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Reteaching Workbook

Contents Include:

99 worksheets— one for each lesson

To The Student:

This Reteaching Workbook gives you additional examples and problems for the concept exercises in each lesson. The exercises are designed to aid your study of mathematics by reinforcing important mathematical skills needed to succeed in the everyday world. The material is organized by chapter and lesson, with one skills practice worksheet for every lesson in MathMatters 2.

To the Teacher:

Answers to each worksheet are found in MathMatters 2 Chapter Resource Masters. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this book may be reproduced in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Send all inquiries to:

The McGraw-Hill Companies 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027

 ISBN: 0-07-869308-X MathMatters 2 Reteaching Workbook

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CONTENTS

 Lesson Title Page Lesson Title Page 1-1 Surveys and Sampling Methods 1 5-1 Elements of Geometry . . . . . . . . 33 1-2 Measures of Central Tendency 5-2 Angles and Perpendicular and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1-3 Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf 5-3 Parallel Lines and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Transversals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 1-4 Scatter Plots and Lines of Best 5-4 Properties of Triangles . . . . . . . . 36 1-5 Fit . Problem Solving Skills: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5-5 5-6 Congruent Triangles Quadrilaterals and Parallelograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Coefficient of Correlation . . . . 5 . . . 38 1-6 1-7 Quartiles and Percentiles Misleading Graphs and . . . . . . . 6 5-7 Diagonals and Angles of . Properties of Circles Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5-8 . . . 40 1-8 2-1 2-2 2-3 Use Matrices to Organize Data Real Numbers . Write Variable Expressions Add and Subtract Variable Expressions Multiply and Divide Variable Expressions . . . Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . 10 11 9 5-9 6-1 Problem Solving Skills: Circle . Distance in the Coordinate . Graph Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 42 2-4 6-2 . Slope of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 12 6-3 Write and Graph Linear 2-5 13 6-4 Equations . Write and Graph Linear Inequalities Linear and Nonlinear . . . . . . . Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2-6 2-7 2-8 Simplify Variable Expressions . Zero and Negative Exponents Properties of Exponents . . . . . . 14 15 16 6-5 . . . .45 46 2-9 Problem Solving Skills: Find a 6-6 . Graph Quadratic Functions Problem Solving Skills: 47 Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6-7 3-1 Equations and Formulas . . . . . . . 18 Patterns and Functions Direct Variation Inverse Variation Translations in the Coordinate . Reflections in the Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 . Problem Solving Skills: Model . Two-Step Equations . More Two-Step Equations Graph Inequalities on a Number Line Solve Inequalities . Equations with Squares and Square Roots Experiments and Probabilities Problem Solving Skills: . . One-Step Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 20 21 22 6-8 6-9 7-1 7-2 . . . . . . 49 50 51 3-6 Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 23 7-3 Rotations in the Coordinate 3-7 3-8 . . 24 7-4 Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line Symmetry and Rotational . . . . . . 53 25 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4-1 26 7-5 Dilations in the Coordinate 4-2 Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Explore with Simulations 27 7-6 Problem Solving Skills: 4-3 Sample Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Tessellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4-4 Probability of Compound 8-1 Parallel and Perpendicular 4-5 Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent and Dependent . . 29 8-2 Lines . Solve Systems of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4-6 Permutations of a Set Combinations of a Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8-3 Solve Systems by Substitution 4-7 32 59 . .
 Lesson Title Page Lesson Title Page 8-4 Solve Systems by Adding, 10-8 Volume of Cylinders, Cones, Subtracting, or Multiplying Matrices and Determinants 60 and Spheres Problem Solving Skills: Length, 79 8-5 61 10-9 8-6 Problem Solving Skills: Directed Area, and Volume . . . . . . . . . . 80 8-7 Graphs . . . . Systems of Inequalities Add and Subtract Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 63 11-1 11-2 Similar Polygons Indirect Measurement The Pythagorean Theorem 81 82 9-1 11-3 83 64 11-4 Sine, Cosine, and Tangent 9-2 . . . . . . . . . 65 Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 9-3 9-4 Multiply Polynomials Divide by a Monomial Multiply a Polynomial by a . . . . Monomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 67 11-5 11-6 Find Lengths of Sides in Right . Find Measures of Angles in . Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 9-5 . Multiply Binomials Problem Solving Skills: Work Backwards Factor Using Greatest Common Factor (GCF) 68 Right Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 9-6 11-7 Special Right Triangles Problem Solving Skills: . . . . . . . . 87 69 11-8 9-7 Reasonable Solutions . . . . . . . 88 70 12-1 Properties of Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 9-8 Factoring Perfect Squares and 12-2 Union and Intersection of 10-1 Differences of Squares Visualize and Represent Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 72 12-3 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving Skills: Conditional Statements Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive Inductive and Deductive . . . . . . . . 90 91 10-2 . Nets and Surface Area Surface Area of . . . . . . . . 73 12-4 10-3 92 Three-Dimensional Figures 74 12-5 10-4 Perspective Drawings Isometric Drawings Orthogonal Drawings Volume of Prisms and . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 10-5 76 12-6 Patterns of Deductive 10-6 10-7 . . . . . . . 77 12-7 Reasoning . Logical Reasoning and Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 95 Pyramids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Name

RETEACHING

1-1

Date

SURVEYS AND SAMPLING METHODS

In random sampling members of a population are selected in such a way that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. In cluster sampling members of the population are selected randomly from a particular portion of the group. In convenience sampling members of a group are selected because they are easy to locate, and all selected are surveyed. In systematic sampling members of a population that has been ordered according to some pattern are selected.

Example

The owners of a coffee shop want to find out which of the 9 types of coffee served is the most popular. What kind of sampling method is represented by each of these possible ways that the owners have considered using?

a. Ask the first 50 customers who arrive after the shop opens.

b. Ask all the customers who are seated at tables 3, 4, and 9.

c. Ask every tenth customer throughout the day.

Solution

a. convenience sampling

b. cluster sampling

c. systematic sampling

EXERCISES

A local bookstore owner is planning to introduce a line of home repair manuals and wants to find out if there is a potential market for such books. Which sampling technique is represented by each of the following methods?

1. Ask the first 30 customers who enter the bookstore each day.

2. Ask every sixth customer who enters the bookstore each day.

Suppose that you want to find out which is the most popular computer game among the students in your school. Name the sampling method represented by each description. Give one reason why the results obtained from each method could be biased.

3. Ask every teenager in 9 homerooms out of a total of 50.

4. Ask every tenth student in band and chorus.

Name

RETEACHING

1-2

Date

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND RANGE

Measures of central tendency are useful in representing central, or middle, values in a set of data. The mean, or arithmetic average, is the sum of the data divided by the number of items. The median is the middle value of the data, when they are arranged in numerical order. For even numbers of items, the median is the average of the two middle numbers. The mode is the number that occurs most frequently in a set of data. A set of data may have one, more than one, or no mode. The range of a set of data is the difference between the least and greatest values in the set.

Example

Beverly’s quiz scores in second-year Latin were as follows:

72

73

83

79

92

98

96

79

92

86

a. Find the mean.

Solution

a. Add the numerical values of the data and average them. 72 73 83 79 92 98 96 79 92 86 850 850 10 85 The mean of the data is 85.

b. Rewrite the data in numerical order.

b. Find the median.

c. Find the mode.

72

73

79

79

83

86

92

92

96

98

The number of items is even. The median is halfway between 83 and 86. (83 86) 2 84.5 The median is 84.5.

c. The scores 79 and 92 occur twice. So, the set of data has two modes, 79 and 92.

EXERCISES

Here are Rundel High School’s basketball team’s scores for February and March.

69

77

58

77

91

68

63

86

85

45

77

74

 1 Find the mean. 2. Find the median. 3 Find the mode. 4. Find the range.

Craig jogged every day during his semester break. The number of miles he jogged each day is given below.

4.4

2.7

3.7

3.4

2.9

4.1

3.8

 5 Find the mean. 6. Find the median. 7 Find the mode. 8. Find the range. 9 Which measure best indicates the typical distance jogged?

Name

RETEACHING

1-3

Date

HISTOGRAMS AND STEM-AND-LEAF PLOTS

Frequencies of values in a set of data can be shown in a bar graph known as a histogram. In a histogram, there is no space between the bars.

Example

1

Twenty-two students tried out for the track team. The track coach recorded the number of seconds it took the students to run the 100-meter dash. The results are shown in this frequency table. Make a histogram of the data. TIME TO RUN 100 METERS

Time (s)

Frequency

 10–12 3 13–15 4 16–18 8 19–21 5 22–24 2

Solution A stem-and-leaf plot is another way to visualize data. Each number is represented by a leaf, the digit in the rightmost place of the number, and a stem, the digit or digits that are left when the leaf is dropped. Stem-and-leaf plots help you spot outliers, values in the data that are much greater or less than the rest of the values, and to note clusters of values or gaps between values.

Example 2

Organize this data into a stem-and- leaf plot.

 18 40 9 38 23 35 41 20 12 72 23 15 39 32 22 39

EXERCISES

Solution Let the tens digits be the stems and the ones digits be the leaves.

 Stems Leaves 0 9 1 258 2 0233 3 25899 4 01 7 2

Use the histogram in Example 1 to answer these questions.

1. How many students ran the distance in 13–15 s?

2. How many students finished the run in 15 s or under?

Use the stem-and-leaf plot in Example 2 to answer these questions.

3. Find any outliers in the data.

4. Find any clusters or gaps.

Name

RETEACHING

1-4

Date

SCATTER PLOTS AND LINES OF BEST FIT

In a scatter plot, data are represented by unconnected points. There can be more than one point for any number of either axis. On some scatter plots, a line of best fit can be drawn near most of the points. If the slope of the trend line is upward to the right, there is a positive correlation between the data. If the line slopes downward to the right, the correlation is negative.

Example

a. Is the correlation between temperature and rainfall positive or negative?

b. Suppose the rainfall during a month was 4.5 in. What would you expect the daily high temperature to be for that month?

Solution

a. The line of best fit slopes downward to the right. So, the correlation is negative. This means that as the amount of rainfall increased, the temperature decreased.

b. The line of best fit crosses the vertical line for 4.5 in. at about 53 on the temperature axis. So, the average temperature would be about 53° F.

EXERCISES 1. Complete the scatter plot relating the area of selected national parks to their number of visitors. Draw a trend line if possible. AREA OF AND VISITORS TO SELECTED NATIONAL PARKS, 1988 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Visitors (in millions)

Acres (in thousands)

2. Is there a positive or negative correlation or no correlation between the number of visitors to a park and its acreage?

Name

RETEACHING

1-5

Date

PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS: COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION

Relationships between sets of data can be strong or weak. If as one set of data increases the other increases too, the correlation is positive. If as one set of data increases the other decreases, the correlation is negative. If no relationship seems to exist between two sets of data, there is no correlation.

A coefficient of correlation can be used to describe the strength of a

correlation. A coefficient of correlation is a number between 1 and 1. The closer a coefficient of correlation is to 1 or 1, the stronger the relationship is between sets of data. A positive coefficient represents a positive correlation. A negative coefficient represents a negative correlation. A coefficient close to zero represents a weak correlation.   Strong Positive Correlation

EXERCISES Weak Negative Correlation   Zero Correlation

State whether you think each scatter plot shows a positive, negative, or zero correlation.

If the correlation is positive or negative, state whether it is weak or strong.

1.    3.   2. 4. Name

RETEACHING

1-6

Date

QUARTILES AND PERCENTILES

A box-and-whisker plot offers a way to interpret the distribution of data.

Example

Use this set of data to make a box-and-whisker plot. Prices of Bicycles Sold at Cycle Garage (dollars)

 360 239 159 278 300 384 109 255 195 375 215 229 240

Solution

Write the data in numerical order. Then find the first quartile, the median, and the third quartile.

least value

median

greatest value 109

159

195 215

195 215

2

205

229

first quartile:

239

240

255

278

300 360

300 360

2

330

375

384

third quartile: 330

Mark these values below a number line. Draw a box with ends through the quartile points and a vertical line through the median point. Draw “whiskers,” lines from the ends of the box to the least and greatest values. Mark them with an asterisk. Title the graph. EXERCISES

The manager of a car dealership recorded the number of cars sold daily by each of two sales people: 1. Make box-and-whisker plots that show the sales for each salesperson.

2. What do you notice about the medians of the graphs?

3. If the manager must terminate one salesperson, is Angela or Bert more likely to be terminated? Explain.

Name

RETEACHING

1-7

Date

Depending on which measure of central tendency is used to interpret a set of data, the mean, median, or mode can either offer an accurate picture of the data or distort them.

Example

The owner of a gift shop wants to sell her business. In her classified advertisement, monthly sales were stated as \$30,000 or better. Here are the monthly sales figures for the past year.

 J-\$14,000 M-\$18,000 M-\$20,000 J-\$30,000 S-\$17,000 N-\$37,000 F-\$11,000 A-\$19,000 J-\$22,000 A-\$30,000 O-\$31,000 D-\$45,000

a. Which measure of central tendency was used to arrive at the wording used in the advertisement?

b. Does the statement about monthly sales give a fair picture of monthly sales over the year?

c. If you were a prospective buyer, which measure would give you a more accurate picture of monthly sales?

Solution

a. Arrange the data in numerical order in thousands of dollars. Determine the three measures of central tendency. 11 14 17 18 19 20 22 30 30 31 37 45

mean: 294 000

1

,

2

24,500

median: 21,000

mode: 30,000

The measure of central tendency used in the ad is the mode.

b. No; seven of the twelve figures are below the mode, and six are below the median and mean.

c. Either the median or the mean would be more accurate.

EXERCISES

In a new housing subdivision, seven different styles of house are available. Prices are \$91,000, \$110,000, \$127,000, \$98,000, \$110,000, \$95,000, and \$92,000. The developer advertised the average price of a home as \$98,000.

1. Which measure of the central tendency did the developer use in the advertisement?

2. Does the advertisement give a fair picture of the range of prices?

3. Which measure would have been least misleading to potential home buyers? Explain.

Name

RETEACHING

1-8

USE MATRICES TO ORGANIZE DATA

A matrix can be used to organize data.

A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers

enclosed in brackets.

A matrix is named by a single capital letter.

Each number in a matrix is an element or entry.

The dimensions of a matrix are given by the number of rows and the number of columns.

Date

2 columns

A

4

1

2

5

3

6

3 rows element

The elements of matrix A are 4,

5, 1, 3, 2, and 6. It has 3 rows and

2 columns, so its dimensions are

3 2, read 3 by 2.

Two matrices with the same dimensions can be added or subtracted. Matrices C and D shown in the following example can be added or subtracted because they are both 2 2 matrices.

Example

2

0

a.

Solution

C

6

3

D

2

1

3

4

Find C D.

b. Find C D.

a.

b.

C D

C D

2

0

2

0

6

3

6

3

2

1

2

1

3

4

3

4

2

( 2)

0 1

2

( 2)

0 1

EXERCISES

6 3 3 ( 4)

6 3 3 ( 4)

0

1

4

1

9

1

3

7

014

451

1. Give the elements of M.

2. Name the dimensions of N.

M

N

224

2

1

P

4

3

51

2

5

3

0, 1, 4, 4, 5, 1

2 3

3. Find M N.

2

5

38

3

10

4. Find N P.

2 3 4

3

80

Name

Date

RETEACHING

2-1

REAL NUMBERS

The graph of a number is shown on the number line by a solid dot. The absolute value of a number is the distance that number is from zero on the number line. The absolute value of a real number n is written |n|.

Example 1

Example

2

Graph each set of numbers on a number line.

a.

b. all real numbers less than 1

Solution

a. Draw a number line.

Use a solid dot to graph each number.

4 }

{ 3,

1

1

2 , 2.5, 1 Evaluate |s| when s has the given value.

a. s 5

b. s 13

Solution

a. Since s is 5 units from zero, | s | 5.

b. Since s is 13 units from zero, |s| 13.

b. The set consists of all real numbers less than 1. Graph the set by draw- ing a solid arrow from 1 and point- ing to the left. Draw an open circle at 1 to indicate that 1 is not part of the set. EXERCISES

Graph each set of numbers on a number line.

1.

{

2 , 2, 0, 0.75 }

1 3
2
10123

2.

the real numbers from 2 to 2  4 3 2 101234

4.

the integers from 1 to 3  4

3

2

1

0

1234

 3. all real numbers greater than 0  4 3 2 1 0 1234 5. all real numbers less than or equal to 2                      4

3

2

1

0

1234

Evaluate |r| when r has the given value.

6.

r 16

7.

r 3

8.

r 15

9.

r 3.5

Name

RETEACHING

2-2

Date

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

When you perform calculations to simplify or evaluate expressions involving numbers or variables, use the correct order of operations.

Perform calculations with parentheses or brackets first.

Multiply or divide in order, from left to right.

Add or subtract in order, from left to right.

Example

1

Simplify the numerical expression.

4(8 2) 12 1

Solution

4(8 2) 12 1

4(6) 12 1

24 12 1

2 1

3

EXERCISES

Example

2

Evaluate the expression when x 2, y 6, and r 1.

2y ( 4 x ) 2r

Solution

2

2y ( 4

x ) 2r

2

2 6 ( 4

2

2 ) 2 1

2 6 (4 1) 2

12(3) 2 36 2 38

Simplify each numerical expression.

 1. 25 6 2 • 8 2. 8 • 7 5 (2 1) 3. 35 41 1 4. 3[(3.6 1.2) 2] 5. 3 (8 4 6) 6. 15 2 Evaluate each expression when a 2, b 3.5, and c 1. 7. abc</