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# Worksheet 1.

1: Solutions

## Precision, accuracy and

significant figures
No.

## B and D. Measured quantities have an inherent uncertainty.

aN

Averaging a set of results reduces the effects of random errors associated with taking
measurements.

a3

a 1.407 102

a 7.80

a 6 103

b 6.000 103

a 6.7 102

## b 0.30 or 3.0 101

a 44.6

b 358.2

10

722
= 60.2 g (The answer should be given to 3 significant figures. The 12 is an exact
12
number, and is therefore not relevant to the significant figure count.)

bP

cB

b4

c3

d4
b 5.005 103

b 6.01 102

c 9.800 102

c 9.83 101

c 2.0

d 7.5 103

d 6.00 10-4

d 4.4 102

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## Calculations involving gases

and solutions
No.

m 5.00
=
mol
M 180.0
5.00
n(O) = 6 n(C6H12O6) = 6
= 0.167 mol
180.0
m 8.36
b n(H2O2) =
=
mol
M 34.0
n(atoms) = 4 n(H2O2)
8.36
N(atoms) = n NA = 4
6.02 1023 = 5.92 1023
34.0

a n(C6H12O6) =

c1 V1 0.30 35.0
=
= 117 mL
c2
0.090
V(H2O) added = 117 35 = 82 mL

c1 V1 = c2 V2, V2 =

pV = nRT p =

## M = 4 1022 6.02 1023 = 2 102 g mol1

V T
V
600 325
V
V
= constant 1 = 2 V2 = 1 2 =
= 750 mL
T1
T2
T1
T
260

## 0.49 8.31 327

= 4.4 102 kPa
3.0

pV = nRT and n =

m
m
mRT
62.0 8.31 397
pV =
=
= 22.1 L
RT V =
pM
210 44.0
M
M

n
m
70.2
=
=
= 1.2 M
V M V 58.5 1.0
c V 1.2 1.0
V2 = 1 1 =
= 1.79 L
c2
0.67
0.79 L of water must be added.

c(NaCl) =

m
m
mRT
2.06 8.31 300
= 16 g mol1
pV =
RT M =
=
20 16
pV
M
M
The gas is methane.

pV = nRT and n =

c2 V2 1.50 250
=
= 75 mL
c1
5.00
b 1.50% m/v means 1.5 g of ammonia in 100 mL of solution
We require x g of ammonia in 150 mL.
150
= 2.25 g
x = 1.50
100
a V1 =

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and solutions
No.

10

## p V = constant p1V1 = p2V2 V2 =

11

12
13

14

15

p1 V1 143.8 687
=
= 496 mL
p2
199

mRT
mRT
0.778 8.31 299
M=
=
= 159 g mol1
3
pV
M
99.8 122 10
The halogen must be bromine (Br2).

pV =

600 ppm = 600 mg in 1.0 L = 600 000 g in 1.0 L = 600 000 ppb
3.5
m
= 0.0106 mol
=
M 331.2
n 0.0106
c(Pb(NO3)2) = =
= 0.177 M
V
0.060
0.177 10
c V
= 0.059 M
c2 = 1 1 =
V2
30
n(Pb(NO3)2) =

0.108 300
c2 V2
=
= 1.08 M
V1
30
n(Na2CO3) = c V = 1.08 0.030 = 0.0324 mol
m(Na2CO3) = n M = 0.0324 106.0 = 3.4 g

c1 =

## 2.0% m/v means 2.0 g of glucose in 100 mL of solution.

in 50 mL of solution, 0.50 2.0 g
Total m(glucose) = (0.50 2.0) + (0.50 6.0) = 4.0 g
4.0 g of glucose in a volume of 300 mL gives a concentration of

16

17

18

4.0
100 = 1.3% m/v
300

## 750 190 273

p1V1 p2V2
pVT
=
= 172 mL
V2 = 1 1 2 =
T1
T2
T1 p2
298 760
c1 V1 16 50
=
= 8% m/v
100
V2
8% m/v = 8 g/100 mL = 80 g L1 = 80 000 mg L1 = 8.0 104 ppm

c2 =

## a 2.33 g in 398 mL 2.33

100
in 100 mL = 0.585% m/v
398

m
2.33
=
mol
169.9
M
n
2.33
c(AgNO3) =
=
= 3.45 102 M
169.9 0.398
V

b n(AgNO3) =

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## Worksheet 1.3: Solutions

Stoichiometry
No.

V
50.0
=
= 2.04 mol
VM 24.5
n(H2SO4) = n(SO2)
m(H2SO4) = n M = 2.04 98.1 = 2.00 102 g

m 1000
=
= 10.2 mol
M 98.0
n(NO2) = 5 n(H3PO4) = 51.0 mol
m(NO2) = n M = 51.0 46.0 = 2.35 103 g

## n(NaHCO3) = c V = 2.86 0.0299 = 0.0855 mol

1
n(H2SO4) = n(NaHCO3) = 0.0428 mol
2
n 0.0428
= 1.80 M
c(H2SO4) = =
V 0.0238

## a 2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

m
75
b n(NaN3) =
=
M 65.0
3
n(N2) = n(NaN3)
2
nRT 3 75 8.31 303
V(N2) =
=
= 43 L
p
2
65.0 101.3

## m(Br2) = density volume = 3.12 10.0 = 31.2 g

m
31.2
n(Br2) =
= 0.195 mol
=
M 159.8
10
n(Br2) = 0.488 mol
n(NaOH) =
4
n 0.488
c(NaOH) = =
= 2.04 M
V 0.239

n(SO2) =

n(H3PO4) =

m 19.56
=
= 0.1994 mol
M
98.1
n(NH3) = 2 n(H2SO4) = 2 0.1994 = 0.3988 mol
nRT
0.3988 8.31 360
= 3.94 L
V(NH3) =
=
2.99 101.3
p

n(H2SO4) =

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Stoichiometry
No.

## MgCO3(s) MgO(s) + CO2(g)

m 100
n(MgO) =
=
= 2.48 mol
M 40.3
n(CO2) = n(MgO) = 2.48 mol
V(CO2) = n VM = 2.48 22.4 = 55.6 L

## a CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

m 10.0
b n(CaCO3) =
=
= 0.100 mol
M 100.1
n(HNO3) = c V = 0.500 0.100 = 0.0500 mol
0.100 mol of CaCO3 will react with 0.200 mol of HNO3, HNO3 is the limiting reagent.
1
n(CO2) = n(HNO3) = 0.0250 mol
2
V(CO2) = n VM = 0.0250 24.5 = 0.613 L

m 6.57
= 0.0877 mol
=
M 74.9
n(NaOH) = c V = 0.779 0.250 = 0.195 mol
1 As: 3 NaOH, 0.0877 mol of arsenic would react with 0.263 mol of sodium hydroxide
NaOH is the limiting reagent.
1
n(H2) produced = n(NaOH) = 0.0975 mol
2
m(H2) = n M = 0.0975 2.0 = 0.195 g

10

## a Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) BaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

m
8.00
b n(Ba(OH)2) =
=
= 0.0467 mol
171.3
M
n(HCl) = c V = 1.886 0.120 = 0.226 mol
0.0467 mol of Ba(OH)2 would react with 0.0934 mol of HCl, HCl is in excess
n(BaCl2) = n(Ba(OH)2) = 0.0467 mol
0.0467
n
c(BaCl2) =
= 0.389 M
=
V
0.120

n(As) =

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## Determining the molecular

formula of a gas
No

Na : B :
22.8
21.5
Mole ratio
:
:
23
10.8
0.99 : 1.99 :
1
: 2 :
2
: 4 :
Empirical formula is Na2B4O7.

O
55.7
16.0
3.48
3.5
7

H :
O
0.112 9.57 10 21
:
Mole ratio
0.0556 :
1.0
6.02 10 23
0.0556 : 0.111 : 0.0159
3.5 : 7 : 1
7
: 14 : 2
Empirical formula is C7H14O2.

As : O
75.7
24.3
Mole ratio
:
74.9
16.0
1.01 : 1.52
2 : 3
Empirical formula is As2O3.
EFM = 197.8 MF is (As2O3)a, where a =

395.6
RMM
=2
=
EFM
197.8

## Molecular formula is As4O6.

4

C: H :O
40.0 6.67 53.3
Mole ratio
:
:
12.0 1.0 16.0
3.33 : 6.67 : 3.33
1 : 2 : 1
Empirical formula is CH2O.
EFM = 30

MF is (CH2O)a, where a =

RMM 60
=
=2
EFM
30

## Molecular formula is C2H4O2.

5

It absorbs water and so allows the mass of hydrogen in the sample to be determined.

It absorbs carbon dioxide and so allows the mass of carbon in the sample to be determined.
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## Determining the molecular

formula of a gas
No

12.0
43.54 = 11.9 g
44.0
2.0
m(H) in sample =
22.26 = 2.47 g
18.0
C:H
11.9 2.47
Mole ratio
:
12.0 1.0
0.99 : 2.47
1 : 2.5
2:5
Empirical formula is C2H5.

The sample must vaporise at a temperature below that of the steam (below 100C).

m(C) in sample =

M=

mRT
0.16 8.31 373
=
= 106 g mol1
3
pV
101.3 46 10

10

12.0
27.83 = 7.590 g
44.0
2.0
m(H) in sample =
11.38 = 1.264 g
18.0
m(O) in sample = 18.99 7.590 1.264 = 10.14 g
C : H : O
7.590 1.264 10.14
Mole ratio
:
:
12.0 1.0 16.0
0.633 : 1.264 : 0.634
1 : 2 : 1
Empirical formula is CH2O.
mRT
6.21 8.31 473
M=
=
= 89.99 g mol1
2
pV
1.25 10 2.17
RMM 90
EFM = 30 MF is (CH2O)a, where a =
=
=3
EFM
30
Molecular formula is C3H6O3.

11

Mass spectrometry

m(C) in sample =

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## Worksheet 2.2: Solutions

Gravimetric analysis
No.

It was necessary to dry it so that water did not add any mass to the compound. Grinding it
helped it to dissolve.

n((NH4)2SO4) =

m 1.00
=
= 7.57 103 mol
M 132.1

Between steps 5 and 6, additional filtration with washing of the residue would have been
required to remove the insoluble components.

## BaCl2(aq) + (NH4)2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NH4Cl(aq)

If the fertiliser was pure:
n(BaCl2) needed = n((NH4)2SO4) = 7.57 103 mol
n 7.57 10 -3
V(BaCl2) = =
= 0.0379 L = 37.9 mL
c
0.200

## The precipitating agent should be in excess to ensure complete precipitation.

The supernatant liquid was tested with BaCl2 solution. No precipitate was observed.

Heat helps larger crystals of BaSO4 form so it is better to wash it in hot water than cold.
Washing removes any ions adsorbed onto the surface of the precipitate.

This means that the precipitate was dried, weighed, then dried and weighed again. If the
masses are the same then constant mass has been achieved and there is no more water
present.

10

m
1.63
=
= 6.98 103 mol
M 233.4
m((NH4)2SO4) = n M = 6.98 103 132.1 = 0.923 g
0.923
% m/m ((NH4)2SO4) =
100 = 92.3%
1.00

n((NH4)2SO4) = n(BaSO4) =

Errors in weighing
Incomplete dissolution of fertiliser
Incomplete precipitation
Losses due to filtration
Not completely drying the precipitate

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No.

## a i AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

ii AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) KNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)
b Because chloride ions are in both compounds, the chloride concentration is measured
correctly. The amount of chlorine is not equal to the amount of sodium or to the amount
of potassium, therefore neither of these two metals can be analysed using this procedure.

Water for rinsing should be used sparingly. The more water used, the more precipitate that
will dissolve and be lost.

## There are many possible answers. For example:

Mg(NO3)2 MgCO3(s)
AgNO3 AgI(s)
CuSO4 Cu(OH)2(s)

## a Ba2+(aq) + SO42(aq) BaSO4(s)

b By simply removing the water, the positive ion is caught up in the remaining solid as well
as the sulfate ion, and any other ionic substances that are in the fertiliser.

Barium sulfate can form very fine particles. These particles will pass through normal filter
paper.

## a AgNO3(aq) + LiCl(aq) LiNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

b n(AgNO3) = c V = 2.0 0.025 = 0.050 mol
0.02 mol of AgNO3 reacts with 0.02 mol of LiCl, hence AgNO3 is in excess.
There is no problem with adding excess silver nitrate. In fact, it is important to add an
excess amount to ensure all the chloride is precipitated.

## a C8H15Cl3 + 3AgNO3(aq) 3AgCl(s) +

m 0.478
b n(AgCl) =
= 0.00333 mol
=
M 143.4
1
n(C8H15Cl3) = 0.00333 = 0.00111 mol
3
m(C8H15Cl3) = n M = 0.00111 217.5 = 0.24 g
0.24
% purity =
100 = 12%
2.0

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## Gravimetric analysis problems

No.

a 2FeCl3(aq) + Fe2O3 +
m 0.644
b n(Fe2O3) =
=
= 0.0040 mol
M 159.6
n(FeCl3) = 2 n(Fe2O3) = 0.0080 mol
m(FeCl3) = n M = 0.0080 162.3 = 1.3 g
1.3
% purity FeCl3 =
100 = 65%
2.0

10

## a Mass will be too high, the % P will be overestimated.

b Precipitate will be lost, the % P will be underestimated.

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No.

## a 2KHCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g)

b Fe2O3(s) + 6HNO3(aq) 2Fe(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
c Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2+

2O
a Ca(OH)2(s) H

## Ca (aq) + 2OH (aq)

b H2SO4(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HSO4(aq)
HSO4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + SO42(aq)
c Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) BaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

a S2 and O2
b H2SO4 and H3PO4

## a HCl/Cl and NH4+/NH3

b H2O/OH and OH/O2
c H2CO3/HCO3/CO32 and H2SO4/HSO4/SO42
(H2CO3 decomposes to form H2O and CO2.)

## a HSO4(aq) + OH(aq) SO42(aq) + H2O(l)

b HSO4(aq) + HCl(aq) H2SO4(aq) + Cl(aq)

Different acid strengths (e.g. one strong, one weak) or different acid types (e.g. one
monoprotic, one diprotic)

a Methanoic acid is a weak acid that only partially ionises in water, producing few ions and
so having low conductivity. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that ionises completely in
water, producing many ions and so having high conductivity.
b Only the OH bond has sufficient polarity to make the hydrogen atom acidic. The three
CH bonds are only slightly polar, so these hydrogen atoms are not acidic.

## The solutions listed in order of decreasing pH are:

NaOH is a strong base, high pH
NH3 is a weak base, pH > 7 but not too high
H2O has pH = 7
CH3COOH is a weak acid, pH < 7
HNO3 is a strong acid, low pH
H2SO4 is a strong, diprotic acid, pH < pH of HNO3

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No.

## a HNO3 is a strong, monoprotic acid. It completely ionises in water.

[H 3 O + ] = [HNO 3 ] = 0.050 = 5.0 10 2.0 M

## pH = log10 [H 3 O + ] = log10 5.0 10 2.0 = 1.3

b Ba(OH)2 completely dissociates in water to produce 2 OH ions per unit of Ba(OH)2.
[OH ] = 2 0.50 = 1.0 = 10 0
[H 3 O + ] [OH ] = 10 14
10 0 [H 3 O + ] = 10 14
[H 3 O + ] = 10 14 M
pH = log10 [H 3 O + ] = log10 10 14 = 14

10

## n(H+) = c V = 103.0 0.0200 = 2.00 105.0

n 2.00 10 5.0
[H 3 O + ] = =
= 10 4.0
0.200
V
pH = log10 [H 3 O + ] = log10 10 4.0 = 4.0
A 10-fold dilution produces a change of one pH unit.

11

c1V1 = c2V2
c1 = [H3O+] = 10pH = 102.0 and c2 = [H3O+] = 10pH = 102.5
102.0 50.0 = 102.5 V2
V2 = 158 mL, therefore 108 mL must be added.

12

## n(H+) = n(HCl) = c V = 0.00100 20.00 103 = 2.00 105 mol

n(OH) = 2 n(Ba(OH)2) = 2 c V = 2 0.00100 20.00 103 = 4.00 105 mol
OH is in excess by 2.00 105 mol
2.00 10 5
n

[OH ] = =
= 5.00 10 4 mol
3
V 40.00 10
+
[H 3 O ] [OH ] = 10 14
5.00 10 4 [H 3 O + ] = 10 14
[H 3 O + ] = 2.00 10 11 M
pH = log10 [H 3 O + ] = log10 (2.00 10 11 ) = 10.7

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## Worksheet 3.2: Solutions

Acid-base titrations
No.

## n(Na2CO3) = c V = 0.0500 0.250 = 0.0125 mol

m(Na2CO3) = n M = 0.0125 106.0 = 1.325 g
1 Accurately weigh approximately 1.3 g sample of the primary standard.
2 Transfer the sample to a 250.0 mL volumetric flask.
3 Ensure complete transfer by washing with water.
4 Dissolve the primary standard in water by shaking.
5 Add water to make up the solution to the calibration mark, then mix again.

## The sodium hydroxide is very concentrated. An exact concentration cannot be calculated

using the data available.

The ratio of volumes is 20:5 or 1:4. This means the sodium hydroxide is four times more
concentrated than the nitric acid. Therefore the concentration is 0.4 M.
This ratio only works if the molar ratio in the balanced equation is 1:1.

## a 2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

b n(HNO3) = c V = 0.10 0.040 = 0.0040 mol
1
n(Na2CO3) =
n(HNO3) = 0.0020 mol
2
n 0.0020
= 10 mL
V(Na2CO3) = =
c
0.20

## a HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) NH4+(aq) + Cl(aq)

b i At the equivalence point, some NH4+ exists. This is a weak acid, hence the pH will be
ii After excess HCl is added, the pH is slightly greater than 1. (pH of the acid is 1. The
acid will be diluted by the increased volume due to the neutralised ammonia solution,
giving a concentration less than 0.1 M and so a pH greater than 1.)
iii

## CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)

n(NaOH) = c V = 0.114 0.01545 = 0.001761 mol
n(CH3COOH) = n(NaOH)
n(CH3COOH) in original 25.0 mL = n(CH3COOH) in aliquot
c(CH3COOH) =

100
= 0.00881 mol
20.0

n 0.00881
=
= 0.352 M
V
0.0250
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## Worksheet 3.2: Solutions

Acid-base titrations
No.

## Indirect titrations are performed when the substance to be analysed is:

insoluble
volatile (so the titration method is not fast enough to carry out the analysis before the
concentration of the solution changes as evaporation occurs)
a weak acid or a weak base (it is sometimes difficult to obtain sharp endpoints in these
titrations).

b CH3COO is present at the equivalence point. This weak base will mean that the pH will
be above 7 at the equivalence point.
c An indicator such as methyl red would be a poor choice because it does not change colour
until pH 3, long after the equivalence point has been reached.
9

a i Water
ii Solution going into ithydrochloric acid
iii Solution going into itsodium carbonate
iv Water
One method to try with this style of question is to picture a very exaggerated amount of
water in the piece of glassware and to ask whether this will affect the experiment in any way.
b 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
n(Na2CO3) = c V = 0.100 0.0183 = 0.00183 mol
n(HCl) = 2 n(Na2CO3) = 2 0.00183 = 0.00366 mol
250.0
250.0
= 0.00366
= 0.0458 mol
n(HCl) in original 10.0 mL = n(HCl) in aliquot
20.00
20.00
n 0.0458
= 4.58 M
c(HCl) = =
V 0.0100

10

## 2HNO3(aq) + Mg(OH)2(aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

n(Mg(OH)2) = c V = 0.10 0.0250 = 0.00250 mol
n(HNO3) = 2 n(Mg(OH)2) = 2 0.00250 = 0.00500 mol
n 0.00500
c(HNO3) = =
= 0.370 M
V
0.0135

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A back titration
No.

## a CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

b HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

a
b
c
d

Solid sodium hydroxide absorbs water from the atmosphere. Solid samples may therefore be
damp and therefore impure. Sodium hydroxide solutions react with carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere, decreasing the concentration of the solution.
2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

CO2 is an acidic oxide. It reacts with NaOH. If the CO2 was not removed, more NaOH
would be required for the titration, leading to an increased value for the unreacted HCl, and
hence a decreased value for the CaCO3 percentage.

## Calcium carbonate is not soluble.

The carbonate ion is a weak base that gives an indistinct endpoint in a direct titration.

a This would dilute the acid. More would be required to react with the marble, giving an
increased percentage for the carbonate.
b This would dilute the NaOH. More would be required to react with the HCl, giving an
increased value for the unreacted HCl. This, in turn, would give a decreased value for the
reacting HCl, and so a decreased percentage for the carbonate.
c This has no effect. Flasks should be rinsed with water.

## pV 765 101.3 95.0 103

n(CO2) =
=
= 0.00394 mol
RT
760 8.31 296
n(CaCO3) = n(CO2) = 0.00394 mol
m(CaCO3) = n M = 0.00394 100.1 = 0.394 g
m(CaCO3 ) 100 0.394 100
= 95.9%
=

% CaCO3 in marble =
m(marble)
0.411
1
1

Small amounts of gas may have been lost in the collection process.
Some carbon dioxide may remain dissolved in the reaction solution.

## n(HCl) initially = c V = 1.020 40.00 103 = 4.080 102 mol

n(NaOH) = c V = 0.275 25.56 103 = 7.029 103 mol
n(HCl) unreacted = n(NaOH) = 0.275 25.56 103 = 7.029 103 mol
n(HCl)reacting = n(HCl) initially n(HCl)unreacted
= 4.080 102 7.029 103 = 3.377 102 mol
1
1
e n(CaCO3) = n(HCl) reacting = 3.377 102 = 1.689 mol
2
2
1
f m(CaCO3) = n M = 3.377 102 100.1 = 1.690 g
2
m(CaCO3 ) 100 1.690 100

g % CaCO3 in marble =
=

= 97.13%
m(marble)
1.740
1
1

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## Oxidation numbers and redox

equations
No.

Examples: a NF3

a +6

a
b
c
d
e
f

a +6

C = 0 H = +1 O = 2

## a Oxidation: CH3CH2OH(aq) + H2O(l) CH3COOH(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 4e

Reduction: Cr2O72(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)
Redox: 3CH3CH2OH(aq) + 2Cr2O72(aq) + 16H+(aq)
3CH3COOH(aq) + 4Cr3+(aq) + 11H2O(l)
b Oxidation: 2I(aq) I2(aq) + 2e
Reduction: BrO3(aq) + 6H+(aq) + 6e Br(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Redox: 6I(aq) + BrO3(aq) + 6H+(aq) 3I2(aq) + Br(aq) + 3H2O(l)
c Oxidation: Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + e
Reduction: MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
Redox: 5Fe2+(aq) + MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) 5Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
d Oxidation: H2O2(aq) O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e
Reduction: MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
Redox: 5H2O2(aq) + 2MnO4(aq) + 6H+(aq) 5O2(g) + 2Mn2+(aq) + 8H2O(l)
e Oxidation: H2S(g) S(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2e
Reduction: Cr2O72(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)
Redox: 3H2S(g) + Cr2O72(aq) + 8H+(aq) 3S(s) + 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)

b +6

c +4

b N2O5

c N2

d NH3

d 1

Not redox
Oxidant = I2O5, reductant = CO
Not redox
Oxidant = Hg2+, reductant = N2H4
Oxidant = NO3, reductant = H2S
Oxidant = NO2, reductant = NO2
b +2

c +7

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## Recovering silver from

solution
No.

a AgNO3 solution
b NaCl solution
c deionised water

## a Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s)

b Ag+(aq) + CrO4(aq) AgCrO4(s)

## n(NaCl) = c V = 0.100 0.02000 = 0.002000 mol

n(AgNO3) = n(NaCl) = 0.002000 mol
n
0.002000
= 0.1035 M
c(AgNO3) = =
V
0.01932

There is uncertainty in the pipette and burette volumes, and in the judging of the endpoint.

Dry and weigh the sample until the mass was constant.

b Silver ion

## n(AgNO3) = c V = 0.1035 0.02000 = 0.002070 mol

n(Ag) = n(AgNO3) = 0.002070 mol
m(Ag) present = n M = 0.002070 107.9 = 0.2234 g
0.206
mass recovered
% recovery =
100 =
100 = 92.2%
mass present
0.2234

Reaction between the Ag+ ions in solution and the Cu spiral was incomplete.
Some silver remained adhering to the copper spiral.
Small amounts of silver were lost in the transfer and filtering process.

10

## 2H2O(l) O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e

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## Worksheet 4.3: Solutions

Redox titrations
No.

a I2(aq) + 2e 2I(aq)
b If iodine is present a blue colour will be present. When the iodine has all reacted (i.e. the
endpoint has been reached), the blue colour will disappear.

## a C6H4O2(OH)4(aq) + I2(aq) C6H4O4(OH)2(aq) + 2I(aq) + 2H+(aq)

b n(I2) = c V = 0.10 0.0250 = 0.0025 mol
n(C6H4O2(OH)4) = n(I2) = 0.0025 mol
n 0.0025
c(C6H4O2(OH)4) = =
= 0.140 M
V 0.0178

## a CH3CH2OH(aq) + H2O(l) CH3COOH(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 4e

Cr2O72(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)
b 2Cr2O72(aq) + 16H+(aq) + 3CH3CH2OH(aq) 4Cr3+(aq) + 11H2O(l) + 3CH3COOH(aq)
c n(Cr2O72) = c V = 0.200 0.01945 = 0.00389 mol
3
n(CH3CH2OH) = n(Cr2O72) = 1.5 0.00389 = 0.00584 mol
2
250.0
250.0
n(CH3CH2OH)in original = n(CH3CH2OH)in aliquot
= 0.00584
= 0.0730 mol
20.00
20.00
n 0.0730
c(CH3CH2OH) = =
= 2.92 M
V
0.025

a Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + e
MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
b MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) Mn2+ + 4H2O(l) + 5Fe3+(aq)
c The pink colour of the MnO4 persists when the endpoint has been reached.
d n(MnO4) = c V = 0.110 0.0128 = 0.00141 mol
n(Fe2+) = 5 n(MnO4) = 5 0.00141 = 0.00704 mol
n 0.00704
c(Fe2+) = =
= 0.352 M
V
0.020

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Redox titrations
No.

## a Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

b Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e
2H+(aq) + 2e H2(g)
c HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
n(HCl) initially added = c V = 1.08 0.100 = 0.108 mol
n(NaOH) = c V = 1.00 0.0459 = 0.0459 mol
n(HCl) remaining after reaction with iron = n(NaOH) = 0.0459 mol
n(HCl) reacting with iron = 0.108 0.0459 = 0.0621 mol
1
0.0621
= 0.0311 mol
n(Fe) = n(HCl) =
2
2
m(Fe) = n M = 0.0311 55.8 = 1.732 g
1.732
m(Fe)
100 = 60.4%
100 =
% Fe =
m(nail)
2.87

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## Analysis of iron in iron ore

No.

An absorbance spectrum would be created by testing the absorbance of the complex ion
solution at various wavelengths. The wavelength of maximum absorbance would be chosen
(provided this wavelength was not also absorbed by other components in the ore solution).

## Absorbance of 0.400 corresponds to a concentration of 0.0125 M.

0.0125 mol in 1.0 L means 0.00125 mol in 100.0 mL.
m(Fe) = n M = 0.00125 55.8 = 0.0698 g
0.0698
m(Fe)
% Fe =
100 =
100 = 69.8%
0.100
m(ore)

## MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)

Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + e
MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) + 5Fe3+(aq)

## n(MnO4) = c V = 0.0335 19.75 103 mol

n(Fe) = n(Fe2+) = 5 n(MnO4)
m(Fe) = n M = 5 0.0335 19.75 103 55.8 = 0.1846 g
0.1846
m(Fe)
100 = 68.9%
% Fe =
100 =
m(ore)
0.268

The determined value would be lower, because less permanganate solution would be
required for titration (since it will only react with the Fe2+, not the Fe3+).

## A pure sample of known composition could not be obtained because:

the precipitate may contain a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) hydroxides
the iron hydroxide precipitates are not stable when heated.

## 2Fe 2Fe(OH)2 Fe2O3

m
1.08
=
n(Fe2O3) =
= 0.00677 mol
159.6
M
n(Fe) = 2 n(Fe2O3)
m(Fe) = n M = 2 0.00677 55.8 = 0.755 g
0.755
m(Fe)
% Fe =
100 = 74.8%
100 =
m(ore)
1.01

10

Precipitates other than iron hydroxide may have formed, leading to a larger precipitate mass.

11

a Spectroscopic

12

Atomic absorption spectroscopy of a solution prepared by dissolving ore in acid can be used.

b Gravimetric

## b Fe3+(aq) + 3OH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s)

c Gravimetric

d Spectroscopic

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## Worksheet 5.2: Solutions

Colorimetric determination of
manganese in steel
No

## a Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e

b IO4(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e IO3(aq) + H2O(l)
c 2Mn2+(aq) + 3H2O(l)+ 5IO4(aq) 2MnO4(aq) + 6H+(aq) + 5IO3(aq)

## 2.56 ppm = 2.56 mg L1

m 2.56 10 3
=
mol
M
118.9
n(Mn) = n(MnO4)
2.56 10 3
m(Mn) = n M =
54.9 = 1.18 10 3 g
118.9
1.18 103
m(Mn )
% Mn m/m =
100 =
100 = 0.0409%
2.890
m(sample)

Steel is mostly composed of iron. Step 1 oxidised the iron to iron(II) then to iron(III).

## 8.0 ppm MnO4 = 8.0 mg per 1.0 L (1000 mL)

0.8 mg of MnO4 in 100 mL
0.8 103
mol of MnO4 in 100 mL

118.9
0.8 103

## mol of KMnO4 in 100 mL

118.9
0.8 103
158.0 g of KMnO4 in 100 mL

118.9
1.1 103 g of KMnO4

Everything added to the sample (nitric acid, potassium persulfate, periodate and phosphoric
acid) should be added in the same proportions, in case any of these substances absorb light
in the region being analysed.

400 nm is in the blueviolet region, which is close to the colour of MnO4 and therefore will
not be absorbed strongly. 520 nm is closer to green, and will be more strongly absorbed.

If all absorbances were shifted by the same quantity, it would not have made a difference.

10

## Atomic absorption spectrometry could be used.

n(MnO4) =

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No.

Question

## Vaporisation, ionisation and deflection

a The vaporised sample is bombarded with high-energy electrons to produce positive ions
by knocking electrons off the sample atoms or molecules.
b Positive ions moving in a magnetic field are deflected to varying degrees depending on
their charge to mass ratio. The greater the charge, the greater the deflection; the greater
the mass, the smaller the deflection. Thus ions are separated by mass.

Peak at mass 20 is
Peak at mass 36 is

## Ar = (RIM abundance fraction)

Let a be the percentage abundance of the lighter isotope.
121.75 100 = (120.90 a) + (122.90 (100 a))
a = 57.5%

a
b
c
d

Compound I. The spectrum shows prominent peaks at mass-to-charge ratios of 57 and 29.
These would correspond to the masses of fragments CH3CH2CO+ and CH3CH2+. These
fragments are likely to form from compound I. Compound II would be expected to form
fragments at mass-to-charge ratios of 71 (CH3CH2CH2CO+), 43 (CH3CH2CH2+) and 15
(CH3+).

Comparison of the mass spectrum of an unknown substance with computer files of mass
spectra of many compounds allows the unknown substance to be identified. The
fragmentation pattern can be used for fingerprinting a substance (in much the same as the
fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum is used).

20
10
36
20

Ne + , 21 is
Ar + , 38 is

21
10
38
20

Ne + and 22 is
Ar + and 40 is

22
10
40
20

Ne +
Ar +

M = CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3+
M 1 = CH3CH2CH2C(OH)CH3+
M 15 = CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)+
M 43 = CH(OH)CH3+

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## Worksheet 5.4: Solutions

Spectroscopic analysis of
organic compounds I
No.

a i 5
ii 2
b i 3:2:2:2:1
ii 9:1
c 2,2-dimethylpropanal (peaks in the ratio 9:1)
d The fingerprint regions of the infrared spectra of the unknown could be compared with
that of 2,2-dimethylpropanal.

a i Infrared radiation is absorbed by molecules that move from ground state to excited
vibrational energy states. The energy is absorbed as bonds within the molecules bend
and stretch.
ii The peak at 1710 cm1 suggests a C=O bond, present in both structures. The OH
group in compound II would be expected to produce a peak in the 25003000 cm1
range. The absence of this peak suggests that the unknown is compound I.
ii Compound I would produce a spectrum with two peaks with the area ratio 1:1.
Compound II would produce a spectrum with three peaks with the area ratio 3:2:1.
The unknown is therefore likely to be compound I (methyl ethanoate).

Compound I would produce a spectrum with four peaks with the area ratio 3:2:2:3.
Compound II would produce a spectrum with two peaks with the area ratio 6:4 or 3:2.
The unknown is therefore compound II, 3-pentanone.

Notice that the peak at chemical shift 1.2 ppm, caused by the CH3 nuclei, is split into three
peaks, called a triplet. The peak at chemical shift 2.5, caused by the CH2 nuclei, is split into
four peaks, called a quartet.
The splitting follows an n + 1 rule. A peak will be split n + 1 times by n adjacent nuclei. In
the case of the peak at 1.2 ppm, the CH3 nuclei have two neighbouring protons (CH2), so the
peak is split 3 (i.e. 2 + 1) times (a triplet). For the peak at 2.5 ppm, the CH2 nuclei have three
neighbouring protons (CH3), so the peak is split 4 (i.e. 3 + 1) times (a quartet).

a i 3
ii 3
b i 3:2:3
ii 3:2:3
c i One single, one triple and one quartet
ii One single, one triple and one quartet
d The chemical shift values could be used to distinguish between them. For example, the
CH3CO group (shift 2.1) and the RCOOCH2R group (shift 4.1).

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No.

## W could be leucine or isoleucine, X could be proline or tyrosine or valine, Y is alanine or

possibly threonine and Z is arginine.

## W could be leucine or isoleucine, X is proline, Y is alanine and Z is arginine.

Some components may not separate in a given solvent. Using a second solvent makes it
more likely that separation can be achieved. The double development also allows for a
longer development time, increasing the chance of resolution of component spots.

If the spot is below the solvent level, the amino acids will dissolve into the solvent, rather
than travel up the filter paper.

The amino acids are colourless, and the spots developed using ninhydrin fade quickly in
light. It is therefore necessary to mark their positions quickly.

Perspiration on the skin contains amino acids. These could interfere with the analysis if they
were transferred to the plate.

Separation of the components occurs because the components adsorb (stick) to the stationary
phase with different strengths. The stronger the adsorption, the more slowly the component
moves as the mobile phase (the solvent) sweeps over the stationary phase (the plate).
Components undergo continuous adsorption and desorption (unsticking) to differing
degrees. The components move at different rates depending on their strength of adsorption
and the tendency to desorb.

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chromatography)
No.

## A primary alkanol is one with the OH functional group on carbon 1.

It must constantly be heated so that the mixture being analysed remains gaseous at all times.

It means that the sample is heated very quickly so that it enters the column as vapour.

This shows whether or not the machine has exactly the same parameters for each analysis. If
the 1-hexanol peak occurs at the same retention time and the same height each time, the
machine is properly calibrated.

The 1-hexanol peak was constant in terms of height and retention time.

Oxygen is too reactive and with the heat could have oxidised the alkanol mixture.

They are not easily vaporised and are more susceptible to decomposing with heat.

Dispersion forces

Ethanol is a smaller molecule. Hence, the dispersion forces formed between ethanol and the
stationary phase are weaker than the bonds formed between 1-butanol and the stationary
phase. Ethanol will spend less time adsorbed to the stationary phase and will pass through
the column more quickly.

10

11

0.806 3 10 3
m
n(C4H9OH) =
=
= 3 105 mol
M
74.1

12

13

## A peak height of 45 was obtained for 1-butanol in 3 mL of mixture.

A peak height of 21 was obtained for a 3 L (3 105 mol) sample of 1-butanol.
45
n(C4H9OH) =
3 105 = 6 105 mol
21

14

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

15

Due to its branched structure 2-propanol would have slightly weaker dispersion forces than
1-propanol and so would have been marginally more weakly adsorbed. It would therefore
have had a retention time slightly less than 2.43 min.
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## Worksheet 6.3: Solutions

A summary of analytical
techniques
No.

Question

Procedure

GA
VA
SP
CH

## Preparation of a standard solution or

solutions
Selection of wavelength to be used for
analysis
Production of a precipitate

3
3

Determination of Rf or Rt values

## In some forms the sample to be tested must

first be vaporised
A calibration curve is plotted using peak
areas of samples of known concentration

Analysis required

GA
VA
SP
CH

## To detect the presence of a C=O group in a

molecule
To test a water sample for the presence of
chromium
To check the amount of ammonia in a
window cleaner
To determine the ratio of 16O to 18O in an ice
sample
To determine the level of iron in an iron ore
sample
To identify a performance-enhancing drug in
urine samples
To separate the pigments in plant leaf
extracts

3
3
3
3
3

3
3

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3
3

## Worksheet 6.3: Solutions

A summary of analytical
techniques
No.

Question

Procedure

## Procedure is part of the technique of

AAS
Mass
Infrared
UV-vis
NMR

electrons.
Spectral information is given in
chemical shift values.
The sample for analysis is in a
vaporised state.

## Transitions occur between atomic

electronic energy levels.
Spectral information is given in
wave numbers.
Transitions occur between nuclear
spin energy levels.
The sample for analysis is in
solution.
It does not involve the absorption

3
3

3
3

3
3
3

Procedure

TLC
HPLC
GLC

## Results are presented as a chromatogram for

which the retardation factor (Rf) of each
component is found.
It relies on the principle of separation of
components by selective adsorption to a
stationary phase.
Rf values of known samples are compared with
those of unknown samples in order to identify
the unknown.
Results are presented as a chromatogram
showing a series of peaks at times taken for the
components to travel a set distance.

3
3

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## Naming organic compounds

No.

a
b
c
d
e

2-fluoropropene
propane
3-methylbutanoic acid
2-methyl-1-propanol
trichlorofluoromethane

a
b
c
d

CnH2n + 2
CnH2n
CnH2n + 1OH
Cn 1H2n 1COOH

b Butane has the higher boiling point, because the more linear molecule means that
molecules pack well together, giving greater contact between adjacent molecules and
hence stronger dispersion forces. Stronger forces mean a higher boiling point. The
branched molecules of 2-methylpropane do not pack together very well.
5

## 1-pentene, 2-pentene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene,

dimethylpropene

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## Naming organic compounds

No.

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No.

## Compound A: ethene CH2CH2

Compound B: ethanol CH3CH2OH
Compound C: ethanoic acid CH3COOH
Compound D: propane CH3CH2CH3
Compound E: 1-chloropropane CH3CH2CH2Cl
Compound F: 1-propanol CH3CH2CH2OH
Compound G: 1-propyl ethanoate CH3COOCH2CH2CH3

Test with bromine solution. Compound A (unsaturated) will decolourise bromine, while D
(saturated) will not.

C is acidic and will produce a solution with pH less than 7. G is neither acidic nor basic; its
solution will be neutral.

B and F belong to the primary alkanol homologous series. F is larger than B and so will have
larger dispersion forces between molecules, leading to a higher boiling point.

Isomers

## Compound H: 1-butene CH2CHCH2CH3

Compound I: 2-butene CH3CHCHCH3
Compound J: 1-chlorobutane CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl
Compound K: 2-chlorobutane CH3CH(Cl)CH2CH3
Compound L: 1-butanol CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
Compound M: butanoic acid CH3CH2CH2COOH
Compound N: polybut-2-ene -CHCH3CHCH3CHCH3CHCH3-

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## Worksheet 7.3: Solutions

Spectroscopic analysis of
organic compounds II
No.

12.0
1.32 = 0.36 g
44.0
2.00
m(H) in sample = m(H) in H2O produced =
0.72 = 0.080 g
18.0
m(O) in sample = m(sample) m(C) m(H) = 0.60 0.36 0.080 = 0.16 g
0.36 0.080 0.16
:
:
= 0.03 : 0.08 : 0.01 = 3 : 8 : 1
C:H:O =
12.0 1.0 16.0
The empirical formula (EF) of the compound is C3H8O.
m(C) in sample = m(C) in the CO2 produced =

From the mass spectrum, RMM is 60. EFM = 60. The molecular formula of the compound is
also C3H8O.

A peak at M 15 is often due to the loss of a methyl group. The molecule probably contains
a methyl group or groups.

I CH3CH(OH)CH3
II CH3CH2CH2OH
III CH3CH2OCH3

Compound I would have 2 peaks only (the CH3 nuclei and the CH(OH) nucleus). The other
two compounds would each produce three peaks.

## a Compound I would have three peaks in the ratio 6:1:1.

Compound II would have four peaks in the ratio 3:2:2:1.
Compound III would have three peaks in the ratio 3:2:3.
b The peak at chemical shift 1.2 ppm is due to the CH3 nuclei. The neighbouring carbon
has one 1H nucleus, so the peak is split in two (n + 1). The peak at chemical shift 3.9 ppm
is due to the CH nucleus. The neighbouring carbons have six 1H nuclei, so the peak is
split in seven (n + 1).

Compare the fingerprint regions of the infrared spectra of the unknown and 2-propanol, or
compare the fragmentation patterns of the mass spectra of the unknown and 2-propanol.

12.0
2.78 = 0.758 g
44.0
2.00
1.14 = 0.127 g
m(H) in sample = m(H) in H2O produced =
18.0
m(O) in sample = m(sample) m(C) m(H) = 1.560 0.758 0.127 = 0.675 g
0.758 0.127 0.675
:
:
= 0.063:0.127:0.042 = 1.5:3.0:1.0 = 3:6:2
C:H:O =
12.0 1.0 16.0
The empirical formula of the compound is C3H6O2.
m(C) in sample = m(C) in the CO2 produced =

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## Worksheet 7.3: Solutions

Spectroscopic analysis of
organic compounds II
No.

From the mass spectrum, RMM is 74. EFM = 74, so the molecular formula of the compound
is also C3H6O2.

10

Isomer I

Isomer II

Isomer III

CH3COOCH3

HCOOCH2CH3

CH3CH2COOH

quartet and one
triplet

## One quartet, one

triplet and one single
peak

Structural formula

Number of peaks
on the 1H NMR
spectrum
Pattern of peak
splitting on the 1H
NMR spectrum

11

## No. Both isomers II and III fit the pattern.

12

The chemical shift values would be needed to identify the types of 1H nuclei present.
For example, if the single peak has a shift of 1112 (due to the 1H of the OH), isomer III
would be correct. If the single peak has a shift of 89 (due to the 1H of the COOH), then
isomer II would be correct.

13

The peak in the 17001750 cm1 region is typical of the C=O group, present in both isomers
II and III. The peak in 25003000 cm1 region is probably due to the OH of the carboxylic
acid group, suggesting that isomer III is the correct structure.

14

Isomer III is acidic, and so would be expected to produce a solution with pH less than 7, and
react with a solution of Na2CO3 to produce carbon dioxide gas. Isomers I and II are esters
and are not acidic. They may have a distinctive fruity smell.

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## Protein structure and function

No.

a Refer to figure 8.2.1 on page 171 of the coursebook. Note that the COOH and NH2
groups are attached to the same carbon atom.
b Refer to the diagrams of the twenty amino acids shown on the examination data booklet.

a
b
c
d

1
2
4
999 (in general n 1)

a i NHCH2CONHCH2CONHCH2CO
ii NH(CH2)3CONH(CH2)3CONH(CH2)3CO
iii CH2CH2CH2
b i Condensation
ii Condensation
c A protein has a complex sequence of many different amino acids. It does not use a single
monomer like this.

The oppositely charged dipole ends along the chain align, as the chain forms a helix.

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No.

## a An enzyme is a biological catalyst. It is a protein with a specific 3D structure. It is this

structure/shape that allows it to catalyse a particular reaction.
b For example: lactase is required for the digestion of milk; sucrase for the breakdown of
sucrose and catalase to break down peroxide molecules.
c See the lock and key diagram of enzyme functioning (figure 8.2.8) on page 174 of the
coursebook.

Inhibitors or blockers can act by either filling the active site on the enzyme, thus making it
no longer a catalyst, or by changing the shape of the active site so that it no longer performs
its usual function.

## This is an example of denaturation of the protein (casein) in the milk. Denaturation is a

breakdown of the complex tertiary structure of the protein.

10

Strong base, ultraviolet light and other organic molecules can all cause denaturation.

11

## Several examples are outlined on page 193 of the coursebook.

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## DNA structure and function

No.

a
b
c
d

a A sequence of three nitrogenous bases on the DNA strand. This sequence usually codes
for a particular amino acid.
b The specific bonding that occurs between certain base pairs on opposing strands of DNA
in the double-stranded molecule. These pairs are A and T, and C and G.
c The copying of a double-stranded DNA molecule to produce another identical, doublestranded DNA molecule.
d The combination of a deoxyribose sugar (in DNA) or ribose sugar (in RNA) molecule
with a nitrogenous base and a phosphate molecule. A nucleotide is the basic building
block of nucleic acid polymers.

## Refer to figure 8.3.4 on page 177 of the coursebook.

Base + sugar nucleoside

## Refer to figure 8.3.4 on page 177 of the coursebook.

Phosphate + nucleoside nucleotide

## Refer to figure 8.3.4 on page 177 of the coursebook.

+ nucleotide + nucleotide polynucleotide

The section contains 400 bases. 40 adenine molecules must base pair with 40 thymine
molecules, leaving 320 molecules. Since each cytosine must pair with a guanine molecule,
there must be 160 of each molecule present.

## a Section A: (from top to bottom) GGGCTATTAG; Section B: TTACGAAGGT

b The CG link involves 3 hydrogen bonds and so is stronger than the AT link which has
2 hydrogen bonds. Section A has more CG links than section B, so section B would be
easier to separate (i.e. require less energy).

a Translation
b Transcription
c Replication

a 18 (9 per strand)
b 4 (note that 5 sugar-phosphate bonds already exist within the nucleotides)
c 66 (3 per amino acid. In practice, more are needed for the stop and start of the
translation process.)

Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid
The nitrogenous bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine and uracil
Polymerase chain reactionthe laboratory process in which a DNA fragment is
replicated many times (amplified)

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## Worksheet 8.3: Solutions

Biochemical fuels
No.

## Some search results and comments

Biofuel

Generation/source

Chemical structure

Ethanol

It is produced by
fermentation, the action
of yeast enzymes on
glucose under anaerobic
conditions.

CH3CH2OH

Biogas

It is formed when
organic matter decays in
an oxygen-free
(anaerobic) environment.
The biogas is generated
by the action of microorganisms on organic
molecules.
It is formed when
triglycerides are reacted
with concentrated
sodium hydroxide and
methanol. The sodium
hydroxide breaks the
ester bond in the
triglyceride, allowing the
methanol to form an ester
with the long fatty acid
molecule.

CH4

Biodiesel

## Refer to figure 8.4.5

on page 187 of the
coursebook.

Energy production

## Burnt in air, or mixed

with petrol for
combustion:
CH3CH2OH(l) + 3O2(g)
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)
Reacted with oxygen in
a fuel cell
CH4(g) + 2O2(g)
CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

biodiesel + O2(g)
CO2(g) + H2O(g)

Brazil has used ethanol blends for many years. Sugarcane is often their source of ethanol.
The energy from the ethanol needs to outweigh the cost of producing the crops. Corn is a
common starting point in the US. There are several steps to purifying the ethanol. Purdue
yeast offers the possibility of using cellulose (cheap forest waste) to get glucose to get
ethanol.

The Sunshine tip and Windermere piggery are examples of biogas production. The main
product is methane, which can be burnt to produce energy.

There are several Australian recipes for biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in normal diesel
engines. Unrefined vegetable oil can only be used in blends with normal diesel.
Rapeseed (also known as canola) is a common oil chosen. Waste oil from fish and chip
shops can be used also.
European countries actually sell blends of biodiesel and diesel.
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aspirin
No.

## Analgesic: pain reliever

Antipyretic: reduces fever
Anti-inflammatory: reduces production of prostaglandins that lead to inflammation

Used by the ancient Greeks and by the American Indians, who chewed the leaves.

a Carboxylic acid
b Hydroxy
c Ester

## See figure 8.5.2 on page 189 of the coursebook.

a It is a catalyst.
b It is used in many ester-forming reactions.

a The binder holds the tablet together so that it is a single, solid tablet.
b The binder must be harmless, stable and ediblestarch is suitable for this.

## a m(acetylsalicylic acid) = 325 106 mg = 325 103 g

m 325 10 3
=
n(acetylsalicylic acid) =
M
180
n(salicylic acid) = n(acetylsalicylic acid)
325 10 3
=nM=
138 = 249 103 g = 249 kg
180
b The process is far from 100% efficient. Reaction is incomplete and isolation of the
product is difficult because the solubility of the aspirin makes it hard to crystallise out
from the reaction solution.

Stomach bleeding may occur. In addition, the blood is thinned too much, making it unlikely
to congeal and so interfering with the clotting process.

10

Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is produced. See figure 8.5.2 on page 189 of the
coursebook.

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## Worksheet 8.5: Solutions

A biomolecules glossary
No.

## a Similar to figure 8.1.3 on page 168 of the coursebook.

i Hydroxy
ii Disaccharide
b Similar to figure 8.2.3 on page 171 of the coursebook.
i Amino and carboxy
ii Dipeptide
c See figure 8.3.4 on page 177 of the coursebook.
i Hydroxy and amino
ii Nucleotide
d Similar to figure 8.4.4 on page 186 of the coursebook.
i Hydroxy and carboxy
ii Triglyceride

a Glucose molecules
b Amino acids
c Nucleotides

It will have a different number of beads, different types of beads and a different sequence of

## See figure 8.3.5 on page 178 of the coursebook.

a Covalent
b Hydrogen bonding

a
b
c
d

## Heat, change in pH, addition of detergent, UV light, organic compounds

10

Refer to the Chem Snippet on page 173 of the coursebook for examples.

Hydrogen bond
Ionic
Covalent (disulfide)
Dispersion forces

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