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CHAPTER 1 :

ALTERNATIVE
FUELS

1. Alternative fuel classification and


application

Types of alternative fuel

The importance of alternative fuel

Advantages and disadvantages among


various alternative fuel

2. The function, construction and operation of


Natural Gas Vehicle

Components name, function and operation of NGV


system

Schematic diagram of NGV system circuit

Operation of an NGV system

Components name, function and operation of NGV


system
Advantages and disadvantages of using NGV as
alternative fuel

Alternative fuels are derived from


resources other than petroleum
Some are produced domestically,
reducing our dependence on
imported oil and some are derived
from renewable sources
Produce less pollution than
gasoline or diesel.

IC Engine obtain from combustion of


hydrocarbon fuel with air - converts
chemical energy (fuel) to internal
energy in the gases within the engine

Main fuel for SI engines - GASOLINE


*SI (spark ignition) start the
combustion process & spark plug
gives high voltage which ignites the
air-fuel mixture in combustion
chamber

Component mixture
used for many product :
Automobile gasoline
Diesel fuel
Aircraft gasoline
Jet fuel
Home heating fuel
Lubrication oil
Alcohol
Paint
Plastics
Explosives

ETHANOL
produced domestically from corn and other crops
produces less greenhouse gas emissions than
conventional fuels
BIODIESEL
derived from vegetable oils and animal fats
produces less air pollutants than petroleum-based
diesel
PROPANE
called liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
domestically abundant fossil fuel that generates less
harmful air pollutants and greenhouse gases
Mainly of methane (60 98%) with small amount of
hydrocarbon

HYDROGEN
produced domestically from fossil fuels (such as coal),
nuclear power, or renewable resources, such as
hydropower
Fuel cell vehicles powered by pure hydrogen emit no
harmful air pollutants

NATURAL GAS

- fossil fuel that generates less air pollutants and


greenhouse gases

Concern over the emission problems of


gasoline engines
To improve major contributor to the air
quantity problem
Made in reducing emission systems
Research to reduce air pollution problem

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

More efficiently by using


higher compression ratio

Low energy content of the


fuel

Lower overall emissions


compared with those of
gasoline

much more corrosive than


gasoline alcohol can cracked
metal in engine

When burned, it gives higher


pressure and more power in
the expansion stroke

Poor ignition characteristics in


general

Low sulfur content in the fuel

Poor cold weather starting


characteristics due to low
pressure & evaporation

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Domestically produced from nonpetroleum, renewable resources

Use of blends above B5 not yet


approved by many auto makers

Can be used in most diesel engines,


especially newer ones

Lower fuel economy and power (10%


lower for B100, 2% for B20)

Less air pollutants (other than nitrogen


oxides)

Currently more expensive

Less greenhouse gas emissions (e.g.,


B20 reduces CO2 by 15%)

Slight increase in nitrogen oxide


emissions possible in some
circumstances

Biodegradable

generally not suitable for use in low


temperatures

Non-toxic & Safer to handle

More efficiently by using higher


compression ratio

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

90% of propane used in U.S.


comes from domestic
sources

Limited availability

Less expensive than


gasoline

Less readily available than


gasoline & diesel

Potentially lower toxic,


carbon dioxide (CO2),
carbon monoxide (CO) and
emissions

Fewer miles on a tank of


fuel

High octane number make


for high thermal efficiency

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Environmentally Friendly

Fuel Cost & Availability

Hydrogen produces no air


pollutants or greenhouse
gases when used in fuel
cells

Vehicle Cost & Availability


- Fuel cell vehicles are
currently too expensive

Produces only nitrogen


oxides (NOx) when burned
in ICEs

Onboard Fuel Storage


- storage systems do not yet
meet size, weight, and cost
goals for commercialization

Hydrogen contains much


less energy than gasoline or
diesel on a per-volume

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Engine can operate with a high

compression ratio - good for


single throttle body fuel injector

Low energy density resulting in


low engine performance

Low engine emissions

Refueling is slow process

6090% less smoke -producing


pollutants

Inconsistent fuel properties

3040% less greenhouse gas


emissions

Need to large pressurized fuel


storage tank

Less expensive than gasoline

Limited vehicle availability

Less readily available than


gasoline and diesel

Fewer miles on a tank of fuel

Natural gas vehicle (NGV)


compressed natural gas (CNG)
liquid natural gas (LNG)
As

a clean alternative to other automobile


fuels
NGV or methane is the lightest hydrocarbon
Methane is a by-product of decomposing
organic matter including the rotting of dead
plants, garbage dumps as well livestock
manure.

stored on the vehicle in


high-pressure tanks 20 to 25 MPa (200 to
250 bar, or 3,000 to
3,600 psi)

contains hydrocarbons
such as ethane &
propane as well as other
gases such as nitrogen,
helium, carbon dioxide,
sulphur compounds,
and water vapour

CNG

stored as a super-cooled
(cryogenic) liquid
between -120 & -170C
(-184 & 274F)
that it offers an energy
density comparable to
petrol and diesel fuels,
extending range &
reducing refuelling
frequency

LNG

Dedicated: These vehicles are designed to run


only on natural gas
Bi-fuel: These vehicles have two separate
fueling systems that enable them to run on
either natural gas or gasoline
Dual-fuel: These vehicles are traditionally
limited to heavy-duty applications, have fuel
systems that run on natural gas, and use
diesel fuel for ignition assistance

Typical NGV Vehicle System

Compressed natural gas (CNG)


tank

CNG tank can be made of steel,


aluminum, or plastic
Lightweight composite - weight
reductions when compared with earlier
generation steel and aluminum
cylinders, which leads to lower fuel
consumption

Mixer
Mechanical devices that by using the
Venturi principles
Ensure correct air/fuel mixture in both
stationary and dynamic conditions
Each mixer is designed for a specific
vehicle in order to optimize both gas
and petrol operation

Manometer/Pressure Gauge
It is shows the pressure or level of contents of the
NGV cylinder from full to empty
Internal fuel gauge is installed on the dashboard
in a lightly visible position
High Pressure Pipe
Fuel lines running between the storage cylinder
and the pressure regulator are made of high
strength steel
They are usually installed along the frame of the
car for better protection

Bi-fuel Selector Switch


Gas/petrol selector with 3 positions and
fuel consumptions indicators with 2 LED
Manual (push button) gas starting system
to enrich the mixture for starting
(primer); the middle position of the switch
closes the gas and petrol solenoid valves
at the same time
Regulator/Reducer
Reduce the pressure of the stored gas in
the cylinder and regulates the flow to the
air-fuel mixer
Gas flow rate from regulator varies
according to the strength of the signal
from the mixer

Power Valve
This device positioned between regulator
gas outlet and the mixer to control the
optimum gas flow from regulator to
mixer.

Refueling Valve
Install in engine compartment between
tank and regulator includes connection to
the refueling system
It is fitted with a non-return valve to
prevent of gas loss

Natural gas is compressed and enters the


vehicle through the natural gas fill valve
(receptacle)
It flows into high-pressure cylinders located
in or under the vehicle

-Fuel selector on the dashboard permits


selection of natural gas or gasoline to act as
the fuel for the vehicle

When natural gas is needed by the engine, it


leaves the cylinders and passes through the
master manual shut-off valve

- The gas goes through the high-pressure fuel


line and enters the engine compartment.

- Gas enters the regulator, which reduces


pressure from up to 3,600 psi to near
atmospheric pressure.

The natural gas solenoid valve allows natural


gas to pass from the regulator into the gas
mixer or natural gas fuel injectors. (it shuts
off the natural gas when the engine is not
running)
In a bi-fuel NGV, natural gas mixed with air
flows down through the gasoline carburetor
or fuel injection system and enters the
engines combustion chambers

NGV FOR LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE


1. Fumigation System (Sistem Pengewasapan)

The important component for this system is a


gas mixer
It functions as a mixer of air and NGV at the
precise rate for the right combustion before
transmission to the engine
This system is suitable for a carburetor
engine
There are two separated gas transmitting
regulation systems

Open - Loop System


This system is the same as the LPG system
installed in taxis. There is no electronic control
unit (ECU)
Closed- Loop System
This system is installed as an electric control
unit (ECU) to regulate the right amount of fuel
emission

2. Multi Point Injection System or MPI


An ECU is used to evaluate the mass flow of
gas before transmitting it to the combustion
chamber
This system is good engine fuel injection
system (EFI)

NGV FOR HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE


1. Diesel Dual Fuel System (DDF)

This system has been designed to run only on


diesel or on both
The ratio of NGV gas and diesel fuel depends
on the engine itself and the quality of the
CNG equipment used
The advantage of this system, vehicle can
operate on diesel or on both by using a
selection switch
There are two separate systems for emission
regulation

2. Re-powering
For re-powering, an existing diesel engine is
removed and replaced with a benzene engine
After that, NGV bi-fuel system equipment is
installed

Emissions are cleaner


less wasted fuel
lower emissions of carbon
lower particulate emissions per equivalent
distance travelled
Substantial savings (50%) in fuel cost
Lower operating cost

high price for installation


High maintenance - expensive to design and
build
use the maximum space - give up precious
cargo and trunk space to accommodate the
fuel storage cylinders
might be harder to find than a "regular" gas
station
fossil fuel and cannot be considered a
renewable resource

Reducer
It drops the gas pressure from 220 bar to 1.8 bar. This
component uses a diaphragm. It needs to be serviced and the
diaphragm replaced at regular intervals
The Gas Injectors
Use multiple gas injectors with one injector for each port. There
parts will wear out and leak, and have to be replaced
Gas ECU
ECU are supposed to last the life of the vehicle, they can fail at
any time.

After every 5,000 kilometers operation, air filters


should be checked and cleaned
Seat exhaust valve should be inspected and reset
because the corrosion of seat exhaust valve of
NGV faster than gasoline
Using hardened valve seats - NGV is a dry fuel
and lacks the lubricating properties of a liquid
fuel
Weight problem (increasing tank & component)
- Effect on the rear suspension & braking