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Are You Up To The Challenge Of AP Biology?

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____

1. Membrane-bound organelles have been an important component in the evolution of complex, multicellular
organisms. Which of the following best summarizes an advantage of eukaryotic cells having internal
membranes? (new practice:1)
a. Eukaryotic cells are able to reproduce faster because of the presence of organelles.
b. Some organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, are similar to prokaryotic cells in
structure
c. Organelles isolate specific reactions, increasing metabolic efficiency.
d. Compartmentalization leads to a higher mutation rate in DNA, which leads to more new
species.

____

2. Paramecia are unicellular protists that have contractile vacuoles to remove excess intracellular water. In an
experimental investigation, paramecia were placed in salt solutions of increasing osmolarity. The rate at
which the contractile vacuole contracted to pump out excess water was determined and plotted against
osmolarity of the solutions, as shown in the graph. Which of the following is the correct explanation for the
data? (new practice:25)
a. At higher osmolarity, lower rates of contraction are required because more salt diffuses
into the paramecia
b. The contraction rate increases as the osmolarity decreases because the amount of water
entering the paramecia by osmosis increases
c. The contractile vacuole is less efficient is solutions of high osmolarity because of the
reduced amount of ATP produced from cellular respiration
d. In an isosmotic salt solution, there is no diffusion of water into or out of the paramecia, so
the contraction rate is zero.

____

3. The FtsZ protein is present in prokaryotes and in chloroplasts. The protein is structurally and functionally
similar to tubulin proteins of eukaryotic cells. Which of the following is a likely conclusion to draw from this
information? (new practice: 20)
a. FtsZ and tubulin proteins were both present in a common ancestor.
b. Microtubules are involved in the mechanics of photosynthesis.
c. tubulin genes are evolutionarily derived from the gene that codes for the FtsZ protein
d. The sequences of the genes encoding the FtsZ and tubulin proteins are identical

____

4. Which of the following statements best supports the claim that organisms share fundamental processes as a
result of evolution? (new practice: 5)
a. All organisms that are introduced into new environments have the capacity to fill vacant
ecological roles
b. All organisms have the ability to utilize oxygen to harness energy from the chemical
breakdown of organic compounds
c. All organisms share a genetic code organized into triplet codons, making it possible for one
organism to express a gene from another organism.
d. All organisms possess structures such as chloroplasts and mitochondria within their cells
that reflect past symbiotic relationships between prokaryotic precursors.
A biologist spent many years researching the rate of evolutionary change in the finch populations of a group
of islands. It was determined that the average beak size (both length and mass) of finches in a certain
population increased dramatically during an intense drought between 1981 and 1987. During the drought,
there was a reduction in the number of plants producing thin-walled seeds.

____

5. Which of the following procedures was most likely followed to determine the change in beak size? (new
practice: 7)
a. A few finches were trapped in 1981 and again in 1987, and their beak sizes were
compared.
b. The beak size in fifteen finches was measured in 1987, and the beak size in the original
finches was determined by estimation.
c. The beak size in a large number of finches was measured every year from 1981 to 1987.
d. Finches were captured and bred in 1981, and the beak size of the offspring was measured.

____

6. Which of the following best describes the mechanism behind the change in beak size in the finch population?
(new practice: 9)
a. The formation of two new finch species from a single parent species
b. A change in gene frequencies in the finch population due to selective pressure from the
environmental change
c. A new allele appearing in the finch population as a result of mutation
d. The achievement of dynamic equilibrium in the finch population as a result of homeostasis.

____

7. Which of the following depicts the most probable pathway of processing and packaging a secretory protein
within a eukaryotic cell?
a. secretory vesicles rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body cell membrane
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body secretory vesicles cell membrane
c. Golgi body secretory vesicles rough endoplasmic reticulum cell membrane
d. Secretory vesicles Golgi body rough endoplasmic reticulum cell membrane

____

8. Five new species of bacteria were discovered in Antarctic ice core samples. The nucleotide (base) sequences
of rRNA subunits were determined for the new species. The table below shows the number of nucleotide
differences between the species.

Nucleotide Differences
Species
1
2
1
3
2
3
4
5

3
19
19
-

4
18
18
1
-

5
27
26
27
27
-

Which of the following phylogenetic trees is most consistent with the data? (new practice: 32)
a.
b.
c.
d.

____

9. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c is exactly the same in humans and chimpanzees. There is a
difference of 13 amino acids between the cytochrome c of humans and dogs, and a difference of 20 amino
acids between the cytochrome c of humans and rattlesnakes. Which of the following statements is best
supported by these data? (2008:1)
a. Rattlesnakes apparently gave rise evolutionarily to the dog, chimpanzee, and human
b. Cytochrome c apparently has an entirely different function in rattlesnakes than in
mammals, which explains the difference in the number of amino acids
c. Cytochrome c is not found universally in animals
d. Cytochrome c from rattlesnake could function in a dog, but not in a chimpanzee
e. The human is apparently more closely related to the chimpanzee than to the dog or
rattlesnake.

____ 10. Aisha wants to conduct an experiment to determine whether sun and shade varieties of the same plant species
prefer the same wavelengths of light. She plans to measure rates of photosynthesis. Which design would be
best for her experiment?
a. 1 plant of the sun variety tested under blue light only, and 1 plant of the shade variety
tested under blue light only
b. 4 plants of the sun variety: 1 tested under blue light, 1 under green, 1 under red, and 1
under yellow light and 4 plants of the shade variety: 1 tested under blue light, 1 under
green, 1 under red, and 1 under yellow light
c. 10 plants of the sun variety tested under blue light only; and 10 plants of the shade variety
tested under blue light only
d. 40 plants of the sun variety: 10 tested under blue light, 10 under green, 10 under red, and
10 under yellow light and 40 plants of the shade variety: 10 tested under blue light, 10
under green, 10 under red, and 10 under yellow light

____ 11. A pathogenic bacterium has been engulfed by a phagocytic cell as part of the nonspecific (innate) immune
response. Which of the following illustrations best represents the response? (new practice:14)

a.

c.

b.

d.

____ 12. The illustration above depicts a neuromuscular junction of a patient with an autoimmune disorder.
Acetylcholine is a stimulatory neurotransmitter. Which of the following would be the most likely result of the
continued presence of the antibody? (new practice:57)
a. An increase in action potentials in the motor neuron and constant nerve pain
b. A decrease in action potentials in the muscle, causing muscle weakness and fatigue
c. A decrease in the opening of sodium-gated channels in the muscle, causing less sodium to
be released from the muscle.
d. An increase in the opening of sodium-gated channels in the motor neuron because of the
accumulation of acetylcholine in the junction.

In the first step of an experiment, rat liver cells were exposed for 5 minutes to amino acids labeled with a
radioactive isotope. The cells were then washed to stop any further incorporation of radioactive amino acids.
The cells were sampled periodically thereafter, and the radioactivity of a certain protein (protein X) was
measured in various cell components, as shown below

Sampling ER
Time (min)
5
980
20
135
45
50
120
15

RADIOACTIVE COUNTS (PROTEIN X)


Cell Component
Golgi
cytoplasm nucleus mitochondria lysosome extracellular
apparatus
space
20
50
4
2
6
2
760
20
3
5
120
9
195
4
6
2
800
3
30
8
6
8
975
4

____ 13. What is the most likely identity of protein X? (2008:73)


a. An enzyme that is involved in transcription
b. An electron transport protein that participates in respiration reactions
c. A protein secreted from liver cells into the blood stream that permits proper capillary
function
d. An enzyme that participates in the degradation and recycling of cell components
____ 14. The same procedure was repeated with a second protein (protein Y). If the function of Y is protein processing
and packaging, the most radioactivity would be found in the (2008:75)
a. Golgi apparatus
c. Mitochondria
b. Nucleus
d. Lysosomes
____ 15. In graphing the data from this experiment, the sampling time would be shown on the x-axis because
(2008:76)
a. all quantitative values are represented on the x-axis
b. time values are always located on the horizontal axis
c. sampling time is the independent variable
d. cell components were shown on the y-axis
____ 16. A teacher challenged her students to design an experiment to study the importance of eyesight in the ability of
crayfish to avoid land predators such as raccoons. The experiment was to be set up in a laboratory, using live
crayfish, but simulated predators. Students set up control groups in which crayfish could see normally and
experimental groups that restricted their ability to see. However, the students used different methods of
restricting the crayfishs eyesight. Given the rules of experimental design and the requirements of the
challenge, which method would be the most appropriate treatment for the experimental group?
a. Keeping the crayfish in the dark
b. Cutting off the crayfishs eyestalk
c. Separating the crayfish from the simulated predator using different colored filters
d. Covering the crayfishs eyestalks with a black plastic hood to restrict sight
____ 17. In an experiment, 6,000 people with a common cold who drank orange juice daily had symptoms that lasted
an average of 4 days. Another 6,000 people with a common cold who did not drink orange juice daily had
symptoms that lasted an average of 7 days. Scientists repeated the experiment 3 times with the same results.
They concluded that orange juice reduces the length of the common cold. Was this conclusion valid, and
why?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes, because vitamin C is a known common cold cure.


Yes, because scientists repeated the experiment.
No, because the sample size was too small.
No, because some of the people who drank orange juice did not feel better.

____ 18. Aden wanted to determine the effects of stress on heart rate. As his stress factor, he asked subjects to
complete math problems. He randomly divided his biology class of 24 students into 2 groups. He gave 1
group a timed test of difficult algebra problems; he gave the other group a timed test of simple arithmetic
problems. Aden measured heart rates both before and immediately after the test. He hypothesized that the
group given the difficult problems would show a higher mean heart rate (that is, a higher stress level) than
those given simple problems. Results are shown below. Because the results were so similar, Aden decided to
do a second test in which he collected additional types of information. Which changes in experimental design
would best help him accept or reject his initial hypothesis?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Heart rates of the 2 groups taken during the test


Average math grades of the 2 groups
Before and after heart rates when both groups are given a more difficult test
Before and after heart rates when a single group is given the same test

____ 19. Several students in a biology lab tested mealworms preference for damp or dry conditions. The students
placed 50 mealworms one-by-one in the middle of a layer of paper towels with a damp area and a dry area.
The mealworms were allowed to move freely over the paper towels for 10 min. After 10 min the students
noted the location of each mealworm. The data is summarized below.

In a second experiment the same 50 mealworms were exposed to each of 4 different arrangements of paper
towels with food sources in different locations. Food sources just off the paper towels can be sensed by the
mealworms, but are out of their reach. The diagram below shows the location of the worms after 10 min.

Which conclusion best supports the data collected in both experiments?


a. Mealworms prefer damp conditions over dry conditions
b. Mealworms prefer dry conditions over damp conditions
c. Mealworms are more strongly influenced by food then by damp or dry conditions
d. Mealworms are more strongly influenced by damp or dry conditions than by food
____ 20. Shown below is a growth curve for Paramecium grown in a 1.0l flask containing pond water at 20C. The
pond water is continually filtered to remove waste products, and nutrients are added at a constant rate.

How could the experiment be modified to determine whether temperature influences the population size of
Paramecium?
a. Repeat the procedures described using 1 flask, and increase the temperature to 25C for
days 10-15
b. Repeat the procedures described using 1 flask, and vary the temperature randomly during
the entire incubation time.
c. Repeat the procedures described using 2 flasks; incubate 1 flask at 15C and the other at
25C
d. Repeat the procedures described using 2 flasks; incubate both flasks at 20C

Are You Up To The Challenge Of AP Biology?


Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

ANS:
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ANS:

C
B
C
C
C
B
B
C
E
D
C
B
D
A
C
D
B
D
C
C

PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
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PTS:
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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:

Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
Evolution

OBJ: Evolution
LOC: A1

TOP: sci meth

LOC:
LOC:
LOC:
LOC:
LOC:

TOP:
TOP:
TOP:
TOP:
TOP:

A4
A3
A1
A1
A1

sci meth
sci meth
sci meth
sci meth
sci meth