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"Try"Try notnot toto becomebecome aa manman ofof SUCCESS,SUCCESS, butbut ratherrather trytry toto becomebecome aa
"Try"Try notnot toto becomebecome aa manman ofof SUCCESS,SUCCESS, butbut ratherrather trytry toto becomebecome aa manman ofof VALUE"VALUE"
BASIC OF PIPING MATERIAL
BASIC OF PIPING MATERIAL
By:
By:
Miduk Aritonang
Miduk Aritonang
BASICBASIC OFOF PIPINGPIPING MATERIALMATERIAL
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1.1. MATERIALMATERIAL
MATERIAL
METAL
NON METAL:
- Plastic
: Fibre Rainforced Plastic (FRP), etc
- Polymer : PE, PVC, PTFE/Teflon, etc
FERRO:
NON FERRO:
- Carbon Steel (CS)
- Aluminium, Magnesium, Titanium, etc
- Low Temperature Carbon Steel (LT-CS)
- Incoloy
- Stainless Steel (SS)
- Inconel
- Alloy Steel
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2.2. CRISTALCRISTAL STRUCTURESTRUCTURE OFOF IRONS:IRONS:
Face Centred Cubic (FCC)
Body Centred Cubic (BCC)
- Stable structure above about 900 o C
- Stable structure below about 700 o C
- Atom volume is about 74 %
- Atom volume is about 68 %
- Coordination num. is 12
- Coordination num. is 8
- Known as Austenite
- Known as Ferrite
- Low Strength, Ductile, High
Toughness
- High Strength, Brittle, Low Toughness
- Magnetic
- Non Magnetic
- Aluminium, Nickel, etc
- Iron, Chromium, Vanadium, Molybdenum,
Tungsten, etc
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3.3. TESTINGTESTING OFOF MATERIALMATERIAL
- -
Hardness Test Hardness measurement of material toward
Hardness Test Hardness measurement of material toward
a a
deformation (plastic deformation or permanent
deformation (plastic deformation or permanent
defomation)
defomation)
Type of Hardness Test:
Type of Hardness Test:
- -
Scratch Scratch Hardness Hardness
- -
Identation Identation Hardness Hardness
- -
Dynamic Dynamic Hardness Hardness
Type Type of of Identation Identation Hardness Hardness Test: Test:
- -
Brinell Brinell Hardness Hardness
by by J.A. J.A. Brinell Brinell (1900), (1900), using using steel steel ball. ball.
- -
Vickers Vickers Hardness Hardness
using using diamond diamond pyramid pyramid
- -
Rockwell Rockwell Hardness Hardness
using using cone cone pyramid pyramid
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-- TensileTensile TestTest
F
F
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-- ImpactImpact TestTest
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-- NonNon DestructiveDestructive TestTest
To detect a defect or crack/fracture at inside or surface
To detect a defect or crack/fracture at inside or surface
material without demage a material.
material without demage a material.
Visual Method
Visual Method
Liquid Penetrant Method
Liquid Penetrant Method
Magnetic Particle Method
Magnetic Particle Method
Ultrasonic Method
Ultrasonic Method
Radiografy Method
Radiografy Method
Eddy Current Method
Eddy Current Method
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Visual Method
Visual Method
Visual monitoring or using optic device (fiberscope, boroscope, etc)
Visual monitoring or using optic device (fiberscope, boroscope, etc)
with min. of enlargement is 5x
with min. of enlargement is 5x
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Liquid Penetrant Method
Liquid Penetrant Method
Using Fluorescant Penetrant
Using Fluorescant Penetrant
Crack
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Magnetic Particle Method
Magnetic Particle Method
These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will
These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will
cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This
cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This
indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
Can be detect surface defect and also inside defect
Can be detect surface defect and also inside defect
To appear new pole (North & South Pole)
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Ultrasonic Method
Ultrasonic Method
Using Piezo Electric that can be convert the electric energy (current)
Using Piezo Electric that can be convert the electric energy (current)
to mechanical energy (wave) & the other hand, and called as Probe.
to mechanical energy (wave) & the other hand, and called as Probe.
Function of Probe device are as Transmitter and also Receiver
Function of Probe device are as Transmitter and also Receiver
Initial
pulse
Back surface
echo
Crack
echo
crack
Plate
0
2
4
6
8
10
Oscilloscope or Flaw
Detector Screen
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RadiografyRadiografy MethodMethod
Defect
Specimen
Film
Film (Top View)
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EddyEddy CurrentCurrent MethodMethod
Coil's
magnetic field
Coil
Eddy current's
magnetic field
Eddy
currents
Conductive
material
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NDTNDT InspectionInspection LevelLevel
ASNT – SNT – TC – Level I:
Technicians qualified to perform only specific calibrations and tests under close supervision and
direction by higher level personnel
Can only report test results
Normally they work following specific work instructions for testing procedures and rejection
criteria.
ASNT – SNT – TC – Level II:
Engineers or experienced technicians who are able to set up and calibrate testing equipment,
conduct the inspection according to codes and standards (instead of following work instructions)
and compile work instructions for Level 1 technicians
Have authorize to report, interpret, evaluate and document testing results
Must be familiar with applicable codes and standards and have some knowledge of the
manufacture and service of tested products
ASNT – SNT – TC – Level III:
Specialized engineers or very experienced technicians. They can establish NDT techniques and
procedures and interpret codes and standards
Conducts directly NDT laboratories and have central role in personnel certification
Have wider knowledge covering materials, fabrication and product technology.
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Others Others Inspection Inspection
1. 1.
PMI (Positive Material Identification)
PMI (Positive Material Identification)
PMI PMI requirement requirement is is aimed aimed to to verify verify the the grade grade of of the the material material
and not the exact chemical composition on the material
and not the exact chemical composition on the material
certificate certificate
PMI PMI requirements requirements usually usually for for Low Low Alloy Alloy (1¼Cr (1¼Cr - - ½ ½ Mo, Mo, 2¼Cr 2¼Cr - - 1Mo 1Mo
steels), Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel.
steels), Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel.
Equip.: Equip.: Portable Portable Alloy Alloy Analizers, Analizers, etc etc
2. 2.
Ferrite Ferrite Test Test
Ferrite Ferrite test test requirement requirement to to determine determine delta delta ferrite ferrite of of Austenitic Austenitic
Stainless Stainless Steel Steel and and Duplex Duplex Stainless Stainless Steel Steel
Ferrite Ferrite test test apllied apllied prior prior to to any any PWHT PWHT
Equip.: Equip.: Ferritscope Ferritscope (Fischer) (Fischer) or or equivalent, equivalent, and and calibrated calibrated in in
accordance accordance with with AWS AWS A A 4.2. 4.2.
PMI Test
Ferrite Test
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4.4. ANSI/ASMEANSI/ASME RELATEDRELATED TOTO PIPINGPIPING MATERIALMATERIAL
ANSI/ASME B31
Power Piping
Fuel Gas Piping
Process Piping
Pipeline Liquid Petro. Transportation Piping System
Refrigeration Piping
Nuclear Power Piping
Gas Transmission & Distribution piping
Building Services Piping
B31.1
B31.2
B31.3
B31.4
B31.5
B31.7
B31.8
B31.9
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ANSI/ASME B36
• Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
B36.10
• Stainless Steel Pipe
B36.19
ANSI/ASME B16
• Pipe Flanges and Flanged Flange ( up to 24”)
B16.5
• Large Diameter Steel Flanges (26” to 60”)
B16.47
• Forged Flange, Socket Welding and Threaded
B16.11
• Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Flange
B16.9
• Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Ring-Joint,
Spiral Wound and Jacketed
B16.20
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5.5. PIPESPIPES MATERIALMATERIAL
• Seamless
• Welded
• Welded Joint
• Threaded Joint
• Flanged Joint
• Plan End (PE)
• Bevel End (BE)
• Threaded End (TE)
• Schedule: - ASME B36.10
- ASME B36.19
Carbon Steel (CS) Pipe
Stainless Steel (SS) Pipe
Example:
CS Pipe SMLS Sch. 80 PE A106 Gr. B ASME 36.10 SRL
CS Pipe ERW Sch. 20 BE A53 Gr. A ASME 36.10 SRL
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SEAMLESS
Seamless Pipe Manufacture
WELDED
Longitudinal Welded Pipe
Welded
Spiral Welded Pipe
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ELECTRICELECTRIC RESISTANCERESISTANCE WELDEDWELDED (ERW)(ERW) PIPEPIPE
ERW Pipe Manufacture
ERW Pipe Failure
• Lowest Cost
• ERW type only that still be producted by domestic pipe manufacture
• ERW type mostly producted for small diameter pipe, up to Ø 30”
• ERW type for small wall thickness & Seamless type for heavy wall thickness
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6.6. FITTINGSFITTINGS MATERIALMATERIAL
Elbow:
45 deg. Elbow
90 deg. Elbow
• Seamless
• Welded
Short Radius (SR) Elbow
Long Radius (LR) Elbow
• Welded joint
• Threaded joint
Threaded Joint
Welded Joint
• Flange joint
Tee:
Straight Tee
Reducer Tee
• Seamless
• Welded
Welded joint
Threaded joint
Straight Tee
Reducer Tee
Flange joint
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Reducer:
• Concentric Reducer
• Eccentric Reducer
Nipple:
• Concentric Nipple
• Eccentric Nipple
Outlet Fitting (Olet):
Nipolet
Weldolet
Threadolet
Sockolet
Sockolet
Nipolet
Weldolet
Threadolet
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Cap:
Plug:
Union:
Coupling:
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7.7. FLANGESFLANGES MATERIALMATERIAL
Flanges Rating:
ANSI/ASME 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, 2500#
API
2000#, 3000#, 5000#, 10.000#, 15.000#, 20.000#, 30.000#
Flanges Dimensional:
ANSI/ASME 16.5
ANSI/ASME 16.47
24 “ & below
26” & above
Face Type (ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47):
1. Raised Face (RF)
2. Flat Face (FF)
3. Ring Type Joint (RTJ)
Rating: 150# to 600#
usually used for Ductile Iron or Cast Iron
Rating: 900# & above
Type End Connection:
1.
2.
Weld Neck (WN)
Socked Weld (SW)
Slip On (SO)
Threaded
2” & above
1½” & below
3.
4.
Others :
1. Blind Flange
2. Orifice Flange
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Socked Weld
Slip On
Weld Neck
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8.8. GASKETGASKET && RINGRING MATERIALMATERIAL
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9.9. BOLTBOLT && NUTNUT MATERIALMATERIAL
- Stud Bolt
- Mechanical Bolt
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10.10. VALVESVALVES MATERIALMATERIAL
Basic Type :
1. Gate Valve
2. Ball Valve
3. Globe Valve
4. Check Valve
5. Butterfly Valve
Isolation valve usually for liquid
Open or Close
On-Off
Isolation valve usually for gas
Open or Close
Manual On-Off
Good throttling for control
One direction of flow
Isolation for water line
Not suitable as primary block valves for vessels, tanks, etc
Gate Valve
Globe Valve
Check Valve
Butterfly Valve
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11.11. SPECIALSPECIAL ITEMSITEMS MATERIALMATERIAL
Strainer
:
Barred Tee
:
Flame Arrestor
:
Chemical Injection
:
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12.12. WELDINGWELDING
Single sided butt weld
Double sided butt weld with defects in root and on surface
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Mostly International Standard for Welding:
- Structure Welding
- Pressure Parts Welding
- Pipeline Welding
AWS
ASME Section IX
API 1104
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AWS Specifications:
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13.13. DesignDesign TemperatureTemperature vs.vs. MaterialMaterial
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14.14. STAINLESSSTAINLESS STEELSTEEL FAMILYFAMILY
Yield
Tensile
Cr
Ni
Mo
N
C
Other
PRE No.
(max)
Strength
Strength
Grade
UNS No.
Family
MPa
MPa
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
(min) b
(min) b
0.15
420
S42000
Martensitic
13
(min)
13.00
1480
1720
430
S43000
Ferritic
17
0.12
17.00
205
450
304
S30400
Austenitic
18
8
- 9
0.04
- 0.1
18.00
205
515
304L
S30403
Austenitic
18
8
- 9
<
0.03
18.00
170
485
11
-
316
S31600
Austenitic
17
14
2.1
0.04
- 0.1
23.93
205
515
11
-
316L
S31603
Austenitic
17
14
2.1
<
0.03
23.93
170
485
904L
N08904
Austenitic
20
25
4.5
0.02
1.5Cu
34.85
220
490
S31803
Duplex
2205
(Ferritic -
22
5
3
0.18
0.03
34.78
450
620
S32205
Austenitic)
Precipitation
4Cu &
17-4PH
S17400
16
4
0.07
16.00
1170
1310
Hardening
0.3Nb
Alloy 254
S31254
Super Austenitic
20
18
6
0.2
0.02
0.75Cu
43.00
300
650
Alloy 2507
S32750
Super Duplex
25
7
4
0.28
0.03
42.68
550
795
• PREN = Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number
= Cr + 3.3 Mo + 16 N
• The term “Super” is commonly used when the PRE Number of the alloy is 40 or more
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SUPERSUPER DUPLEXDUPLEX SSSS –– 25%25% CrCr
• Composition
Typically 25% Cr, 7% Ni, 3.5% Mo
316 SS
• Benefits (over 22% Cr – Duplex SS)
– 25% higher yield strength
– Improved localised corrosion resistance
– Improved chloride SCC resistance
– Seawater resistant to ~ 20ºC
• Limitations
– Higher cost
25% CR – Super Duplex SS
– Even greater care required for welding and heat treatments
– Limited H 2 S cracking resistance
– Limited to -50 ºC impact toughness
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15a.15a. ALLOYALLOY 825825 (INCOLOY(INCOLOY 825)825)
• Composition 42% Ni, 21.5% Cr, 3% Mo, 2% Cu, Fe
• Benefits
– Lower cost “Nickel” alloy
– Good H 2 S / CO 2 resistance
– Welding / fabrication
• Limitations
– Low yield strength
– Low PREN (~28)
– Not sea water resistant
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15b.15b. ALLOYALLOY 625625 (INCONEL(INCONEL 625)625)
• Composition Ni (basis), 22% Cr, 9% Mo, 3.75% Nb, 5% Fe
• Benefits
– Excellent all-round corrosion resistance
– Welding & fabrication
– Good mechanical properties
• Limitations
– High cost
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16.16. RAWRAW MATERIALMATERIAL COSTCOST GUIDEGUIDE
As a banchmark
Carbon Steel
1
Austenitic Stainless Steels (type 304/304L, 316/316 L)
6
Super Austenitic Stainless Steels
12-20
22%Cr - Duplex SS
6
25%Cr - Super Duplex SS
12
Alloy 825 (Incoloy)
18
Alloy 625 (Inconel)
35
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