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Engineering materials



Topic: steels
Group members
Junaid jabbar
Abdul rauf
Mohsin ali
Gulzar tharani
Waqas azeem


Steel is obtained through carbon reducing operations.

Carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.
Amount of carbon within the lattice determines the properties of the
Alloys containing less than 0.008 % carbon are classed as irons. Steel
has a carbon content less than 2.0 %

types of steel:

C 0.25 % mild steel, low carbon steel (structural steel is in this

0.3 % C 0.6 % medium carbon steel, carbon steel
C > 0.6 % high carbon steel
Normally, Mn and S are added to steel during production
If elements other than Mn and Si are added alloy steels
If elements like Cr and Ni are added stainless steels

Low carbon steel:

Contain less than 0.25%C
Not very responsive to heat treatments
soft, weak, tough and ductile
Machinable , weldable, not expensive

These are arguably produced in the greatest quantities than other


Carbon present in these alloys is limited, and is not enough to

strengthen these materials by heat treatment; hence these alloys are
strengthened by cold work.

Their microstructure consists of ferrite and pearlite,

these alloys are thus relatively soft, ductile combined with high

materials are easily machinable and weldable.


Typical applications of these alloys include: structural shapes, tin cans,

automobile body components, buildings, etc.

Medium carbon steel:

Contain 0.25-0.60 wt.% carbon

Can be heat-treated but only in thin sections

Stronger than low-C steels but less ductile and less tough
Good wear resistance
Railway wheels & tracks, gears

These are stronger than low carbon steels. However these are of less ductile than low
carbon steels.

alloys can be heat treated to improve their strength. Usual heat treatment cycle consists of
austenitizing, quenching, and tempering

Ni, Cr and Mo alloying additions improve their hardenability.


Typical applications include: railway tracks & wheels, gears, other machine parts which
may require good combination of strength and toughness.

High carbon steel:

0.60 -1.4 wt.% C

Hardest, strongest, least ductile of all steels
Almost always used in tempered condition
Especially wear resistant
Form hard and wear resistant carbides with alloying elements
Used in cutting tools, dies, knives, razors, springs and high strength
These are strongest and hardest of carbon steels, and of course their
ductility is very limited.
These are heat treatable, and mostly used in hardened and tempered
Thus these are used for tool application such as knives, razors,
hacksaw blades, etc. With addition of alloying element like Cr, V, Mo, W
which forms hard carbides by reacting with carbon present, wear
resistance of high carbon steels can be improved considerably.

High strength low alloy steel (HSLA):

A special group of ferrous alloys with noticeable amount of alloying

additions are known as HSLA (high-strength low-alloy) steels. Common
alloying elements are: Cu, V, Ni, W, Cr, Mo, etc. These alloys can be
strengthened by heat treatment, and yet the same time they are
ductile, formable. Typical applications of these HSLA steels include:
support columns, bridges, pressure vessels..

Nanoalloyed steels have extremely small grain size (10-100 nm).

Since their synthesis is done at an atomic level their properties can be
controlled specifically.

Microalloyed steels Provide superior properties without the use of

heat treating. When cooled carefully these steels develop enhanced
and consistent strength.

Manufacture of steel:
1. cementation process 2.crucible process
4. open hearth process 5.electric process
7. duplex process
8.kaldo process

Heat treated steels

Properties of steel (C > 0.3 %) can be varied by heat treatment
Heating to high temperature
Fast cooling by quenching in oil or water
Followed by reheating to about 650C (tempering)
Fast cooling produces hard, brittle microstructure (known as
Used only for cutting tools, no use in structural engineering

3.bessemer process
6.L.D process

Stainless steels
Ferrous alloys: containing at least 12% Cr and some Ni and Mo.
Chromium produces a stable passive oxide film.
They are called STAINLESS because, in the presence of oxygen (air),
they develop a thin, hard, adherent film of chromium oxide that
protects the metal from corrosion.

The name comes from their high resistance to corrosion i.e. they are
rust-less (stain-less).

Steels are made highly corrosion resistant by addition of special

alloying elements, especially a minimum of 12% Cr along with Ni and

Stainless steels are mainly three kinds: ferritic & hardenable Cr steels,
austenitic and precipitation hardenable (martensitic, semi-austenitic)

. Typical applications include cutlery, razor blades, surgical knives, etc.

Ferritic stainless steels are principally Fe-Cr-C alloys with 12-14% Cr.
They also contain small additions of Mo, V, Nb, and Ni.

Austenitic stainless steels usually contain 18% Cr and 8% Ni in addition

to other minor alloying elements.

By alloying additions, for martensitic steels Ms is made to be above the room

temperature. These alloys are heat treatable. Major alloying elements are: Cr, Mn and

Three basic types (grouped according to metallurgical structure):

Martensitic: 13% Cr, low carbon, hard, used for cutlery, unweldable
Ferritic: 13% Cr, low carbon, unweldable

Austenitic: 18% Cr and 8% Ni, low carbon, most resistant to pitting

type of corrosion, weldable

Role of elements in steel:1. Chromium makes the alloy hard and increases the wear and
corrosion resistance of steel. Steels containing more than 4 percent
chromium are called stainless steels.
2. Sulfur is added to aid in machinability of the steel.
3. Silicon is added to improve the electrical, mechanical, and thermal
4. Nickel is added to increase the toughness and strength.
5. Vanadium is added to increase the strength.
6. Tungsten is used to produce tool steels that will maintain a cutting
edge at high heat.
7. Aluminum helps to provide a hardened surface.
8. Molybdenum tends to increase the hardness and the endurance
limits of steel.
9. Oxygen forms iron oxide which is not desirable.
10. Phosphorus is found in all steels. When present in high percentages
it is considered an impurity. At low percentages it improves
11. Carbon added to iron changes the physical properties. The amount
of change is directly proportional to the amount of carbon added to the

survey points

Iron and steel are both hard and strong, and are commonly found in
construction (i.e.bridges and buildings). A disadvantage of iron is that
it tends to rust. Although moststeels will also rust, they can be
formulated to be rust free.
Plain carbon steels and cast irons are used in low cost, high strength
applications where weight and corrosion are not a problem.
Stainless steel or galvanized steel are used where resistance to
corrosion is important.
Aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys are used for applications
where strength and lightness are required.
Cupro-nickel alloys such as Monel are used in highly corrosive
environments and for non-magnetic applications.
Nickel-based superalloys like Inconel are used in high temperature
applications such asturbochargers, pressure vessels, and heat
Casting - molten metal is poured into a shaped mold
Forging - a red-hot billet is hammered into shape
Rolling - a billet is passed through successively narrower rollers to
create a sheet

Extrusion - hot and malleable metal is forced under pressure through a

die, whichshapes it before it cools
Sintering - a powdered metal is compressed into a die at high
Machining - lathes, milling machines, and drills work the cold metal to
Fabrication - sheets of metal are cut by a variety of methods and bent
into shape

Mild steel bars (as per IS: 432, part-I -1982)

Mild steel bars are used for tensile stress of RCC (Reinforced cement
concrete) slab beams etc. in reinforced cement concrete work.

These steel bars are plain in surface and are round sections of
diameter from 6 to 50 mm.

These rods are manufactured in long lengths and can be cut quickly
and be bent easily without damage.

Deformed steel bars (as per IS: 1786-1985)

As deformed bars are rods of steels provided with lugs, ribs or

deformation on the surface of bar, these bars minimize slippage in
concrete and increases the bond between the two materials. Deformed
bars have more tensile stresses than that of mild steel plain bars.

These bars can be used without end hooks. The deformation should be
spaced along the bar at substantially uniform distances.

china steel are local and not high protection against corrosion

iron steel,puter are weak and pure stainless steel does not corrode

sometiome chromium polishes are used in steel surface

steel is costly than pure iron and aluminium

welding gives permanent joints to steel for weak joints adhesive are

302 garde.high grade steel

304 grade.good steel,pure and does not magnetize

203,202,256 grades are lower quality steels

316 grade are high protected steel,used in food containing items