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ChE 216

Optimization in Flow of Fluids


Determination of the Optimum Pipe Diameter (Di)

Evelyn R. Laurito
University of Santo Tomas

Economic Analysis
Direct Cost, CD = Cost of Power (pump)
Fixed Cost, CF = Cost of maintenance and depreciation
TotalCosts
CT=CF+CD
Annual Cost, C
Fixed
Costs, CF

CTmin

Diopt
Pipe Diameter (Di)
1/2/2011

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

Variable
Costs, CD

by

Nomenclature
f = fanning friction factor
V= ave linear velocity of fluid, m/s
L = length of pipe, m
Le=equivalent length of valves,
fittings,m
Di = inside pipe diameter, m
qf = volumetric flow rate, m3/s
= density of fluid, kg/m3
c= viscosity of fluid, Pa.s
K = cost of power, $/kWh
Hy = hours of operation/yr
J= Le/L

1/2/2011

gc = conversion factor in Newtons


Law, kg.m/s2N
E = pump and motor efficiency
X = purchase cost of pipe per m if
the diameter is 0.0254 m
n = cost correlation index for pipe
F = cost of installation and fittings/
purchase cost of pipe
KF = Annual fixed cost/ cost of
installed pipe
W = mechanical work added to the
system, J/kg

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

K .12478
Cpumping

1/2/2011

4.84

Di

1.84

.16

qf

L ( 1. J) q f Hy

.16

B1

E 1000

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

Optimum Economic Pipe Diameter


Turbulent Flow (9-70/403 PTW)
1

Di opt

6.04x10 4 ( 0.0254) n q 2.84 0.84 0.16 K ( 1 J) Hy

f
c

n ( 1 F) X E K F

( 4.84 n)

Viscous Flow (9-71/403 PTW)


1/(4.0 n )

0.1628(.0254) n q f 2 c K (1 J ) Hy
Diopt

n(1 F ) XEK F

1/2/2011

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

Constants Under Ordinary


Industrial Conditions

n = 1.5 for steel if Di 0.0254 m


n = 1 for steel if Di < 0.0254 m
K = $ 0.05/kWh
J = 0.35 or 35%
Hy = 8760 h/yr
E = 0.5 or 50%
F = 1.4
KF = 0.20 or 20%
X = $ 2.43 per m for a 0.0254 m Di Steel
pipe

1/2/2011

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

EQN. 9-72
To 9-75

EQN. 9-76
To 9-79

Example 1
A flotation plant requires water amounting to 25 m3/h
at 276 kPa. The water must be pumped from a lake
600 m from the plant and the total pump lift is 10 m;
neglect entrance and exit losses, friction due to the
meter. Calculate the optimum pipe diameter (Std steel
pipe) if the initial cost is $ 2.5/m-in diameter; power
cost is $ 0.01/kWh. Pump efficiency is 60%; money
is worth 8% with life of installation equal to 20 years.
1/2/2011

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

SOLUTION
3

flowrate 25

X 2.5

hr

i .08

q f flowrate

K 0.01

E .6

n 20

Assume
a) Turbulent Flow Diopt
b) Di > 0.0254 m

.448 .132

qf

6
.025
1.63 10 K ( 1 J) Hy

m3

q f 0.00694

3600

.158

( 1 F) X E KF

at 25o C

62.244
1000
62.4

0.898
1000

For common industrial conditions


J 0.35

Hy 8760

.448 .132

Diopt q f

F 1.4

KF

( 1 i) 1

.025 1.63 10 K ( 1 J) Hy

.158

Substitute and Solve:

( 1 F) X E KF

Diopt 0.087

qf

Diopt

Check Reynolds Number:

NRe

KF 0.022

Diopt

Diinches 3.431

NRe 112705.267

1/2/2011

Diopt
Diinches
.0254

greater than 0.0254

greater than 2100

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by

SOLUTION
V1 0

V2

qf

Vol

Diopt

n 1.5

V2 1.164

L 610

CT

1.24810

2.84

qf

0.84

K ( 1 J) Hy

CT

1.24810

If Di 4.026
CT

1.24810

2.84 0.84

qf

Di

2.84

0.84

.16

qf

4.84

Di

P2 276

P1 101

B 0.529

B ( 1 F) X Diopt KF

CT 0.797

.16

K ( 1 J) Hy

4.84

g 32.2

3 inch Sch 40 has a Di = 3.068 inches


4 inch Sch 40 has a Di = 4.026 inches

Check for min total cost based on std pipe:

Di 3.068

z 10

.16

4.84

Diopt

If

g 32.2 g c 1

2
2

1 V2 V1
g
B
Vol P2 P1 z
L 2 g c
g c

K ( 1 J) Hy

B ( 1 F) X Di KF

CT 1.23

B ( 1 F) X Di KF

CT 1.59

ANSWER : a) 3" Sch 40 steel pipe


b) Min total cost = $1.23/m

1/2/2011

216- Plant Design Course Notes


Evelyn R. Laurito

by