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ChE 216 Optimization in Flow of Heat by CONDUCTION

Determination of the Optimum Insulation Thickness

(x opt )

Evelyn R. Laurito University of Santo Tomas

Economic Analysis

Direct Cost, C D = Cost of heat lost

Fixed Cost, C F = Cost of maintenance and depreciation

C

x opt

Tmin

TotalCosts

C T =C F +C D

Fixed Costs, C F

Variable

Costs, C D

Annual Cost, C

Insulation Thickness (x)

CASE 1 HT Area constant Nomenclature

T 1
T w

T air

T air T S

x = insulation thickness, cm A= area of insulation m 2

 q = total heat lost, W H y = hours of operation/yr

a c = Installed equipment Cost/ m 3 insulation

K F = Annual fixed cost/ installed equipment cost

b c = cost of heat/J K = thermal conductivity of insulation, W/mK

T = Total temperature drop= T 1 -T S h f = air film HTC, W/m 2 K h r = radiant HTC, W/m 2 K

T S

Heat Flow by conduction in a slab
If Tw is not known
1

6000 
 c
x opt
 h r
 K F a c
h f
If Tw is known
1
2

6000 
x opt
K F a c

b

H y

K T T 1 1 T

S

2

100 K

b c

H y

K T T 1 1

T W

Formulas for h f and h r
For vertical plates with height greater than 1 ft
hf  T  T
0.3
1
4
BTU/hrft F
o
For Air:
W
air
To convert to W/m 2 K, multiply hf by 5.678
4 
T W  273
4 
T s  273
hr 
5.672 
    
 
 
 
100
 
100
  
hr
 T s
T 2
W/m 2 K
1/8/2012
ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes
by Evelyn R. Laurito
5

Example 1

Calculate the optimum thickness (cm) needed for a furnace if the walls are made of Fireclay brick

Table 6/877: Temp = 392 o F 1832 o F

K=0.58 BTU/hr-(ft 2o F/ft)

K=0.95

The inside furnace temperature is 500 o F and the outside wall surface is at 100 o F. Heat cost is \$0.02/kJ and installed insulation costs are \$4/cm 3 insulation.

Solution

Example 2

Solution
.02
b

c
a

4 
( 100 ) 3
c
H  8760
y
K

F
.2
  .8
1000
Assume Tw is 165oF
T 0F  500
T
wF
 165
T
SF
 80
T wC  73.889
T

T
T  233.333
deg C
0C
T SC
T
0F
T wF
T
 392
 ave

T 0C



T 0F 32

1.8

T wC



T wF 32

1.8

T SC



T SF 32

1.8

T ave



2

T ave

332.5

K 

( .58 .95) .58

392 1832

1.73

K 0.977

Solution
Check for Tw:
For vertical plates with height greater than 1 ft
Given
1
1
x opt
4
T SC  273
4
T
wC  273
100 h f
h r
5.672
 
 
 
K
100
100
 
 
h
r

T wC
T SC
Find
  74.097
 T wC
T wC  74.097
h r  6.165
1

1.8 
 32
T wF
T wC
2
b
H
KT
c
y
100 K
x

6000 
T wF  165.375
opt
K F a c
h f
h r
x opt  33.776
cm

h f



5.678 .3

T wF

T

SF

4 h f 5.172

T 0C

T wC

T wC

T SC