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SSH¥4 OOVOIHD JO ALISUZAIND ERL & yong Suysw [409 g MIOSSOID) suorgdessur posgap25 MOULUPLE) SLOXTVIG AHAYO GL “The present volume is a complete revision and expansion of niraduction 10 the Snudy of she Greek Dialect, published by Gina and Co., Copyright 1928. ‘tem Univanert oF Cexcaco Puns, GHcAco 60687 “The Univsiy of Chicago Press, Ze, Landon W.C3 Cras 1935 wade the Inertial Core Union, Alb rights rere. Pablibed 1983. Foard Ineo (reed) 1958 rind in th eed Ss of Amerie PREFACE ‘The changes from the previous editions of the Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects have been so great that the old plates could not be used, and this is virtually « new book, Thave changed the title to The Greek Déalects, as both simpler and in @ measure also appropriate, For it is fair to claim that the book is, for the time being, the most up-to-date treatment of the subject. Bechtel’s monumental work (3 vols is a storehouse containing many items of detail not ni But there is a deal of repetition incident to the arrangement adopted, and, more important, much new material has become available since its date. The new material fomishes significant elitions to our Knowledge of several dialects, as ian, Boeotian, and notably that of Cyrene. But I have hoped in vain forthe greatest, desiderata—carly inscriptions of some extent from Lesbos and from East Lootis, Tam more than ever convinced that the arrangement adopted here is not only more economical of space, but also more il- luminating, than the separate treatment of the several dialects followed in other works. Tam indebted to the University of Chicago Press, to which ‘the copyright has been transferred from the previous publishers, for undertaking the new publication and for the competent services in its execution; and to Dr. D. Georgacas for painstaking proofreading and other assistance. le ie aan oe I 9 «poo + jo sSoerassi0y ‘Beeson, pun ueigeoT ut otoOANTY Mis TeRUHTONDO sz ‘Sqoay Ur é soye 3 ways Reet ann baw unger | se . +> mmgosoer paw usiresu UE & wo | se . : ‘uvatg oF h wey 2 | & a 2 yaar EE =» eID ISM fetes eon OMIMION UF 4 ssojaq + wor > foe 9509 THQ. UE > 2pY & +2 + + wepdéo-epeary 2 « a1019q > Ps 7 TemoA © su0}aq * Pa ny UF 2 wosy ; ® epee eect eee ‘i ees ot : soreg s0m0. us = op 0 or . spiny aaqye 30 a2070q = sop & See eet q asnee Te SS aeeee Seed eect ++ aporoxona seem] UL Epa euT soem 2 jo noprBEEIT pov venTaEND 7 ousngousst SIOGTVIG SHL 40 MWNAVND 51 DEVE £151 + stommaa ak suavaaxvE do SeNVH Jo SNoHVIASOHESY, SINHLNOD viii ‘conTENTS Diphthonge ‘9 from at in Boeotian from a: in Thosealian E from a Vowel-Gradation |. Consonants Interchange of Voiceless and’ Voiced Stops, and Aspirates contents Interchange of sand wr... Interchange of Labials, Devfals, and Gotturals | | Nasals and Liquids ‘Nasal before Consonant ‘Transposition of a Lig Crotan » from 2 Palatalized 2, spelled ‘Non-Contiguous Consonants . . Doubling of Consonants, Simplifc nants, and other Losses of Consonants. Changes in External Combination & SINaENOD o + gros : + 32020 HOM +2 ospraner omg poe asneede oer oe eanedo 241 * sanounfaas aur ROT HASNT, eanseyuy ee rergect ++ + eansantans 2 pope yeuoy paw omning oIppng pur aanay sanesedusy S58 saopeg, reuossag epPa ++ eBurpea reuosiay aanoy ++ wonpondnpey pur yUeEFOY sae3, wonoaeue pur ureyt wr someTeNNIeg wuog wt sentrentoea suonssodoua sunuodd 9anoue : + enatesiog + + sunouosg yeuoareg ‘sunouoret © eure Pus eqeurpseD srSs0N seanpalpy Jo wostredizog, non TeIRanT ows + xorsoataxy + + ausoy + = ojqeaowy & Seqgnadt suewoety SINSLNOD x contents. 165 166 268 169 - 73 Boromax PHOCIAN . HERACLEAN Anconte Connsratax APPENDIX, Suueeray BrRuOcRAMEY |. ee - 337 Novis axp REERENCES | 2.342 Grossany axp Inpax + 350 Chants Inkustaatne 7 PEOUUARITIE. eee + + Chart 1,11 SLOATVIG FHL AO UVWWVAD 1 Lava ABBREVIATIONS: ‘The foliowing abbreviations are employed for languages, dialects, and local sources of the forms quoted, ‘Acara, = Acamanian ‘Ach, == Achaea ‘Aegis. = Aeginetan ‘Aetol. = Actolian ‘Agrig. = of Agrigeatum “Amorg, = of Amorgos ‘Amphiss, — Amphissan ‘And. = of Andania ‘Are, = Arcadian ‘Are Cypr. = Arcado-Cyprian ‘Arg. = Argive (of Argos) ‘Argol. = Argolic (of Argolis, outside ‘oforineladiag Argos; but mostly Mog, = Megarian fmarked Bpity Twowe, ete) Mel = of Melos sty. of Astypalace Bee atte Bttefoa. — AtteJonts Hyon = of Mra vest = Avestan Nye! Najroe Boot, = Porotan NaW.Grk, ~ Northwest Grok Calymn,~ of Calymna Oiynth. ~ of Olynthes Garpaths of Carpatos Grop. = of Gropus Chaleed = of Chalets Pansph, = Parpsian Chale, = Chaleiian Pitan = Pliasan (0 Pali) Glen. ~ of Cleonse Pree Phocian Gaia, = Caan hog. of Regi Conn, = Cornea Rhod, = Rtodian Corey = Coneyracan Sain. = of Seines Geet = Getan Sil = Sian ype. = Cyprian Steyon, = Seyonian Gyren, = Cprenaean Ske = Sanat San = of Sis Sepr = of Sra Sybar. = of Sybaris Syrac, = Spracusan, Eng. — English ‘Tog. = Tegean Ephes. = Ephesian ‘Thas, = of Thasos pid, Epidanrian ‘Ther. = Theran Epic. — Epirotan ‘Thess. = Thessalian Bretr. = Eretrian ‘Troe, = of Troszen or ebbrviations of modem wor of reisece tee fp 37. Thee aie te wr, Likewise those used tative, se), be relereace to forms quoted fom the ancient grammarians), and It. = literary (with reference to forms quoted from the literary dialects without mention of the individeal xutbors), . INTRODUCTION CLassinIcaTION AND INTERRELATION OF THE Dratecrs 1, When the ancient grammarians spoke of the four dialects ‘of Greeee—Attic, Ionic, Aealic, and Doric, to which some added ‘the xoww) as a fifth— they had in mind solely the literary dialects, which furnished the occasion and object of their study. But these literary dislects represent only a few of the many forms ‘of speech current in Greece, most of which play no part whatever in literature, and, apart from some scattered glosses, would be entirely unknown to us Were it not for the wealth of inscriptions which the soit of Greece has yielded in modern times. The existence of Ionic, Aeolic, and Doric elements in the people and speech of Greece is an undoubted fact of Greek history, and one of the first importance to an understanding of the dialect relations, But there is no warrant, either in the earlier Greek on ot in the linguistic evidence, for making this an all- inclusive classification. These three elements were precipitated, as it were, on the coast of Asia Minor, where their juxtaposition gave rise to the historical recognition of the distinction, And as the Ionians, Aeolians, and Dorians of Asia Minor were colonists from Greece proper, it was a natural and proper inference of the historians that they reflected ethnic divisions which also existed, or had once existed, in the mother country. As to who were the Dorians of Greece proper there was of course no mystery. They formed a well-defined group throaghout the historical period, and the tradition that they came originally irom the Northwest is completely borne out by the close relation- sbip of the Doric and Northwest Greek dialects (see below). ‘That the Ionians were akin to the inhabitants of Attica was an accepted fact in Greek history, and the Athenians are called Tonic both in Herodotus (eg., 1.36) and Thucydides (6.82, 7.57), The linguistic evidence is equally unmistakable. 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