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Description Of System
Special features (Advantage, Limitation, Specialty)
Fault And Failures
1. Types of failure
2. Rectification process

In the age of global position system Indian railway is
also adopting some new technology like as RAILNET - Indian Railways
Intranet. Indian Railways have decided to set up their own Corporate
Wide Information System (CWIS) called RAILNET to provide computer
connectivity between Railway Board with Zonal Railways, Production
Units, Centralized Training Institutes , RDSO, CORE, MTP/Calcutta &
46 major training centers
Indian Railway is constantly looking for new ideas to
simplify and streamline procedures for the convenience. In this
endeavor they have introduced several path breaking technologies on
the Railway system over the years. As we introduce new facilities on
the railway system, we are tempted to take a peek into the past.
With the introduction of this system, the Railways will also benefit
in several ways. These are:
Keeping pace with the latest technology
Eliminate the need to move paper documents between different
Change from PERIODIC REPORTING to Information on
Provide Internet Access to Railnet Users
Connectivity and Communication
Data Sharing
Hardware Sharing
Performance Enhancement and Balancing

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Objective of this project work is to get an idea with the system

installed in zonal railway which enrich the learning process and to get
familiar with construction , installation, maintenance, types,
applications ,features and troubleshooting. This helps in building
confidence and assimilation of concepts taught at IRISET into working
The main objective of this project is to know how the Railnet works,
what are the various equipment use, what are the advantage, what are the
problem & there troubleshooting.


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Synchronous Transport Module (STM)-1:

The STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module level-1) is the SDH ITU-T
fiber optic network transmission standard it is the information structure. It
consists of information payload and overhead bits in block frame
structure, which repeats at every 125 microseconds. The information is
suitably conditioned for serial transmission on the selected media at a
rate, which is synchronized to the network.
STM followed by an integer, which indicates the level of SDH.
STM 1 is the first level of SDH bit rates
STM 1 with 155.520 mbps is the basic rate. STM 4 indicates that it
contains 4 STM 1s and each STM 1 is independent in all respects.
Similarly STM 16 means 16 Nos of STM 1s and STM 64 is 64 Nos of
STM 1s.
STM 4 = 155.520 x 4 = 622.080 mbps
In Railnet Gorakhpur Tejas TJ 100 CP STM 1 Is in use
Input Voltage Range Normal Operation: -40V to 60V DC
Fuse 6A Slow Blow Glass fuse. Field replaceable

V LAN is configured on layer 3 switch ports in Railnet Gorakhpur .
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A virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a group of hosts with a

common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to
the same broadcast domain, regardless of their physical location. A VLAN
has the same attributes as a physical LAN, but it allows for end stations to
be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network
switch. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of
physically relocating devices.
VLANs are created to provide the segmentation services traditionally
provided by routers in LAN configurations. VLANs address issues such
as scalability, security, and network management. Routers in VLAN
topologies provide broadcast filtering, security, address summarization,
and traffic flow management. By definition, switches may not bridge IP
traffic between VLANs as it would violate the integrity of the VLAN
broadcast domain.
This is also useful if someone wants to create multiple Layer 3 networks
on the same Layer 2 switch. For example, if a DHCP server (which will
broadcast its presence) is plugged into a switch it will serve any host on
that switch that is configured to get its IP from a DHCP server. By using
VLANs you can easily split the network up so some hosts won't use that
DHCP server and will obtain link-local addresses, or obtain an address
from a different DHCP server.
The IP provided at VLAN is and subnet is 255.255.255
DNS is and


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A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) allows

telephone lines to make faster connections to the Internet. It is a network
device, located in the telephone exchanges of the service providers, that
connects multiple customer Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) to a highspeed Internet backbone line using multiplexing techniques. By placing
remote DSLAMs at locations remote to the telephone exchange, telephone
companies provide DSL service to locations previously beyond effective
The DSLAM acts like a network switch since its functionality is at Layer
2 of the OSI model. Therefore it cannot re-route traffic between multiple
IP networks, only between ISP devices and end-user connection points.
The DSLAM traffic is switched to a Broadband Remote Access Server
where the end user traffic is then routed across the ISP network to the
Internet. Customer Premises Equipment that interfaces well with the
DSLAM to which it is connected may take advantage of enhanced
telephone voice and data line signaling features and the bandwidth
monitoring and compensation c

In N.E. Railway two numbers of DAS - 3248 DSLAM is in use each

one having 48 ports .

Mail Server-

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The RAILNET mail server in N.E.Railway Gorakhpur runs on operating

system Windows server 2000 . The RAM is of 512 Mb. The processor
is 3.2 GHz intel zenon. All the communication on optical fiber.
The mail server is HP made and provide an unique email id for
communication .
The unique id is like ..@ner. .

Router is a Network layer mechanism, either software or hardware,
is using one or more metrics to decide on the best path to use for
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transmission of network traffic. Sending packets between networks by

routers is based on the information provided on Network layers.
Repeaters and bridge are simple hardware device capable of
executing specific tasks. Routers are one sophisticated. They have access
to network layer addresses and contain software that enable them to
determine which of several possible paths between those addresses is the
best for a particular transmission. Router operates in the physical, data
link, and network layers of the OSI model.













Data Link

Data Link

Data Link




Figure - A Router in the OSI Model

Routers relay packets among multiple interconnected networks. They

route packet from one network to any of a number of potential destination
network on an internet.
Internetworking among dissimilar sub networks is achieved by using
router to interconnect the sub networks. Essential function that the router
must perform includes the following.
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1. Provide a link between networks.

2. Provides for the routing and delivery of data between processes
on end systems attached to different networks.
3. Provide these functions in such a way as not to require
modification of the networking architecture of any of the attached
sub networks.
In N.E.Railway the router is of 2800 series of Cisco, In which 2800
series router has 24 VAN ports in it 4 ports are 2 mbps and 20 ports are of
64 kbps and 1 port for ISDN (BRI), they can be expandable up to 48
As long as the cost of each link is know, a router can find the optimal
combination for any transmission several algorithms exist for making
these calculations.
In N.E.Railway the routing protocol is OSPF (Open Shortest Path
The IP of Router is -

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In networking, a device responsible for multiple functions such as

filtering, flooding,
and sending frames.
It works using the destination address of individual frames. A switch
is a network device capable of forwarding packets directly to the ports
associated with particular network addresses.
A switch is a network device capable of forwarding packets directly
to the ports associated with particular network addresses. Instead of (or in
combination with) hubs, LANs are also coming to rely on device called
switches to transmit messages. These devices operate on the data link
layer of the ISO/OSI reference model-specifically, at the MAC sub-layer.
Unlike hubs, which broadcast messages to all ports regardless of the
node to which they are actually addressed, switch rely on internal address
tables to determine where to route packets so that they travel directly from
the sender to the port associated the recipient. Although this distinction
might not sound particular noteworthy on the surface, it is the mean by
which switches con speed up network performance.


Switch Transmission

In N.E. Railway the layer- 3 switch is of Cisco 3750-G, which has 24

10/100 Ethernet port and 4 BASE FX port.

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The switches can be deployed as backbone switches, aggregating

100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T Ethernet traffic from other network
For 10/100 ports, autonegotiates the speed and duplex settings
For 10/100/1000 ports, autonegotiates the speed and supports only
full-duplex mode
The Catalyst 3750 switches support stacking. You can stack up to
nine switches in a stack by cabling the StackWise ports. StackWise
ports are not
Switches are hot-swappable
Power redundancy

In N.E. Railway the layer 2 switch is of Cisco 2950 series . It is a 24

port switch . the gateway for SnT department is .
There is only one big difference between layer 2 and layer 3 switches is
that we are able to do routing in intranetworking with Layer 3 swithces
which is not possible to do with layer 2
The Catalyst 2950 Series Intelligent Ethernet Switches, is a fixedconfiguration, stackable switch that provides wire-speed Fast Ethernet .

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The most familiar type of Data Circuit terminating Equipment (DEC) is

a modem. Anyone who has surfed the internet, logged on to an office

computer from home phone line has used a modem. The external or
internal modem associated with our personal computer is what converts
the digital signal generated by the computer into an analog signal to be
carried by a public accesses phone line. It is also the device that converts
the analog signals received over a phone line into digital signals usable by
the computer.
The term modem is a composite word that refers to the refers to the
functional entities that make up the device a signal modulator and a signal
demodulator. The relationship of the two parts is shown in figure.




The term modem is a composite word that refers to the two functional
entities that make up the device a signal modulator and a signal

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demodulator. The relationship of the two parts is shown in figure. Modem

stands for modulator/demodulator.
A modulator converts a digital signal into an analog signal. A
demodulator converts an analog signal into a digital signal.
Both modulators and demodulators, however, do use the same
techniques as digital to analog encoders: modulators to further encodes a
signal and demodulators to decode it.
In NER one dial up modems(RAS) is in use .

LAN Extender and media converter

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A LAN extender forwards traffic between LANs transparent to higher

network-layer protocols over distances that far exceed the limitations of
standard Ethernet. A LAN, or Local Area Network, is a high-speed data
network (usually employing Ethernet technology) to connect computer
workstations, printers, servers, and other devices. The Ethernet LAN
typically serves computer users within a single organization to provide
mutual access and file sharing for all the networked computing devices.
LAN Extender is a device that use to extend the local area network
beyond 100 meters through the copper cable.
LAN extender is connected both side of network
In Railnet Gorakhpur Dasan and Atrie made LAN Extender
is in use .

Media converter is use to divert from one physical medium to other like
from CAT 5 to OFC .
In Railnet Gorakhpur Mrotek FCAT01-C and Mrotek FCAT-01 is
in use .

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Special features
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Railnet Gorakhpur use various wayes to provide internet connectivity to

its users ,
various number of users are as
LAN - 400 users
Broad band on residence 96 users
Dial up - 96 users .
The IP provided as , in this manner we can provide IP from 2
to 255 .

Power Supply arrangement

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All equipment in RAILNET are work on 230V. AC supply

In Railnet Gorakhpur two 5 KVA UPS (made by APC 5000 UX
model) are use to provide power supply . one is main and other
is stand by
Use distribution board to connect all equipments
Battery : Maintenance Free batteries manufactured by APS Power
Systems Limited are used. They work on Oxygen Recombination
principle. Requirement of water top up is completely eliminated

Conventional method of earthing is use in railnet Gorakhpur.
Earthing is maintained at less than 5 ohms .

Failures in Railnet
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Generally failures in Railnet are

Power Failure
Channel Failure
Hang of equipment
Server failure
Local Lead

Power FailureGenerally in power failure UPS, Generators, and proper supply of main
Channel FailureGenerally in channel failure loop testing is used .
Hang of equipmentThe equipment like as modem, router, switch, are generally hang. Rest
the equipment.
Local Lead
Check the local lead from the equipment to equipment may be break or
not properly insert.

To setup the Railnet following maintenances are required.

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RAILNET room should be dust free.

There should be proper earthing.
Humidity of room should be as per requirement.
Potential between electrical earthing and S&T earth should be 5
The power supply should be constant.


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This project give the idea about the working of RAILNET in

N.E.Railway Zone . What are the equipment and technology are used in
it like as server , router, switch, modems, LAN extender etc.
What are the requirements for the RAILNET setup. Connectivity diagram
of various locations. I have also seen what was various faults and how
they were removed .
As being a trainee Section engineer I cultivate my knowledge during
making of this project and it was a very nice experience during .

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