the shear plane

=

number of shear planes with shank intercepting the shear plane

o

n

x

n n = 1 and n x = 0 when there are two plies and threads intercept the shear plane (thus

giving A v = A c )

OR

n n = 0 and n x = 1 when there are two plies and the shank intercepts the shear plane (thus

giving A v = A o ).

The core area and plain shank area for bolt diameters commonly used are given in Table 8. Also given in Table 8 is the tensile stress area used when bolts are subject to tension.

TABLE

8

DESIGN AREAS OF BOLTS

Nom. dia.

Designation

 

Areas (mm 2 )

(mm)

A c core

A s tensile stress

A o shank

d

f

12

M12

76.2

84.3

113

16

M16

144

157

201

20

M20

225

245

314

24

M24

324

353

452

30

M30

519

561

706

36

M36

759

817

1016

M30 519 561 706 36 M36 759 817 1016 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections,

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

519 561 706 36 M36 759 817 1016 handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first

18

TABLE

9

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE COMMERCIAL BOLTS 4.6/S BOLTING CATEGORY (f uf = 400 MPa, φ = 0.8)

Designation

Axial

Shear values (single shear)

tension

   

φN tf

Threads included in shear plane—N φV fn

Threads excluded from shear plane—X φV fx

kN

kN

kN

M12

27.0

15.1

22.4

M16

50.2

28.6

39.9

M20

78.4

44.6

62.3

M24

113

64.3

89.7

M30

180

103

140

M36

261

151

202

   

φ = 0.8

φ = 0.8

4.6N/S

4.6X/S

NOTE: Bearing/Plate tear-out design capacity. For all reasonable combinations of ply thickness, bolt diameter and end distance, the design capacity for a ply in bearing (φV b ) exceeds both φV fn and φV fx , and does not control design.

V f n and φ V f x , and does not control design. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION
V f n and φ V f x , and does not control design. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION
V f n and φ V f x , and does not control design. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION
V f n and φ V f x , and does not control design. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION

SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

control design. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition 19

19

TABLE

10

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS 8.8/S, 8.8/TB, 8.8/TF BOLTING CATEGORIES (f uf = 830 MPa)

Desig-

Axial

Single shear

 

Plate tear-out in kN

 

Bearing in kN

nation

tension

Threads

Threads

 

φV b for t p and a e of:

 

φV b for t p

included in

excluded

             

shear

from shear

plane N

plane X

 

t p = 6

 

t p = 8

t p = 10

t p = 12

6

8

10

φN tf

φV fn

φV fx

   

kN

kN

kN

35

40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

M16

104

59.3

82.7

                       

113

151

189

M20

163

92.6

129

78

89

100

103

118

133

129

148

166

155

177

199

142

189

236

M24

234

133

186

170

227

283

M30

373

214

291

       

213

283

354

         

a e <a emin = 1.5d f

   
   

φ = 0.8

 

φ = 0.9

 

φ = 0.9

 

φ = 0.8

8.8N/S

8.8X/S

 

f up =410 MPa

 

f up =410 MPa

NOTE: The above table lists the design capacity of a ply in bearing for Grade 250 (f up = 410 MPa) plate only. For design capacities for ply failure in other grades of steel, multiply the above values by the ratio of the actual f up to 410 MPa.

values by the ratio of the actual f u p to 410 MPa. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM
values by the ratio of the actual f u p to 410 MPa. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM
values by the ratio of the actual f u p to 410 MPa. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM

SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

p to 410 MPa. SHEAR–TENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

20

Lap splice connections

Lap splice connections FIGURE 7 LAP JOINT AND BRACE/GUSSET CONNECTION For lap splice connections of the
Lap splice connections FIGURE 7 LAP JOINT AND BRACE/GUSSET CONNECTION For lap splice connections of the

FIGURE 7

LAP JOINT AND BRACE/GUSSET CONNECTION

For lap splice connections of the type shown in Figure 7 in which the bolts are in shear/bearing mode, theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the measured strength of the connection is affected by the length of the connection.

Conventional theories of bolted lap splice connection design assume that rigid plate theory applies and that all bolts in the connection are equally loaded. However, studies show that the longer the connection is, the less uniform is the load distribution among the bolts in the connection while the behaviour is elastic. As a connection is loaded so that yielding of the plies or bolts or both occur, plastic deformations permit a redistribution of load resulting in a more uniform load distribution—if the redistribution proceeds without premature failure of either bolts or plies. Some connections may be so long that redistribution does not completely occur.

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2.1 uses a reduction factor k r to account for this effect, and the expression for k r is given in Table 11. The source of the expression used is explained in Reference 8.

Connections affected by the requirement for lap splice connections and for which k r may not be taken as 1.0 without calculation using Table 11 are:

(a)

bracing cleat (unusually long connections, relatively rare);

(b)

bolted flange splice.

For all other connections, generally k r = 1.0.

Values of k r for various bolt pitches and numbers of bolts in a line are given in Table 11.

and numbers of bolts in a line are given in Table 11. handbook 1 design of

handbook 1 design of structural steel connections, first edition

and numbers of bolts in a line are given in Table 11. handbook 1 design of

21

TABLE

11

REDUCTION FACTOR FOR LAP CONNECTIONS (k r )

Length

L j < 300

300 L j 1300

L j > 1300

mm

k

r

1.0

1.075–L j /4000

0.75

mm k r 1.0 1.075– L j /4000 0.75 VALUES OF k r FOR VARIOUS BOLT
mm k r 1.0 1.075– L j /4000 0.75 VALUES OF k r FOR VARIOUS BOLT

VALUES OF k r FOR VARIOUS BOLT PITCHES

Pitch

 

Values of k r for n of

 

s

p

4

5

6

7

8

9

65

1.0

1.0

</