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 CE-5113: DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES By: Dr. Mohammad Ashraf (engineerashraf@yahoo.com) Office: CE: B109 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

Module-3

Single Degree of Freedom System:

Free Vibration Response

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Solution of Equation of Motion
For a single degree of freedom system the equation of motion is a linear
second order differential equation:
mu&&+ cu& + ku = p(t)
Various methods for the solution of equation of motion are:
Classical Solution
Duhamel’s Integral
Frequency Domain Method
Numerical Methods
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Free Vibration
The vibration of a system excided by initial disturbances (initial
displacement or velocity) without any external force is called free
vibration
mu&&+ cu& + ku = 0
The equation of motion becomes a homogenous 2 nd order linear
differential equation
The study of free vibration response is important because:
Many practical systems are excited by initial disturbances
The complete solution of force vibration also include free vibration
component.
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Undamped Free Vibration
The free vibration response an undamped system is governed by:
mu&&+ ku = 0
In reality there is no existence of undamped system, however the its
response gives an insight into the nature of damped system.
A possible solution of the above 2 nd order ordinary differential equation
is:
t
u
= Ge λ
Substituting the solution into equation of motion:
2
λ
t
λ
t
2
G
λ
me
+ Gke
= ⇒
0
λ
m
+ k =
0
2
2
⇒ +
λ ω
= ⇒ =± i
0
λ
ω
k
where _
ω =
called circular frequency of system
m
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Undamped Free Vibration
The general solution of the equation of motion now becomes:
i
ω
t
− i
ω
t
u =
G e
+
G e
=
A
cos
ω
t
+
B
sin
ω
t
1
2
The velocity is obtained by differentiating the above equation:
u& = − Aω sinωt + Bω cosωt
The arbitrary constants A and B are determined from the initial conditions
i.e. At t = 0,
u(0) = u _ and _ u&(0) = v
o
o
ω
The solution of undamped free vibration response of single degree of
freedom system is, therefore:
ω
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A = u

o _ and _ B =

v

o

u

=

u

o

 t cosω +

v

o

sin

ω t

Undamped Free Vibration

The solution may be written as:

u
=
ρ
sin
(
ω φ
t
+
)
2
⎛ v ⎞
ω
u o
_ ρ
o
where
=
u
2 + ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ =
o
ω
v
o

ρ is known as the amplitude of vibration and

φ is called the phase angle

Both amplitude and phase angle depend upon the initial condition and natural circular frequency of the system

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7

Undamped Free Vibration

It can be shown that:
u
()
t
=
u ⎜ t
⎟ u t
⎞ ()
=
ρ
sin
(
ω
t
+
φ
)
1
1
1
1
+ ω
2
π
2
π
u
t
+
⎟= ⎞
ρ t
sin
ω
⎜ ⎛
+
1
1
ω
ω
2
π
u
ρ {(
t
+
⎟= ⎞
sin
ω φ
t
+
)
+
1
1
ω
2
π
u
t
+
⎟= ⎞
ρ (ω φ)
sin
t
+
1
1
ω

⎟+ ⎬

φ

2

π

}

and is the natural period of

ω

system The reciprocal of T is call the natural frequency of system;

 f = ω 2 π

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8

Thus the vibration repeats itself after

T =

2π

Natural Frequency of a Frame
The natural frequency of a 2D frame
with fixed base and rigid beam of
mass m, neglecting mass of
columns, is given by:
k
ω
=
m
24 EI
k =
3
L
24 EI
ω
=
3
mL
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Natural Frequency of a Suspended Mass
mg
W
= k ∆ ⇒
mg
= k ∆ ⇒
k
=
st
st
st
k
mg / ∆
g
ω
st
=
=
=
m
m
st
2
π
π
st
T
=
= 2
ω
g
1
g
f
=
2
π
st
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Phase Plan Diagram
u
=
ρ
sin
(
ω φ
t
+
)
u &
=
ρ
cos
(
ω φ
t +
)
ω
2
⎛ u ⎞
&
()
2
2
u
+ ⎜
=
ρ
ω
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Phase Plan Diagram (Initial Displacement)
u
()
0
=
u
, _
u &
()
0
=
0
0
2
⎛ v ⎞
2
ρ
o
=
u
+ ⎜
= u
o
0
ω
u
ω
π
tan
φ
o
=
=∞⇒ =
φ
v
2
o
π
u
=
u
sin ⎜
ω
t
+
⎟=
u
cos
ω
t
o
o
2
u &
π
=
u
cos ⎜
ω
t
+
⎟=
u
sin
ω
t
o
o
ω
2
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Phase Plan Diagram (Initial Velocity)
u
()
0
=
0, _
u
&
()
0
=
v
o
2
v
2
ρ
o
o
=
u
+ ⎜ ⎛ v
=
o
ω
ω
u
ω
tan
φ
o
=
= ⇒
0
φ
=
0
v
o
v
o
u =
sin
(
ω
t
)
ω
u &
v
o
=
cos
( t)
ω
ω ω
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Phase Plan Diagram (Impulse)
2
v
u
ω
2
ρ
o
o
=
u
+ ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ
=
1
o
1
ω
v
o
2
u &
/
ω
2
1 + I
m ⎞
u
ρ
t
t 1
=
u
+ ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ
=
2
t
1
1
ω
u &
+ I
/
m
t
1
u
= sin
ρ
(
ω φ
t
+ −−
)
for
0
≤ ≤
t
t
1
1
1
u
= sin
ρ
((
ω
t
t
)
+
φ
)
−−
for
− ≥
t
t
2
1
2
1
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Phase Plan Diagram (Ground Motion)

2
ρ
=
u
+ ⎛ ⎜ 0 ⎞ ⎟
g
ω
tan
φ
= −∞ =
_
φ
u
=
u
+
u
sin ⎜
ω t
g
g
u
= u
g ( 1
cos
ω t)
2
=
u
g
3
π
2
3
π ⎞
+

2

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