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Chapter 8

Polygons

This chapter deals with the development and application related to

the angle sum of interior and exterior angles for convex polygons.

After completing this chapter you should be able to:

find the interior angle sum of polygons

establish the result for the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon

apply angle sum results to find unknown angles.

WM: S5.2.1S5.2.4

232

Diagnostic Test

is:

2

A pentagon

B octagon

C decagon

D hexagon

interior angle size of:

A 3240

B 162

C 3600

D 18

other angles are all equal. The size of the

equal angles is:

A 540

B 450

C 112.5

D 90

polygon is:

A 24

B 156

C 360

D 2340

angle of 100 and all others 10. The

number of sides of this polygon is:

A 25

A 26

B 27

C 36

D 37

B 65

C 205

120

85

D 115

x

130

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections

listed in the table.

Question

Section

15

6, 7

A polygon is a plane shape with straight sides. Polygons are named according to the number of sides.

The simplest polygon is a triangle, which has an interior angle sum of 180. A quadrilateral has four sides

and an angle sum of 360.

Example 1

Find the sum of the interior angles of a heptagon.

A heptagon is a polygon with seven

sides. Choose one vertex and draw

all the diagonals from that vertex.

There are five triangles in the

heptagon. The angle sum of each

triangle is 180.

interior angle sum = 5 180

= 900

3

2

Exercise 8A

1

a Draw any pentagon (5-sided polygon) and label one of its vertices A.

b Draw in the diagonals from A.

c Find the interior angle sum of the pentagon.

different polygons, drawing

diagonals from one vertex

only.

Copy and complete the

table opposite.

Example 1 shows this

for the heptagon.

Polygon

Number

of sides

Number of

triangles

Angle sum of

polygon

quadrilateral

2 180 = 360

pentagon

hexagon

heptagon

octagon

5 180 = 900

nonagon

decagon

n-gon

3

The sum of the measure of the interior angles of any n-sided polygon is ______ 180.

233

234

Example 2

A regular polygon

has all sides and

interior angles

equal.

A dodecagon has 12 sides.

The angle sum = (12 2) 180

= 10 180

= 1800

As there are 12 equal angles, the size of each

is 1800 12 = 150.

a pentagon

b hexagon

c heptagon

d octagon

e nonagon

f decagon

a Find the sum of the interior angles.

Example 3

Find x giving a reason.

110

The angle sum = (5 2) 180

= 540

x + 120 + 130 + 110 + 100 = 540 (angle sum of a pentagon)

x + 460 = 540

x = 540 460

x = 80

a

b

80

120

100

130

c

100

70

115

160

150

130

140

140

100

108

100

x

b Find the value of x in these hexagons.

i

ii

iii

120

138

150

150

147

x

97

130

160

155

170

110

118

130

x

110

Example 4

Find x, giving brief reasons.

the sum of interior angles is 3 180 = 540

x + x + x + 132 + 90 = 540

3x + 222 = 540

3x = 318

x = 106

a

132

c

x

140

120

x

130

125

100

160

80

70

f

2x 2x

150

110

2x

2x

120

120

2x

x

x

235

236

h

x

3x

6x 3x

2x

10

i

x

60

2x

3x

A pentagon has three right angles and two other equal angles. Find the size of each of the

two equal angles.

A hexagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of each of the equal

angles.

Investigation 1

WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating

1

As this is a regular pentagon all exterior angles

are equal.

a Measure the exterior angles.

b Find the sum of the five exterior angles.

a Measure the five exterior angles.

b Find the sum of the exterior angles.

a Draw a hexagon.

c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

a Draw an octagon.

c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is ______.

6

j

d

i

f

c h

g

b

a i (a + f ) = ______

ii (b + g ) = ______

b The sum of the exterior and interior angle is

(a + f ) + (b + g ) + (c + h ) + (d + i ) + (e + j ) = 5 ______

c The sum of the interior angles

f + g + h + i + j = 3 ______

d The sum of the exterior angles is ______.

When the sides of a polygon are extended, the exterior angles are formed.

From investigation 1, the angle sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360.

Example 1

a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular decagon.

b Hence, find the size of each interior angle.

c Find the angle sum of a decagon.

A decagon

has 10 sides.

360

Exterior angle = ---------10

= 36

b The interior and exterior angles make a straight line.

Interior angles = 180 36

= 144

c Angle sum = 144 10

= 1440

Exercise 8B

1

b Use the exterior angle to find the size of the interior angle, giving a reason.

c Hence, find the angle sum of an octagon.

237

238

b Find the size of each interior angle.

c Hence, find the angle sum of a 20-sided polygon.

Example 2

a A regular polygon has exterior angles measuring 12. Find the number of sides.

b An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 80 and all the others are 7.

How many sides in this polygon?

360

a Exterior angle = -----------where n is the number of sides

n

360

n = ------------------------angle size

360

= -----------12

= 30

The polygon has 30 sides.

b Since one angle is 80 the others add to

360 80 = 280

280

Then ------------ = 40

7

The polygon has 41 sides.

Why not

40 sides?

A regular polygon has each exterior angle measuring 15. Find the number of sides of the

polygon.

Find the number of sides in regular polygons with exterior angles of:

a 10

b 18

c 24

d 90

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle 100 and all others 13. How many sides?

a one exterior angle of 60 and the rest 10

b one exterior angle of 120 and the rest 12

c one exterior angle of 45 and the rest 15

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior

angles are 15, find the number of sides.

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior

angles are 20, find the number of sides.

Investigation 2

WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating, Communicating

Tessellation

A tessellation is a pattern of shapes that fit exactly together. A regular tessellation is made up

of regular polygons of one type and size only.

You will need: square grid paper, triangular grid paper.

1

a What is the size of each interior angle of a regular

hexagon?

b Look at the circled part of the tessellation. How many

hexagons meet at the point?

c What is the sum of the angles at the point circled?

d Copy and complete:

A regular polygon will tessellate if the size of the interior angles divides exactly into _____.

The size of the interior angles of a regular pentagon is 108. Explain why a regular pentagon

will not tessellate.

this table.

b Which of these eight

regular polygons

will tessellate?

Give reasons.

Regular

polygon

Number

or sides

Triangle

Square

Pentagon

Hexagon

Heptagon

Octagon

Nonagon

Decagon

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Angle sum

= 180(n 2)

= angle sum n

540

720

108

120

b Draw a different tessellation using the same square.

a On a sheet of triangular grid paper draw a tessellation of equilateral triangles with side

length 2 units.

b Using a different colour show that this is a tessellation of regular hexagons.

c What other plane shapes can be seen in the tessellation?

239

240

Investigation 3

WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating

Archimedes

Archimedes used polygons inside and outside a circle of given radius to give an approximation for .

C

Given that C = d, then = ---- .

D

This software investigation uses Archimedes theory to find an estimate for by drawing a regular

polygon inside a circle of constant radius (inscribed) and another polygon with the same number of

sides outside, but touching, the circle (circumscribed).

The estimate of is found by dividing the perimeters of the polygons by the radius of the circle.

perimeter of inscribed polygon

perimeter of circumscribed polygon

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------radius

radius

Investigation 4

WM: Reasoning

1

radius 3 cm, say, and use your protractor

to divide the circle into equal angles of 10.

At each of the 36 points around the starter circle, as centre, draw a circle of radius 2 cm.

There are various ways in which you can colour your doughnut. Experiment with different

colour patterns. Three different ones are shown here.

Language in Mathematics

a sides A has five pentagon

b has sides equal A regular all polygon

c A eight octagon sides polygon an is with

d sum 360 is The polygon exterior a of angle

EDTTHOFVFBNIWANSDDTTTUOHPLEJQIAVNCETRGEYJRMZIA

EOTERITAOUNTFGESLFGEBNSCWUQAMZSOAEFTRAUOPITOH

JLLPYOIGUCOSENQASQUUTFBWDTERRCVANKCLOTZATQWWE

ROTFFVIROWOASMCGTBYHJKELONPQUASMASBDEERFRTIOY

TFFVSBHITGDJKELOSPIAYTNEWDASMDCUFVLGBTHNIJMPKL

LPOYYTBREYWSOQANZSEDRHFTUGYNHUDJIRKOELMDHFADA

NQEDTUEOPIRZGCHHJOTPNYQRDTSEAEGASRFGEHJEUYS

Glossary

angle sum

exterior

nonagon

regular

concave

heptagon

pentagon

tessellate

convex

hexagon

polygon

tessellation

decagon

interior

quadrilateral

241

242

1

A 540

B 720

C 900

A pentagon

B octagon

C decagon

A 3960

B 165

C 4320

The value of x in this figure is:

A 145

B 235

C 325

D 35

140

165

D 1080

D hexagon

D 180

A heptagon has three right angles and the other angles are all equal. The size of the equal

angles is:

A 900

B 112.5

C 157.5

D 247.5

A 12

B 168

C 360

D 5040

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 100 and all others 13. The number of sides

of this polygon is:

A 20

B 21

C 30

D 113

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections

listed in the table.

Question

Section

15

6, 7

REVIEW SET 8A

1

a Draw a hexagon.

c Find the angle sum of a hexagon.

a

120

100

150

x

130

130

x

100

130

a What is the size of each interior angle?

a How many sides does it have?

243

244

REVIEW SET 8B

1

b Find the size of each interior angle of a regular dodecagon.

a

135

140

148

100

x

x

150

100

x

A nine-sided figure has three right angles and all other angles equal. What is the measure

of each of these equal angles?

b Find the size of each interior angle.

c Hence, find the angle sum of a 25-sided polygon.

REVIEW SET 8C

1

a Find the sum of the interior angles.

a

b

3x

120

115

2x

150

168

x

x

135

2x

A regular pentagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal

angles.

245

246

REVIEW SET 8D

1

a Draw a pentagon.

c What is the angle sum of a pentagon?

a

b

x

130

150

155

130

x

120

100

170

A hexagon has three right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal angles.

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