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Synopsis on fibre reinforced polymer

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
3. PROSPECTIVE SCOPE OF THE WORK
4. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
5. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK
6. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
7. EXPECTED OUTCOME
8. PLAN OF EXECUTION
9. REFERENCES

EFFECT OF FIBRE LENGTH AND ORIENTATION ON INTERLAMINAR


FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF POLAMIDE (PA 66)/S GLASS
FIBRE/CARBON FIBRE HYBRID COMPOSITE
1. INTRODUCTION
Fiber-reinforced polymer Composites are used increasingly as a structural material because
they not only provide superior mechanical properties, but they can also be easily produced by
the rapid, low-cost injection molding process. During the injection process of fiber-reinforced
molded articles, the distributions of fiber length and fiber orientation are governed by a
variety of factors. These include the original length and concentration of fibers, orientation of
fibers and the processing conditions. Also use of more than one fiber reinforcement for the
composite plays an important role in enhancing structural integrity.
The development of hybrid composite laminates and related design and manufacturing
technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of composite materials.
Laminated Fiber reinforced Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented
mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a
particular application.
Many Hybrid FRP composites also exhibit great resistance to high-temperature, corrosion,
oxidation and wear. These unique characteristics provide the mechanical engineer with design
opportunities not possible with conventional Fiber reinforced composites.
Two or more discontinous reinforcement phases are, therefore, embedded in a continuous
phase to form a hybrid composite. The discontinuous phase is usually harder and stronger
than the continuous phase, which ensures that in general, fibers are the principal load carrying
members while the matrix keeps them at the desired location and orientation, and acts as a
load transfer medium between them, thereby protecting them from environmental damages.

Hybrid Fiber Composites are used in aircrafts, helicopters, space-craft, satellites, ships,
submarines, automobiles, chemical processing equipment due to their extremely good
interlaminar fracture strength.

2. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
During extrusion compounding and injection molding processes, progressive and continuous
changes in fiber orientation throughout the molded components take place. The changes are
related in a complex way to the size and concentration of fibers, the flow behavior of melted
polymer matrix, the mold cavity and the processing conditions. An orientation distribution
generally requires a three-dimensional description.
However, when investigating the effect of the fiber orientation angle on the strength of shortfiber composites, only the angle between the fiber axis and the loading direction needs to be
considered, that is if the loading direction can be placed in the direction parallel to the mold
fill direction, then this fiber orientation angle is the inclination angle or the out-of-plane
angle. A fiber orientation distribution function representing the inclination angle must have
the property such that the variation of its functions shape parameters is able to describe a
change from a unidirectional distribution to a random distribution. Henceforth it is very
much necessary to study the effect of fiber length and orientation on the fracture toughness of
laminated composites for various structural applications.

3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Tiesong et al studied the effect of fibre content on mechanical properties and fracture
behavior of short carbon fibre reinforced geopolymeric matrix composites with different
volume fractions. The results demonstrated that fracture toughness of the laminated
composite increased with random orientation of fibers rather than unidirectional alignment
[1].
Shao et al studied the effect of length and fibre orientation distributions on tensile strength of
short fibre reinforced polymers using an analytical method for predicting the tensile strength
of short-fiber-reinforced polymers (SFRP). The results showed that the strength of SFRP
increased rapidly with the increase of the mean fiber length at small mean fiber lengths. The
inclined tensile strength of fibers has a great effect on the strength of composites [2].
According to Junzhi Zhang et al. experimental results show that bending resistances of short
chopped carbon fiber polyurethane is increased. As a result, it is proved that short- chopped
carbon fiber is useful in polyurethane [3].
In experiments conducted by Jinxiang Chen et al., Impact mechanical properties of short
carbon fiber reinforced polyamide composites, including dynamic compressive strength,
deformation and energy absorption capacity were studied using a 100-mm-diameter split
Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The addition of carbon fibers can significantly
improve deformation and energy absorption capacities of Polyamide composites, while there
is no notable improvement in dynamic compressive strength. In addition, the optimum
volume fraction of carbon fibers enhanced the fracture toughness [4].

Thomason and Vlug studied the influence of fibre length and concentration on the properties
of glass-reinforced polypropylene. Composite impact strength increased directly with
increasing fibre concentration. For the current fibre/polypropylene combination a fibre length
> 8 mm is required [5].

4. OBJECTIVES
1. To fabricate a new class of Polyamide (PA 66)/S Glass fiber/Carbon fiber hybrid
laminate composite.
2. To study the effect of fiber orientation and length on the interlaminar fracture
toughness of the composite by suitable experimental methodology as per ASTM
Standards.
3. To analytically evaluate the interlaminar fracture toughness of the laminate by suitable
FEM Software Package (Ansys).
4. To develop a mathematical model predicting the effect of fiber length and orientation
on Fracture strength of the laminate.
5. To correlate the results and simulate the results in MATLAB.
6. To draw suitable conclusions based on analytical results and experimental validations
obtained.

5. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
1. Evaluation of the characteristics of S Glass fibers, Carbon fibers and Polyamide
matrix.
2. Processing of S Glass fibres and Carbon fibres for improved wettability and bonding
with the resin.
3. Processing of the composite by mixing of suitable Proportions of Polyamide resin and
hardener with S Glass and Carbon fibres.
4. Design of Experiments as per Taguchi technique for fibre orientation and fibre length.
5. Preparation of specimens as per ASTM standards for flexural rigidity and fracture
toughness.

6. Evaluation of fracture toughness of laminates by carrying out tests as per ASTM


Standards.
7. Analytical Evaluation of the laminate using suitable FEM Package.
8. Developing a mathematical model for predicting the effect of fibre orientation and
fibre length on fracture toughness of the laminate.
9. Critical Analysis of the results obtained.
10. Correlating and concluding the results with suitable observations.
6. EXPECTED OUTCOMES
The successful completion of the project is expected to yield a high performance hybrid
composite that has better properties with improved surface morphology. It is also expected
that the project will help give a broad knowledge about the processing techniques,
mathematical models, fibre orientation, fibre length and variables which are going to
influence the development of hybrid high performance Polyamide (PA 66)/ S Glass fibre/
Carbon composites for advanced engineering applications especially aerospace applications.

7. PLAN OF EXECUTION

Sl. No

Milestones

Target

Course work

2015 - June

Literature survey
Preparation of laminates of different fiber orientation, fiber

2015 - Aug

length and volume fraction of Polyamide (PA 66)/S Glass


Fibre/Carbon Fibre Hybrid Composite by bag moulding
techniques.

2015 - Nov

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Preparation of Specimens as per ASTM standards.


Testing of specimens as per ASTM standards
Tabulation of readings.
Critical observation and analysis of data obtained by

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

experimental means.
Analytical Evaluation
Mathematical modelling
Correlation and Validation of Results obtained.
Drawing conclusion based on the critical observations

2016- Nov

made.

Publication of Papers in Reputed International Journals

2016 - Dec

Submission of long synopsis

2017 - Feb

Thesis submission

2017 - Apr