Sei sulla pagina 1di 116

Draft

Rabeia Alhadi

Accepted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements


For the Degree of Master of Architecture
At
The Savannah College of Art and Design

____________________________________________________________________________________________________/__/__
Scott Dietz
Date
Committee Chair
____________________________________________________________________________________________________/__/__
Mohamed Elnahas
Date
Committee Member
____________________________________________________________________________________________________/__/__
Malcolm Kesson
Date
Committee Member

The Living Skyscraper

Mashrabbia; A Kinetic Envelope Represents Islamic Culture and Improves


Building Energy Performance

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture


In Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements of
Degree of Architecture

At
The Savannah College of Art and Design

By

Rabeia M. Alhadi
June/2011

Dedication

To my father, Mahmoud A. Elfaitory, and my mother, Nabawia A. Eljerjawi,


t o whom I owe everything I have accomplished in my life,
and to my brothers and sisters, for all their love and support.

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my gratitude to the Libyan Ministry of Education for its financial support, without which this research would never
have been possible. I was fortunate in having Prof. Scott Dietz as my committee chairman at SCAD. I am most grateful to him for encouraging
and advising me throughout my work, as well as for his advice, comments and valuable discussions during the preparation of the final
submission of this thesis. I am also very grateful to Prof. Mohamed Elnahas, my faculty advisor, for his advice and comments on my thesis prior
to submission. My thanks are also due to Prof. Malcolm Kesson, my topic consultant, for his comments and guidance throughout my work on
this thesis. I would also like to extend my gratitude for editorial help rendered by Mrs. Zeba Siddiqui for her valuable and ongoing assistance.
Many thanks also go to the staff of the SCAD Library for their assistance.

Outside the academic arena, my deepest thanks go to my family and in particular my husband, Mohamed A. Elmughrbi. Its various
members never stopped encouraging me to finish this thesis and they continued to bear with me throughout the period of my work because of
my academic interests.

Finally, I thank my Creator for His grace, for having such helpful people around me, and for the privilege of being able to complete this
research.

Table of Content:
List of Figures
Abstract

Part One:
1.1 Theoretical Context
1.2 Arguable Position

2.3.2 Brief History


2.3.3 Economy
2.3.4 Demography
2.3.5 The Geology, Soil and Topography
2.4.6 Climate
2.4.7The residential land use change in Tripoli.
2.3.8 Architectural and Urban Fabric of Tripoli, New versus
old

1.3 Design Objective


1.4 Design Strategy
1.5 Expected Outcome
1.6 Active Research& Relevant Resources
1.6.1 Environmental effect on Islamic culture and its
relation to architecture
1.6.2 Case Studies

Part Two: Context Analysis


2.1 Digital Context
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Kinetic Envelope Systems
2.1.3 Parametric Design of BIM
2.1.4 Design parameters for kinetic skins
2.2 Social and Cultural Context of Skyscrapers
2.2.1 History and Technology
2.2.2 Sustainable Skyscrapers
2.3 Context Analysis of Tripoli City, Libya
2.3.1 Background

Part Three: Site Analysis


3.1 General Information
3.2 Site Description
3.3 Land-Use Map
3.4 Circulation Map
3.5 Sun Path
3.6 Prevailing Wind
3.7 Views from the Site to Its Surroundings
3.8 Views to the Site
3.9 Environment Simulations
3.9.1 Solar Radiation Analysis
3.9.2 Shadow Study
3.9.3 Wind Study

Part Four: Programming


4.1 General Overview of Needs and Desires
4.2 Tripolis Traditional Street Component
4.3 Program Summary
4.4 Program Distribution
4.5 Program precedents

4.6 Program Quantitative Summary and Proportions


4.7 Conclusion
Part Five:
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Islamic Geometric Patterns
5.3 Types of Islamic Patterns
5.4 The Proposed Mashrabbia Patterns
5.5 Dynamic Mashrabbia Environment Simulations
5.6 Project Schematic Design
Part Six: Design Development
6.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Pattern Development
6.2 Building Orientation
6.4 Building Design Development
6.5 Dynamic Mashrabbia Evaluation
6.5.1 Solar Radiation Analysis
6.5.2 Building Energy Performance Analysis
6.5.3 Dynamic Mashrabbia Benefits

Part Seven: Design Development


7.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Details
7.1.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Behaviour during Daytime
7.1.2 Detailed Mashrabbia Design
7.1.3 Dynamic Mashrabbia Effect on Interior Spaces
7.2 Building Skin Layers and Ventilation system
7.3 Design Development
7.4 Conclusion
Bibliography

List of Figures:

Fig. 2.10: Menara Mesiniaga, Kuala Lumpur, 1992, T. R. Hamzah &


Yeang

Part One:

Figure 2.11: Swiss Reinsurance Headquarters, London, U.K., 2004,

Fig. 1.1: The old city of Tripoli, Libya

Foster and Partners

Fig 1.2: Courtyard House

Fig.2.12 : The Solaire, Battery Park, New York City, 2003

Fig 1.3: Mashrabbia

Figure 2.13: Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China, 2010

Fig 1.4: Geometric Patterns of Tessellate Panels

Fig. 2.14: Tripoli citys skyline

Fig 1.5: Interior rendering of the Court yeard by Foster+ Partners

Fig. 2.15: Tripoli links between European and African cities

Fig 1.6: ABI's Strata System

Fig. 2.16: Oil exports from Libya

Fig 1.7: Detail of ABI's Strata System

Fig. 2.17: Temperature and rainfall averages, Tripoli, Libya

Fig 1.8: Perme System at Aldar Central Market

Fig. 2.18: Tripoli residential land use between 1960-2005

Fig 1.9: Abu Dhabi Investment Council Headquarters Towers

Fig. 2.19: The main entrance to the Medina, known as Bab Al-Hurriyah

Fig 1.10, Investment-Council-Headquarters-Towers-Concept-Design

(the Freedom Gate) the earliest fortified wall around the town was built in

Fig 1.11: Investment-Council-Headquarters-Towers-Ground-Design

the 4th century

Fig 1.13: Faade Layers

Fig. 2.20: Marcus Aurelius arch


Fig. 2.21: Karamanli Palace

Part Two:

Fig. 2.22: Right: The main hall of Gurji mosque, Lift: Islamic Inscriptions

Fig. 2.1: The kinetic faade of Arab World Institute, Paris

in the mosque

Fig. 2.2: Arizona State University's Bio-design Institute in Tempe

Fig. 2, 23: The Red Castel, Tripoli, Libya

Fig. 2.3: (GSW) headquarters building

Fig. 2.24: The modern shore of Tripoli reflecting the contrast between the

Fig. 2.4: Design parameters for kinetic skins

old and new buildings of the city

Fig. 2.6: The BIX electronic skin by Peter Cook

Fig. 2.25: The style of high-rise buildings in modern Tripoli

Fig. 2.5: A/B-sampling data from sensors and information portals

Fig. 2.26: Residential high-rise buildings in modern Tripoli

Fig. 2.7: Sullivan's Wainwright Building

Fig. 2.27: Commercial and Residential high-rise building in the modern

Fig. 2.8: Sears Tower

part of Tripoli

Fig. 2.9: Lift: Taipei 101 tower, right: Burg Dubai

Fig. 2.28: Right, Alfateh tower. Lift: Abulaila tower

Fig. 2.29:10-story residential building is under construction. (Picture: Sep.

Fig. 4.1: An example of Tripolis narrow traditional streets

07, 2010)

Fig. 4.2: One of Tripolis medina streets

Fig. 2.30: Hydra Tripoli Tower

Fig. 4.3: Handicrafts in the old city of Tripoli

Fig. 2.32: The new skyscrapers of Tripoli (some of them are under

Fig. 4.4: Concept diagram

construction): dwarfing Boulayla and Alfatah towers.

Fig. 4.5: A rendering of Medina Tower

JW.Marriott Hotel (bottom right)

Fig. 4.6: Some views of Medina Tower

Fig. 2.31: Medina Tower, Tripoli, Libya

Fig. 4.7: Program proportions

Part Three:

Part Five:

Fig. 3.1: The proposed site, Tripoli, Libya, North Africa

Fig. 5.1: The Root Two proportion systemFig. 5.2: Root Three proportion

Fig.3.2: Zooming further to the site

system

Fig. 3.3: Tripolis district heights map

Fig. 5.3: The Golden Ratio proportion system

Fig. 3.4: Land-use map

Fig. 5.4: Islamic mashrabbias pattern case studies

Fig. 3.5: Circulation map

Fig. 5.5: The various opening stages of Pattern

Fig. 3.6: Sun path of Tripoli city

Fig, 5.6: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot depth space

Fig. 3.7 Prevailing wind, Tripoli, Libya

Fig. 5.7: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

Fig. 3.8: Views from the site

Fig. 5.7: Pattern II Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot depth space

Fig. 3.9: Views toward the site

Fig. 5.8: Pattern III Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

Fig. 3.10: Summer solar radiation study result

Fig. 5.9: Pattern III Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot depth space

Fig. 3.11: Winter solar radiation study result

Fig. 5.10: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

Fig. 3.12: Summer shadow study result

Fig. 5.11: The site

Fig. 3.13: Winter shadow study result

Fig. 5.12: First floor zoning

Fig. 3.14: Pressure study result

Fig. 5.13: Second floor zoning

Fig. 3.15: velocity study result

Fig. 5.14: Section A-A


Fig. 5.15: Building elevations

Part Four:

Fig. 5.16: Perspective

Fig. 5.17: Perspective

Fig. 7.4: Buildings skin layers, left: during moderate climate and at
nights, right: during hot climate.

Part Six:

Fig. 7.5: Building perspective


Fig. 7.6: Site plan

Fig. 6.1: Dynamic mashrabbia pattern ( Maya software)

Fig. 7.7: Basement levels plan

Fig. 6.2: Best building orientation study result, Tripoli, Libya (Ecotect

Fig. 7.8: First floor plan

software

Fig. 7.9: Second floor plan

Fig. 6.3: Distributing the dynamic mashrabbia on the towers( Revit

Fig. 7.10: Section A-A

software)

Fig. 7.12: North elevation at about 4:00 pm

Fig. 6.4: Site plan

Fig. 7.13: West elevation at about 4:00 pm

Fig. 6.5: Basement floor plan

Fig. 7.14: East elevation at about 10:00 am.

Fig. 6.6: First floor plan

Fig. 7.15: South elevation at about 10:00 am

Fig. 6.7: Second floor plan.

Fig. 7.16: Building perspective

Fig. 6.8: Section A-A

Fig. 7.17: Building perspective

Fig. 6.9: Top: South elevation. Down: West elevation

Fig. 7.19: Close perspective to the dynamic mashrabbia

Fig. 6.10: Top: East elevation. Down: North elevation

Fig. 7.17: The sky gardens

Fig. 6.11: Project perspective

Fig. 7.18: The caf

Fig. 6.12: Project perspectives

Fig. 7.16: The main entrance of the project and the main courtyard

Fig. 6.13: Solar radiation study result (Vasari software)


Fig. 6.14: Building energy analysis result (Vasari software)

Part Seven:
Fig. 7.1: Dynamic mashrabbia behaviour during daytime
Fig. 7.2: Dynamic mashrabbia detailed design
Fig. 7.3: Dynamic mashrabbia effact on interior spaces at different
opening stages

The Living Skyscraper


Mashrabbia; A Kinetic Envelope Represents Islamic Culture and

This thesis investigates how the use of new materials,


technologies, and the digital revolution can express the local

Improves Building Energy Performance


culture and make a building harmonizes with its surrounding
Rabeia M. Alhadi
June, 2011

environment to take full advantage of the available natural


resources and provide an acceptable climate for its occupants.
The main aim of this design is to create an innovative and next

Abstract

generation sustainable tower designed specifically for Tripoli city by


taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies while respecting the

During the last couple of decades, Tripoli, like any other

traditional way of living that reflects the areas cultural roots.

major city has grown exponentially. Nowadays it requires


thousands of new homes per year; a situation that has created a lot
of controversy as urban planners propose skyscrapers and
Tripolians drastically refuse to change their beloved city.

The approach of this design is to develop a bio-inspired kinetic


envelope system which has the interactive access to the
surrounding environment. This kinetic faade is inspired by the
traditional Islamic mashrabbia and has the ability to responce and

With the growing populations in Tripoli, high-rise buildings are


becoming an important part of the city life. However, the new highrise buildings should accommodate the local style of life.

adjust according to the sun movement to minimize undesirable


environmental impacts. A new Parametric Design method in
Building

Information

Modeling

(BIMPD)

and

computational

simulation is used in this design.

Part One
Topic Research

1.1

Introduction (theoretical Context)


Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth in the
construction of tall buildings, with more, and taller, skyscrapers
being constructed than at any other time in history. Certainly on an
international scale, the past several years have been the most
active and dynamic in the history of tall buildings. 1 However, too
many tall buildings continue to be designed in one of two
inadequate ways: either as vertical extrusions of an efficient floor
plan, or as iconic pieces of high-rise urban sculpture. In both
cases the only relationship with the urban setting is a visual one,
with the tall building usually dominating. This has led to the
syndrome of tall buildings as isolationist architecture standalone, non-site specific models that are readily transportable
around the cities of the world.
In particular, cities in developing countries seem to ignore
the local climate, culture and context and instead simply import the

Western model of the air-conditioned, rectilinear glass box. This


pattern of gleaming glass skyscrapers springing up in the tropics,
deserts and other extreme climates has led many to denounce the
tall building as inherently anti-environmental. In short, these tall
buildings are contributing to the degradation of both global (climate
change) and local (cultural) environments.
It does not, however, have to be this way. Tall buildings
have the opportunity to reinvent themselves as a typology for a
sustainable urban future featured centres of life, work and play
with innovative functions, technologies and environments to face
the challenges of the future climate-changed world. This new
typology needs to be inspired not only by environmental issues, but
also by the cultural and vernacular traditions of the location they
are placed in. This is especially important in maintaining the cultural
integrity and continuity of any urban domain, but especially in
developing countries where the embrace of Western models is both
enthusiastic and rapid. In short, tall buildings need to be inspired by

Anya Kaplan-Seem, As Economy Sank, Skyscrapers Soared Ever Higher


http://archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/archives/090407skyscrapers.asp

place both culturally and environmentally. This thesis seeks to

explore an alternative design approach for tall building to create

outskirt of Tripoli, despite the fact that they still need to return to

high-rise building that embrace its location and is inspired by the

the inner of the city for their daily work.

climatic, cultural and contextual aspects of place.


Tripoli's

population

of

1.6

million

is

growing

by

1.2 Arguable Position


approximately 2.2% per annum but the city is a little struggling to
During the last couple of decades, Tripoli, like any other
major city has grown exponentially. Nowadays it requires
thousands of new homes per year; a situation that has created a lot
of controversy as urban planners propose skyscrapers and

handle such growth. The rapid growth of the city requires a new
approach to its urban structure, the layout and organisation of
housing, employment location and eventually traffic management."
(said CBRE report) 2

Tripolians drastically refuse to change their beloved city. Tripoli is a


city of low buildings that recognizes street life and human scale as
one of its most important aspects. The few high-rise buildings
located in the citys downtown have been criticized and almost no
one believes that skyscrapers could be the solution to their housing
problem. The modern recently-built multiple story apartment blocks
that do not accommodate privacy or access to nature have

With the growing populations in Tripoli, high-rise buildings


are becoming an important part of the city life. However, the new
high-rise buildings should accommodate the local style of life. This
thesis investigates how the use of new materials, technologies, and
the digital revolution can express the local culture and make a
building harmonizes with its surrounding environment to take the
full advantage of the available natural resources and provide an

compelled many people to seek their unique style of life at the


2

CB Richard Ellis(CBRE) Report on the Libyan real estate market July, 2010,
http://www.libyaonline.com/news/details.php?id=13972, accessed on November 20, 2010.

acceptable climate for its occupants. This thesis explores what role

living that reflects the areas cultural roots. In this design, the focus

traditional Islamic architecture can play in digital architectural

will be on the skin of the tower, which will introduce a kinetic facade

design of a tall building and discusses how solar control and natural

that minimizes undesirable environmental impacts by integrating

ventilation systems can be integrated into kinetic facade systems to

solar control, daylight and natural ventilation systems, and

minimise the environmental impacts. Sun shading should be

encompassing a wide range of strategies resulting in an energy

considered as an integral part of fenestration system design that is

efficient

adapted into the facade design.The product of this thesis is a

overheating and excessive solar gain during summer and hot

mixed-use skyscraper in Tripoli city, Libya, representing the Islamic

seasons.

culture and coping with the region hot climate.

1.4 Design Strategy:

1.3 Design Objective

building

design.

Such

facade

systems

minimize

This project proposes a possible solution by creating a


community-like skyscraper that takes Tripolis street life to the sky.

The objective of this project is to design a self-reliant


This community offers residents the opportunity to live according to
building that appropriately respects and recognizes its surrounding
their traditional life style which incorporates an Islamicallysite while subtly reflecting Islamic culture. The main aim of this
acceptable level of privacy and desired access to nature. The
design is to create an innovative and next generation sustainable
design will be generated and moulded by the surrounding
tower designed specifically for Tripoli city by taking advantage of
environment, and some of the parameters that will be employed in
cutting-edge technologies while respecting the traditional way of
distinguishing the building are natural lighting, shade and stable

conditions in the harsh climate through the design of a dynamic

designed according to green building techniques, and

skin that has the ability to adapt, mutate and adjust according to the

urban sustainability.

aims for

local climate. The approach of this design is to develop a bioinspired kinetic envelope system which has the interactive access

1.5 The Expected Outcome

to the surrounding environment like solar radiation, daylight, etc. A

As the first green skyscraper in the city, the project will play

new Parametric Design method in Building Information Modeling

a crucial and irreplaceable role in improving the Libyan way of life

(BIMPD) and computational simulation will be used in this design.

by redefining what we understand as a skyscraper and initiating


new architectural knowledge incorporating a sense of economic,

The design of this skin will be inspired by the traditional


Islamic architectural element Mashrabbia (a wooden screen with
different patterns used to provide privacy and allow air movement),
and will almost play the same role of Mashrabbia in providing
shade, privacy, and a more comfortable internal environment. It will
also incorporate a photovoltaic panel system in the Mashrabbia to
provide energy self-sufficiency.

The project also will enhance the local neighborhood by


adding additional living space with other commercial and cultural
facilities.
At the same time, the project will propose a possible
solution for coping with hot- climate architecture utilizing advanced
building technologies with vernacular architectural elements. The

The project will be a mixed-use development with housing,


suq (shopping center), public library, gym, parks, a madrassa
(education center) and even a primary health center.

environmental and cultural responsibility.

It will be

resulting system will intelligently provide thermal comfort, natural


energy and reduce energy usage of HVAC system according to
outdoor climate condition, which creates an Acclimated Building.

The expected long term achievement of this project is an innovative

high-rise buildings also require the application of new technologies

design approach integrating BIMPD and biomimicry for thermal

and expertise in every aspect of the design and construction, and

comfort and developing building energy efficiency.

require a thorough understanding of the life style and culture of the


region in which they are to be located.

1.6 Active Research and Relevant Resources


1.6.1 The Islamic cultural response to high-rise buildings

1.6.1 Environmental effect on Islamic culture and its


relation to architecture
The heritage of the traditional Arabic architecture has

The brilliant Egyptian architect, Hassan Fathy had explained


very perfectly Old Islamic houses have filigreed windows and
central courts, for example, to admit light without glare, coolness
without air conditioning. The same principles could easily be
incorporated even into high-rise buildings (CNN, 1974).
For generations, Islamic culture has exhibited various

influenced and developed in response to three main factors: the


regions hot and humid climate, social and religious aspects, and
local availability of building materials. In general, its main features
are simplicity, functionality, durability and suitability for climatic
environments and social life. 3

fundamental principles of sustainable ways of living. It is the


intention of this design to revive and utilize these fundamental
principles into the modern design of a contemporary multi-story,
mixed-use tower in Tripoli city. However, the idea of high-rise

In response to the hot and humid climate, four architectural


elements are visible. First, buildings were constructed close to each
other. This type of high-density structure created narrow alleys,
which were shaded for most of the day. The narrowness of the

buildings brings a new scale into Islamic architecture. Moreover,


3

Robert Hillenbrand, Islamic Architecture: form, function, and meaning, 1994.

10

alleys caused the wind to increase in velocity as it breezed through,

lowering the temperature in the thermally massive courtyard walls

creating a comfortable pedestrian zone (Fig 1.1).

and floor. These elements hold the coolness throughout the hot
day, which represent natural and environmental sustainability (Fig.
1.3). 4

Courtyards could be included in a single house or multiple


houses could share the same open space to take advantage of
protected outdoor space. Courtyards may be of different sizes and
accommodate multiple functions. In addition to providing privacy
and stable conditions in the harsh climate, they may function as a
Fig. 1.1: The old city of Tripoli, Libya

The second element is the courtyard house, in which most

central hall to connect the different rooms of a single house, a


space where extended family, neighbors or guests,

gather,

of the rooms, which may have shaded verandas, face inward

providing a main street for a neighborhood, gathering or common

toward the courtyard, which was in the center of the house (see Fig

space for families. 5

1.2). The existence of the courtyard generates wind movement

In these days, although the location of the courtyard is

inside the house by allowing hot air to ascend, while cooler air to

more likely to be at the edges of the house, it is still one of the

replaces it from the surrounding rooms. Such courtyards also

major characteristics of the Arab house.

reduce cooling loads in the hot climates. At night, cool air comes in

4
5

Ibid.
Ibid.

11

Fig 1.2: Courtyard House

Wooden screens (mashrabbia), were also widely used in


Arab houses. They allow cool breezes to enter through the wooden
Fig 1.3: Mashrabbia

lattices, thereby enabling the entry of air currents, which reduce the
temperature; reflected heat, solar radiation, and the intensity of
traffic noise (see Fig 1.3).

The effect of religion and social interaction on local


architecture can be observed in two ways. Firstly, the Islamic
religious teachings encourage privacy and modesty, and courtyard
houses fulfil this condition by providing an inward-looking house
whose privacy cannot be breached from the street. All the first floor
rooms opened onto the courtyard, while the exterior walls were
mostly solid , apart from some small ventilation openings at a
considerable height, thereby preventing pedestrians from looking

Ibid.

12

inside. Mashrabbias were also used in the second floor to provide

they still plays the same role of the traditional one, providing shade,

privacy by reducing visual glare. A zigzag entrance to the house,

privacy, and stable conditions in the harsh climate.

where the main gate was faced with a solid wall to provide privacy

1- Tessellate Panels at Simons Center for Geometry &


The term muhalla, meaning neighborhood or locality is

Physics

also very important in Islamic architecture. Each neighborhood has


its own character, often marked by a gate. Within the demarcated
area, various sorts of buildings such as a mosque, hamam, and
shops of various kinds to meet most of the residents needs would

State University of New York at Stony Brook , Long Island, NY,


2010
Project team:

Fabricator: A. Zahner Co.

be found. 7

1.6.2 Case studies:


- Modern adaptation of the traditional Mashrabbia for

Architect: Perkins Eastman

Adaptive Building Initiative created a dynamic installation for


the Stony Brook Foundations new Center for Geometry and
Physics.

privacy and solar protection.


The installation serves both as the building's artistic
Here, some examples of modern buildings components
centerpiece and as a functional piece of shading seamlessly
design that brings back the concept of Islamic and Middle Eastern
integrated within its south-facing glass faade. To achieve the
mashrabbia presented in the terms of modern technology. Although
requirements of the building program, ABI installed a floor-to-ceiling
the modern mashrabbias work in different manner, nevertheless
composition of Tessellate panels, each with a geometric pattern
7

Ibid.

mirroring the research focus of the buildings resident scientists and

13

mathematicians. As these patterns align and diverge, the visual


effect is of sparse geometric patternshexagons, circles, squares,
and trianglesthat blossom into an opaque mesh (see fig 1.4). The
result is a kinetic surface that spans 122 square meters and imbues
the building with the functional capacity to dynamically change its
opacity. 8

Fig 1.4: Geometric Patterns of Tessellate Panels

Fig 1.4: Geometric Patterns of Tessellate Panels

Adaptive Building Initiative, http://www.adaptivebuildings.com/simons-center.html,


accessed on Nov 12, 1010.

14

Tessellate is controlled using location-based sensory data

Foster + Partners has designed two distinctly circular buildings,

to respond to light and weather conditions and fully integrates into

Tribunal Superior de Justicia (High Court) see fig 1.5, and

the building management system. For instance, when high levels of

Audiencia Provincial (Appeals Court).

direct light are detected, the metal panels diverge, and their
patterns completely overlap, blocking the suns rays. The sensors
are programmed in a variety of ways to maximize energy efficiency
and savings. 9
Faade:
Adaptive Shading Coverage: 124 sq. m.
Materials: Waterjet-cut steinless steel, glass
Dimensions: 5.6m Wide x 6.7m Tall

2-

Strata System at City of Justice (AP + TSJ)

Fig 1.5: Interior rendering of the Court yeard by Foster+ Partners

Both buildings were designed to minimize unwanted solar gain,


Architect: Foster + Partners
Ciudad de Justicia, Madrid, Spain, 2006-2011, Strata
The new Campus of Justice in Madrid is the largest single
site dedicated to law courts in Europe. Following the master plan,
9

while allowing natural daylight inside. As a key part of this


environmental strategy, ABI systems were used to develop a
customized shading scheme. Each building will use ABI's Strata
system; when extended, the system will cover the triangulated roof

Ibid.

15

grid. When retracted, their profile will 'disappear' into the structural
profile of the roof (see figs 1.6, 1.7).
During the day, the primary function of the system will be
sun shading. A custom algorithm combining historic solar gain data
with real-time light-level sensing will control the shading units. 10

7,000 sq. feet of shading area

System Geometry: Parallelogram

Number of operable units: 115

Materials: Aluminum, Steel

Control System: Each unit driven by a servo motor with custom


array control

Fig 1.7: Detail of ABI's Strata System

3- Perme System at Aldar Central Market, Central Market , Abu


Dhabi, UAE , 2006-2010.
Fig 1.6: ABI's Strata System

AP:
20,000 sq. feet of shading area

System Geometry: Hexagonal

Number of operable units: 257


TSJ:
10

Architect: Foster + Partners


Abu Dhabi's historic Central Market has been transformed
into a dynamic new quarter with markets, shops, offices,
apartments and hotels. One of the oldest sites in the city, Central

Ibid.

16

Market is a reinterpretation of the traditional marketplace and a new


civic heart for Abu Dhabi. The project comprises a combination of
lower-rise, ecologically sensitive levels of retail roof gardens
forming

new

public

parkand

three

towers.

Ventilation and airflow control

Dust and debris protection

Reduced solar gain and glare

Shading control

Privacy control

Using the Adaptive Building Initiative's Perme system,


Hoberman Associates developed several exterior shading roofs in
three public squares within the retail complex. The kinetic design
works off an operable grid. In its covered configuration, the shading
roof resembles a traditional coffered Islamic roof. When retracted,
the roof becomes a slender lattice that complements the Foster
team's designs for fixed shading (see fig 1.8). 11

Adaptive Shading Coverage: 3,000 sq. ft.

Number of operable units: 8

Materials: Aluminum, Steel

Control System: Each unit driven by a servo motor with

custom array control


Adaptively Benefits
11

Ibid.

17

Total ground floor area: Over 32,000sq m


Area of Curtain Wall: 67,500m2
Curtain Wall System: Unitized and Stick Curtain Wall

Fig 1.8: Perme System at Aldar Central Market

The following case studies were selected as examples of


skyscrapers whose architects attempted to mediate between the
modern building typology and the local identity.

4- Abu Dhabi Investment Council Headquarters Towers

Fig 1.9: Abu Dhabi Investment Council Headquarters Towers

Architects: Aedas+Arup architects


CONCEPT: The design of the towers considers both traditional
Height: 476 ft (145m), Client: Abu Dhabi Investment Council
Islamic architecture as well as sustainability. It includes and utilises
Location: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
sustainable techniques, including a state-of-the-art computer
Site area: 11,500sq m
operated shading system. The designers have also striven to fuse
Number of floors: 29 floors
Islamic architecture with the modern design, basing the entire

18

structure of the building on a mixture of two-dimensional circles and

Use: Commercial office use, as well as facilities for a full-service

three dimensional spheres. The entire structure is designed to

restaurant, caf, a fully configured auditorium for up to 150 people,

reflect a single geometric theme. "Our concept for the Abu Dhabi

a multi-use conference space, and prayer rooms for the buildings

Investment

estimated 2,000 office workers.

Council

headquarters

was

generated

from

13

mathematically pre-rationalised form which was in turn derived from


Islamic principles, said Aedas deputy chairman Peter Oborn. Its a
thoroughly modern building rooted in tradition. 12(see Fig. 1.10)

Fig 1.11: Investment-Council-Headquarters-Towers-Ground-Design

Fig 1.10, Investment-Council-Headquarters-Towers-Concept-Design

12

Wordpress Theme, Architecture View , http://www.architectureview.com/2010/10/24/gorgeous-investment-council-headquarters-towers-for-abu-dhabi/,


accessed: Nov 20, 2010.

13

Ibid.

19

by an estimated 20%, and provide 80% to 90% of the shading on

DETAILS

the building. 14

The mashrabiya is made of a translucent fabric mesh


(PFTE), providing occupants closed. The honeycomb design is not
only practical in terms of shading, but is also very resilient and
difficult to damage. 15

These sustainable initiatives will lead to an estimated 20%


reduction in electricity consumption, due to a reduced in the need
Fig 1.13: Faade Layers

for air conditioning and lighting, a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions


Both towers are covered from top to bottom with a dynamic

and a 15% in cooling plant capital cost. 16

mashrabbia screen, which opens and closes in response to the


position of the sun (see Fig. 1.9). The mashrabbia comprises over
1,000 translucent moving elements on each tower and is controlled
by specially designed computer software. It will reduce solar gain
14
15

Ibid.
Ibid.

16

Bridgette Meinhold, Inhabitat, Solar-Powered Crystalline Towers Unveiled for Abu


Dhabi, http://inhabitat.com/solar-powered-crystalline-towers-unveiled-for-abu-dhabi/abudhabi-investment-council-headquarters-towers-13/?extend=1, accessed: Nov 20,2010.

20

Part Two
Context Analysis

21

2.1 Digital Context:

why many design standards and handbooks are used for

2.1.1 Introduction

recommending building orientation, materials and other design

How to make buildings acclimate to the climate has been

strategies for reducing the energy usages of HVAC systems. Since

the challenge of architecture for Thermal comfort. Reducing the

this thesis suggests design of a bio-inspired dynamic envelope

outdoor high temperature differences is still the significance of

system responding to solar radiation and local climate conditions,

building energy efficiency. In particular, there are many locations

and in order to explore the envelope system, this research reviews

with great daily or seasonal variation in climatic temperature. The

important literatures related to biomimetic design in architecture

temperature can swing around 40 C degrees from winter to

and kinetic/interactive building envelope applications.

summer and around 10 C degrees from night to day 17. Currently,

2.1.2 Kinetic Envelope Systems


The

the common strategies for addressing this wide temperature range

optical

and

thermophysical

properties

of

building

of climate are the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning)

envelopes are one of the most important design parameters

systems. Much energy of HVAC system is needed in these

affecting indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation 18.

locations for indoor thermal comfort. There are lots of studies

Regarding the interactive or kinetic envelope, it belongs to the

focusing on the high-tech or high-efficient HVAC system to save

issue of kinetic architecture that initially was first demonstrated by

energy. However, we believe the fundamental point is the building

the literature Kinetic Architecture wrote by William Zuk and Roger

design rather than external treatment like the HAVC system. That is

H. Clark in 1970. It shows a systematic knowledge about kinetic


18

17

Z. Xie, H.-X. Cao, Asymmetric Changes in Maximum and Minimum Temperature in


Beijing, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 1996, vol. 55, pp. 151-156

Gul Koc Zerrin Yilmaz, Building form for cold climatic zones related to building
envelope from heating energy conservation point of view, Energy and Buildings,
2003, vol. 35, pp. 383388.

22

architecture, also proposed a combination between natural

incident sunlight according to the outside daylight illumination

organisms and buildings 19. Building envelopes tend to be smarter

conditions. In the result, the indoor lighting environment will be

with more moving parts, and the main trend driven by kinetic

balanced and save the electrical lighting energy.

envelopes is sustainability and indoor comfort 20. Also, some


practices

and

research

consistently

justify

that

interactive

envelopes can offer promising energy savings and indoor comfort


21 22 23

There are many examples among which the following ones are
worth mentioning. Consider, for instance, eye adaptation that the
pupil controlling the amount of light entering the eyes

24

. This was

Fig 2.1: The kinetic faade of Arab World Institute, Paris

Another example involves automated shades which have the


contributed to design camera shutters and then inspired an
attributes of highly transparent and relatively unarticulated building
interesting faade of Jean Nouvels design, Arab World Institute in
enclosures. At Arizona State University's Bio-design Institute in
Paris (Fig.2.1). The kinetic envelopes will control the amount of
Tempe (Fig 2.2), researchers used interior aluminum louvers
19

William Zuk, Roger H. Clark, Kinetic Architecture. New York: 1970

20

Sullivan, C. C., Robot Buildings. Pursuing the Interactive Envelope, Architectural


Record, 0003858X, 194: Issue 4
21
Thanos Tzempelikos, Integration of Dynamic Facades with other Building

Systems, Automated Buildings Magazine, 2007, May.


22
Sullivan, C. C.
23
Thanos Tzempelikos
24
Carlos Ernesto Ochoa, Isaac Guedi Capeluto, Strategic decisionmaking for
intelligent buildings: Comparative impact of passive design strategies and active
features in a hot climate, Building and Environment, 2008, pp.18291839.

controlled continuously by photocells and sun-tracking embedded


computation instead of the large expanse of window walls at Gould
Evans and Lord Aeck Sargent Architecture. A manual override

23

accessible

through

occupants'

computers

allows

personal

adjustments to be made 25.

extremely good daylight to the office floors through shading


systems and much reduce the need for electrical lighting.

Fig 2.2: Arizona State University's Bio-design Institute in Tempe

In

addition,

Siedlungsund

the

envelope

systems

Wohnungsbaugesellschaft

of

the
(GSW)

Gemeinntzige
headquarters

building(Fig. 2.3), designed by Sauerbruch & Hutton Architects,


demonstrate the views that the envelopes of buildings may like the
Fig 2.3: (GSW) headquarters building

skins of living organisms to breathe, change form, and adapt to

Current intelligent kinetic systems arise from the

26

variations in climate . Its kinetic envelop systems offer the


naturally ventilation for 70 percent of the year, and provide

25

Sullivan, C. C.

isomorphic convergence of three key elements: mechanical


engineering, embedded computation and responsive architecture.
Based on morphology and biology about tissue systems which

26

Michael Wiggington, Jude Harris, Breathing in Berlin, Architecture Week 2003, 0903, pp.
E1.1.

include three basic types- nervous tissue, connective tissue and

24

skin tissue, at the architectural counterpoints, the interactive/kinetic

2.1.3 Parametric Design of BIM (BIMPD)

envelope systems can be also arose from the isomorphic

Most issues related to parametric design is for exploring,

convergence of three key elements: sensor / monitor systems,

representing or optimizing geometric shapes rather than capturing

embedded computation and kinetic components. Sensor/monitor

and describing real architectural needs related to environments or

systems like the biological nervous tissue are to sense and record

occupants

indoor air condition parameters involving pollutants, air flow rate

different area and includes 3D knowledge-rich parametric modeling

and etc. Next embedded computation deemed as connective tissue

information

analyzes the data received from the sensor/monitor systems

constructions and from occupancy activities to environmental

through embedded programs given by designers or users, and in

conditions. Lee and Sacks

turn the kinetic components related to the skin tissue can adjust

and explored the ability of an object in BIM to respond to internal or

their configurations, shaping or composing according to the

external stimuli (i.e., change its form in response to changes in its

commands from embedded computation. Multiple building tissues

context)

of envelopes are grouped together and carry out a specific

environmental conditions. On the other hand, BIM can utilize

acclimated function for outside and inside air condition signals, and

external software to access necessary parameters for building

then form an integral kinetic system, which can be deemed as an

28

27

interactive/kinetic building organ .

27

Bettig B., J. Shah, Derivation of a standard set of geometric constraints for parametric modeling
and data exchange, Computer-Aided Design, 2001, vol.33, pp.17336.

28

29

30

from

through

. However, the term BIMPD is a new and

geometry

31

complex

to

shape,

from

materials

to

extended BIM to domain knowledge

constrains

defined

by

users

or

Ibid.

29

B. Bruderlin, D. Roller (Eds.), Geometric Constraint Solving and Applications, Springer,


Berlin, Germany:1998.
30
J.Y. Lee, K. Kim, Geometric reasoning for knowledge-based parametric design using
graph representation, Computer-Aided Design, 1996, vol. 28, pp. 831 841.
31
Ghang Lee a, et al, Specifying parametric building object behaviour (BOB) for a
building information modeling system, Automation in Construction, 2006, vol.15, pp. 758
776.

25

energy performance analysis. Schlueter & Thesseling

32

developed

2.1.4 Design parameters for kinetic skins

a prototypical tool DPV integrated into a BIM authoring tool

According to Rickey and Dorin in indicating where

(Autodesk Revit) enabling the instantaneous energy simulation and

design decisions of kinetic skins occur and the range of parameters

the visual representation of outputs.

that may require consideration. This preliminary outline is intended

The BIM-based design with parametric methods presents the

to identify the general range of factors to be considered, rather than

possibility of kinetic building configuration for indoor thermal

the prescription for any particular design approach. A flaw of all

comfort according to constraints like the relation between solar

generalist models is that the specificity of each project makes some

radiation

These

aspects redundant. However, as a means to articulate the

configurational changes will be driven by the biologic conceptual

ontological shift that occurs when considering kinetic process as an

manipulation of spatial/configurational, physical/behavioral and

outcome rather than a design aid, the scope of decisions occur

material/constructional aspects of design. Also, this process allows

around three interconnected groups of parameters. As the diagram

discussions of design ideas and analytical tests combined with

below suggests these are:

and

changes

of

multilayer

envelopes.

existing computational techniques like EnergyPlus at multiple

1- Choice of input or sampling;

points during the design process. The BIMPD method ultimately

2- The manner in which these samples are processed by

results

in

an

iterative

design

process

supporting

kinetic

the control system;

conceptualization, materialization, and construction information.


32

Arno Schlueter, Frank Thesseling, Building information model based energy/exergy


performance assessment in early design stages, Automation in Construction, 2009,
vol.18, pp.153163.

26

3- The tectonic or constructional logic and appearance of


the skin 33.

tradition as a form of public art and there exists an opportunity to


sample a range of cultural inputs as well as environmental stimuli.
Environmental input would necessarily be related to the local, while
cultural input could sample both the global and the local. The
design of the input mechanism will obviously be dependent on
application, but considering this in terms of a full set of possibilities
makes explicit that this is a design parameter and specification
excludes or includes opportunities 34.

Fig 2.4: Design parameters for kinetic skins

On control:

On sampling:

If there is some form of mediation between input and

What data will constitute the physical and what Anders

resultant affect, how might this meet aesthetic as well as

has termed virtual space events of the interactive skin and how

performative criteria? There may be an opportunity for auto-poesies

will these be captured or sampled? A range of physical sensors are

in which the aesthetic is to a degree, emergent. Alternatively the

available, tuned to environmental data, physical movement or

personal aesthetic of the designer may be embedded in a similar

requiring direct interaction. These can be complimented by data

manner to, for example, such proportional systems as used by

networks that allow access to remote data. Architecture has a long

Palladio or Le Corbusier. Thus the control system would be located

33

within the spectrum of top-down, in which particular criteria are

JULES MOLONEY, BUIILDING SKINS AS KINETIC PROCESS, The University of


Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.
34

Ibid.

27

directed and bottom-up approaches where parameters are set for


the evolution of behaviour 35.
On tectonics:
What technology is available to implement an interactive
skin? Typically, composition in architectural design is based on a
tectonic approach in which the aesthetic is largely based on
fabrication methods, articulation of joints, and materials. As
evidenced by the Arab Institute faade by Jean Nouvel, this attitude
to engendering aesthetics can be extended to environmental
control systems. Similarly the example of the BIX electronic skin by

Fig 2.6: The BIX electronic skin by Peter Cook

The interactive skin can be manifest in either physical or

Peter Cook et al indicates the tectonic design of electronic displays


can in itself be important (Fig 2.6).

electronic form and both require detailed design in terms of their


physical appearance as well as their performance. We can make a
broad

distinction

between

passive

systems

with

minimal

mechanics such as the wind walls of artist Ned Kahn (Fig 2.5-E)
and more complex mechanical systems such as the Agesis
Hyposurface (Fig 2.5-F).
35

Ibid.

28

In order to evaluate and develop this conceptual model for


the design of kinetic skins, the next stage will be to undertake a
taxonomy of available technology using the sampling / control /
tectonic categories. It is anticipated this will produce a useful
design resource, but also act as a research methodology, flushing
out gaps for the development of new design approaches and
technology 36.

2.2 Social and Cultural Context of Skyscrapers


2.2.1 History and Technology
The term "skyscraper" was first used during the 1880s,
shortly after the first 10 to 20 story buildings were built in the United
States. Combining several innovations: steel structure, elevators,
Fig 2.5: A/B-sampling data from sensors and information portals; C/D-visual programming
interface controlling prototype facade (Janssen and Kramer); E-tectonic wind wall (Ned
Kahn); F- agesis hyposurface (Gaulthorpe et al)

central heating, electrical plumbing pumps and the telephone,


skyscrapers came to dominate American skylines at the turn of the
century 37.

36
37

Ibid.
Dirk Stichweh, New York Skyscrapers, Prestel: Munich, Berlin, London, New York, 2009

29

An early development was Oriel Chambers in Liverpool.


Designed by local architect Peter Ellis in 1864, the building was the
world's first iron-framed, glass curtain-walled office building. It was
only 5 floors high as the elevator had not been invented. Further
developments led to the world's first skyscraper, the ten-storey
Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 18841885. The
architect, Major William Le Baron Jenney, created a load-bearing
structural frame. In this building, a steel frame supported the entire
weight of the walls, instead of load-bearing walls carrying the
weight of the building. This development led to the "Chicago
skeleton" form of construction 38.
Sullivan's Wainwright Building in St. Louis, 1891, was the
first steel-framed building with soaring vertical bands to emphasize
the height of the building , and is, therefore, considered by some to
be the first true skyscraper 39 (Fig 2.7).

fig 2.7: Sullivan's Wainwright Building

Most early skyscrapers emerged in the land-strapped areas


of Chicago, London, and New York toward the end of the 19th
century. Height limits and fire restrictions were later introduced.
London builders soon found building heights limited due to a
complaint from Queen Victoria, rules that continued to exist with
few exceptions until the 1950s. Concerns about aesthetics and fire

38
39

Ibid
Ibid

safety had likewise hampered the development of skyscrapers

30

across continental Europe for the first half of the twentieth century
(with the notable exceptions of the 26-storey Boerentoren in
Antwerp, Belgium, built in 1932, and the 31-storey Torre Piacentini
in Genoa, Italy, built in 1940). New York City developers competed
among themselves, with successively taller buildings claiming the
title of "world's tallest" in the 1920s and early 1930s, culminating
with the completion of the Chrysler Building in 1930 and the Empire
State Building in 1931, the world's tallest building for forty years.
The first completed World Trade Center tower became the world's
tallest building in 1972 for two years. That changed with the
completion of the Sears Tower (later renamed the Willis Tower) in
Chicago in 1974(Fig. 2.8), which became the world's tallest building
for several decades 40.

Fig 2.8: Sears Tower

From the 1930s onwards, skyscrapers also began to appear


in Latin America and in Asia. Immediately after World War II, the
Soviet Union planned eight massive skyscrapers dubbed "Stalin
Towers" for Moscow; seven of these were eventually built. The rest
of Europe also slowly began to permit skyscrapers, starting with
Madrid, in Spain, during the 1950s. Finally, skyscrapers also began
to be constructed in cities of Africa, the Middle East and Oceania

40

Ibid

(mainly Australia) from the late 1950s.

31

In the early 1960s structural engineer Fazlur Khan realized

London in the United Kingdom, Shanghai in China, Dubai in the

that the rigid steel frame structure that had "dominated tall building

United Arab Emirates which now the location of the tallest building

design and construction so long was not the only system fitting for

in the world, Burj Dubai, about 2000 ft. 42 (Fig. 2.9).

tall buildings", marking "the beginning of a new era of skyscraper


revolution in terms of multiple structural systems." His central
innovation in skyscraper design and construction was the idea of
the "tube" structural system, including the "framed tube", "trussed
tube", and "bundled tube". These systems allowed far greater
economic efficiency, and also allowed efficient skyscrapers to take
on various shapes, no longer needing to be box-shaped. Over the
next fifteen years, many towers were built by Khan and the
"Second Chicago School", including the massive 442-meter (1,451foot) Willis Tower. 41
Fig 2.9: Lift: Taipei 101 tower, right: Burg Dubai

A landmark skyscraper can inspire a boom of new high-rise


projects in its city, as Taipei 101 has done in Taipei since its
opening in 2004 (Fig. 2.9). Large cities currently experiencing

The 21st century is now bringing together, new elements:


smart skin, responsive materials, parametric design in curtain wall
technology, customization and digital fabrication. Tall buildings will

skyscraper building booms include Miami in the United States,


41

Ibid

42

Ibid

32

use smart skins that will respond to changes, environmental and

environmental concerns have expanded beyond the issue of the

emotional. Smarter programmable elevators will distribute traffic

consumption of non-renewable energy sources. Sustainability

more efficiently vertically and travellators will do the same

essentially aims for ecological balance 45.

horizontally, between the lobbies of clustered skyscrapers 43.

High Performance Tall Building:


Environmental awareness extends to both the urban

2.2.2 Sustainable Skyscrapers


In 1983, the UN established the World Commission on

environment and the context in which a tall building is placed as

Environment and Development in an attempt to resolve the

well as its interior environment. The issues of outdoor microclimate

conflicts arising out of the aspirations of the developed and

and indoor air quality as well as the potential toxicity of materials

developing worlds. In 1989 they published Our Common Future or

and chemicals used in building components, systems, and

Report 44,

of

furnishings are also of concern to the building users. In a broad

sustainable development and was reinforced in 1992 at Earth

sense the term green is often used for a sustainable, which

Summit in Rio. It called for Development which meets the needs of

essentially describes design, construction and

the present generation without compromising the ability of future

practices that minimize or eliminate the negative impact of a

generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable architecture is

building on the environment and on the users. Tall buildings are

environmentally conscious, energy-saving, and utilizes responsive

massive consumers of energy. They are the dominant elements in

and

urban architecture due to their scale and purpose, and should be

the

43

44

Brundtland

renewable

materials

which

and

launched

systems.

the

concept

Ecological

and

maintenance

Ibid

Wced, Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and Development,


Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. WILLIAMSON, T., RADFORD. A., and BENNETTS,
H., (2003).

45

NewmanMAN, P. Sustainability and Cities: The Role of Tall Buildings in the New
Global Agenda. Proceedings of the CTBUH Sixth World Congress, Melbourne, Australia,
2001, pp. 76-109.

33

the focus of sustainable design. A high performance tall building is

Maximum advantage can be taken of daylight by shaping the plan

one that achieves the peak efficiency of building functions while

arrangement of a building to suit the activities within. The fabric of

meeting the requirements of optimum performance employing

the faade and the area assigned to windows is of ultimate concern

green technologies. Some overall benefits of high performance

in gathering sunlight. The form and the orientation of the building in

design

relation to the seasonal paths of the sun across the sky has a

are:

energy

efficiency,

design

flexibility,

resource

conservation, indoor environmental quality, etc. 46.

significant impact on the thermal value and performance 48.

Design Factors

Structure and Material Preferences: There is a relationship that

The principal design factors that are crucial for achieving a

needs to be investigated in each buildingparticularly tall building

high performance tall building are site context, environment,

in which the structural framework is enormous. For example, the

structure and use of materials, energy consumption, use of water,

core provides structural stability and its positioning is important for

ecological balance, community development, etc. and the design

sustainability 49. To capture cold night air in desert-like climate and

factors assume different forms, such as conceptual, schematic,

harvesting it as cooling energy during occupied hours, a massive

physical, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural 47.

concrete structure can be employed. Also, a steel framed structure

Strategies for Achieving Sustainability in High Rise Buildings

can be made of recycled content. Steel and reinforced concrete

The following are a few strategies that can be adopted to


accomplish sustainable tall buildings. Passive Solar Gain:
46

DONALDSON, B. and LIPPE, P. Process and Integration, Lessons Learned: High


Performance Buildings. The Durst Organization. New York, NY, 2000.
47
Mir M. Ali and Paul J. Armstrong, Overview of Sustainable Design Factors in HighRise Buildings, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2008.

buildings are typically the materials of choice.


48

Deshmukh, N., Energy Conservation of Moderately Tall Office Buildings, Masters


Thesis, School of Architecture. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL,
1992.
49
Beedle, L.S., ALI, M.M., and ARMSTRONG, P.J., The Skyscraper and the City:
Design, Technology, and Innovation. Edwin Mellen Press. Ceredigion, U.K and Lewston,
NY, 2007.

34

Faade Technology: Daylighting and shading are usually the key

can be applied as well to the considerable loads of individual tall

aspects to faade design for typical green buildings. The faade

buildings or groups of tall buildings where the electricity load and

covers over 90 to 95 percent of the external building surface area in

annual cooling requirements are similar. A typical distribution of

a tall building, that is, the roof area is almost insignificant compared

total energy output from a CHP system is shown in Table 1 51.

to faade areas. Thus, the energy gain or loss for a tall building
depends very much upon the materiality and technology employed
in the faade treatment 50.

Table 1: Energy Output Distribution of CHP System

Combined Heat and Power: A highly efficient technology for

Rainwater harvesting collects the rain onto roofs, then stores it in

energy saving in densely built-up urban areas is the Combined

a tank, intended for eventual use. The recycled water is used for

Heat and Power (CHP) system. CHP is the simultaneous

toilets, washing machine and outside tap use. Grey water recycling

production of power, heat and, occasionally, chilled water for air-

is another process in which water from bath, shower, and hand

conditioning, and is also known as co- or tri-generation. CHP

wash basin is reused. This grey water is more suited to residential

avoids transmission losses as electricity is generated close to the

tall buildings in which sufficient amounts are generated regularly for

point of use.The result of using CHP systems is a cost saving and

reuse in toilets, washing machines and outside tap 52.

reduction of CO2 emissions of over 30 percent with respect to


generation from coal-fired power stations and over 10 percent with
respect to gas fired combined cycle gas turbines. CHP technology
50

Ibid

51

Smith, P. P. (2007). Sustainability at the Cutting Edge: Emerging Techniques for


Low Energy Buildings. Elsevier. London, New York et. al
52
Ibid

35

Building Management Systems


Innovative building technologies such as computer-based
smart or intelligent building systems can play a major role in

building complexes or for a number of similar buildings in outlying


areas 53.

Case Studies

managing the energy usage. The increasing reliance on computer

A new generation of sustainable tall buildings is

technology and automated systems can be directed toward

challenging conventional high-rise building practices and setting

achieving a sustainable functioning of skyscrapers. The Building

trends for future projects incorporating innovations in materials and

Management System (BMS) is a centralized control system to

intelligent building systems. Menara Mesiniaga: Ken Yeang and T.

manage the operations of the various building systems such as fire

R. Hamzah were among the first architects to apply ecological

protection, security, communication networks, elevators, HVAC

principles to their bioclimatic skyscrapers. The Menara Mesiniaga

systems, etc. The environmental data collection and control system

in Subang, Malaysia (Fig. 2.10), designed in 1992, presents an

is usually incorporated within the BMS which can also be used to

early model building for the physical translation of ecological

control more passive features like opening windows and shading

principles into high-rise architecture 54.

devices. The component of the BMS that deals with energy-related


services is controlled by the Building Energy Management System
(BEMS), also known as the Energy Management and Control
System (EMCS), which may in some circumstances function
autonomously. The control system need not to be located on-site
53

and the supervision of the system can be centrally for multiple

54

Ibid
Abel, C. Sky High: Vertical Architecture. Royal Academy ofArts. London, 2003.

36

suspended aluminum sunscreens on the south facade ward off the


direct rays of the noon and afternoon sun into the interior 55.
Swiss

Reinsurance

Headquarters:

Foster

and

Partners

developed new technological, urban planning, and ecological


design concepts in the Swiss Reinsurance Headquarters building
(see Figure 3) constructed in 2004 in London. The steel spiral
diagrid structure creates an aerodynamic form that provides the
Figure 2.10: Menara Mesiniaga, Kuala Lumpur, 1992, T. R. Hamzah & Yeang.

lowest resistance to wind and diminishes demands on the loadThe fifteen-story tower expresses its technological innovations on

bearing structure, as well as the danger of strong downward winds

its exterior and uses as little energy as possible in the production

in the area around the building. The net-like steel construction of

and running of the building. Instead of a continuous facade, the

the load-bearing structure lies directly behind the glass faade and

building open and closes in sections arranged in stages around the

allows support-free spaces right up to the core. The most

tower. It has an exterior load-bearing structure of steel with

innovative element in the inner structure is the inclusion of

aluminium and glass, and a crowning superstructure for the roof,

triangular light shafts behind the facade, which spiral upwards over

planned as a future support for solar cells. The interior and exterior

the whole height of the building. These light and air shafts are

structure of the tower is planned around climatic considerations and

interrupted every six stories by an intermediate floor, to minimize

its orientation toward the daily path of the sun. Deep incisions and

the development of drafts and noise.


55

Ibid

37

The slimming of the buildings profile at its base reduces


reflections,

improves

transparency,

and

increase

daylight

penetration at ground level. The aerodynamic form of the tower


encourages wind to flow around its face, minimizing wind loads on
the structure and cladding, and enables the use of a more efficient
structure. Natural air movement around the building generates
natural ventilation within the building 56.
The Solaire: Located at Battery Park in New York City, the Solaire
(see Figure 5) is the first residential high-rise building in the U.S. to
integrate green features in a comprehensive way (Carey, 2006). It
is a 27-story, 293-unit luxury apartment building located on the
Hudson River developed by the Albanese Organization and
designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates. Its sustainable features
include PV panels incorporated into the buildings facade, a planted
roof garden, and fully operational blackwater treatment system. It is
based on guidelines developed by the Battery Park City Authority,
which address five areas of concern: 1) Enhanced indoor air
Figure 2.11: Swiss Reinsurance Headquarters, London, U.K., 2004, Fosterand Partners.
56

Foster, N. Modeling the Swiss Re Tower, Architecture Week, www.architectureweek.com, 2005.

38

quality; 2) Water conservation and purification; 3) Energy efficiency;

The Pearl River Tower: The Pearl River Tower (Fig. 2.13) is a

4) Recycling construction waste and the use of recycled building

990-foot (300-meter) tall net-zero energy mixed-use building,

materials; and 5) Commissioning to ensure building performance 57.

Guangzhou, China. Designed by Adrian Smith and Skidmore,


Owings & Merrill, it has a curved glass faade that directs air flow
through narrow openings in the facade that drives large, stainless
steel wind turbines to generate electrical energy. The buildings
aerodynamic shape, was developed in collaboration with Rowan
Williams Davis & Irwin, Inc. of Ontario, Canada using the RWDISkin suite of proprietary analysis tools, including its Virtual wind
simulation modeling (RWDI Group, 2007) 58.

Figure 2.13: Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China, 2010


Figure 2.12 : The Solaire, Battery Park, New York City, 2003
58
57

Carey, H. L. The Solaire: Green By Design. Battery Park City Authority, New York, 2006.

Rwdi Group, Promotion brochure, Spring, SLOCOMBE, D.S. , Environmental Planning:


Ecosystem Science and Ecosystem Approaches for Integrating Environment and Development.
Environmental Management. 17(3), 2007, pp. 283-303.

39

2.3 Context Analysis of Tripoli City, Libya

western cities of the Arab world and between European and African

2.3.1 Background

cities

2.3.2 Brief History

Africa. It has a good strategic geographical position and a profound


history. Tripoli lies at a latitude of 32 56 north, and a longitude of
13 10 east and is on the south coast of the Mediterranean Sea in a

(see Fig 2.1).

Fig 2.15: Tripoli links between European and African cities

Fig. 2.14: Tripoli citys skyline

Tripoli is the largest and the capital city of Libya, North

59

Tripolis history reflects the history of the country. It has


known ups and downs but its historical architectural monuments
are a testimony to the great Libyan civilisation. Tripoli was founded

central position. It forms a vital link between the eastern and


59

Temehu, Tripoli: The Bride of The Mediterranean,


www.temehu.com/Cities_sites/Tripoli.htm

40

by the Phoenicians in the first half of the first millennium B.C. under

2.3.3Economy

the name of Oea. Among the Greeks Oea, together with the

Tripoli is the countrys principal commercial, industrial, and

colonies of Sabratha and Leptis Magna, was called Tripolis (in

financial center. It is a port, and it is a highway junction. The city

Greek, three cities), a name that was retained for Oea. In 105

has an international airport. About 75 percent of Libyas industrial

B.C., it was conquered by the Romans. In the fifth century A.D., it

enterprises are concentrated in Tripoli. The Libyan economy

was conquered by the Vandals, and during the sixth and seventh

depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which

centuries it was part of the Byzantine Empire. In the seventh

contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of

century it became part of the Arab Caliphate. From 1551 to 1911,

GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. Libyan oil and gas licensing

Tripoli was part of the Ottoman Empire. In October 1911, the city

rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil

was captured by the Italian Army, which remained there until 1943,

Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million

when British troops took over. Until Libyas declaration of

bbl/day by 2015 61.

independence (1951), Tripoli was one of the centers of the national


GDP: $74.72 billion (2010est.)
liberation struggle. It was a capital of the Kingdom of Libya from
GDP growth rate: 8.5%
December 1951 until Sept. 1, 1969, when it became the capital of
the Libyan Arab Republic 60.

Industries: petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles,


handicrafts, cement
Agriculture: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables,
peanuts, soybeans; cattle.

60

Ibid.

61

About Libya, http://www.lipoexpo.com/1st/libya.html, accessed on Des. 12, 2010

41

Exports: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas 62

2.3.5 The Geology, Soil and Topography


Geology: Tripolis land consists different layers, the most important
one is the sand rock which is on the top. Its allows rain water to
drain and gather under the ground and creates wells 64.
Soil: The soil of Tripoli is suitable for agriculture 65.
Topography: The city of Tripoli rises 49 feet above sea level and
mostly flat 66.
2.4.6 Climate: Tripoli gets under the influence of the subtropical zone.
The climate of Tripoli is Mediterranean with hot dry summers, cool
winters and some modest rainfall. Weather can be variable,
influenced by the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea which
moderates daily temperature ranges. The percentage of humidity is

Fig 2.16: Oil exports from Libya

between 53%-72% and it is higher in the summer. The temperature


in Tripoli is between 8 -18 Celsius in the winter, and sometimes
2.3.4 Demography: The Tripoli metropolitan area (district area)
has a population of 1,682,000 (Feb, 2010 est.) 63.

becomes 46 Celsius in the summer. Rainfall in Libya is pretty low.


63

62

Ibid

True Knowledge, Tripolis population in 2010,


http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/tripoli's_population_in_2010, accessed on December 14,
2010.
64
Ibid
65
Ibid
66
Hosam Bsimam, The Old City of Tripoli: (Tripoli, 2006).

42

Much of the rain occurs in winters. The average annual


precipitation is less than 100 mm 67.

Fig 2.17: Temperature and rainfall averages, Tripoli, Libya

2.4.7 The residential land use change in Tripoli.


The residential area in the city of Tripoli had been on
Table 2: Weather average conditions of Tripoli, Libya

increase between 1969 and 2005. In 1969 the residential land use

The following bar chart shows the years average weather


was at 1,126.8 hectares or 7.6% of the total city area. This figure
condition

readings

covering

rain,

average

maximum

daily
climbed in 1980 to 4,573.3 hectare or 30.8% of the total area, and

temperature and average minimum temperature for Tripoli, Libya. 68


to 6,783.3 hectares or 45.7% in 2005 69.

69
67
68

Ibid
BBC Weather, http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT00033

GEOGRAFIA Online, Malaysian Journal of Society and Space 4 (71 - 84) 2008,
Changes in residential land-use of Tripoli city, Libya: 1969-2005
http://pkukmweb.ukm.my/geografia/images/upload/7.2008-osama%20kh%20ali-english1.pdf

43

Fig 2.18: Tripoli residential land use between 1960-2005

Fig. 2.19: The main entrance to the Medina, known as Bab Al-Hurriyah (the Freedom Gate)
the earliest fortified wall around the town was built in the 4th century.

The Madina or the historic city of Tripoli, now occupies the


2.3.8 Architectural and Urban Fabric of Tripoli, New versus old
site of ancient Oea which was built by the Phoenicians in the
Al-Madina (The Old City of Tripoli)
seventh century BC. In 46 BC Tripoli was captured by the Romans
The northwestern part of Tripoli is the Old City, or Madina,
who developed the city and built many temples, markets and public
which was rebuilt during the second half of the 16th century. It is
baths surrounded by residential buildings. The Ottoman presence
located on a rocky cape and is walled on two sides. (See Fig. 2.6)
that followed lasted until 1911, and most of the existing mosques
In the south and southeast is the New City, with public and
and public buildings were constructed during this period. Suburbs
commercial buildings, as well as residences.
began to spring up outside the walls at the end of the 19th century.
The ramparts were damaged during the Italian presence and when
it was bombed during the Second World War. The old city of Tripoli

44

was designed along the lines of other Arab cities. Its narrow streets

celebrations throughout the year which also link people with their

are often covered and vaulted to shore up the walls of adjoining

heritage.

houses 70.

The unique space design in the Islamic Madina cannot be

The Islamic walled city or Madina possesses important

found in other medieval or historic cities. The space is well defined

environmental and aesthetic characteristics. In the Madina both

and organized with attention to privacy and community, its ancient

resident and visitor alike can experience and enjoy the city's most

designers recognizing its inhabitants' cultural and social needs.

significant architectural values, its design, style, building materials,

These values make the city worthy of being conserved and

skilled workmanship, beauty and uniqueness. A variety of buildings

promoted for today's use 71. Among Tripolis ancient architectural

and other features of the Madina serve to remind people about the

landmarks are the Marcus Aurelius triumphal arch (A.D. 163164),

past, providing insight into the culture and history of previous

the Karamanli Palace (1736), the Gurgi Mosque (1833), and the

generations. These features show the different activities of people

Castle, or Citadel (first centuries A.D.; rebuilt in the 14th, 16th, and

who lived and worked in the Madina many centuries ago. In

20th centuries).

addition to its distinctive architectural values, the Madina has a high

Marcus Aurelius Arch

spiritual and symbolic significance based upon its history. Sense of

The arch is dating back to 163-164 AD, and its served as

place and continuity through time are well expressed. The Madina

entrance to the city. It was the only one of Oea. The arch contains

still hosts many special, long-standing cultural events and


70

The World Heritage Center, UNESCO


,http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/file_download.php/3e14cf4c9202cf4efa37a11a6e2135a
0Newsletter+no9.htm, accessed on December 13, 2010

71

Temehu, Tripoli: The Bride of The Mediterranean,


www.temehu.com/Cities_sites/Tripoli.htm, accessed on Dec. 13,2010.

45

fine decorations, showing Apollo and Minerva. Now-empty niches

consulate for the Italian state of Tuscany. The house was restored

contained statues of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus 72.

during the early 1990s and became known as Tripoli Historical


Exhibition 73.

Fig 2.21: Karamanli Palace,

Fig 2.20: Marcus Aurelius arch

Karamanli Palace
Gurji Mosque:
Karamanli palace is dating back to the early 19th century,
built by Yusuf Karamanli. Some rooms on the 1st floor have been

The mosque of Gurji is Located west of Marcus Aurelius' , it

turned into exhibits with dolls acting out everyday life. The

was built by Mustapha Gorji in 1834 AD, who was the head of the

Karamanli family ruled Tripoli through most of 18th and half way

port. The building includes a school and a tomb (or a grave) of the

through the 19th century. With their fall, the house became

founder. The project completed the maintenance and restoration of

72

Liberty International, Libya, Tripoli, www.liberty-international.org/libya/excursionstripolitania/, accessed on Dec. 13, 2010.

73

Ibid

46

this architectural group in the year 1994. The building is considered

assumed that the first fortress was built in the 7th century, to

one of the best examples of Islamic stone carvings and floral motifs

protect against the Muslim Arab invasion of Libya.

in the capital 74 (Fig. 2.22).

Fig 2, 23: The Red Castel, Tripoli, Libya

At least until the 17th century, it appears that all sides of the
fortress were surrounded by water. Much of the present structure
dates back to the 18th and 19th centuries, the plan is distinctly
Fig 2.22: Right: The main hall of Gurji mosque, Lift: Islamic Inscriptions in the mosque

The Red Castel:


The castle of Tripoli, known as Assai al-Hamra or the Red
Castle, has been the fortress of many lords of this region through
the centuries. It was briefly the stronghold of Christian knights in
the 16th century, only to be expelled by Muslim pirates. It is

Ottoman and includes a mosque, harem and numerous courtyards.


Additions by each ruling group in Tripoli give the building an
eclectic but beautiful style (Fig 2.23). The castel is today used by
the Jamahiriya Museum 75.
Modern Tripoli
In the face of rapid economic development, population
growth, people's increasing needs and changing lifestyles, large

74

Ibid

75

Ibid

47

concrete buildings and busy streets dominate the new part of the
city. The old city is nearby (Fig. 2.24, 2.25), but these roads and
structures have a distinctly modern feel. Buildings are popping up
at a furious rate, in an effort to draw investors and demonstrate
Libya's success as an independent, self-sufficient nation.

Fig. 2.25: The style of high-rise buildings in modern Tripoli

The modern city of Tripoli has been heavily influenced by


the global city type. Dominant urban features include commercial
city centers, multistory residential buildings, large shopping malls,
wide boulevards, an extensive network of highways, and sprawling
Fig. 2.24: The modern shore of Tripoli reflecting the contrast between the old and new
buildings of the city

new suburbs. However, the residential concrete and glass boxes


that have been built in the modern part of the city dont
accommodate the local life style, inconsequence, nobody likes to
live in these undesired boxes, and people who occupy these blocks

48

are either immigrants or needy people, who cannot afford their own

The most notable pieces of contemporary architecture in

houses because of the high land cost. This kind of unintended

modern Tripoli can be found on Tripoli's waterfront in the

ignorance of the city context and the local culture leads the city to

northwestren part of the city, close to the port and the old

lose its unique identity.

madina. Alfateh tower, a 26-floor office building was built in


1998, and it is one of the most famous towers in the city.
Alfateh tower was the tallest building in the city until 2010,
when the tower of Abulaila was built as a 34 - floor investment
tower.

Fig. 2.26: Residential high-rise buildings in modern Tripoli

Fig. 2.28: Right, Alfateh tower. Lift: Abulaila tower

Fig2.27: Commercial and Residential high-rise building in the modern part of Tripoli

49

Projects in progress:
The following are some pictures that show some of Tripolis

Hydra Tripoli Tower


Location: Tripoli

ongoing high-rise buildings style, most of these projects are still under

Use: mixed-use tower includes: retail, hospitality, and offices 76.

construction, and they are representing the new generation of Tripolis

Number of floors: 45 floors

architecture. Most of these buildings continue to be designed as vertical

Status: Under construction

extrusions of an efficient floor plan and some of the modern ones are
iconic pieces of high-rise urban sculptures, and no one of them is
inspired by place, culture, or environment.

Fig. 2.30: Hydra Tripoli Tower

Medina Tower high rise development in Tripoli


Location: Tripoli/Libya
Fig. 2.29:10-story residential building is under construction. (Picture: Sep. 07, 2010)

76

Walid El-Tigi / Yasser Fathy, Hydra Properties unveils Tripoli Towers in Libya,
zawea.com, Zawya,
http://www.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20081124090455/Hydra%20Properties%20unv
eils%20Tripoli%20Towers%20in%20Libya, accessed: Des 04, 2010

50

Use: Mixed-use includes apartments, a health club, offices, retail


space, conference and food and beverage facilities 77.
Number of floors: 40 floors
Site area: 12,500 square metres
Status: under construction
New proposed skyscrapers on the sea front of the city

Fig. 2.31: Medina Tower, Tripoli, Libya

Fig. 2.32: The new skyscrapers of Tripoli (some of them are under construction): dwarfing
Boulayla and Alfatah towers.
JW.Marriott Hotel (bottom right)

77

Sidell Gibson Architects, Medina Towers, Tripoli,


http://www.sidellgibson.co.uk/projects/hotels-and-overseas/medina-towers-tripoli.php,
accessed on Des. 10, 2010.

51

Part Three
Site Analysis
52

3.1 General Information


Location: Tripoli, Libya, North Africa

3.2 Site Description:


The chosen site of the living skyscraper is around

Latitude: +32.83

19400sq.ft. (18600sq.m.) of land on the northwest part of Tripolis

Longitude: +13.08

waterfront. The site was carefully selected to serve the main goal of

Time zone: UTC+2 hours

the project--that is, to provide residents with an opportunity to live


according to their unique, traditional lifestyle, The site is located in
the heart of Libyas capital, facing Tripolis coastline and at the
junction of the old city of Tripoli (medina) and its modern area.
Being close to the old city is intended to provide its
residents with great cultural access. The site and the projected
skyscraper will be visible from both the modern city and from the
ancient site. From either of these two vantage points, the living
skyscraper utilizes the opposite area as a background and faces
the other. Consequently, besides bridging the past and present, the
living skyscraper will establish a dialogue between these different
eras. The choice of this site is an appropriate way of connecting the

Fig 3.1: The proposed site, Tripoli, Libya, North Africa

new building with its source of inspiration. Moreover, the stunning

53

view of Tripoli's waterfront afforded by the site is an additional


incentive for the choice of the site.

The selected site is placed in the high-rise building district in


the current land-use map of the city of Tripoli (Fig. 3.3). 78

At

present, the site is under excavation in preparation for the


The tower will be constructed in Tripolis central business
construction of the new tower (Fig 3.7).
district a short walks distance from the city's main square, as well
as the Gold Market. It will be 10 minutes away from Matiga Airport,
20 minutes away from the international airport, and within walking
distance of public transportation to all the citys localities.

Fig 3.3: Tripolis district heights map

Fig3.2: Zooming further to the site

78

Tripoli City Centres Urban and Architectural Charter, Tripoli urban fabric
map, http://www.iau-idf.fr/index.php?id=615&etude=717, accessed on Jan 10,
2011.

54

3.3 Land-Use map

Since the site is located in Tripolis central business


district, diverse land uses, such as commercial, residential,
manufacturing, religious, and public gardens, are found in its
vicinity. The elevations of these buildings are from two-story
existing buildings to forty-story towers currently under
construction.
The site is flanked by the 28-story Corinthia Hotel to
the northeast , the two-story gold market to the east, 10-floor

Fig 3.4: Land-use map

3.4 Circulation Map

residential towers from the south, Dat el-Emad, a 20-floor


office building, to the west, and 40-floor mixed-use high-rise
buildings which are under constructing to the southeast. 79

Fig 3.5: Circulation map


79

Ibid

55

3.5 Sun Path


- Winter: 34 degrees
- Summer: 81 degrees 80

Fig 3.6: Sun path of Tripoli city

3.6 Prevailing Wind Direction:


East wind is the prevailing wind in Tripoli city. 81

Fig. 3.7 Prevailing wind, Tripoli, Libya

Wind speed: 5m/s

80

GAISMA, Surt, Libya. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/surt.html, accessed Jan. 24,


2011.
81

Ecotect Software

56

3.7 Views from the site

3.8 Views toward the site:

Fig 3.8: Views from the site

Fig3.9: Views toward the site

57

3.9

In order to compare the total solar radiation amount that the

Environment Simulations

building receives based on its form, four schematic forms are

Building Form Studies:


3.9.1

placed on the site, square, cylinder, two squares, and two

Solar radiation analysis


Since Tripoli (located at 32
56 N, and 13 10 E) is in the

cylinders. Second step was applying the solar radiation simulations

subtropical zone, it is undeniable that we are facing a problems in

on each form in two different times, winter December 21 and

the term of sun, it has high monthly temperatures and high diurnal

summer June 21

temperature ranges. 82 Therefore it is more important to prevent


The simulation results reveal that west orientation in the
solar radiation from overheating the building surfaces.
summer is the most critical part to be protected than other parts
For a high-rise built form, vertical surface is most critically
(Fig 3.10), while the south elevation is the most one exposed to the
exposed to the full impact of external temperatures and global
sun in winter (Fig 3.11). For the form, the results show that the
direct solar radiation, thus this study investigates on the impacts of
cylinder form collected lowest amount of solar radiation while
solar radiation towards the building form and orientation.

The
square form received the highest amounts of solar radiation, also

computer program Vasari v5 was applied to simulate the intensity


the results indicate that splitting the building to two towers and
and distribution pattern of cumulative incident solar radiation on
orienting one tower behind the other, reduces solar radiation
vertical surfaces.
amount and increases the shaded area.

82

Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Climate Classification and Climatic Regions of the


World". Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition.
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html , accessed on March 10,
2011.

58

Summer, June 21 at 4:00 pm

Fig 3.10: Summer solar radiation study result

Winter, December 21 at 1:00

Fig 3.11: Winter solar radiation study result

59

3.9.2

Shadow Study:

Summer, June 21, at (10:00am, 12:00pm, 4:00pm)

Fig 3.12: Summer shadow study result

Winter, December 21, at (10:00am, 12:00pm, 4:00pm)

Fig 3.13: Winter shadow study result

60

3.9.3 Wind Study: Prevailing wind direction: East


Wind speed: 5 m/s
-

Velocity :

Pressure :

Fig 3.14: Pressure study result

Fig 3.15: velocity study result

61

Part Four
Programming

62

4.1 General Overview of Needs and Desires:

intervals. This form of urban design is an optimal form of desert

The cultural base of the community will have a great impact

architecture that minimizes hot climate effects. It also maximizes

on the programming of The Living Skyscraper because culture is

daytime shade, and insulates the fabric from severe winter

also a kind of groundwork that separates neighborhoods,

temperatures 83.

communities, and cities. Just as the design of the physical


elements of the building hopes to connect the building to the site,
the program of the building

will also be established with a

connection to its context. The climate and surroundings will also


help create a unique mesh of the program with the exterior.
The project aims to establish a community node, a center that
gathers people to a common place. The program of this vertical
neighbourhood, The Living Skyscraper, is inspired by the
composition of the traditional streets component of the old city of

Fig 4.1: An example of Tripolis narrow traditional streets

Tripoli.

Streets in the old city of Tripoli often radiate from public

4.2 Tripolis Traditional Street Component:


The fabric of Tripoli's old city is composed of narrow winding
streets with high walls of brick (Fig 4.1), usually roofed at various

squares. All public facilities such as mosques, suqs (markets),


hamams (public baths), teahouses and schools are found within

83

Temehu, Tripoli, http://www.temehu.com/Cities_sites/Tripoli.htm , accessed December


12, 2010.

63

these squares (Fig. 4.2). From the public squares, streets branch in

sizes. The design of these units will be inspired by the unique

different directions to include the residential units which are

Islamic style that accommodates suitable levels of privacy, desired

generally grouped around small squares where neighbours,

access to nature, and natural lighting and ventilation.

families members and children can meet and spend time

2- Commercial:

together 84.

Suq: the building will include a retail (suq) that supplies the
occupants with their daily needs. It is intended that the suq will
enhance the local neighborhood by providing additional commercial
facilities.
Restaurants:
The Living Skyscraper will include three restaurants will be
distributed inside the tower
3- Cultural and educational:
Fig 4.2: One of Tripolis medina streets

4.3 Program Summary:


1- Residential:
The primary aspect of The Living Skyscrapers architectural

A center of traditional education will be included in the tower. This


center will provide

an Islamic studies program

a traditional handicrafts training center. The manufacture

programming is residential. This includes apartment of different

of various kinds of handicrafts has played a crucial role in the

84

economic development and tourism sector in the old city of Tripoli

Ibid

64

(see Fig. 4.3), and have had other positive impacts on local

4- Health:

populations, as well. The Living Skyscraper will include a traditional

Gym: the project will include two separate gym, one for women

handicraft center that promotes and develops local handcraft skills

and the other one for men.

among inhabitants of the city. This center will be in the first floor to

5- Recreation:

facilitate access and will offer various traditional workshops in such

Parks: the project will include different parks, 3-4 parks as

areas as pottery training workshop, copper training workshop, and

skygardens distributed within the tower while the main park will be

embroidered clothes workshop.

located in the ground level.


6- Car parking: Approximately 85 per cent of car parking will be
underground in the two-level basement, while about 15 per cent will
be in the site.

4.4 Program Distribution


Fig 4.3: Handicrafts in the old city of Tripoli

Handicrafts gallery

Library

Day care

Not only is the program typology of The Living Skyscraper


inspired by the composition of Tripolis traditional streets, but the
organization and actualization of this programming within the tower
will also reflect the Islamic organization and use of space which
regards maintaining privacy as the most essential aspect to be
achieved.

65

In Islamic architecture, the transition between public and


private spaces occurs through semi-public or semi-private zoning in

tower will be residential, separated by rooftop gardens after each


ten floors.

order to obtain a suitable level of privacy. This approach of spatial


separation can be seen in the fabric of traditional Islamic cities as
well as in the design of houses. A well-known example of this is
the use of indirect entryways in accessing houses.

The Living Skyscraper design translates the concept of


Tripolis horizontal streets and public courts into a vertical system
ranging from public to private facilities, beginning at ground level
and ascending to the top of the tower (Fig. 4.2), starting at
basement levels, which will include underground parking areas.
The ground levels will house various public facilities, including a
retail, an auditorium, restaurants, and a health club. The citys first
rooftop garden will be installed on the roof of the ground levels.
The next two levels will represent the semi-public facilitiesthe

Fig 4.4: Concept diagram

education center and the day-care area, which is mostly expected


to serve the occupants of the tower. The remaining floors of the

66

4.5 Program precedents


Medina Tower high rise development in Tripoli

Medina Tower will be constructed on the Tripoli seafront on


120,500

square

feet

of

land

adjacent

to

other

high-rise

Location: Tripoli, Libya, Architect: Sidell Gibson Camilleri

developments. The concept of a mix of retail, commercial and

Height: 525 feet (160 metres). Floors: 40F

residential facilities is the first of its kind in Libya. The project will

Status: Under construction; completion date for the project has

comprise 2,000,000 square feet of floor space spread over 40

been set for December 2012 85 Cost: 300 million

floors above ground level and four levels of underground parking.

Use: Mixed use development. commercial, and residential

Medina Tower will feature 200 apartments, a health club, 260,000


square feet of office space, 8,0000 square feet of retail space,
conference and food and beverage facilities, and 240,000 square
feet of underground parking that will accommodate up to 850 car
parking spaces.

Fig. 4.5: A rendering of Medina Tower


85

Sidell Gibson Architects, Medina Towers, Tripoli


http://www.sidellgibson.co.uk/projects/hotels-and-overseas/medina-towers-tripoli.php#,
accessed on December 10,2010.

Fig 4.6: Some views of Medina Tower

67

4.6 Program Quantitative Summary and Proportions

Auditorium

30000 sq.f .
48000
sq.ft..

According to the program requirements, site area, and


some case studies the Quantitative summary of the architectural
program of the Living Skyscraper is illustrated in the following table:

Space
Residential
Two-bedroom
apartment
One-bedroom
apartment

Quantity
200

1800 sq.ft.

15000 sq.ft.
60000 sq.ft.
240.000
sq.ft.
Total building area: 973.000 sq.ft, Site area: 194000 sq. ft , Site

1500 sq.ft.

coverage: 40%,

Area

15000 sq
ft/floor
Commercial
1-Retail
2-Restaurant

Health
Health club (gym)
Womens
Mens
Roof gardens
Car parking

Total area

500.000
sq. ft

4
850 cars

15000sq.f.

Number of floors: 40 floors

The following diagram shows the proportions of the various


areas of the The Living Skyscraper.

80000 sq.ft
30000 sq.ft
110.000
sq.ft.

Cultural and educational


Islamic Studies Center
1
Day-care
Traditional handicrafts
center
Copper
1
handicrafts workshop
Clay handicrafts 1
workshop
Embroidered
1
clothes workshop
Public library
1
Handicraft gallery

3000 sq.ft.
2000 sq.ft.

1000sq.ft.

3000 sq.ft.

1000sq.ft.
1000sq.ft.
10000 sq.ft.
2000 sq.ft.

Fig 4.7: Program proportions

68

4.7 Conclusion
If we apply this unique program to The Living Skyscraper, this
vertical neighbourhood not only has to promote diversity, it must act
as an extension of the city in the sky, dependent on the diverse
activities and resources of the city to maintain a healthy, symbiotic
relationship.

By maintaining the traditional urban fabric of the

medina, this project recreates the lost physical continuity of the


area, thus supporting social and cultural continuity. It promotes the
conservation and progression of tradition through new buildings
using, new techniques and technologies.

69

Part Five
Schematic Design

70

create a complex system driven by actuators and thermal

5.1 Introduction
Since the most important and fundamental aspects of
The Living Skyscraper are intended to representing Islamic
culture and

copping with the hot climate of Tripoli

in a

sensors .
In order to generate the dynamic mashrabbia it is
important to define and explore the Islamic geometric patterns

sustainable way that optimizes the buildings performance

that used in the traditional masharabbia.

and reduces energy consumption, the focus of this project will

5.2 Islamic Geometric Patterns

be mainly on the envelope of the building, which will be a

Geometric patterns occur in rich profusion throughout

double-skin facade. While the external interactive skin of the

Islamic cultures, displayed as they are on a diversity of

faade will react to thermal conditions and provide shade, the

materials include tiles, bricks, wood, brass, paper, plaster,

users of the building will be able to manually operate

glass and on many types of objects, such as, windows,

secondary ventilation systems for the internal skin.

The

doors, screens, railings, carpets , furniture, ceramic and metal

external kinetic skin form will be inspired by the Islamic

decorative and bowls, furniture-specially pulpits in mosques,

traditional mashrabbia patterns, with gills that open and close

and on other surfaces.

in response to the suns movement, creating a living

achievements in geometry, calligraphy and arabesque

membrane that blends organic and mechanical processes to

more than thirteen centuries Islamic designs have acted as

Islamic art demonstrates great


For

unifying factors, linking architectural expression throughout

71

the Muslim world, extending across Europe, Africa and

geometric patterns can be grouped under the following

Asia. 86 The four fundamental concepts in Islamic patterns:

categories:

beauty, harmony, symmetry and unity are all intrinsic to the

1.

contemplative side of Islamic Art. 87

the Root Two proportion system.

Geometric patterns based on the Square Repeat Unit and


These include all patterns

generated by the division of the circle to four, and all patterns


generated by the multiples of four (Fig. 5.1). 90

5.3 Types of Islamic Patterns


The vast variety of geometric formations and the strict
rules governing their production reveals an important inner
dimension of Islamic tradition, unity in multiplicity and
multiplicity in unity. 88 This principle is represented by means
of various mathematical forms symbolizing the constant
celestial archetypes within the cosmos. 89

Most of these

86

Jones, D. The Elements of Decoration: Surface, Pattern and Light. In


Architecture of the Islamic World. Its History and Social Meaning, 144-175.
Edited by G. Michell.London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1978.
87
Grube, E. What is Islamic Architecture?. In Architecture of the Islamic World,
Its History and Social Meaning, 10-14. Edited by G. Michell. London: Thames &
Hudson Ltd., 1978.
88
Jones, 1978
89
Mostafa, M. The Museum of Islamic Art. (1st ed.). Cairo: Ministry of Education
Press, 1955.

Fig. 5.1: The Root Two proportion system

90

Kritchlow, K. Islamic Patterns: An Analytical and Cosmological Approach.


New York: Thames & Hudson Inc, 1976.

72

2- Geometric patterns based on the Hexagonal Repeat Unit


and the Root Three proportion system.

This includes all

patterns generated by the division of the circle into three or


six, and all patterns generated from the multiples of six (Fig
5.2), 91 for example, hexagons and dodecagons.
Fig. 5.3: The Golden Ratio proportion system

The

most

striking

characteristic

among

Islamic

geometrical patterns is the prominence of star and rosette


shapes. Such shapes having five, six, eight, ten, twelve or
sixteen rays are the ones that occur most frequently, but
Fig. 5.2: Root Three proportion system

3. Geometric patterns based on the pentagon Repeat Unit

patterns containing other numbers, particularly in multiples of

and the Golden Ratio proportion system. These include all

eight to ninety six, can be found.


Even though geometric patterns are generated from

patterns generated by the division of the circle into five, and


all patterns generated from the multiples of five (Fig. 5.3), 92

simple

forms;

they

have

been

combined,

duplicated,

for example, the ten folded base pattern.

interlaced and arranged in the fascinating combinations that


became one of the most distinguishing features of Islamic art.

91
92

Ibid.
Ibid.

Although they are generated according to very strict rules of

73

geometry, the geometric ornamentation in Islamic art

day in response to the suns position. The gills close when

suggests a remarkable amount of freedom, both in its

facing the sun directly in order to provide shade and minimize

repetition and complexity. Such freedom offers the possibility

the amount of solar radiation in the interior spaces, then the

of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of

gills gradually open as the sun becomes far in the sky in order

other types of ornamentation as well. 93

to maximize daylight.

5.4 The Proposed Masharabbia Patterns


After identifying Islamic patterns, the next step for
this project will be to experiment and generate some dynamic
mashrabbias in order to understand how these systems
would operate, with response to the suns movement as the
main parameter. Fig. 5.4 shows some screen shots of
dynamic masharbbia case studies that were inspired by
Islamic patterns and generated using Maya software.

Fig 5.4: Islamic mashrabbias pattern case studies

5.5 Dynamic Mashrabbia Environment Simulations

Each interface consists of repeated units whose

Three of these case studies were chosen for

apertures have the ability to open and close throughout the

expanded research through real time environment simulation


to gain more in-depth understanding of how these systems

93

Jones, 1978

74

could affect the interior space and building performance.

the depth that would allow an acceptable level of daylight to

These simulations include shadow study, solar radiation

enter.

analysis and daylight study using Ecotect software as a


conceptual design tool that provides an accurate and easy
way to simulate the environment.
Based on the form study result in Part Three of this
thesis, which indicate that both the south and west facades

5.5.1 Pattern I

are the elevations most exposed to solar radiation, the


environment simulation study focused on these elevations.
This study aims to investigate the level of shade, solar
radiation and daylight at the time when the mashrabbia is
semi-closed, i.e., when the sun is facing its apertures directly.
The south faade was studied in winter at 1:00 pm and the

Fig 5.5: The various opening stages of Pattern I

west faade in the summer at 6:00 pm. The same study was
done in two different depth spaces, 20-foot depth interior
space, and 30-foot depth exploration space for determining

75

Fig, 5.6: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot depth space

Fig 5.7: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

76

5.5.2 Pattern II

Fig. 5.7: Pattern II Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot


depth space

77

5.5.3 Pattern III

Fig. 5.8: Pattern III Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

78

Fig. 5.9: Pattern III Environment Simulation Result, 20-foot depth space
Fig. 5.10: Pattern I Environment Simulation Result, 30-foot depth space

79

20 feet is a good range of space depth, allowing an

Simulation Result:
Shadow Study: The result of the shadow study shows

appropriate level of daylight relative to the 30-foot depth.

that the three dynamic mashrabbias worked as perfect solar


5.6 Project Schematic Design
shading devices, providing the interior space with a good
Site Strategy
level of shade, thereby reducing the buildings inside
Based on the site analysis, which demonstrates that a
temperature.
connection between the old city of Tripoli and the modern city
Solar Radiation Study: The result shows that the three
can be established through The Living Skyscraper design, it
mashrabbia patterns have the potential of reducing the solar
is decided that the main entrance to the site will be oriented
radiation gain, thereby reduce the interior temperature which
on the east side toward the Gold Market and the old city of
in turn reduces the energy used for the cooling system.
Tripoli, while the second entrance will be located at the west
Daylight study:

Based on the required interior light level,

which ranges from 200 ft/c to 500 ft/c

94

side in an attempt to connect the project with the main park in


, the

daylight
the area which in the modern part of Tripoli.

simulation study indicates an adequate range of daylight,


especially with

the first pattern, which shows the highest

range, both in winter and summer. The study also shows that
94

Bill Williams, Footcandles and Lux for Architectural Lighting, An introduction to


Illuminance, Edition 2.1, (c) 1999.

80

connections made across the towers to improve accessibility


and support building structure.

The restaurants will be located on the north side of the site


to access the sea view, as well as a view into the interior plaza.
The auditorium will be at the back side of the building with its own
entrance.

Approximately 85 percent of car parking will be


Fig. 5.11: The site

The design concept of the buildings floor plans is

underground in the two-level basement, while about 15 per cent will


be in the site at the south side of the site.

inspired by the Islamic architectural element, the courtyard,


Project Zoning:
where building components are erected around an open
green space that includes water aspects. The public services
will be located around a large public plaza, in the middle of
which the two towers, which house private residential units,
stand. Each tower has its own entrance and lobby, which will

The retail, gym, public library, auditorium, and the towers


lobbies will be located in the buildings huge base (Fig. 5.12). The
second floor will incorporate a large restaurant, cafe, traditional
handicraft center, handicraft gallery, and Islamic study center. All

enhance the residents privacy. Skygardens will be used as

81

the remaing floors of the towersthird to fortiethwill be


residential (Fig. 5.13).

5.13: Secound floor zoning

Building Elevations:
Based on the sun study of the building form, the west and
Fig. 5.12: First floor zoning

the east faades of the two towers will be covered by the kinetic
mashrabbia, and it is optional to cover the south elevation ( see
Fig: 5.14,5.15).

82

Fig 5.14: Section A-A

Fig5.15: Building elevations

83

Fig. 5.17: Perspective


Fig. 5.16: Perspective

84

Part Six
Design Development

85

In this part of the thesis the focus will be on design

Each mashrabiya comprises an umbrella-like unit which opens and

development which includes two parts: First, developing the pattern

closes throughout the day in response to the sun's movements (see

of the dynamic mashrabbia, and the second part is developing the

Fig, 6.1).

design of the building. After the mashrabbia takes its final form and

- Closed: mashrabbia units face the sun directly.

the building is developed, the mashrabbia will be applied on the

- Semi open: mashrabbia units partially face the sun.

building and evaluated to know its effects on both the exterior and

- Open: the units face away from the sun.

interior spaces of the building.


6.2 Building Orientation

6.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Pattern Development

Before applying the mashrabbia on the building it is


important to now the best orientation for the building. According
to the best building orientation study that was done using Ecotect
software at the proposed site (Tripoli, Libya), the best orientation
for The Living Skyscraper based on the months of highest
temperature is west north, east south, as shown in Fig 6.2.

Fig. 6.1: Dynamic mashrabbia pattern ( Maya software)

86

the building from solar radiation. Some of the mashrabbia units are
established around the first ten floors of the towers to provide the
occupants of these floors with an acceptable level of privacy (see
Fig. 6.3).

Fig. 6.2: Best building orientation study result, Tripoli, Libya (Ecotect software

6.3 Appling the Mashrabbia on the Tower


Fig. 6.3: Distributing the dynamic mashrabbia on the towers( Revit software)

Based on the mass solar radiation and shadow studies that


are done and discussed in part III of this thesis, the dynamic
mashrabbia is carefully distributed on the towers in order to be
more focused on both the western and eastern elevations to protect

87

-Basement Floors:

6.4 Design Development

The project includes a two-level basement car parking

- Site Plan:
Since the Living Skyscraper is close to the center of

space, with each floor designed to accommodate about 350 cars.

Tripoli; the tower will have clear views of the old city of Tripoli and
the modern part of the city, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. The
skyscraper itself is composed of two towers spiraling around a
central courtyard. The main entrance of the project is facing the
old city of Tripoli as a kind of connection between the project and
the old city.

The main
courtyard

The main
entrance
The old city of
Tripoli

Entrance

Fig. 6.5: Basement floor plan

To the main
park
Fig. 6.4: Site plan

88

The second floor of the building includes retail, a restaurant, caf,

- First Floor Plan:


The first floor of the building includes the main lobby of the

day-care, and the second floor of the auditorium. The residential

project, a restaurant, day-care, gym, public library, Islamic studies

part of the project begins from the second floor of the main tower,

center, traditional handicraft center, and the lobbies of both towers.

which is located in the center of the main courtyard of the project,

Each part of the building is accessed directly from an entrance on

and it continues residential until the 47th floor of this tower. The

the ground level as well as from the basement level so that

residential apartments in the second tower are arranged on floors

visitors do not cross over with any of the other users of the

5- 37 of this tower, and each floor of the residential part of this

building.

tower, as well as in the main tower, includes three apartments.

Fig. 6.6: First floor plan

- Second Floor Plan:

Entrnce
Fig. 6.7: Second floor plan.
Residential

89

- Project Elevations:
The buildings hanging parks are placed between the towers
and after different numbers of levels which are tall enough to
accommodate full-grown trees (see Fig.6.7). Both towers also
feature sky gardens in the top three floors in order to further reduce
the potential for solar gain. The form of the towers has been
sculpted to provide sky gardens in what would otherwise have
become the most sensitive areas of the building. The sky gardens
also provide visual relief for users of the building and one of its
important amenity spaces during the cooler months of the year.

Fig. 6.8: Section A-A

90

Fig. 6.9: Top: South elevation. Down: West elevation

Fig. 6.10: Top: East elevation. Down: North elevation

91

Project Perspectives:

Fig. 6.11: Project perspective

Fig. 6.12: Project perspectives

92

6.5. Dynamic Mashrabbia Evaluation:

6.5.2 Building Energy performance Analysis:

After applying the responsive mashrabbia on the building,


and since the main goals of this dynamic mashrabbia, besides
representing Islamic culture, are first, to provide the buildings
occupants with stable conditions in the hot climate of Tripoli and
second, to improve building energy performance, it is time to
evaluate the impact of the kinetic mashrabbia on the building
through applying solar radiation analysis and building energy
analysis on the building with and without the dynamic mashrabbia
using Vasari software.
6.5.1 Solar Radiation Analysis

Fig. 6.14: Building energy analysis result (Vasari software)

6.5.3

Dynamic Mashrabbia Benefits:

1- Lighting and views:


- Improved daylight
Fig. 6.13: Solar radiation study result (Vasari software)

- Acceptable level of shading

93

- Acceptable level of privacy


- Improved views for building occupants
- Represents Islamic culture
2- Energy Consumption:
- Effective reduction in solar gain, about 50%
- Approx. 23% reduction in CO2 emission
- Approx. 23% reduction in energy use intensity

Part Seven
Final Design
94

7.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Details

7.1.2 Detailed Mashrabbia Design

7.1.1 Dynamic Mashrabbia Behaviour during Daytime

The

shading

device,

whose

translucent

components open and close as the sun moves around


the building, gives the Living Skyscraper a sense of

Each mashrabbia comprises an umbrella-like unit which


opens and closes throughout the day in response to the sun's
movements. Each mashrabbia is made up of a series of PTFE
fabric mesh panels that are driven by a linear actuator.

breathing during its smooth movement. Fig. 7.1 shows the


behavior of the dynamic mashrabbia during daytime,
starting from 7:00 am when almost all the mashrabbias
units are open to 7:00 pm when the western units of the
mashrabbia are almost closed and ready to open after
sunset.

Fig. 7.2: Dynamic mashrabbia detailed design


Fig. 7.1: Dynamic mashrabbia behaviour during daytime

95

reflecting almost all sun rays. Moreover, it provides the

PTFE Fabric Mesh:


PTFE fiberglass fabric is made of high intensity fiberglass

occupants with a desirable leve of shading while allowing

yarn by plain weaving, satin weaving or cross grain, coated with

daylight to

fine quality PTFE Teflon latex and then dried.95

closed.

enter even when the mashrabbia is almost

Features of PTFE high temperature fiberglass fabric:


1.

Outstanding electrical insulation and di-electric properties

2. High temperature resistance; continuous operating


temperature is -70-260, can resist up to 320 in a short time
3. High release from sticky materials ("non-stick")
4. Chemical, corrosion, and moisture resistance
5. Easy cleaning
6. Mildew and fungus resistance
7.1.3 Dynamic Mashrabbia Effect on Interior Spaces:
Below, some still images show the effact of the
kinetic

mashrabbia

on

the

interior

spaces

of

the

building.The dynamic mashrabbia reduces solar gain by


95 Taixing Ruichang Conveyor Belt Manufacturer Co.,Ltd.
http://www.aliexpress.com/store/701153/50337180-293341293/Solar-Panel-TeflonLaminating-Fabric-Solar-Laminating-Teflon-Fabric.html, accessed May 26,2011
Fig. 7.3: Dynamic mashrabbia effact on interior spaces at different opening stages

96

7.2 Building Skin Layers and Ventilation system


The Living Skyscraper skin consists of three layers.
Immediately next to the dynamic mashrabbia comes a doubleglass faade.
The Double-Skin Faade is essentially a pair of glass
skins separated by an air corridor. The main layer of glass is
usually insulating. The air space between the layers of glass acts
as insulation against temperature extremes, wind and sound.
During wintertime and at night, the Living Skyscraper can
rely on natural ventilation through the controlled windows in the
Fig. 7.4: Buildings skin layers, left: during moderate climate and at nights, right: during hot

inner skin, while in summer and during the hot

season, the

climate.

buildings skin layers work as an insulation system that keeps the


building cool (see Fig. 7.4).

97

7.3 Design Development:

Fig. 7.5: Building perspective


Fig. 7.6: Site plan

98

Floor Plans:
-

First Floor Plan

Basement Plan

Fig. 7.8: First floor plan

Fig. 7.7: Basement levels plan

99

Second Floor Plan

Building Section:

Fig. 7.9: Second floor plan

Fig. 7.10: Section A-A

100

Building Elevations:

Fig. 7.12: North elevation at about 4:00 pm

Fig. 7.13: West elevation at about 4:00 pm

101

Fig. 7.14: East elevation at about 10:00 am.

Fig. 7.15: South elevation at about 10:00 am

102

Perspectives:

Fig. 7.16: Building perspective

Fig. 7.17: Building perspective

103

The two towers are linked physically by the main courtyard


at the ground level and at the high levels by hanging gardens
installed throughout the building, giving access between the two
towers and offering the occupants another connection with the
natural world. The building contains sky gardens in the highest
three floors of each tower in order to further reduce the potential of
solar gain and for more access to nature. Landscaped areas in the
ground level contain mature palm trees which unite the site with
the surrounding nature

Fig. 7.16: Left, the main entrance of the project. Right, the main courtyard

Fig. 7.17: The sky gardens

104

The dynamic mashrabbia is established on a


honeycombed pattern structure which is a highly efficient
structural solution that is stable, flexible and economical

Fig. 7.18: The caf

The exterior of the towers is covered with the dynamic


mashrabbia, which works as a solar coating provides both
privacy and insulation for the interior, significantly reducing
the solar heat gain, and providing a more comfortable
internal environment.

Fig. 7.19: Close perspective to the dynamic mashrabbia

105

7.4 Conclusion
Designing a high-rise building for a specific location

rationalize complex geometries and relationships, realizing


architectural aspirations that would not otherwise be

needs great understanding of the people, culture and the

possible. Efficient and elegant structural forms can be

available building technologies while engaging them in a

created by combining advanced engineering analysis tools

meaningful way. The Living Skyscraper project represents

with 3D CAD and parametric design methods. This strong

the translation of Islamic architecture to contemporary

combination leads to inspiring buildings with minimized

architecture for a high-rise building, it attempting to preserve

material and energy consumption.

the Islamic character and culture with a strong climatic

At the same time and as outlined in this thesis, culture

response and energy efficient design. This is accomplished

and architectural vernacular has much to offer the modern

by the use of BIM and parametric design through different

world. Sustainable design is not only a way of viewing and

useful digital tools.

valuing good design but a way of linking the past with the

Creating buildings that meet the needs of society

present to protect our natural world and ecosystems, as well

today and in the future is not an easy task. However, the

as to preserve historical and cultural artifact. A successful

use of a range of advanced computer-aided design

tall, green building is an integral part of a societys

techniques can greatly help produce such buildings more

financial, technological and cultural advancement.

quickly, easily, and at less cost, while parametric design can

106

Bibliography:
About Libya, http://www.lipoexpo.com/1st/libya.html, accessed on Dec.
12, 2010
Abel, C. Sky High: Vertical Architecture. Royal Academy of Arts,
London, 2003.
Adaptive Building Initiative,
http://www.adaptivebuildings.com/simons-center.html, accessed on
Nov 12, 2010.
Anya Kaplan-Seem, As Economy Sank, Skyscrapers Soared Ever
Higher,http://archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/archives/09040
7skyscrapers.asp, accessed on Nov 12,2010.
Beedle, L.S., ALI, M.M., and ARMSTRONG, P.J., The Skyscraper and
the City: Design, Technology, and Innovation. Edwin Mellen
Press. Ceredigion, U.K and Lewston, NY, 2007.
Bill Williams, Footcandles and Lux for Architectural Lighting, An
introduction to Illuminance, Edition 2.1, (c) 1999.
Bridgette Meinhold, Inhabitat, Solar-Powered Crystalline Towers
Unveiled for Abu Dhabi, http://inhabitat.com/solar-poweredcrystalline-towers-unveiled-for-abu-dhabi/abu-dhabi-investmentcouncil-headquarters-towers-13/?extend=1, accessed: Nov 20,2010.
Carey, H. L. The Solaire: Green By Design. Battery Park City Authority,
New York, 2006.
CB Richard Ellis(CBRE) Report on the Libyan real estate market July,
2010, http://www.libyaonline.com/news/details.php?id=13972,
accessed on November 20, 2010.

Climate Classification and Climatic Regions of the World.


Geography : Physical Geography
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html,
accessed on Nov 12 2010
Deshmukh, N., Energy Conservation of Moderately Tall Office
Buildings, Masters Thesis, School of Architecture. University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Champaign, IL, 1992.
Dirk Stichweh, New York Skyscrapers, Prestel: Munich, Berlin, London,
New York, 2009 Foster, N. Modeling the Swiss Re Tower,
Architecture Week, www.architectureweek.com, 2005.
DONALDSON, B. and LIPPE, P. Process and Integration, Lessons
Learned: High Performance Buildings. The Durst Organization. New
York, NY, 2000.
GAISMA, Surt, Libya. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/surt.html
Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Climate Classification and Climatic Regions of
the World".
GEOGRAFIA Online, Malaysian Journal of Society and Space 4 (71 - 84)
2008, Changes in residential land-use of Tripoli city, Libya:
1969-2005.
http://pkukmweb.ukm.my/geografia/images/upload/7.2008osama%20kh%20ali- english-1.pdf
Grube, E. What is Islamic Architecture?. In Architecture of the
Islamic World, Its History and Social Meaning, 10-14. Edited by
G. Michell. London:Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1978.
Hosam Bsimam, The Old City of Tripoli: (Tripoli,2006).

107

Jones, D. The Elements of Decoration: Surface, Pattern and Light.


In Architecture of the Islamic World. Its History and Social
Meaning, 144-175. Edited by G. Michell. London: Thames &
Hudson Ltd., 1978.

Sidell Gibson Architects, Medina Towers, Tripoli,


http://www.sidellgibson.co.uk/projects/hotels-and-overseas/medinatowers-tripoli.php, accessed on Des. 10, 2010.

JULES MOLONEY, BUIILDING SKINS AS KINETIC PROCESS, The


University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.

Smith, P. P. (2007). Sustainability at the Cutting Edge: Emerging


Techniques for Low Energy Buildings. Elsevier. London, New
York et. Al

Kritchlow, K. Islamic Patterns: An Analytical and Cosmological Approach.


New York:Thames & Hudson Inc, 1976.

Sullivan, C. C., Robot Buildings. Pursuing the Interactive Envelope,


Architectural Record, 0003858X, Issue 4.

Liberty International, Libya, Tripoli, www.libertyinternational.org/libya/excursions-tripolitania/,accessed on Dec. 13,


2010.

Temehu, Tripoli: The Bride of The Mediterranean,


www.temehu.com/Cities_sites/Tripoli.htm, accessed on Dec.
13,2010.

Mir M. Ali and Paul J. Armstrong, Overview of Sustainable Design


Factors in High- Rise Buildings, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 2008.

The World Heritage Center, UNESCO,


http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/file_download.php/3e14cf4c9202
cf4efa37a11a6e2135a0Newsletter+no9.htm, accessed on
December13, 2010.

Mostafa, M. The Museum of Islamic Art. (1st ed.). Cairo: Ministry of


Education Press,1955.
NewmanMAN, P. Sustainability and Cities: The Role of Tall
Buildings in the New Global Agenda. Proceedings of the CTBUH
Sixth World Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 2001.
Robert Hillenbrand, Islamic Architecture: form, function, and
meaning, 1994.
Rwdi Group, Promotion brochure, Spring, SLOCOMBE, D.S. ,
Environmental Planning: Ecosystem Science and Ecosystem
Approaches for Integrating Environment and Development.
Environmental Management. 17(3), 2007.

Tripoli City Centres Urban and Architectural Charter, Tripoli urban fabric
map, http://www.iau-idf.fr/index.php?id=615&etude=717

True Knowledge, Tripolis population in 2010,


http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/tripoli's_population_in_2010,
accessed on December 14, 2010.
Walid El-Tigi / Yasser Fathy, Hydra Properties unveils Tripoli Towers
in Libya, zawea.com, Zawya,
http://www.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20081124090455/Hydra
%20Properties%20unveils%20Tripoli%20Towers%20in%20Libya,
accessed: Dec 04, 2010

108

Wced, Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and


Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. WILLIAMSON,
T., RADFORD. A., and BENNETTS, H., (2003).
William Zuk, Roger H. Clark, Kinetic Architecture. New York: 1970
Z. Xie, H.-X. Cao, Asymmetric Changes in Maximum and
Minimum Temperature in Beijing, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 1996,
vol. 55.
Wordpress Theme, Architecture View , http://www.architectureview.com/2010/10/24/gorgeous-investment-council-headquarterstowers-for-abu-dhabi/, accessed: Nov 20, 2010.

109