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CE-5113:

DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES

By: Dr. Mohammad Ashraf (engineerashraf@yahoo.com) Office: CE: B109

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

Module-3 Single Degree of Freedom System: Free Vibration Response Dynamics of Structures 2
Module-3 Single Degree of Freedom System: Free Vibration Response Dynamics of Structures 2

Module-3

Single Degree of Freedom System:

Free Vibration Response

Dynamics of Structures

2

Solution of Equation of Motion For a single degree of freedom system the equation of
Solution of Equation of Motion
For a single degree of freedom system the equation of motion is a linear
second order differential equation:
mu&&+ cu& + ku = p(t)
Various methods for the solution of equation of motion are:
Classical Solution
Duhamel’s Integral
Frequency Domain Method
Numerical Methods
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Free Vibration
The vibration of a system excided by initial disturbances (initial
displacement or velocity) without any external force is called free
vibration
mu&&+ cu& + ku = 0
The equation of motion becomes a homogenous 2 nd order linear
differential equation
The study of free vibration response is important because:
Many practical systems are excited by initial disturbances
The complete solution of force vibration also include free vibration
component.
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Undamped Free Vibration The free vibration response an undamped system is governed by: mu&&+ ku
Undamped Free Vibration
The free vibration response an undamped system is governed by:
mu&&+ ku = 0
In reality there is no existence of undamped system, however the its
response gives an insight into the nature of damped system.
A possible solution of the above 2 nd order ordinary differential equation
is:
t
u
= Ge λ
Substituting the solution into equation of motion:
2
λ
t
λ
t
2
G
λ
me
+ Gke
= ⇒
0
λ
m
+ k =
0
2
2
⇒ +
λ ω
= ⇒ =± i
0
λ
ω
k
where _
ω =
called circular frequency of system
m
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Undamped Free Vibration The general solution of the equation of motion now becomes: i ω
Undamped Free Vibration
The general solution of the equation of motion now becomes:
i
ω
t
− i
ω
t
u =
G e
+
G e
=
A
cos
ω
t
+
B
sin
ω
t
1
2
The velocity is obtained by differentiating the above equation:
u& = − Aω sinωt + Bω cosωt
The arbitrary constants A and B are determined from the initial conditions
i.e. At t = 0,
u(0) = u _ and _ u&(0) = v
o
o
ω
The solution of undamped free vibration response of single degree of
freedom system is, therefore:
ω
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A = u

o _ and _ B =

v

o

u

=

u

o

t

cosω +

v

o

sin

ω t

Undamped Free Vibration The solution may be written as: u = ρ sin ( ω
Undamped Free Vibration The solution may be written as: u = ρ sin ( ω

Undamped Free Vibration

The solution may be written as:

u = ρ sin ( ω φ t + ) 2 ⎛ v ⎞ ω
u
=
ρ
sin
(
ω φ
t
+
)
2
⎛ v ⎞
ω
u o
_ ρ
o
where
=
u
2 + ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ =
o
ω
v
o

ρ is known as the amplitude of vibration and

φ is called the phase angle

Both amplitude and phase angle depend upon the initial condition and natural circular frequency of the system

and phase angle depend upon the initial condition and natural circular frequency of the system Dynamics

Dynamics of Structures

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Undamped Free Vibration ⎛ 2π It can be shown that: u () t = u
Undamped Free Vibration ⎛ 2π It can be shown that: u () t = u

Undamped Free Vibration

⎛ 2π It can be shown that: u () t = u ⎜ t ⎟
It can be shown that:
u
()
t
=
u ⎜ t
⎟ u t
⎞ ()
=
ρ
sin
(
ω
t
+
φ
)
1
1
1
1
+ ω
2
π
2
π
u
t
+
⎟= ⎞
ρ t
sin
ω
⎜ ⎛
+
1
1
ω
ω
2
π
u
ρ {(
t
+
⎟= ⎞
sin
ω φ
t
+
)
+
1
1
ω
2
π
u
t
+
⎟= ⎞
ρ (ω φ)
sin
t
+
1
1
ω

⎟+ ⎬

φ

2

π

}

and is the natural period of

ω

system The reciprocal of T is call the natural frequency of system;

 

f =

ω

2

π

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Thus the vibration repeats itself after

T =

2π

Natural Frequency of a Frame The natural frequency of a 2D frame with fixed base
Natural Frequency of a Frame
The natural frequency of a 2D frame
with fixed base and rigid beam of
mass m, neglecting mass of
columns, is given by:
k
ω
=
m
24 EI
k =
3
L
24 EI
ω
=
3
mL
Dynamics of Structures
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Natural Frequency of a Suspended Mass
mg
W
= k ∆ ⇒
mg
= k ∆ ⇒
k
=
st
st
st
k
mg / ∆
g
ω
st
=
=
=
m
m
st
2
π
π
st
T
=
= 2
ω
g
1
g
f
=
2
π
st
Dynamics of Structures
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Phase Plan Diagram u = ρ sin ( ω φ t + ) u &
Phase Plan Diagram
u
=
ρ
sin
(
ω φ
t
+
)
u &
=
ρ
cos
(
ω φ
t +
)
ω
2
⎛ u ⎞
&
()
2
2
u
+ ⎜
=
ρ
ω
Dynamics of Structures
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Phase Plan Diagram (Initial Displacement)
u
()
0
=
u
, _
u &
()
0
=
0
0
2
⎛ v ⎞
2
ρ
o
=
u
+ ⎜
= u
o
0
ω
u
ω
π
tan
φ
o
=
=∞⇒ =
φ
v
2
o
π
u
=
u
sin ⎜
ω
t
+
⎟=
u
cos
ω
t
o
o
2
u &
π
=
u
cos ⎜
ω
t
+
⎟=
u
sin
ω
t
o
o
ω
2
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Phase Plan Diagram (Initial Velocity) u () 0 = 0, _ u & () 0
Phase Plan Diagram (Initial Velocity)
u
()
0
=
0, _
u
&
()
0
=
v
o
2
v
2
ρ
o
o
=
u
+ ⎜ ⎛ v
=
o
ω
ω
u
ω
tan
φ
o
=
= ⇒
0
φ
=
0
v
o
v
o
u =
sin
(
ω
t
)
ω
u &
v
o
=
cos
( t)
ω
ω ω
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Phase Plan Diagram (Impulse)
2
v
u
ω
2
ρ
o
o
=
u
+ ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ
=
1
o
1
ω
v
o
2
u &
/
ω
2
1 + I
m ⎞
u
ρ
t
t 1
=
u
+ ⎜
_
and
_ tan
φ
=
2
t
1
1
ω
u &
+ I
/
m
t
1
u
= sin
ρ
(
ω φ
t
+ −−
)
for
0
≤ ≤
t
t
1
1
1
u
= sin
ρ
((
ω
t
t
)
+
φ
)
−−
for
− ≥
t
t
2
1
2
1
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Phase Plan Diagram (Ground Motion) 2 ρ = u + ⎛ ⎜ 0 ⎞ ⎟
Phase Plan Diagram (Ground Motion) 2 ρ = u + ⎛ ⎜ 0 ⎞ ⎟

Phase Plan Diagram (Ground Motion)

2 ρ = u + ⎛ ⎜ 0 ⎞ ⎟ g ⎝ ω ⎠ tan
2
ρ
=
u
+ ⎛ ⎜ 0 ⎞ ⎟
g
ω
tan
φ
= −∞ =
_
φ
u
=
u
+
u
sin ⎜
ω t
g
g
u
= u
g ( 1
cos
ω t)
2 = u g 3 π 2 3 π ⎞ + ⎟
2
=
u
g
3
π
2
3
π ⎞
+

2

Dynamics of Structures

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