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63 visualizzazioni60 paginephysics ll lab manual, NYU POLY

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PhysicsLAB

Experiments

Table of Contents

Experiment 1:

Capacitance and Dielectrics....................................................................... 3

Background ............................................................................................................................ 3

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................... 5

Part A: Permittivity of Air......................................................................................................... 6

Part B: Dielectric Constants of a Dielectric Material ............................................................... 8

Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 9

Part A ..................................................................................................................................................................9

Part B ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

Exercise (optional) ........................................................................................................................................... 10

Experiment 2:

Magnetic Field and Induction ................................................................... 11

Background .......................................................................................................................... 11

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 12

Preliminary Measurements ................................................................................................... 13

Part A: Induced Voltage as Function of Current ................................................................... 13

Part B: Induced Voltage as Function of Frequency .............................................................. 17

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 18

Part A ............................................................................................................................................................... 18

Part B ............................................................................................................................................................... 20

Experiment 3:

Standing Waves on a String..................................................................... 22

Background .......................................................................................................................... 22

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 24

Part A: Stroboscope Test ..................................................................................................... 25

Part B: Wave Velocity ........................................................................................................... 27

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 29

Part A ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

Part B1: Computation of experimental velocities ........................................................................................... 29

Part B2: Computation of theoretical velocities ............................................................................................... 29

Experiment 4:

Reflection, Refraction and Polarization of Light ....................................... 31

Background .......................................................................................................................... 31

Reflection and Refraction. Snells law ............................................................................................................. 31

Polarization ...................................................................................................................................................... 32

Brewsters angle .............................................................................................................................................. 33

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PhysicsLAB

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 34

Part A. Snells Law .............................................................................................................. 36

Alignment ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

Measurements................................................................................................................................................. 36

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 39

Part A ............................................................................................................................................................... 39

Part B ............................................................................................................................................................... 40

Background .......................................................................................................................... 42

Single slit or wire ............................................................................................................................................. 42

Double slit ........................................................................................................................................................ 43

Diffraction grating ........................................................................................................................................... 44

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 44

Part A. Diffraction and Interference. ..................................................................................... 45

Part A-1. The laser wavelength (Single slit) ..................................................................................................... 45

Part A-2. Thin wire ........................................................................................................................................... 46

Part A-3. Double slit ......................................................................................................................................... 46

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 48

Part A-1. Single slit ........................................................................................................................................... 48

Part A-2. Thin wire ........................................................................................................................................... 49

Part A-3. Double slit ......................................................................................................................................... 49

Part B. Spectrometer ....................................................................................................................................... 49

Experiment 6:

Speed of Sound in Air .............................................................................. 51

Background .......................................................................................................................... 51

Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 52

Preliminary Exercise ............................................................................................................. 55

PART A: Speed of sound in air ............................................................................................. 57

PART B: Temperature dependence of the speed of sound in air ......................................... 58

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 58

Part A ............................................................................................................................................................... 58

Part B ............................................................................................................................................................... 59

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Background

A capacitor is an object that can store electric charge. The simplest geometry for a

capacitor consists of two parallel conducting plates separated by a

distance d. One plate is holding positive charge +Q, and the other

is holding an equal negative charge Q, as shown in Figure 1-1.

Assuming that the area of each plate is very large compared to the

distance d between the plates, the electric field between them can

be calculated from the surface charge density, ( = Q/A, where A

0

E0

Figure 1-1

,

0

(1-1)

This result can be derived using Gauss Law. The direction of the field points from the

positively charged plate to the negatively charged one (as shown in Figure 1-1). Constant 0 is

known as the permittivity of free space, 0 8.854 10 12 C2/Nm2.

Equation 1-1 is valid assuming that there is vacuum between

the plates. When a dielectric is placed between the plates (Figure

1-2), and the charge on the capacitor plates does not change (the

capacitor is disconnected from the power supply), the magnitude

of the electric field between the plates decreases. It is given by

E0

(1-2)

The permittivity of a dielectric is

Figure 1-2

(1-3)

Since there is an electric field between the plates, there must also be a potential difference

across them. To calculate this potential difference, one needs to evaluate the integral

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V E ds - here we assume one plate is placed at the position s = 0 and the other at s = d.

0

difference across the plates is then

d

. The ratio of the stored charge, Q, to the potential

Q Q

. Making use of the fact that Q = A, one obtains

V d

Q A

. This ratio Q/V is known as the capacitance. It is defined as the constant of

V

d

proportionality between the electric charge placed on an object and the value of the electric

potential which results from that charge.

Q CV ,

(1-4)

where C is the capacitance, Q is the applied charge, and V is the applied potential. The

capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor shown in Figure 1-1 is thus given by

C

A

d

(1-5)

where d is the distance between the plates, and is the permittivity of the material between the

plates. Since the value of the electric field was derived for plates of infinite area, this formula

applies only when the plate area A is very large in comparison to the separation distance d.

Polarization of Dielectric

How the electric field changes when a dielectric is placed between the plates is best

understood by considering an atomic description of the dielectric material. Figures 1-3 and 1-4

both represent a dielectric material with polar molecules. If a material contains polar

molecules, they will generally be in random orientations when no electric field is applied (as

depicted in Figure 1-3). An electric field will polarize the material by orienting the dipole

moments of polar molecules (Figure 1-4). The degree of alignment is a function of the

temperature, the strength of the applied field, and the degree of polarization of the molecules.

Placed between the plates of a capacitor (as in Figure 1-3) the dielectric decreases the net

field inside the capacitor. When the charges are aligned, they add an induced surface charge

density ind on one surface of the dielectric and -ind on the other side. They thus create an

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induced electric field Eind which opposes the external field E 0 and the electric field E inside

the dielectric material is given by the difference E 0 - Eind .

Unpolarized,

Polarized by

no field

external

applied

electric field

Figure 1-3

Figure 1-4

In this experiment you will use equation 1-5 to find permittivities of air and two dielectric

materials.

Apparatus

You will use the following equipment and materials (see Figure 1-5):

1. Adjustable parallel plate capacitor apparatus.

2. Power supply (0-500 volts).

3. Charge measuring amplifier.

4. Connecting leads.

5. The computer interface box and computer.

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7. Steel ruler

8. Caliper

THE RED COLOR OF THE FIXED CAPACITOR PLATE IS TO REMIND YOU NOT TO

TOUCH THE PLATE WHEN IT IS CHARGED.

Power Supply

Charge-measuring

amplifier

Interface box

Dielectric sheets

Adjustment Knob

Caliper

Fixed

Plate

Adjustable

Plate

Capacitor

Figure 1-5

The objective of Part A is to measure the permittivity of air using the plate capacitor with

variable plate separation. A screen shot of the measurement window is given in Figure 1-6.

1. Check to see that the power supply is disconnected from the capacitor, and measure

the diameter of the capacitor plates using a ruler. The plates are not ideally round,

therefore, take several measurements of the diameter at various angles and enter the

results into the measurement window. The best estimate value (average) for the diameter

and standard deviation will be automatically calculated. Enter the instrument uncertainty for

ruler.

2. Set the dial on the middle of the front panel of the charge-measuring amplifier to the 10-8 As

(Ampere-sec) scale. You must keep this setting throughout the experiment.

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Figure 1-6

3. Set the power supply to a value of 320 volts. Also enter the uncertainty for the voltage in

the measurement window.

4. Press and hold the ground button on the front

panel of the amplifier and then adjust the zeroing

knob on the right

accumulated

Ground

Zeroing Knob

Button

charge

indicator

on

the

zero as possible ( typically 10-11 or 10-12 C). When

the readings are randomly changing from a

positive to a negative value, the amplifier is

zeroed.

5. Check that no wires are connected to the red capacitor plate, and set the distance

between the capacitor plates to approximately 15 mm.

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6. Then using a digital caliper take 5 measurements of the plate separation and enter these

values in the measurement window.

7. Charge the red capacitor plate by connecting it with the power supply. Be careful not to

touch the capacitor plates or the inner wire of the BNC connector. Once the BNC

connector is locked, wait for 2-3 seconds to allow the capacitor to fully charge, and then

disconnect it from the power supply.

8. Ground the amplifier for 3 seconds and then connect the red capacitor plate to the amplifier

instead of the power supply. Again be careful not to touch the capacitor plates or the

inner wire of the BNC cable. The accumulated charge indicator will display the capacitors

charge. This value will be changing with time. Wait for approximately 10 seconds and

estimate the total change in the value. This would a measure of the uncertainty for the

charge, Q. Record the measurement by pressing Take Measurement button. Enter the

uncertainty for the charge, and save the trial.

9. Repeat steps 5-8 decreasing plate separation by approximately 2 mm on each successive

trial until plates are approximately 3 mm apart. Keep the voltage at 320 Volts

throughout Part A.

In this part, you will repeat the procedure for Part A placing sheets of a dielectric between

the capacitor plates. You are provided with sheets of different thicknesses. The procedure is

essentially identical to that of Part A, except that now instead of measuring the distance

between the capacitor plates, you will measure the thickness of the samples before placing

them between the plates. You will also need to select the appropriate voltage.

Important: Set the voltage to approximately 75 Volts in Part B.

Important: Sheets may be slightly bent and not completely flat. You need to press hard the

capacitor plates when fixing the sheet to avoid air pockets that can compromise the

measurement.

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Analysis

Part A

Initial data

Tabulate the raw data accumulated in Part A. The best value for the plate separation d is

given by the mean of the measurements taken. In the Initial Data section of Part A analysis, list

the average, the uncertainty due to fluctuation, and the total uncertainty for each plate

separation.

Best Estimate value

Compute area A of the capacitor plates.

Equation 1-5 was derived under an assumption that the ratio of plate separation distance to

the diameter of the plates is infinitesimally small. Therefore, the larger is the plate separation

distance, the greater is systematic error when calculating the permittivity using equation 1-5.

and the best value of permittivity () could be found by extrapolating the plot of the apparent

permittivity, calculated using equation 1-5 for each experimental value of plate separation, to

zero distance. We will use letter y to indicate this apparent permittivity y

Qd

and letter

AV

for the best value of permittivity that is the intercept of the plot y vs. d. Steps:

1. Tabulate and plot ratio y

Qd

as a function of separation distance d.

AV

2. Draw the best-fit line and use the LINEST function to find the y-intercept for the plot. This

gives you the best value for the permittivity of air, air = y (0).

3. Using relation between and , find air .

Error Evaluation

1. Also use LINEST to find the uncertainty of air due to fluctuation

2. For every point on the plot, that is for every pair of (d, y) values, find and tabulate the

uncertainties (d, y), and plot them as horizontal and vertical error bars. In calculation of

y, take into account the uncertainties due to measurement of d, d and the uncertainty in

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the charge measurement, Q. That is, you may neglect contributions due to uncertainties

A, and V.

3. Draw worst lines and find the uncertainty in air due to error bars and then the total

uncertainty air.

4. Using the error propagation technique, derive a formula and find the value of the

uncertainty for dielectric constant of air air .

Part B

Part B analysis is similar to that of Part A. As a result, you will find the permittivity and

dielectric constants for the dielectric material used in the experiment ( dielectric , dielectric ) with their

uncertainties.

In the conclusion of your report, make a comparison chart displaying the range of possible

values for the dielectric constants found, and compare the results with the expected values

that could be found in the internet. Comment on the accuracy and precision of your

measurements.

Exercise (optional)

In the step 3 of the analysis, when calculating the uncertainty of y

Qd

, we assumed that the

AV

dominant contribution in y is due to d and Q and neglected the uncertainties due to A and

V. Find out if such assumption is justified in your experiment.

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Background

A solenoid is a simple device that uses an electric

current to produce a magnetic field. It is simply a wire wrapped

repeatedly around a hollow insulating cylinder. When a current

flows along the wire, a magnetic field is produced inside the

cylinder pointing in a direction along the axis of the cylinder. If

alternating current, which varies with time as

I = I0 sin(t),

(2-1)

flows along the wire of a solenoid, then the resulting magnetic field likewise oscillates as

B = B0 sin(t).

(2-2)

Here I0 and B0 are the amplitudes of the current and magnetic field respectively, and

2

is the angular frequency of the oscillation (T is the period). The current and magnetic

T

l

B0 nI 0

2

2

l d

(2-3)

where n is the number of turns of wire per unit length of the solenoid, l and d are the length and

diameter of the solenoid, respectively, and is the magnetic permeability of the substance

which fills the space inside the solenoid. Permeability is the measure of the ease with which a

magnetic field can establish itself in a particular material. For vacuum, = 0 410-7 N/A2.

Suppose we insert a coil of a smaller diameter into the solenoid. We will call it a pickup

coil. We expect it to pick up the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Faradays Law of

Induction predicts that the solenoids oscillating magnetic field, which is now passing through

the pickup coil, induces an electromotive force (emf) in the pickup coil. This electromotive

force appears as a voltage across the pickup coil that can be measured by an external device.

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If the solenoid, current and magnetic field change harmonically in time as given by equations

2-1 and 2-2, and the induced voltage, as follows from the Law of Induction, will also oscillate

sinusoidally with the same angular frequency as the magnetic field, but shifted in phase:

V V0 sin( t )

(2-4)

Here is the phase shift between the magnetic field and the voltage induced in the pickup

coil. The voltage amplitude V0 is related to the amplitude of the magnetic field B0 as

V0 N p AB0 ,

(2-5)

where Np is the number of wire turns, and A is the cross-sectional area for the pickup coil.

Equations 2-3 and 2-5 connect the induced voltage amplitude with the solenoid current

amplitude:

V0

AnI 0 N p

d

1

l

(2-6)

In this experiment, inside the solenoid is Nylon (material of the probe). The permeability of the

substance inside the solenoid, , may be determined because all other physical values of

Equation 2-6 are measurable in experiment.

Apparatus

The experimental setup is shown in Figure 2-1. The apparatus consists of:

1. A solenoid.

2. A pickup coil (copper wire wrapped around a plastic tube).

3. An oscillator (alternating current source).

4. A measurement box connected to a computer.

The oscillator is connected to the solenoid and to the measurement box and a computer,

which shows how the solenoid current and voltage induced in the pickup coil vary in time (in

other words, it works as an oscilloscope). You are able to control the current amplitude by

altering the output voltage of the oscillator (the Amplitude knob), and the frequency using the

Frequency knob on the front panel of the oscillator.

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Oscillator

Caliper

Ruler

Solenoid

Pickup coil

Figure 2-1

Preliminary Measurements

Using a caliper, carefully measure the diameters of the pickup coil and solenoid, and the length

of the solenoid. The length must be measured from one edge to the other edge of the solenoid

not the distance between two wooden frames. Take 7 to 10 measurements for each variable at

different positions around the solenoid and the pick-up coil, and then use Excel to find the best

estimate values (averages) and the uncertainty due to fluctuations. Enter the averages and

uncertainties into the measurement window (Figure 2-2). Also, enter the total number of turns

for the solenoid and pickup coil. This information is written on the coils.

Part A measurement window is shown in Figure 2-3. Choose tab Solenoid current.

Turn the oscillator on and set it to the maximum output voltage by turning the Amplitude knob

into its outermost clockwise position. The alternating current frequency can be adjusted using

the Frequency knob of the oscillator. Set a frequency to an arbitrary value between 500 and

1000 Hz and keep the Frequency knob in this position throughout Part A of the

experiment.

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Insert the pickup coil into the solenoid approximately in the middle, away from the

solenoid ends. Choose the Solenoid current tab. An oscillographic window on the computer

screen presents the variation of solenoid current (y-axis) in time (x-axis). Using selectors

Milliamps per vertical division and Milliseconds per horizontal division, adjust the signal so

that you will see four to eight periods with the wave amplitude as large as possible while the

waveform still being entirely inside the screen, as shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-2

For each trial, you have to find the average solenoid current amplitude using the tab

Solenoid current, and the pick-up coil voltage amplitude and period using the tab Pick up coil

voltage.

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Taking a measurement in this experiment is recording the x- and y- coordinates for the

maxima and minima of the sinusoidal graph for a particular set of parameters. To take a

measurement of the solenoid current amplitude, first check that the trial number is set to 1.

Then press the Pause the graph button to freeze the oscillogram.

Align the cursor (vertical line) with the leftmost minimum of the graph and click, select the

min #1 cell in the table and depress the Save cursor position button. The vertical

coordinates of the point where the cursor crosses the graph will be displayed in the first row of

the table. Move the cursor away from the minimum for one step and estimate the instrument

uncertainty of the vertical coordinate (typically it is a half of the difference between the point of

minimum/maximum and the neighboring point) and enter the value into the appropriate cell,

once for each trial.

Figure 2-3

Continue the measurements aligning the cursor with the closest maximum on the right

(max #1), then to the following minimum (min #2), and so on, counting to four minima and four

maxima total. Do not skip any minimum or maximum in consecutive measurements. The table

for the positions of the maxima and minima should be filled out at the end of the trial.

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1 3

1 4

2 i 1

2 i 1

(2-7)

Now you need to find the amplitude of the voltage this current induces in the pickup coil.

Click on the tab Pick up coil voltage. You will again see a sinusoidal wave, this time showing

the variation of the induced voltage in the pickup coil with time (Figure 2-4). Adjust the vertical

sensitivity to see a large wave amplitude

Figure 2-4

and repeat the measurements of the positions of the minima and maxima as it was done for

the solenoid current. In this part you will measure both vertical (to find the amplitude of the

induced voltage, V0) and horizontal (to find the period of oscillation, T) positions of those. The

best estimate values of the voltage amplitude and period are calculated at the bottom of the

table according to the following notions:

1 3

1 4

2 i 1

2 i 1

(2-8)

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3

4

i 1

i 1

The software also calculates standard deviations for both values. Use this values and the

number of measurements to calculate the uncertainties due to fluctuation in your report.

Examine the data and click Save and Continue button to save the trial. For Trial 2, using

the amplitude knob of the oscillator, lower the current amplitude by 10 to 12%. Take

measurements for Trial 2 as you did for Trial 1.

approximately equal steps, take measurements for a total of seven different solenoid currents

(seven trials). Each time you should adjust the sensitivity of the oscilloscope window so that

the oscillations reach no less than a half of the screen height.

In this part of the experiment, you will make measurements for six different frequencies

of the solenoid current. In this part of the experiment the solenoid current must be kept

constant and the frequency varied. You know from the Part A experience that the frequency is

controlled by the knob Frequency on the front panel of the oscillator, and the amplitude is

controlled by the Amplitude knob. Unlike in Part A, where the frequency was not changing

when you changed the amplitude, the amplitude of the solenoid current will be changing

when you turn the Frequency knob even when the Amplitude knob position

remained the same. In the consecutive trials, before taking a measurement, you will need to

adjust the position of the Amplitude knob to obtain the same value of the solenoid current to

that realized in the first trial.

Set the oscillator to its maximum amplitude. The measurement window for Part B is

identical to that for Part A of the experiment.

Set the frequency to an arbitrary value between 1000 and 900 Hz (do not select exactly

1000 Hz) and observe the maximum value for the solenoid current amplitude achievable for

this frequency. Take a measurement for Trial 1, as described in the Part A procedure.

Decrease the frequency by 10 to 12% of its initial value. Observe on the screen that the

frequency is indeed decreased. You may need to change the timebase (Milliseconds per

horizontal unit) to have no more than eight oscillations on the screen.

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As in Trial 1, measure four minima and four maxima of the solenoid current waveform.

Then compare the average value of the solenoid current amplitude displayed below the table

with that realized in Trial 1. Most probably the value in this trial is higher. Then, trying not to

touch the Frequency knob of the oscillation, reduce the solenoid current to match the value of

the amplitude measured in Trial 1. Again, take measurements of four minima and four maxima

and observe the average value of the current amplitude. If it is not within uncertainty limits for

the value from Trial 1, adjust the current again and repeat the measurement. When you are

satisfied, click on the tab Pick up coil voltage and continue the trial with measuring the

voltage amplitude and period.

Lowering the frequency in approximately equal steps, complete a total of seven trials.

Analysis

Part A

Initial Data

Neatly tabulate the results of your measurements (current amplitude, induced voltage

amplitude). Also show the instrument uncertainties and uncertainties due to fluctuations found

in each measurement and calculate the total uncertainty for each value.

Present the best estimate value of the period, T, taking the mean over periods found in all

trials, and its total uncertainty, T.

Best Estimate Value

The objective of the data analysis is to find the permeability of material inside the

solenoid (Nylon) using Equation 2-6. This equation can be written as

V0 C I 0

(2-10)

where

C

AnN p

d

1

l

(2-11)

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Calculate the number of turns per unit length of the solenoid, n and its uncertainty.

Now you are able to calculate constant C using equation 2-11.

In Part A, you must have the frequency and therefore the period T unchanged for all the

trials. Make sure that the values of T for all the trials are within the uncertainty limits from each

other. If it is not so, this is most probably due to a blunder in the experiment. If period T is off

significantly for only one trial, omit this trial from further analysis. Comment in your report on

the possible reasons for the blunder.

Calculate the angular frequency, using

2

.

T

Tabulate and plot V0 vs. I0. According to the model given by equation 2-10, data is expected

to fall along a straight line with a slope given by m A C . Draw the best-fit line and use the

LINEST function to find the slope, mA, It follows from equation 2-10 that

mA

C

(2-12)

Using this equation, find the best estimate value for permeability of Nylon, .

Error Evaluation

To find the total uncertainty for the permeability , you need to apply the error propagation

technique to equation (2-12) and find three components of the uncertainty: that to uncertainty

in constant C, C : that to uncertainty in angular frequency and that due to uncertainty in

the slope, m.

C : first, apply the error propagation technique and find A using the uncertainty for the

probe diameter, d;

similarly find n;

2

d

then use to equation (2-11) to find C. You can assume that is much less than 1

l

now use equation 2-12 and C and calculate C

: Calculate using

2

and T found in the Initial Data section;

T

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m:

plot the total uncertainties, V0 and I0, tabulated in the Initial data section, as error bars

on the graph V0 vs. I0, draw worst lines and find the uncertainty in the slope due to error

bars, merr

find total uncertainty in the slope, mA

calculate m using equation 2-12 and mA.

Part B

Initial Data

In Part B, you will find the permeability of Nylon from the dependence V0 vs. while the

solenoid current amplitude I0 is kept constant. Check if the amplitude I0 is within uncertainty

limits for all trials. You may exclude one trial if the amplitude in this trial is significantly different

from other values. Average the solenoid current amplitudes and find the best estimate value, I0

and its uncertainty, I0.

For each trial, calculate and tabulate the best estimate values for voltage amplitude, period,

and angular frequency with their uncertainties. Find in each trial same way as it was done

in Part A analysis.

Best Estimate Value

Tabulate and plot V0 vs. , Find the slope, mB,.

Find the permeability of Nylon and its uncertainty using equation 2-13 that follows from

equation 2-10:

mB

CI 0

(2-13)

Error Evaluation

As in Part A, total uncertainty of

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C : is found directly applying error propagation technique to equation 2-13 since C was

found in Part A;

I :

is also found by differentiating 2-1, I was found in the Initial Data section of Part B;

m: is found same way as it was done in Part A: LINEST provides mfl, and plotting error

bars on the plot V0 vs. , merr and further total mB is calculated. m is calculated

applying the error propagation technique to equation 2-13 with respect to mB

In the conclusion of your report, make a comparison chart which would demonstrate the

ranges of possible values for permeabilities obtained from Part A and B and the expected

value of . Compare the ranges and comment in your report whether the results for parts A

and B are consistent with each other and with the expected value of . Speculate about the

reasons for the discrepancies, if those observed. Also comment on the precision of your

results.

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Background

In this experiment you will study standing waves on a string and measure the speed of

waves traveling along the string. For a simple, one-dimensional, non-dispersive medium such

as a stretched string, rope, or wire, the velocity of transverse waves is given by

v

(3-1)

where T is the tension in the string and the mass per unit length of the string. The velocity of

a harmonic (sinusoidal) wave could also be expressed in terms of the frequency of the wave, f

and its wavelength, :

v = f

(3-2)

If the string ends are fixed and harmonic waves are excited on it, the waves are reflected at

the ends. This produces waves propagating towards each other. Thus, every part of the string

at the same time participates in a number of different oscillations. You may also say that

waves superimpose or interfere with each other. For most of the wave frequencies, this will

result in a random, chaotic motion of a string, with a small average amplitude. However, at

certain frequencies, called resonant frequencies, characteristic large amplitude wave patterns

appear on the string, called standing waves (see Figure 3-1).

The standing waves appear when a half integer number of wavelengths of the wave equals

the length of the string. The largest wavelength that produces a standing wave is therefore

equals to the doubled distance between the points where the string is fixed: 0=2L. This

standing wave is called fundamental (or first harmonic) and its frequency is lowest for a

standing wave. Fundamental standing wave has two nodes, i.e., points on the string that do

not move, and all parts of the string move up and down at the same time.

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For the fundamental mode, the total length of the string, L, is exactly equal to the half of

the wavelength, L

0

v

v

, and the fundamental resonant frequency is then f 0

. The

2

0 2 L

second harmonic (or first overtone) has a third node in the center of the string (as shown in

Figure 3-1). It appears when two half-wavelengths fit to the distance between the string ends:

L2

1

2

v

. Similarly, the third

L

0/2

Second Harmonic

1/2

Third Harmonic

2/2

Fourth Harmonic

3/2

Figure 3-1

harmonic (or second overtone) has a total of four nodes ( L 3

2

2

; f2

3v

) and so on

2L

with the higher modes of vibration. Figure 3-1 illustrates the shapes of the first four standing

wave modes.

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Apparatus

In this experiment you will use

1. A string.

2. A pulley.

3. Weights.

4. A variable-frequency oscillator. A digital meter on the oscillator provides approximate

readings for the oscillator frequency.

5. A magnetic vibrator, driven by the oscillator, to excite the string as shown in Figure 3-2.

6. A stroboscope, or strobe light provides accurate measurement of the frequency of

vibration.

Oscillator

Interface box

Weights

String

Pulley

Vibrator

Stroboscope

Figure 3-2

Part A of this experiment involves a brief experimental exercise with a stroboscope, and

Part B follows with the measurement of wavelength and frequency for several different string

tensions, and for a number of different harmonics, with a purpose of determining the wave

velocity.

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In this experiment standing waves on the string cause it to vibrate at certain fixed

frequencies. If we set the frequency of the strobe light to that of the vibrating string, it will

appear to stop the string motion because each successive flash will occur when the string is in

the same position in space. That is, for a human eye the string will appear to be stationary

when observed using the strobe. However, if the strobe is set to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, times the

frequency of the string vibration, it will also appear to stop the motion, since the light will then

flash every second, third, fourth cycle of the string, but still illuminate the string at the same

position.

Furthermore, if the strobe frequency is set to twice the frequency of the string

vibration, an observer will see two stationary positions of the string (and three positions for 3

times the string vibration frequency, etc.). In fact, if you think about it, you will agree that if the

strobe is set to 2/3 the string frequency, the observer will also see two stationary positions for

the moving string, and similar for 2/5, etc.

In Part A, you will work with the fundamental standing wave mode formed by a string with 1

Kg tension. To obtain this mode, attach a hanging mass of 1 kg to the free end of the string

and drape the string over the pulley, tune the oscillator frequency in the range between 30 and

70 Hz and find the fundamental frequency of the string. At this point, the string should oscillate

as pictured in Figure 3-1, with the maximum achievable amplitude. Keep this mode of

oscillation in all Part A tests.

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Using virtual controls (see Figure 3-3), turn the strobe light on (the switch on the stroboscope

Figure 3-3

device must be in the External Trigger position). First, set the strobe frequency to the value

given by the oscillator reading.

completely freeze the string motion. When the string appears to be stationary in the strobe

light, the strobe frequency is that of the fundamental mode. Then select the button

corresponding to the string frequency multiple of 1, and click on the Save Trial button. The

strobe frequency will be recorded in the table for multiple 1.

Set the stroboscope frequency to a half of the value recorded and detune it slightly until

again you see one motionless string. Then select the button corresponding to a string

frequency multiple of 1/2 and save the trial. Repeat the procedure setting the stroboscope

frequency to twice and three times the value of the string frequency. You should see two and

three stationary strings respectively.

Press the Draw best fit line button to see the linear fit for the strobe frequency vs.

frequency multiple graph. The experimental points on the graph should be well aligned along

the straight line. The four cells below the graph will show the Excel LINEST function results

including the slope, intercept and uncertainties. If the line does not go through the point of

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origin and/or the uncertainties are significant, then you made a mistake in measurements return to the table and redo one or more trials as needed. Then draw the plot again.

Part B is aimed to find velocities of the waves on a string for three different string tensions.

You will observe five harmonics for each string tension and measure the wavelengths and

frequencies of the stranding waves.

To find the linear density of the string (mass per unit length), measure the mass and the

length of the sample piece of string that is same as the string used in your apparatus.

The sample piece of string is provided to you by the instructor, per your request. Do

not try to disconnect the string from the apparatus.

Enter the sample piece mass and length together with their uncertainties in the

measurement window (Figure 3-4). Enter the value for the hanging mass into the appropriate

field on the screen. For the uncertainty, you can use a standard uncertainty for the masses

used in this experiment, 1 g.

Turn the oscillator on and tune its frequency so that you observe the fundamental vibration

mode.

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Figure 3-4

Measure the distance between adjacent nodes (for the fundamental mode that distance is

the total length of the vibrating string. Be careful in determining the uncertainty of the distance.

The node position in space is not certain. Compare the uncertainty of the node position with

the uncertainty of the meter stick and estimate the overall uncertainty. This is the uncertainty in

the distance that should be recorded in the Distance uncertainty cell.

Use stroboscope find the frequency of the vibrating string. Save the trial.

Increase the oscillator frequency and observe the second harmonic. Repeat the

measurements for the second and also for the third and fourth harmonics of the string

vibration. Amplitude of string oscillation will decrease with increased number of harmonic. Try

your best to obtain the fifth harmonic. If you cannot, leave the Fifth harmonic row in the table

empty.

Change the suspended mass to an arbitrary value less than 1 kg but greater than 0.8 kg.

You can use a combination of weights available at the experimental station. On the screen,

select the Mass 2 tab and repeat the procedure.

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For Mass 3, select a value for the mass greater than 1 kg but less than 2 kg. After you

completed measurements for all three masses, check your data and proceed to saving the

results.

Analysis

Part A

Tabulate and plot the stroboscope frequency vs. multiple. Use the LINEST function to

determine the slope of the line and its uncertainty.

What does this slope measure? Explain your answer.

Analysis for Part B splits in two parts that must be performed separately.

Initial Data

Tabulate and plot frequency f against the wavelength, =2L, and the

reciprocal of

wavelength 1/.

According to equation 3-2, the slope of function f vs. 1/ is the velocity of the wave, v. Draw

the best-fit line through each data set, and use LINEST to obtain a best estimate value for the

wave velocity.

Error Evaluation

The uncertanty of the velocity is the uncertainty of the slope that is found using a standard

procedure:

find the fluctuation component of the velocity uncertainty, vfl, using LINEST

then calculate and tabulate for each trial the uncertainties f and (1/), plot error bars,

draw worst lines and find the uncertainty due to error bars verr

find the total uncertainty, v.

The tension is a force equal to the weight of the mass attached to the string, that is:

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T = mg

(3-3)

where m is the mass, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The mass of the string per unit

length, , is found from

= ms/l

(3-4)

where ms is the mass of the sample string, and l is its length. After calculating force T and

linear density the velocity of the wave can be found using equation 3-1.

Initial Data

Present the measured values of masses m used in the experiment, as well as the values

for the mass and length of the string, and their uncertainties.

Best Estimate Values

Separately for each mass calculate tension T, string linear density and the theoretical

value of velocity v that is given by Equation 3-1.

Error Evaluation

First, using the error propagation rule, derive formulas for and calculate the components

and the total uncertainty of tension T. Assume that g = 9.802 m/s2 and that its uncertainty is

0.001 m/s2.

Then find expressions for and calculate the components and the total uncertainty of string

linear density .

Derive expressions for and calculate the theoretical velocity uncertainty components.

Calculate the total uncertainty v.

In the conclusion of your report, make comparison charts representing ranges of

possible values for the experimental and theoretical velocities, separately for each mass. Do

the ranges overlap? Do you expect them to overlap? Explain your answers. Comment on the

precision of your measurements.

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Light

Background

Reflection and Refraction. Snells law

When a beam of light strikes a boundary surface separating two different media, such

as an air-glass interface, a part of the energy is reflected back and the remaining part enters

the second medium. If the incident light is not perpendicular to the surface then the direction of

the transmitted light propagation is different from that of the incident light. This change of light

direction traveling in the second medium is called refraction.

Figure 4-1 shows a light ray striking an air-glass

interface. The angle 1 between the incident ray and the

normal to the surface is called the angle of incidence.

1'

The reflected ray lies in the same plane with the incident

ray and the normal (called the plane of incidence), and it

makes an angle 1' with the normal. This angle is called

incidence:

Figure 4-1

1 1'

(4-1)

The angle of refraction 2 is related to the second medium as shown in Figure 4-1, and

it depends on the angle of incidence and on the indices of refraction of the two media:

n1sin1 = n2sin2

(4-2)

Here n1 is the index of refraction of the incident medium and n2 is the index of refraction for

the transmission medium, where the index of refraction for a medium is defined as the ratio of

the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. Equation 4-2 is the law of

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refraction, also known as Snells Law. If the incident medium is air, for which the index of

refraction is one, we can write:

sin1 = n sin2

(4-3)

where n is the index of refraction of the second medium (glass in our example). Measuring the

angles of incidence and refraction, one can obtain a value for index of refraction for the

medium, n.

Polarization

Light is a wave composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields propagating in

space. Such electro-magnetic (EM) waves are transverse, that is the electric and magnetic

field vectors of the light wave oscillate perpendicular to their direction of travel. Light from

x

z

Figure 4-2

ordinary light sources is unpolarized, i.e. the directions of the electric and magnetic field

vectors are rapidly and randomly changing in the plane perpendicular to the propagation

direction, due to the random nature of the processes producing the light (see Figure 4-2). It is,

however, possible to obtain EM waves where the direction of travel and the direction of

oscillation form a stationary plane. Such an electromagnetic wave is described as linearly or

plane polarized. Plane-polarized light can be produced by selective absorption using dichroic

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polarizers, which work by absorbing the light components whose electric fields are

perpendicular to the polarizers characteristic

Transmission axis

Light source

are parallel to the axis. Ideally, when inserted

into a beam of unpolarized light they reduce the

beam intensity by 50%, and transmit a beam

Dichroic polarizer

which

is

plane-polarized

parallel

to

the

shown in Figure 4-3.

Brewsters angle

Figure 4-3

It is also possible to produce polarized light by way of reflection. When light hits an

interface between two optically transparent media (for example, between air and Plexiglas), a

part of it is reflected back into the first medium and another part of it is transmitted into the

second medium. The reflected part of the light is partially polarized in a direction parallel to the

interface. This partial polarization becomes complete polarization at a certain angle (Brewsters

angle) which is specific for the given pair of optical media. At Brewsters angle, B, the

reflected beam and the transmitted beam are perpendicular to each other as shown in Figure

4-4. In this diagram, an electric field component is represented by a dot or by a small two-sided

arrow, where a dot is really a two-sided arrow as viewed from an end. Unpolarized light is

represented by the dot together with the two-sided arrow, since all the possible polarization

directions can be expressed in terms of these two field components. Plane polarized light

would be represented by either the dot or the arrow

alone. Figure 4-4 shows that when unpolarized light is

incident at the Brewster angle, B, the reflected light is

and

transmitted

beams

are

perpendicular

at

90o

tan B = n

Figure 4-4

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for light beam propagating in air (or vacuum) and reflected off a surface with index of refraction

n. The angle B is measured from the incident beam direction to the surface normal.

Apparatus

The apparatus used in this experiment is shown in Figure 4-5.

Power Cable

Photodiode

Blocking Screen

Laser Pointer

Polarizer

ode

Ray Table

Optical Bench

Cylindrical Lens

Figure 4-5

It includes:

1. An optical bench

2. A light source (laser pointer with diverging lens).

Diverging lens

Ray Table

Knobs to adjust laser pointer

Optical Bench

Cylindrical Lens

Moveable base

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4. A Plexiglas cylindrical lens.

5. A photodiode as a light detector moveable around the ray table

Figure 4-6

6. A blocking screen.

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The apparatus is placed into an optically insulated enclosure to avoid scattered room

light during the measurements. The photodiode is connected to an amplifier which output is

referred through the measurement box, so that the current through the photodiode is displayed

on the computer screen.

In this part, you will observe reflection and refraction through the Plexiglas slab and find

the index of refraction for Plexiglas using Snells Law.

Alignment

The enclosure consists of two separate parts. One contains the light source and the

other is the measurement chamber. Turn on the laser light by plugging in the AC adapter in the

outlet of the workstation table and make sure that a paper clip is pressing the button switch of

the laser pointer. Use available adjustments to align the laser beam with the optical bench

axis. At this time the beam will pass through the center of the table. Align the ray table so that

the light beam enters the table at the zero degree mark and leaves at 180-degree mark (with

the Plexiglas slab, polarizer and screen removed). Rotate the pointer so that the mark on the

tip of the pointer is facing up. This will ensure the laser beam is vertically oriented.

Place the Plexiglas slab carefully in the center of the ray table, with its surface along the

white line and the arrow line coinciding with the line scratched on the bottom of the cylindrical

lens (as shown in Figure 4-6). If the alignment is done properly, the laser beam will propagate

along the arrow. Avoid touching it further in the experiment. Repeat the aligning procedure if

the slab has been moved during the course of the experiment.

Measurements

Rotate the inner part of the ray table with the Plexiglas slab until the arrow is set to 15

degrees. Record the angular position (readings on the dial scale) of the arrow reflected and

refracted ray in the appropriate fields of the measurement window (Figure 4-6). Also record

the uncertainty of these measurements.

Important: these readings are not the angles of incidence 1, reflection 1' , or refraction 2. You enter

angular positions of the rays as you see them on the ray table.

Repeat the measurements turning the table every five degrees until you record ten trials total.

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Figure 4-7

In this part you will measure Brewster's angle for the material of the slab (Plexiglas). To

find Brewsters angle, you will use the photodiode and measure the intensity of the polarized

reflected beam as a function of angle of reflection.

First, turn the polarizer to 90 degrees and keep this polarization throughout the

experiment. Check the alignment of the lens. Make sure that the slit provides a narrow beam.

Remove the polarizer and blocking screen from the measurement chamber. Turn the ray table

with the Plexiglas slab through 46 degrees and observe the reflected beam on the surface of

the ray table. Then position the photodiode so that the reflected ray catches it in the center.

Place the polarizer on the rail so that that beam passes it in the center. Carefully place

the screen on the rail thus blocking the light from entering the ray table and photodiode.

Turn the amplifier on and close the lid. On the measurement screen (Figure 4-8) you will

see a plot representing the current flowing through the photodiode. It is proportional to the

intensity of the light entering the photodiode optical window.

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Turn the Range knob on the amplifier front panel (see Figure 4-9) to the utmost

counter-clockwise position (indicator on the right side of the digital display will highlight mA).

Open the lid and block the light to the photodiode by closing the photodiode face with a palm of

your hand. The positive readings of small magnitude (of no more than two significant figures)

should appear on the amplifier display, as shown in Figure 4-9, and on the vertical axis on the

screen. If the readings are not close to zero, or become negative, then the amplifier zero

should be adjusted using the Offset knob. You may ask the instructor for help with zeroing the

amplifier.

Figure 4-8

Place the blocking screen on the optical axis in front of the ray table, close the lid and

observe the real-time photocurrent on the computer screen. What you measure is the small

photocurrent due to background light reaching the photodioide either from outside the

enclosure or due to reflection of the laser beam from the blocking screen and the walls of the

enclosure. Continue to observe the signal on the screen for approximately 30-50 second. Then

press Pause graph and enter the average photocurrent (found as a middle point on y-axis, for

example for the graph in Figure 4-8 this would be 1.55 or 1.552) and its uncertainty in the

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boxes labeled Intensity (light blocked). The uncertainty can be estimated as half of the

distance between the typical extreme readings for the photocurrent. In the example of Figure

4-8, this would be either 0.0005 or 0.006.

Figure 4-9

Now open the lid, and remove the blocking screen. Then close the lid and repeat the

measurement as described above, but enter the values for the photocurrent and its uncertainty

in the Intensity (light unblocked) boxes.

Inspect your records and save the trial. Continue measurements turning the table every 2

degrees for a total of 11 trials.

Please unplug the laser after you finished measurements.

Analysis

Part A

Initial Data

From your raw data, calculate and tabulate the angle of incidence 1, reflection 1' , and

refraction 2 for each trial with their uncertainties

Also plot 1' against 1 to check the alignment of the laser beam. Draw the best-fit line with

variable intercept. It should be a line of unit slope passing through the center of coordinates.

Using LINEST, calculate the uncertainties for the slope and intercept. If the slope of your plot is

not one and the intercept is not zero within their respective uncertainty ranges, comment on

why could that happened, and speculate how it may affect your further calculations.

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In this part you will find the value of the index of refraction, n, using Snell's Law given by

equation 4-3. It is the slope of the dependence of sin1 vs. sin2

Calculate and tabulate sin1 and sin2. Plot sin1 vs. sin2 and find the slope using best-fit

line and LINEST. Select the intercept appropriately.

Error Evaluation

Using LINEST, find the uncertainty in the index of refraction caused by deviations of the

experimental points from the best-fit line, nfl.

Use error propagation and calculate the uncertainties of sin1 and sin2 for every trial.

remember to express in radians in these calculations.

Tabulate (sin1) and (sin2), plot them as error bars on the graph, draw worst lines and

find nerr.

Combine nfl and nerr to determine the total uncertainty, n.

Part B

The index of refraction in Part B is found using Brewster's angle and equation 4-4.

Brewster's angle is found as an angle at which minimum photocurrent was observed.

Initial Data

For each angle of incidence calculate and tabulate the net photocurrent I which is equal

to the difference between the currents measured when the light was unblocked and blocked,

respectively. Calculate also uncertainties I and tabulate .

Best Estimate Value

Plot the net photocurrent I versus . Estimate the value of Brewsters angle B by finding

the angle of minimum photocurrent. Explain how you chose the value.

Calculate the index of refraction for the material of the slab using equation 4-4.

Error Evaluation

Draw x- and y-error bars for each data point on the plot.

Make an estimate for the uncertainty of Brewsters angle B taking into account the error

bars. Explain how you evaluated B.

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Using the error propagation procedure applied to equation 4-4, find the uncertainty for the

index of refraction, n. Remember to use the value of B in radians in the uncertainty

calculation.

In the conclusion of your report, make a comparison chart showing the ranges of possible

values for the indices of refraction of Plexiglas obtained in Parts A and B, and for the expected

value which can be found in the library or internet.

discrepancy. Separately for each method, evaluate the precision of your measurement.

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Background

Light is a wave composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields propagating through

space. If two or more light waves, having fixed phase relationships, arrive simultaneously at a

point in space, they add to produce a stationary distribution of net fields. This phenomenon is

called optical interference. Optical diffraction occurs when part of a light beam is blocked by an

obstacle. In each case, characteristic patterns of light and darkness are produced in space

called interference and diffraction patterns.

The spectral width of the light source (that is the range of wavelengths emitted)

determines the ease with which interference and diffraction effects can be observed. A white

light source emits all the colors of the rainbow, but it does so by rapidly and randomly emitting

each color for a short time. This makes the wave trains (uninterrupted piece of a wave) of the

light very short, making it difficult for them to produce stationary patterns when they overlap in

space. The average length of a wave train is called the coherence length. The diffraction and

interference effects therefore are easier to observe for light sources that are characterized by

long coherence lengths.

spectra contain sharp peaks called spectral lines. The wave trains of these sources are much

longer than those of incandescent lamps. Lasers emit very pure colors, with correspondingly

very narrow spectra and very long wave trains.

Perhaps the simplest diffraction pattern to obtain is in a situation where a beam of light

is partially obstructed by a single thin wire or allowed to pass through a thin slit in an opaque

screen. The resulting diffraction patterns consist of two sets of alternately bright and dark

patches formed after the obstacle. The pattern forms perpendicular to the orientation of the slit

or wire and is symmetric about the undisturbed beam location. The diffraction minima (centers

of the dark regions) occur at positions where the width of the slit multiplied by the sine of the

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diffraction angle (between the incident beam and the direction to the minimum) is equal to an

integer multiplied by the wavelength of the light:

a sin =n, n= 1, 2, 3

(5-1)

Here a is the slit or wire width and is the wavelength of the light. Since the angle between

the optical axis (unobstructed laser beam) and the direction of the diffracted light, , is small

Screen

Angle

Slide

Laser

y

L

Figure 5-1

(see Figure 5-1), sin tan = y/L and for the linear position of the n-th minimum we have:

yn = nL/a

(5-2)

The locations of the maxima are not simply related to the diffraction angle.

Double slit

If a second slit is added, parallel to the first, the pattern changes noticeably. This

arrangement, known as Youngs Slits, produces an interference pattern with equally spaced

bright and dark patches. The bright patches in the combined pattern occur when the distance

from one slit to a point on the screen differs from the distance to the other slit by an integer

number of wavelengths of the light used.

diffraction patterns due to the individual slits, and the intensities of the maxima are modified.

The angular positions of the maxima are given by:

d sin =n, n=0,1,2,3

(5-3)

Assuming that is small, the y-position of the n-th maximum on the screen is determined

from a relation quite similar to equation 5-2:

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yn = nL/d

(5-4)

Diffraction grating

As more and more slits are added to the obstruction, the pattern evolves, and the

angular width of the main bright spots gets smaller and smaller. In the limit of a large number

of slits, closely spaced, the maxima are very sharp and far apart in angle. Such an array of

slits is called a diffraction grating, and gratings are often used in spectroscopy instead of

prisms to spread out the different wavelengths (colors) of light falling on them. The diffraction

maxima for a grating occur when the product of the average slit spacing and the sine of the

diffraction angle is equal to an integer multiplied by the wavelength:

dg sin =n, n=0,1,2,3

(5-5)

where dg is the slit spacing of the grating. The vertical position of n-th maximum on the

screen is related to the diffraction angle as

yn/L = tan ,

(5-6)

where L is the distance from the grating to the screen. For diffraction gratings, the deviation

angle is not small as it was in the two previous cases (single and double slits). Therefore

2

sin tan, but it rather should be calculated using the exact formula: sin tan 1 2 .

Combining equations (5-5) and (5-6) one fins the diffraction grating constant, dg, found from:

2

L

d g n 1

yn

(5-7)

Apparatus

Schematics of the experimental setup for part A of the experiment are presented in

Figure 5-1. In part A you will use a diode laser as a light source, and four slides: with a single

slit, a thin wire and a double slit, and a diffraction grating. Two other light sources, a Mercury

spectral lamp, and a Hydrogen spectral lamp will be used in part B of the experiment.

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Safety Warning: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LASER BEAM, because even the low

power laser used here can damage your eyesight. Observe the diffraction patterns only on the

paper-covered screen.

Record the width of the slit and its uncertainty in the fields provided in

the measurement window (Figure 5-2)

Turn the laser on. Place the projection screen (with paper attached)

on the rail as far from the slit as possible and adjust the vertical and

horizontal position of the laser beam. The beam must be parallel to the

rail and must strike the screen at its center. To change direction of the laser beam, use two

alignment screws on the back of the laser.

Figure 5-2

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Attach the slit to the slit holder (it is held there magnetically). Adjust the vertical and

horizontal position of the slide so that the laser beam would pass through the slit. You will

observe a diffraction pattern on the screen. Adjust the distance between the slit and the screen

so that you will clearly observe three diffraction minima on each side. Record the value of the

distance, L, and its uncertainty L.

On the paper covering the projection screen, mark the positions of all the diffraction minima

you can locate (at least three), on either side of the central maximum. Then take the slide out

of the holder, and mark the center of the unobstructed laser beam on the paper this is the

center of your diffraction pattern.

Remove the paper from the screen, and, using a caliper, measure the distances from the

center to each minimum. Enter the values and their uncertainties into the table on the

measurement window. Note that the instrument uncertainty of the caliper is much smaller

than the uncertainty of your marking. You have to record six values of yn. Note that the

value of yn is negative if n is negative and vice versa.

The approximate wavelength of the laser radiation is indicated by the manufacturer on the

back of the laser. Record this value and an estimated uncertainty.

Attach a new, clean sheet of paper to the screen and place the slide with a piece of thin

wire in the slit holder. Repeat all the measurements you have done with the single slit,

assuming that the observed diffraction pattern is the same as that from a single slit with a width

that is equal to the diameter of the wire, w. The objective of this part is to find the diameter of

the wire and its uncertainty. Use the value for the laser wavelength provided by the

manufacturer and assume that its uncertainty can be neglected.

Insert a slide with a narrowly spaced double slit into the laser beam and take

measurements for the positions of the maxima (not minima as in parts A-1 and A-2) of the

interference pattern. The interference pattern is the fine structure inside the large central

diffraction maximum. Take measurements for at least four maxima on each side from the

middle point. You have to record at least eight values of yn with their uncertainties. In this part

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you are to find the slit spacing, d and its uncertainty. Use the value for the laser wavelength

provided by the manufacturer and assume that its uncertainty can be neglected.

Part B. Spectrometer

In this part you will use the diffraction grating and a meter stick to construct a simple

grating spectrometer.

Safety Warning: Be careful, high voltage is used to operate the discharge lamp.

Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 5-3. Make sure that the meter stick and the

Grating

Images of the lamp

Spectral lamp

Your eye

Figure 5-3

diffraction grating are perpendicular to the axis of the experiment. The distance between the

diffraction grating and the meter stick should be between 30 and 40 cm. Place the Mercury

lamp at the end of the rail. Turn the lamp on, and look through the diffraction grating, as shown

in Figure 5-3. You will see the white image of the lamp, and several supplementary images of

the lamp in color distributed to the left and right of the lamp as shown in the figure. Place the

meter stick as close as possible to the lamp, perpendicular to the rail so that the white glowing

image appears just above the center (50 cm mark) of the meter stick when you view the lamp

through the diffraction grating (one of the students in the team should hold the stick while

another makes the observation).

Carefully measure the distance from the meter stick to the grating, L. Record this distance

and its uncertainty into the measurement window (Figure 5-4).

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Record the distance from the yellow mercury lines (578.0 nm) to the center of the tube, for

both left and right images. Repeat for the green and blue lines with wavelengths of 546.1, and

435.8 nanometers respectively and record the distances for the right and left images of these

lines.

Safety Warning: DO NOT touch the lamp it is hot. When replacing the lamp, wait for several

minutes after turning it off.

Replace Mercury tube with a Hydrogen discharge tube.

measurements using the Hydrogen tube. You should be able to see at least three lines in the

hydrogen spectrum: red (656.3 nm), green-blue or turquoise (486.1 nm), and violet (434.1 nm).

Figure 5-4

Analysis

Part A-1. Single slit

In this exercise you will find the wavelength of the laser radiation.

Initial Data

Tabulate yn and its uncertainties versus the diffraction minimum order n.

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Present the value of the slit width, a, and the distance to the screen, L, and their

uncertainties.

Best Estimate Value

Plot yn vs. n and find the slope using the best-fit line and LINEST.

From equation 5-2, find the relationship between the slope you obtained and the laser

wavelength, . Calculate .

Error Evaluation

Using LINEST, find the slope uncertainty due to fluctuations.

Place error bars on the plot using values yn tabulated in the Initial Data section.

Draw the worst lines and estimate the uncertainty of the slope due to error bars. Calculate the

total uncertainty for the slope, m

Using m, a, and L, and equation 5-2, find the expressions and calculate the wavelength

uncertainty components, and then find the total uncertainty .

The analysis is similar to that in Part A-1 with the only difference that the slit width a, is

replaced in equation 5-2 with the thickness of the wire w. And contrary to part A-1, we assume

here that the wavelength is known and it is the value provide by the manufacturer and we are

interested in the diameter of the wire.

Also, the analysis is similar to that for parts A-1 and A-2 with a guiding equation of 5-3

where yn are positions of the maxima but not the minima as in parts A-1 and A-2. The objective

is to find the slit separation, d. For the wavelength and its uncertainty, use the value provided

by the manufacturer.

Part B. Spectrometer

Using the measurements of the first order diffraction maxima and equation 5-7 you will

determine the value of the diffraction grating constant, d, for each color observed.

Initial Data

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For total of six colors, you have measured positions of two first maxima in the interference

pattern. The diffraction order n is either 1 (for images on the left) or 1 (for images on the

right). Therefore, for each color, you must have two values for the positions of the maxima: y1

and y-1. If the meter stick was held perpendicular to the rail, the values of |y1| and |y-1| should be

close to each other. To find the uncertainty caused by possible error in holding the meter stick,

average the two values of for each color to obtain the best estimate value, y. Calculate also the

standard deviation, and the total uncertainty, y taking into account the uncertainty of

measuring |y1| and |y-1|). Tabulate the data. Also present the measurements of the grating to

meter stick distance, L and its uncertainty.

Best Estimate Values

Using the value of y found on the previous step, and using equation 5-7 as the model

function, find the grating line spacing, dg , for each color separately.

Error Evaluation

Uncertainty dg is found by applying the error propagation procedure to the model function.

separately for each color.

In the Conclusion of your report, for part A, make a comparison chart demonstrating the

ranges of possible values for the laser wavelength found in part A-1 and that provided by the

manufacturer, respectively, and comment on the accuracy and precision of the result.

For part B, make a single comparison chart showing the ranges of possible values for dg for

all six colors. Since we know that the grating has 600 lines per millimeter, draw a horizontal

line on the comparison chart representing the expected value for dg . Comment both on

accuracy and precision of the results. Do you observe a systematic error? If so, comment

whcih measurement can be responsible for such an error.

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Background

In fluids (gases or liquids) sound waves propagate as pressure pulses. The pressure

disturbance propagates, by means of particle-to-particle interactions, as a longitudinal wave.

The speed of sound is defined as the distance that a point on the wave (such as a

compression or a rarefaction) travels per unit of time.

Figure 6-1

The speed of sound depends on the elastic (given by the elastic modulus B) and inertial

properties (given by the density ) of the material through which the wave propagates.

(6-1)

Elastic properties depend on the interaction between the particles. Solids have the

strongest interactions between particles, and thus the highest elastic modulus (e.g. bulk

modulus for steel is 1.4 x 1011 N/m2), followed by liquids (e.g. for water B = 2 x 109 N/m2) and

then gases (e.g. for air B=1.01 x 105 N/m2). Therefore, in general, sound waves travel faster in

solids than in liquids and slowest in gases.

Inertial properties, such as density, determine how quickly the particles inside the medium

accelerate. The greater the mass density of the particles, the slower the wave will be.

Comparing the speed of sound within the same state of matter (for example gas), the density

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is the property that determines how fast the sound propagates. A sound wave will travel faster

in hot air than it will in cooler air, as the cooler air is denser.

The bulk modulus in gases can be expressed in terms of gas pressure, P, and the adiabatic

index,

, the ratio between the specific heats of gas at constant pressure and at

constant volume,

. Applying

the ideal gas law to replace P with nRT/V, and substituting with nM/V, where n is the number

of moles, R is ideal gas constant, T is the temperature of the gas in Kelvins, V is the volume,

and M is the molar mass, the equation for the speed of sound in an ideal gas becomes:

(6-2)

Expanding Equation 6-2 into a Taylor series in the variable T and replacing constants R, M,

and with their values for air, one obtains the following linear approximation for the speed of

sound in air:

Here

(6-3)

In dry air at 20 C (68 F), the speed of sound is 343.2 m/s which are approximately one

mile in five seconds.

In this experiment you will measure the speed of sound in air at room temperature and

investigate its temperature dependence.

Apparatus

The experimental assembly is as shown in the Figure 6-2. The set up consists of the following

components.

1. Microphone unit (Figure 6-3) includes a microphone capsule installed at the mouth of

a narrow tube that is connected to a handle. The handle incorporates preamplifier

electronics and a 9 V battery. This preamplifier unit is connected to the computer via

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pressing a red button on the top of the handle. The switch turns off automatically after

approximately 30 minutes, therefore, you would need to press the red button once

again if your test takes more than 30 minutes. Next to the red button there is a gain

adjustment knob and a function switch with three different options. The gain is

preinstalled. Please do not touch the gain adjustment knob. The function switch for this

experiment should be in the alternating signal

positon.

2. Thermistor measures the temperature of the air inside the chamber. It is a type of

resistor whose resistance significantly changes with temperature.

Figure 6-2

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Figure 6-3

Figure 6-4

3. Heating unit consists of a ceramic body, which is fragile and must be handled carefully;

a copper heating wire and a power supply (transformer)

4. Chamber is a 9 cm diameter plastic tube that encloses the heating unit. It helps to block

the surrounding noise and heat exchange with the room. The cup that covers the right

end of the chamber is permanently attached. This cover has a hole in its center for

inserting the microphone, sockets for connection to the power supply, and hose nipples

where the thermistor is inserted.

5. Loud Speaker (Figure 6-5) is a source of sound. It is a small high frequency tweeter

with two sockets for connection to a signal source (Digital Function Generator). The

speaker fits the open end of the chamber as shown in the Figure 6-2.

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Figure 6-5

6. Optical rail holds the components of the assembly together and allows for changing

longitudinally and measuring the position of the microphone.

Preliminary Exercise

In this part of the experiment, you will explore the components of the experimental setup

and familiarize yourself with measurement software. The software operates in oscilloscope

mode (Figure 6-6) simultaneously displaying the electrical pulse applied to the speaker (green

line) and the signal from the microphone (yellow line).

Figure 6-6

To observe these signals on the computer screen, first, turn on the function generator and

set the frequency to a value between 7 and 10 Hz. Record the frequency and its uncertainty.

Then, bring the microphone as close to the speaker as the settings permit and turn it on. On

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the screen, set the time scale (milliseconds per horizontal unit) such that you can see the

raising edge of the voltage signal from the loudspeaker (channel 2-green) and the output

voltage pulse from the microphone (channel 1-yellow) simultaneously. Also set the voltage

scale (Volt per vertical unit) for each channel to make appropriate heights for the signals. If

necessary, you can move the signals up and down by sliding a small triangle-shaped button

located at the left side of the graph. Move the microphone back and forth along the rail and see

if the signal from the microphone moves horizontally.

By comparing time instants when each signal starts, one is able to measure time taken by

the sound pulse to travel from the speaker to the microphone. We will call this time Travel

time. Experimental cycle for measuring Travel time can be described as follows:

the function generator produces a train of rectangular voltage pulses that are applied to

the speaker; the voltage pulse of the function generator is visualized on the computer

screen by a green signal;

the sound emitted by the speaker travels through the air inside the tube and is picked up

by the microphone that converts the acoustic pulse back into a voltage pulse, which is

visualized as a yellow signal on the screen.

To measure Travel time, place the first cursor (vertical red line) at the beginning of the green

signal (start of the rising edge) and the second cursor at the beginning of the yellow signal, as

shown in the Figure 6-6. The horizontal distance between two cursors measures time taken by

the sound pulse to travel from the speaker to the microphone. This value reads in the box

Travel time. Measure the Travel time for the signal on your screen (as in Fig. 6-6) and

proceed to Part A.

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Figure 6-7

In this part, the speed of sound is measured at room temperature. The measurement

screen is shown in the Figure 6-7.

Keep the function generator and the microphone ON as in the preliminary part. Place the

mouthpiece of the microphone unit as far away from the speaker as practically possible.

Record the position of the left edge of the optical mount holding the microphone unit into the

Position box on the computer screen, and the uncertainty into the Position Uncertainty box.

Press the Pause button and find the Travel time as it was done in the preliminary part.

Pressing the Save Trial button records the position, Travel time and temperature for the trial

into the table. You will also need to determine and take a record of the travel time uncertainty.

Repeat the same process for 10 trials moving the microphone unit toward the speaker by 2

cm in each trial.

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In this part, temperature dependence of the speed of the sound is investigated. The air

inside the chamber is initially heated to a predetermined temperature, and measurements are

carried out while the chamber is cooling off.

This exercise will be conducted with the microphone fixed at a position of about two thirds

of the length of the chamber (or at the midpoint between two extreme positions of the

microphone in the part A). Set up the microphone and record the microphone position and its

uncertainty.

Then turn the power supply on. The heater will slowly warm up the air inside the chamber.

Turn off the power supply when the temperature shown by the thermistor sensor reaches

approximately 35 C above the room temperature. Wait until the temperature drops for a few

degrees this would allow the temperature distribution inside the chamber to be more uniform

and take the first measurement of travel time as it was done in part A. Wait until the

temperature falls back another 3 degrees and take the second measurement. Continue for a

total of at least 8 trials (10 preferred) with 3C decrements.

Analysis

Part A

To calculate the speed of sound, you will need to develop a model for Part A. One may

suggest that travel of sound in the tube is described by

(6-4)

where

is a constant offset

distance that is determined by the actual position of the speaker and the difference between

the actual position of the microphone on the scale and the recorded position of the mount. t is

the time sound travels between the speaker and the microphone (travel time), and c is the

speed of sound.

Based on this model, one can find the value of speed of sound and the constant

plotting

by

vs. t and finding the slope and intercept for the best-fit line.

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Initial Data

Tabulate the mount position, x, vs. travel time, t, with their uncertainties. Provide a value for

the room temperature and its uncertainty.

Best Estimate Values

Plot the x vs. t. and find the slope and intercept for the best-fit line. Use LINEST.

The slope of the line is the speed of sound at room temperature given by thermistor and

the intercept of the line is the distance correction,

temperature given by thermistor could be different from one station to another and from the

temperature shown by laboratory thermostat.

Also calculate the expected value of the speed of the sound for actual room temperature

using equation 6-3.

Error Evaluation

As it was done in previous experiments, use LINEST and error bars to find the uncertainty

of the slope that is the uncertainty of the speed of sound found in your experiment.

Similarly, find the uncertainty of the intercept, that is the uncertainty of the offset,

To find the uncertainty of the expected value, apply the error propagation to equation 6-3.

Part B

Here we assume that the constant x0, which is found in Part A does not change with

temperature, and therefore we can model Part B with a simple expression of

(6-5)

where

is the adjusted position of the microphone that does not change in part B.

The speed of sound for each temperature therefore can be found simply dividing the adjusted

microphone position by the time of travel:

(6-6)

Initial Data

Tabulate measured time of travel vs. temperature with their uncertainties. Calculate the

value for the adjusted microphone position and its uncertainty.

Best Estimate Values

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For each temperature, calculate both the speed of sound found from equation 6-6 and the

expected values calculated using equation 6-3. Present these data in a single table.

Plot both measured and calculated speed of sound versus temperature on a single graph.

Draw best fit lines for each plot and find the slope and the intercept of each line.

Error Evaluation

Use the error propagation technique applied to Equation 6-6, and find the components and

total uncertainty in speed of sound, and tabulate those accordingly.

Include these uncertainties as error bars on each plot.

In the Results section of the report, present the values for part A only.

In the Conclusion of your report, in part A, draw a comparison chart and evaluate the

precision and accuracy of your experimental value of spped of sound.

For parts B, present the obtained plot with error bars, best-fit lines accompanies with

equations for the lines. Explain discrepancies, if so observed, between the theoretical and

experimental dependencies constructed in Part B. Discuss the factors that were not

considered in the experiment and the analysis but might have affected the temperature

dependencies measured.

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