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Industry Definition for Adhesive Manufacturing in the US

This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing adhesives,


glues, and caulking compounds. Adhesives are materials that are initially fluid or semi-
fluid, placed between two opposing solid materials, become solids themselves (by solvent
evaporation or chemical reaction), bond to the surfaces they are applied to and prevent
joint movement. Sealants are materials that are initially fluid or semi-fluid, placed
between two opposing solid materials, become solids themselves (by solvent evaporation
or chemical reaction), bond to the surfaces they are applied to and accommodate joint
movement. In architectural applications, sealants and caulks use their ability to
accommodate joint movement to seal out the intrusion of water, wind, pollutants, dust
and insects. "Sealants" are generally considered to deliver appreciably higher
performance than "Caulks”? While they both serve the same basic purpose. This industry
manufactures a broad range of adhesives, sealants and caulks, which are on-sold to the
construction sector, aircraft manufacturers, automotive manufacturers, packaging
industries, and other consumer durables manufacturers.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
August 1995
REFORMULATION'S ETHICAL ISSUES

Inhalant abuse, a leading killer of Latin American street children and an invisible drug problem in
the U.S., is posing some complex ethical and safety questions for makers of commonplace
products. Caught in the crossfire is H. B. Fuller, Inc. (St. Paul, Minn.), whose leather glue,
Resistol, has become so synonymous with inhalant abuse that, in some countries, young abusers
are referred to as resistoleros.

Where the ultimate solution lies is better law enforcement and education, the child advocacy
group, Covenant House (New York, N.Y.) is pushing for product reformulation as an interim
step. Its Latin American branch, Casa Alianza, has demanded that Fuller add the irritant mustard
oil to its existing cyclohexane-based product, until it moves to a water-based formula. The glue
was originally made with toluene, but Casa Alianza contends that cyclohexane isn't much better,
and plans to launch a class action lawsuit against Fuller to drive home its point. A wrongful death
suit was filed in Houston last January on behalf of the mother of one abuser.

Fuller, which is working on a water-based formula, says that adding the oil will endanger
legitimate users. Mustard oil is metabolized in mammalian cells as allylisothiocyanate, which
may be carcinogenic. Dangers would be magnified in hot, commercial settings, where people
handle gallons of the material, says Rick Kingston, senior toxicologist with the Minnesota
Regional Poison Control Center (St. Paul).

however, neither the oil nor its metabolite are on the National Toxicology Program's suspected
carcinogen list. Testor Corp. (Rockford, Ill.) has used mustard oil in its airplane glue since 1968
with no ill effects, says Guy Carynski, director of regulatory affairs.

Honduras and Guatemala, where Resistol sales are strictly controlled, now require that solvent-
based glues contain mustard oil. Given the number of legal alternatives available, Fuller questions
what impact this will have. As Kingston puts it, "Gasoline will always be there."
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
McGraw-Hill Companies
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019

Marble Manufacturing
We will be taking you briefly through a Travertine Quarry near
Rome Italy.

One of the most attractive qualities of stone is that it is not manufactured like a tile, it is cut and
finished only as nature has already created it, the limits to the manufacturer are based upon their
techniques used to cut and finish, the color, veining and other attributes are already in the stone
through millions of years development.

As an extreme oversimplification:
The process of bringing marble slabs and tiles to your home is to locate a mountain which has
rock in it that meets certain criteria for color and density, bring in cutting drilling and carting
equipment.
Remove large blocks form the mountain and send to a fabricator to have sliced into thin slabs,
finish the surface (Polish, Hone, Chisel or another method) then cut into the finished size, box
and ship.

This photo shows a view inside a quarry.

The cutting equipment in this quarry works by drilling holes into the mountain which intersect,
running a cutting cable through the holes and feeding the cable like a bicycle chain into the
equipment, which will pull the cable until it has worn away all the stone and comes free leaving a
standing block.
This photo shows after the cutting process is done a block about ten stories high is purposely sent
crashing down to allow fractures in the stone to break it up into smaller moveable pieces.

The operation of taking the smaller blocks away for shipment to the fabricating facility.
The block storage area at the fabrication facility. Out of one quarry comes many color ranges and
qualities of stone, each are graded and marked awaiting their turn to be fabricated based upon
current demand for the stone.
The operation of cutting the blocks into slabs at this quarry is much like slicing a loaf of bread,
the block is placed on a steady platform and multiple cutting heads are slowly worked into the
block with plenty of water cooling and lubricating the process until the cutting heads have come
all the way through the stone.

Slabs after cutting are honed as their finished surface.


Slabs awaiting shipment to the customer.

Many more processes can take place based on the stone and the final customer’s requirements.

On a large project it would also not be unusual for a building owner, contractor or architect to go
to the quarry and select blocks and colors for their project.
In some cases the building might require a matched application, meaning they want "sequential
placement of the stones" to match up the veins or colors as they are naturally occurring to be
placed next to one another or on top of one another. This requires careful supervision and
marking of each slab as they are fabricated so when they arrive to the job they are ready for the
final fabrication process.