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CHAPTER 2

Algebraic Expressions
The axioms of real numbers in Section 1.3 and the theorems of exponents in Section 2.3
furnish the basis for the operations we shall perform in this chapter. The following basic ideas,
definition, and rules are preliminary to this study.

2.1

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

Algebraic expressions are formed by using constants and variables and the algebraic
operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, the raising to powers (evolution) and the
extraction of roots (involution).
EXAMPLE 1

d2 + 2d -5 is an algebraic expression

The letters in an algebraic expression are called variables (or literal numbers). In example
1, d is a variable. A variable is a symbol, usually a letter, which stands for, or may be replaced
by, a number from a specified set of numbers. This set of numbers is termed as replacement set,
or if an answer to a specific problem, it is called a solution set.
In the field of engineering, letters such as e and the Greek letter are termed as
constants. Constants appear in algebraic expressions like other variables but are symbols whose
= {3.1416
replacement set contains only one number, viz., e = {2.718281 approx.} and
approx.}. In short, constants have one specific value and act as a real number. Moreover, the set
of real numbers are constants.
A term is a part or component of an expression when the expression is composed of parts
connected by a (+) or () sign. Example 1 consists of 3 terms, namely d 2, 2d and 5.
A factor is a part of product of an expression composed of parts multiplied together. The
term 2d in Example 1 has the factors 2 and d, where 2 is the coefficient of d and d is the
coefficient of 2. In addition, 2 is the numerical coefficient and d is the literal coefficient. Usually
when we refer to the coefficient of a monomial or a term, we mean the numerical coefficient.
An algebraic expression of one term is called monomial; of two terms, a binomial, of
three terms, a trinomial. Multinomial or polynomial is used to indicate an expression of two or
more terms.
EXAMPLE 2

3xy monomial
2x2 3xy binomial
2x2 3xy + y2 trinomial

If a term in a polynomial has only one variable as a factor, then the degree of that term is
the power of the variable.
EXAMPLE 3

The degree of 3x2 is 2

If two or more variables are present in a term as factors, then the degree of the term is the
sum of the powers of the variables.
1

EXAMPLE 4

The degree of 3x2y3z is 6

The degree of a polynomial is the degree of the term with the highest degree in the
polynomial.
EXAMPLE 5

The degree of 5x2 3x2y + y2 is 3

Like terms are terms that have equal literal parts. In addition, all constants are like terms.
EXAMPLE 6

5x2y, 8yx2, and -7xyx are like terms

Unlike terms are terms that do not have equal literal parts.
EXAMPLE 7

2.2

5x2, 7x, and 3y are unlike terms.

SYMBOLS OF GROUPING

Symbols of grouping are symbols used to enclose terms whose sum is to act as a single
number. They have been used in the previous sections but not discussed. These are the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.

parentheses ( );
brackets [ ];
braces { }; and the,
vinculum .

Rules:
a) Removing a symbol of grouping preceded by a minus sign changes the signs of all terms
previously enclosed by that symbol. If the sign preceding a symbol of grouping is the plus
sign, removal of that symbol of grouping does not affect the signs of the terms previously
enclosed by it.
b) Enclosing several terms by a symbol of grouping preceded by a minus sign changes the signs
of all the terms it is made to enclose. Enclosing several terms by a symbol of grouping
preceded by a plus sign does not affect the signs of the terms enclosed.
EXAMPLE 8
Solution
Solution
Solution

Applying the rules as stated above, perform the following as indicated in each letter.
(a) Remove the symbols of grouping x [y + (a b)]
x [y + (a b)]= x [y + a b]= x y a + b
(b) Enclose the last two terms preceded by a minus sign of x y a + b.
x y a + b = x y [a b]
(c) Simplify 3(x 4y) {3x 2[(x y 2) + y]}
3(x 4y) {3x 2[(x y 2) + y]}
= 3x 12y {3x 2[x y 2 + y]}
= 3x 12y {3x 2[x 2]}
= 3x 12y {3x 2x + 4}
= 3x 12y {x + 4}
= 3x 12y x 4
= 2x 12y 4
2

2.3

INTEGRAL EXPONENTS

If two (2) or more quantities are multiplied together, each of them is called a factor of the
product. If a term is the product of factors, which are equal to each other, the term is called a
power of the repeated factor.
The symbol a2 is used to represent the product a a; a5 to represent a a a a a; and in
general , am for any positive integer m is used to represent the product of m factors each equal to
a. The number a is called the base, am the mth power of the base a, and m the exponent or the
power.
2.3-1 Theorems of Exponents
Consider the product aman. By definition it is equal to the product of m as and n as, and
it is the m + n as. Hence, a man = am + n, where m and n are positive integers. In addition, a m/an =
am-n.
By the definition of the nth power of a number and the use of the commutative axiom, we
have (ab) n= anbn, since (ab)n is n abs and n abs is the product of n factors of a and n factors of b.
By the commutative axiom, the product of n factors of a and n factors of b is a nbn. this is also
similar for division where (a/b)n=an/bn.
Moreover, (an)m=amn since an equals m factors of an. The m factors of an is an+n+n+n... to m addends
or just simply amn.
EXAMPLE 9

The following equalities illustrate the use of the above definition of an exponent:
(a) 23 = 2 2 2 = 8
(b) (-3)2 = (-3)(-3) = 9
(c) x2 x3 = (x x)(x x x) = x x x x x = x5
x5 x x x x x

x2
3
x

x
x
(d)

x3
xxx
1
1

3
6
(e) x x x x x x x x x x x
(f) (x3)3 = x3 x3 x3 = x9
(g) (xy)2 = (xy)(xy) = (x x)(y y) = x2y2
x

(h) y

2.4

x

y

x
x3
3
y
y

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

1. If there are any parentheses in the expression, that part of the expression within a pair of
parentheses is evaluated first. A fraction line and the bar in a square root act like parentheses.
2. The evaluation then proceeds in this order:
First: Powers and roots are done.
Second: Multiplication and division are done in order from left to right.
3

Third: Addition and subtraction are done in order from left to right.
EXAMPLE 10

Evaluate the following expression using the correct order of operation


3
8 3 2 2( 6) = -2(9) 2(-6)

= -18 (-12)
= -18 + 12
= -6

2.5

OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS
2.5-1 Addition of Polynomials

Polynomials can be added horizontally by removing the symbols of grouping, combining


like terms and then writing the answers in descending powers of the given variable.
Polynomials can be also added vertically by arranging them under one another so that
like terms are in the same vertical line and then finding the sum of the terms in each vertical line
by adding their numerical coefficients.
EXAMPLE 11

(a) Add (3x2 + 5x 4) + (2x + 5) + (x3 4x2 + x)


= 3x2 + 5x 4 + 2x + 5 + x3 4x2 + x
= x3 x2 + 8x + 1
(b) Add (3x2 + 2x 1), (2x + 5), (4x3 + 7x2 6)

4x3
4x3
2.5-2

+
+

3x2

2x
2x

7x2
10x2

4x

Subtraction of Polynomials

To subtract polynomials horizontally, change the sign of each term in the polynomial
being subtracted, and then add the resulting terms horizontally.
EXAMPLE 12

Subtract (2y2 5y + 3) from the sum of (8y2 6y 1) and (4y2 + 7y 9)


(8y2 6y 1) + (4y2 + 7y 9) (2y2 5y + 3)
= 8y2 6y 1 + 4y2 + 7y 9 2y2 + 5y 3
= 10y2 + 6y 13

To subtract polynomials vertically, write the polynomial being subtracted, the subtrahend,
under the polynomial it is being subtracted from, the minuend, write like terms in the same
vertical line, change the sign of each term in the polynomial being subtracted, and then find the
sum of the resulting terms in each vertical line by adding their numerical coefficients.
EXAMPLE 13

Subtract (3z2 2z 7) from (z3 2z 5)

z3

(3z

2z
2z

5
7)

z3
z3

2.5-3

3z
3z2

2z
2z

+
+

5
7
2

Multiplication of Polynomials

To multiply polynomials, multiply separately the numerical coefficients and the literal
coefficients, then; apply the theorems of exponents and the distributive axiom of multiplication.
(a) Multiply (3u3v)(20uv)(-3uv2)
= (3)(20)(-3)(u3+1+1)(v1+1+2)= -180u5v4

EXAMPLE 14

(b) Multiply (3x2 4x + 6)(5x 2)


= (3x2 4x + 6)(5x) + (3x2 4x + 6)(2)
= 15x3 20x2 + 30x 6x2 + 8x 12
= 15x3 26x2 + 38x 12
2.5-4

Division of Polynomials

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, divide each term in the polynomial by the


monomial, simplify each term, and then add the resulting quotients.
EXAMPLE 15

Divide (15a4b2c+20ab3c-10abc2) by 5abc


15a 4 b 2c 20ab 3c 10abc 2 15a 4 b 2c 20ab 3c 10abc 2

5abc
5abc
5abc
5abc = 3a3b + 4b2 2c

The method used to divide one polynomial (the dividend) by a polynomial (the divisor)
with two or more terms is similar to the method used to divide one whole number by another
(using long division) in arithmetic. The long division procedure for polynomials can be
summarized as follows:
Step 1: Arrange the divisor and the dividend in descending powers of one variable. In the
dividend, leave spaces for any missing terms.
Step 2: Find the first term of the quotient by dividing the first term of the dividend by the first
term of the divisor
Step 3: Multiply the entire divisor by the first term of the quotient. Place the product under the
dividend, lining up like terms.
Step 4: Subtract the product found in Step 3 from the dividend, bringing down at least one term.
This difference is the remainder. If the degree of the remainder is not less than the degree
of the divisor, continue with Steps 5 to 8.
Step 5: Find the next term of the quotient by dividing the first term of the remainder by the first
term of the divisor.
5

Step 6: Multiply the entire divisor by the term found in Step 5.


Step 7: Subtract the product found in Step 6 from the polynomial above it, bringing down at least
one more term.
Step 8: Repeat Steps 5 through 7 until the remainder is 0 or until the degree of the remainder is
less than the degree of the divisor.
Step 9: Check your answer. (divisor quotient + remainder = dividend)
EXAMPLE 16

Divide (5x2 + 6x3 5 4x) by (3 + 2x)

Step 1: First, arrange the divisor and the dividend in descending powers of x.
2x 3 6x 3 5x 2 4x 5

Step 2:

3x 2
2x 3 6x 3 5x 2 4x 5
3x 2
2x 3 6x 5x 2 4x 5
3

Step 3:

6x3 + 9x2
3x 2
2x 3 6x 5x 2 4x 5
3

Step 4:

() 6x3 + 9x2
4x2 4x
3x 2 2x
2x 3 6x 5x 2 4x 5
3

Step 5:

() 6x3 + 9x2
4x2 4x
3x 2 2x
2x 3 6x 5x 2 4x 5
3

Step 6:

() 6x3 + 9x2
4x2 4x
() 4x2 6x
2x 5

Step 7:

3x 2 2x 1
2x 3 6x 3 5x 2 4x 5

() 6x3 + 9x2
4x2 4x
() 4x2 6x
2x 5
6

3x 2 2x 1
2x 3 6x 5x 2 4x 5
3

Step 8:

() 6x3 + 9x2
4x2 4x
() 4x2 6x
2x 5
()2x + 3
8

The division is now finished, because the degree of the remainder is less than the degree
of the divisor.

Answer

8
3x2 2x + 1 2x 3
2.5-5 Remainder Theorem

EXAMPLE 17

If f(x) is divided by x a, then the remainder is f(a).


What is the remainder when (5x2 + 6x3 5 4x) is divided by (3 + 2x)
Let f(x) = 5x2 + 6x3 5 4x; and (3 + 2x) = 0
Then, from (3 + 2x) = 0; x = -3/2
f(-3/2) = 5(-3/2)2 + 6(-3/2)3 5 4(-3/2) = -8

Exercise 2
A

Write each expression as an equivalent one with (a) the last two terms in parentheses
preceded by a minus sign, and (b) the first three terms in parentheses preceded by a
minus sign
a.) 1. 5 4z 7y + 9x
2. 2d + 3a 5b + c
3. r st + 3 tu

Remove the symbols of grouping and simplify by combining like terms.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2(r 1) + 3(2r 3) (4r 5)


2(d 1) (3d + 2) 2(2d 3)
2m 3m[4 2(m 1)]
4c 2c[5 3(c + 2)]
2w 3{w +2[w (w + 5)] + 1}
s {s [s (s 1)]}

Add or subtract as indicated


7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

b.) 4. 2 3e 4f + g h
5. j 6k 11m + jk
6. u v + w 3x z

(4y2 8y 13) + (7y2 + 8y 26)


(45x2 + 11x 20) + (30x2 + 16)
(-z2 5) (3z z2 z)
(6p2q 5pq2 + 7pq 9) + (-17p2q + pq2 9pq + 16)
(7w3 + 11w2 9w + 11) (5w3 14w 15)
(0.312t2 4.216) + (-7.219t2 3.417t 6.102)
(r2 2rs + s2) (2r2 2rs+ s2) + (3r2 + 5s2)
Subtract 4m3 3m2 + 2m 1 from 5m2 7
From (5ab cd), subtract (-3cd + 1)
By how much does (3k2 7k 12) exceed (2k2 5k + 8)?

Multiply as indicated and combine like terms.


23. (-3xy2)(2x2y)

24. (cd)(-c2d)(c3)
8

25.
27.
29.
31.
33.
35.
37.
39.
E

(2x2y3z)3(6x2yz)
(-2mn2p3)5(-3m2np5)2(-5m5n4p3)2
(4x3 + 2x 3)(3x2)
(x + y z)(x y + z)
(2r2 + 3r + 5)(6r3 2r2 3r + 4)
0.315(1.28y + 3.48)
(2x2 x + 3)(2x2 +x 3)
(5x2 7xy y2 )(x2 + 3xy + 2y2)

Perform the indicate divisions


5a 2 b3c
3 2
41. 10a bc
3u 3 v 2 6u 5 v3
3u 3v 2
43.
18x 2 y 4 12x 3 y 5 15x 4 y 3
3x 2 y 6
45.

47.

y2 4
y2

4x 4 2x 3 8x 2 3x 1
2x 3
49.

51. (5y2 2y3 + 3) (y2 4 2y)


z 5 z 4 2z 3 3z 1
z2 z 1
53.

26.
28.
30.
32.
34.
36.
38.
40.

3u2v(4 + v2 v)
(-4hj5)(-j3k4)(-6hk)(-10j2h7)
(2m n)(3m2 6mn + 4m2)
(2v2 + v - 2)(v2 3v + 5)
(2x 1)(x + 4)(3x 5))
(2x 3y)(3x + 2y)
(x3 3x2 2x + 1)(x3 3x2 + 2x 1)
(1 r)(1 + r + r2 + r3 + r4 + r5 + r6)

36d 3e
2 5
42. 4d e

44. (9a2b3 12a3b2 3ab2) (3ab)


m 2 8m 2
m 1
46.
w 4 1
48. w 1
x 3 2x 96
x4
50.

4b 3 10b 2 7b 6
4b 2 2b 3
52.

54. (3a2bc3)4(2ab3c)3 (36a3b2c4)2

(12y 3 - 11y 2 z - 12yx - 25z 3 )


(3y - 5z)
55.
F

Miscellaneous Exercises
For item 56-65, given the polynomials: 2t3 3t2 + t + 5; 2t2 + t 1; and, 3t 2
56. What is the degree of the first polynomial?
57. What is the degree of the second polynomial?
58. Add the first and second.
59. Add the second and the third.
60. Subtract the second from the first.
61. Subtract the third from the second.
62. Multiply the first and the third.
63. Multiply the second and the third.
64. Divide the first by the third.
65. Divide the second by the third.
For item 66 69, given the polynomials: 8x3 + 6x2 14x + 2 ; 2x2 3x 2 ; 4x + 5
66. Add the first and second
68. Multiply the second and the third
66. Subtract the second from the first
69. Divide the first by the second
67. Multiply the first and the third

3x y
12x y

2x 2m y 3

3 2

x h3 x3

h
70. Simplify a.
b.
c.
2rs[3r 2 {3r 3s r 2 s 2[2rs r(2r 2 s 3r 2s )] 3r 2 2r rs } 3r 2 ]
Board Examination Problems

1. (02 APR ECE BOARD)


Divide x^10 + 5 by x + 2 . Find its remainder.
a. 33
b. 29
c. 41

d. 37

Ans. d

2. (03 NOV CE BOARD)


When the expression x4 + ax3 + 5x2 + bx + 6 is divided by (x 2), the remainder is 16.
When it is divided by (x + 1) the remainder is 10. What is the value of the constant a?
a. 5
b. 9
c. 7
d. 8
Ans. a
3. (04 APR ECE BOARD)
If kx3(k+3)x2+13 is divided by x4 the remainder is 157. What is the value of k?
a. 5
b. 4
c. 3
d. 7
Ans. b
4. (06 MAY CE BOARD)
When f(x) = cx3 2x2 + dx 4 is divided by (x + 2), the remainder is 34, and when
divided by (x 2), the remainder is 10. What is the value of d?
a. 3
b. 2
c. 3
d. 2
Ans. a
5. (97 NOV CE BOARD)
If (3x^3 4x^2y + 5xy^2 + 6y^3) is divided by (x^2 2xy + 3y^2), the remainder is:
a. 1
b. 0
c. 2
d. 3
Ans. b
6. (97 NOV CE BOARD)
If (4y^3 + 8y + 18y^2 4) is divided by (2y + 3), the remainder is:
a. 12
b. 11
c. 13
d. 10

Ans. b

7. (98 MAR EE BOARD)


If the polynomial x3+4x23x+8 is divided by x5, determine the remainder.
a. 218
b. 45
c. 42
d. 210

Ans. a

8. (99 APR ECE BOARD)


Given f (x) = (x 4)(x + 3) + 4, when f(x) is divided by (x k), the remainder is k.
Find k.
a. 12
b. 8
c. 4
d. 2
Ans. c
9. (99 MAY CE BOARD)
Find the remainder when 2x^3 4x^2 is divided by x + 3.
a. 90
b. 60
c. 120
10. (03 APR ME BOARD)
Convert the expression (3a + 2b)2 into a polynomial.
a
9a2 + 6ab + 4b
c. 9a2 + 12ab + 4b2

d. 75

Ans. a

a2 + (3a)(2b) + (ab)2

d. 3a2 + 6ab + 4b2

Ans. c