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Chapter 8
Polygons
This chapter deals with the development and application related to
the angle sum of interior and exterior angles for convex polygons.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
find the interior angle sum of polygons
establish the result for the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon
apply angle sum results to find unknown angles.

Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1


WM: S5.2.1S5.2.4

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Diagnostic Test

The angle sum of a seven-sided polygon


is:

A 540 B 720 C 900 D 1080


2

A six-sided polygon is called a:


A pentagon

B octagon

C decagon

D hexagon

A regular polygon with 20 sides has


interior angle size of:
A 3240

B 162

C 3600

D 18

A pentagon has one right angle and the


other angles are all equal. The size of the
equal angles is:
A 540

B 450

C 112.5

D 90

The exterior angle of a 15-sided regular


polygon is:
A 24

B 156

C 360

D 2340

The value of x in this diagram is:

An irregular polygon has one exterior


angle of 100 and all others 10. The
number of sides of this polygon is:

A 25

A 26

B 27

C 36

D 37

B 65
C 205

120

85

D 115
x

130

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

6, 7

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

A. INTERIOR ANGLE SUM OF A POLYGON


A polygon is a plane shape with straight sides. Polygons are named according to the number of sides.
The simplest polygon is a triangle, which has an interior angle sum of 180. A quadrilateral has four sides
and an angle sum of 360.

Example 1
Find the sum of the interior angles of a heptagon.
A heptagon is a polygon with seven
sides. Choose one vertex and draw
all the diagonals from that vertex.
There are five triangles in the
heptagon. The angle sum of each
triangle is 180.
interior angle sum = 5 180
= 900

3
2

Exercise 8A
1

a Draw any pentagon (5-sided polygon) and label one of its vertices A.
b Draw in the diagonals from A.
c Find the interior angle sum of the pentagon.

Repeat question 1 with


different polygons, drawing
diagonals from one vertex
only.
Copy and complete the
table opposite.
Example 1 shows this
for the heptagon.

Polygon

Number
of sides

Number of
triangles

Angle sum of
polygon

quadrilateral

2 180 = 360

pentagon
hexagon
heptagon
octagon

5 180 = 900

nonagon
decagon
n-gon
3

Copy and complete the following statement:


The sum of the measure of the interior angles of any n-sided polygon is ______ 180.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Example 2

A regular polygon
has all sides and
interior angles
equal.

Find the size of each interior angle in a regular dodecagon.


A dodecagon has 12 sides.
The angle sum = (12 2) 180
= 10 180
= 1800
As there are 12 equal angles, the size of each
is 1800 12 = 150.

Find the size of each interior angle in these regular polygons.


a pentagon
b hexagon
c heptagon
d octagon
e nonagon
f decagon

A regular polygon has 24 sides.


a Find the sum of the interior angles.

b Find the size of each interior angle.

Example 3
Find x giving a reason.

110

The polygon is a pentagon.


The angle sum = (5 2) 180
= 540
x + 120 + 130 + 110 + 100 = 540 (angle sum of a pentagon)
x + 460 = 540
x = 540 460
x = 80

Find the value of x in these pentagons. Give a reason.


a
b
80

120

100
130

c
100

70

115
160

150

130

140
140
100

108

100
x

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

a Find the angle sum of a hexagon.


b Find the value of x in these hexagons.
i
ii

iii

120

138

150
150

147

x
97

130
160

155

170

110

118

130
x

110

Example 4
Find x, giving brief reasons.

The pentagon has 5 sides.


the sum of interior angles is 3 180 = 540
x + x + x + 132 + 90 = 540
3x + 222 = 540
3x = 318
x = 106

Find x, giving brief reasons.


a

132

c
x
140

120
x

130

125

100

160

80

70

f
2x 2x

150

110

2x

2x
120
120
2x

x
x

235

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

h
x

3x
6x 3x

2x

10

i
x

60

2x

3x

A pentagon has three right angles and two other equal angles. Find the size of each of the
two equal angles.
A hexagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of each of the equal
angles.

Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating

Exterior angle sum


1

The five exterior angles of a pentagon are shown.


As this is a regular pentagon all exterior angles
are equal.
a Measure the exterior angles.
b Find the sum of the five exterior angles.

A non-regular pentagon is shown opposite.


a Measure the five exterior angles.
b Find the sum of the exterior angles.

a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

b Measure the exterior angles.

a Draw an octagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

b Measure the exterior angles.

Copy and complete:


The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is ______.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

6
j

d
i

f
c h
g
b

Copy and complete:


a i (a + f ) = ______
ii (b + g ) = ______
b The sum of the exterior and interior angle is
(a + f ) + (b + g ) + (c + h ) + (d + i ) + (e + j ) = 5 ______
c The sum of the interior angles
f + g + h + i + j = 3 ______
d The sum of the exterior angles is ______.

B. EXTERIOR ANGLES OF POLYGONS


When the sides of a polygon are extended, the exterior angles are formed.
From investigation 1, the angle sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360.

Example 1
a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular decagon.
b Hence, find the size of each interior angle.
c Find the angle sum of a decagon.

A decagon
has 10 sides.

a The exterior angle sum of any polygon is 360.


360
Exterior angle = ---------10
= 36
b The interior and exterior angles make a straight line.
Interior angles = 180 36
= 144
c Angle sum = 144 10
= 1440

Exercise 8B
1

a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular octagon.


b Use the exterior angle to find the size of the interior angle, giving a reason.
c Hence, find the angle sum of an octagon.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular 20-sided polygon.


b Find the size of each interior angle.
c Hence, find the angle sum of a 20-sided polygon.

Example 2
a A regular polygon has exterior angles measuring 12. Find the number of sides.
b An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 80 and all the others are 7.
How many sides in this polygon?
360
a Exterior angle = -----------where n is the number of sides
n
360
n = ------------------------angle size
360
= -----------12
= 30
The polygon has 30 sides.
b Since one angle is 80 the others add to
360 80 = 280
280
Then ------------ = 40
7
The polygon has 41 sides.

Why not
40 sides?

A regular polygon has each exterior angle measuring 15. Find the number of sides of the
polygon.

Find the number of sides in regular polygons with exterior angles of:
a 10
b 18
c 24

d 90

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle 100 and all others 13. How many sides?

Find the number of sides in irregular polygons with:


a one exterior angle of 60 and the rest 10
b one exterior angle of 120 and the rest 12
c one exterior angle of 45 and the rest 15

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 15, find the number of sides.

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 20, find the number of sides.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating, Communicating

Tessellation
A tessellation is a pattern of shapes that fit exactly together. A regular tessellation is made up
of regular polygons of one type and size only.
You will need: square grid paper, triangular grid paper.
1

A regular hexagon will tessellate as shown in this diagram.


a What is the size of each interior angle of a regular
hexagon?
b Look at the circled part of the tessellation. How many
hexagons meet at the point?
c What is the sum of the angles at the point circled?
d Copy and complete:
A regular polygon will tessellate if the size of the interior angles divides exactly into _____.

The size of the interior angles of a regular pentagon is 108. Explain why a regular pentagon
will not tessellate.

a Copy and complete


this table.
b Which of these eight
regular polygons
will tessellate?
Give reasons.

Regular
polygon

Number
or sides

Triangle
Square
Pentagon
Hexagon
Heptagon
Octagon
Nonagon
Decagon

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Angle sum
= 180(n 2)

Interior angle size


= angle sum n

540
720

108
120

a On grid paper draw a tessellation of a square with side length 2 units.


b Draw a different tessellation using the same square.

a On a sheet of triangular grid paper draw a tessellation of equilateral triangles with side
length 2 units.
b Using a different colour show that this is a tessellation of regular hexagons.
c What other plane shapes can be seen in the tessellation?

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Investigation 3
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating

Archimedes
Archimedes used polygons inside and outside a circle of given radius to give an approximation for .
C
Given that C = d, then = ---- .
D
This software investigation uses Archimedes theory to find an estimate for by drawing a regular
polygon inside a circle of constant radius (inscribed) and another polygon with the same number of
sides outside, but touching, the circle (circumscribed).
The estimate of is found by dividing the perimeters of the polygons by the radius of the circle.
perimeter of inscribed polygon
perimeter of circumscribed polygon
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------radius
radius

Investigation 4
WM: Reasoning

Circles and doughnuts


1

Use a pencil to draw a starter circle of


radius 3 cm, say, and use your protractor
to divide the circle into equal angles of 10.

At each of the 36 points around the starter circle, as centre, draw a circle of radius 2 cm.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

There are various ways in which you can colour your doughnut. Experiment with different
colour patterns. Three different ones are shown here.

Can you find other ways to colour your doughnut?

Language in Mathematics

Rearrange these words to form sentences relating to this chapter.


a sides A has five pentagon
b has sides equal A regular all polygon
c A eight octagon sides polygon an is with
d sum 360 is The polygon exterior a of angle

Use every third letter to reveal the message.


EDTTHOFVFBNIWANSDDTTTUOHPLEJQIAVNCETRGEYJRMZIA
EOTERITAOUNTFGESLFGEBNSCWUQAMZSOAEFTRAUOPITOH
JLLPYOIGUCOSENQASQUUTFBWDTERRCVANKCLOTZATQWWE
ROTFFVIROWOASMCGTBYHJKELONPQUASMASBDEERFRTIOY
TFFVSBHITGDJKELOSPIAYTNEWDASMDCUFVLGBTHNIJMPKL
LPOYYTBREYWSOQANZSEDRHFTUGYNHUDJIRKOELMDHFADA
NQEDTUEOPIRZGCHHJOTPNYQRDTSEAEGASRFGEHJEUYS

Glossary
angle sum
exterior
nonagon
regular

concave
heptagon
pentagon
tessellate

convex
hexagon
polygon
tessellation

decagon
interior
quadrilateral

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

CHECK YOUR SKILLS


1

The angle sum of an eight-sided polygon is:


A 540
B 720

C 900

A ten-sided polygon is called a:


A pentagon
B octagon

C decagon

A regular polygon with 24 sides has interior angle size of:


A 3960
B 165
C 4320
The value of x in this figure is:
A 145
B 235
C 325
D 35

140
165

D 1080

D hexagon

D 180

A heptagon has three right angles and the other angles are all equal. The size of the equal
angles is:
A 900
B 112.5
C 157.5
D 247.5

The exterior angle of a 30-sided regular polygon is:


A 12
B 168
C 360

D 5040

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 100 and all others 13. The number of sides
of this polygon is:
A 20
B 21
C 30
D 113

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

6, 7

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8A
1

a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the angle sum of a hexagon.

Find x giving a reason.


a

b Draw in all diagonals from one vertex.

120
100

150
x

130

130
x

100

130

For a regular octagon:


a What is the size of each interior angle?

b What is the sum of the exterior angles?

A regular polygon has exterior angles 10.


a How many sides does it have?

b What is the sum of the interior angles?

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8B
1

a Find the angle sum of a dodecagon (12 sides).


b Find the size of each interior angle of a regular dodecagon.

Find x, giving a reason.


a

135

140

148

100

x
x

150
100
x

A nine-sided figure has three right angles and all other angles equal. What is the measure
of each of these equal angles?

a Find the size of each exterior angle of a 25-sided regular polygon.


b Find the size of each interior angle.
c Hence, find the angle sum of a 25-sided polygon.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8C
1

A regular polygon has 36 sides.


a Find the sum of the interior angles.

b Find the size of each interior angle.

Find x, giving a reason.


a

b
3x

120

115

2x

150
168
x
x

135

2x

A regular pentagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal
angles.

Find the size of the exterior angle in a regular 30-sided figure.

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Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8D
1

a Draw a pentagon.
c What is the angle sum of a pentagon?

Find x giving a reason.


a

b Draw all diagonals from one vertex.

b
x

130
150

155

130

x
120

100

170

A hexagon has three right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal angles.

Find the size of the exterior angle in a regular octagon.