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Th e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Foreward
LTE Portal team welcomes you!

LTE Portal
Tel: +1 415 230 0305

e are pleased to
introduce the first
issue of the LTE
Guide, its May 2010 publication. Our mission is to bring
and keep everyone together as we all continue on this
amazing LTE journey. We truly believe it is only through
information sharing, integration, and collaboration the
next generation mobile broadband technologies can
reach new horizons.
The LTE Guide gives you the baseline to work with. It
helps you stay ahead of the curve, better understand
current developments and emerging trends, read about
success stories and challenges, find the right partners,
and deliver on your own mission.
Our heartfelt thank you goes out to all sponsors,
institutional organizations, subject matter experts,
market intelligence firms, market-leading companies,
visionaries to all those who have contributed to this
publication, and, most importantly, to our readers.
We look forward to working with you this year and the
years to come.
Sincerely,

president and ceo


Basang Malunov
LTE Portal

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3 Th e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Table of Contents

(Each content item is linked to the page it is associated with)

Q&A with 3GPP

Next Release Key Topics, LTE Characteristics,


LTE Myths, Spectrum Issues, and more

13 W
 ireless Intelligence: TeliaSonera
Rolls Out Worlds First LTE Networks Across the Nordics

Speeds, Denmark, International LTE Launches

17 M
 aravedis: A Shaky Growth for

WiMAX; A Growing Number of Larger


Network Commitments Toward LTE
4G Infrastructure and Ecosystem, 4G Device and
Chipset Landscape, Transition Between WiMAX
and LTE

20 A gilent: New Challenges for LTE


and MIMO Receiver Test

Requirements for LTE Receivers, Basic LTE


Receiver Tests, Measuring Digital Output, MIMO
Receiver Test Challenges, Combining Simulation
and Measurement to Address Hardware Testing

27 S teepest Ascent: Improving

Throughput Performance in LTE by


Channel Estimation Noise Averaging

31 Q &A with 3G Americas: The Next

Generation of Mobile Broadband in


the Americas

3G Americas Expects Momentum and Innovation


with HSPA+ and LTE

37 A ntcor: Simulation Software,

Emulation Hardware, Consultancy


Services

LTEGrid, LTEWave, LTELink, LTESys, LTEmulator

38 C ommAgility: Meeting the

Demands of LTE eNodeBs

Processor Choices, LTE Bandwidth Demands

41 G SA: Mass Market Mobile


Broadband Is Reality

LTE is the Main Direction, LTE-TDD Complements LTE-FDD, New Spectrum for LTE

47 IDATE: LTE, a Compelling Answer?


Network Infrastructure, Mobile Data-Hungry
Devices Dissemination, Application Stores,
Strong Data Demand Pushed by All-You-Can
Eat Plans, Strong Subscriber Growth in Mobile
Broadband Forecast 2012-2015

Channel Estimating Algorithm, Conformance


Testing, Conformance Test Results, Conclusions

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4 Th e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Table of Contents (cont.)


(Each content item is linked to the page it is associated with)

53 C DG: Profiting from 3G and 4G:


Now and in the Future

3G Devices Enabling Services, 3G Revenues,


Emerging Network Approach for High Data
Environments, Bottom Line, Helping CDMA2000
Operators to Move Ahead, China Telecom:
CDMA2000s Rising Star

58 R ohde & Schwarz:


Application Notes

LTE-Advanced Technology Introduction, and


LTE-Advanced Signal Generation and Analysis

60 K ineto: Voice Options for LTE


62

LTE Company Directory LTE Guide


May 2010
Access
Core
Silicon, Platforms & Subsystems
Software & Protocols
Test & Measurement
Terminals / CPE
Antennas
Backhaul / Aggregation
Functional Entities Interfacing to EPC
End-To-End

VoLGA Forum

Voice over LTE via GAN; Path to IMS Telephony

64

GSMA

66

Femto Forum

VAS (Value-Added Services) Providers


Consulting, Training, Certification

VoLTE Initiative

Why Femtocells Should Be a Cornerstone for


LTE, The Best User Experience, New Services,
Beyond the Home, Rethinking Rollout, The LTE
Femtocell Business Case

ltep or ta l . c om

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LTE / LTE-ADVANCED
NEWS, RESOURCES, AND MORE ...
www.lteportal.com

+1 415 230 0305


info@lteportal.com

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Q&A with 3GPP

3GPP
Add: c /o ETSI

650, route des Lucioles


06921 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex
FRANCE

Email: Contact@3gpp.org
Website: www.3gpp.org

What is 3GPP?

3GPP stands for the 3rd Generation


Partnership Project (Note: 3GPP is not
constrained to 3rd Generation. It includes
work on both 2nd and 4th generation
technologies). 3GPP is a collaboration
between groups of telecommunications
associations, to make a globally applicable
third-generation (3G) mobile phone
system specification within the scope of
the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU). 3GPP
specifications are based on evolved
Global System for Mobile Communications
(GSM) specifications. 3GPP standardization
encompasses Radio, Core Network and
Service architecture.
The partners are the
standards developing
organizations:

ltep or ta l . c om

ARIB
CCSA
TTA

ATIS
ETSI
TTC

Contribution is driven by the companies that participate


in 3GPP through their membership of one of these
Organizational Partners. Currently there are over 350
Individual Members (Operators, Vendors, Regulators), and
13 market representation partners (giving perspectives
on market needs and drivers).
There are approximately 185 meetings (some of them
are co-located) per year, larger gatherings totaling
around 600 delegates.
What does 3GPP specify?
In short, 3GPP specify:
3GPP Specified Radio Interfaces
2G radio: GSM, GPRS, EDGE
3G radio: WCDMA, HSPA, LTE
4G radio: LTE Advanced
3GPP Core Network
2G/3G: GSM core network
3G/4G: Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
3GPP Service Layer
GSM services
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
Multimedia Telephony (MMTEL)
Support of Messaging and other OMA functionality
Emergency services and public warning
Etc.

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3GPP cont i nued

What is 3GPP Release Concept?


3GPP standards are structured as Releases.
What are the general directions of 3GPP evolution?
Radio Interfaces
Higher Data Throughput
Lower Latency
More Spectrum Flexibility
Improved CAPEX and OPEX
IP Core Network
Support of non-3GPP Accesses
Packet Only Support
Improved Security
Greater Device Diversity

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Service Layer
More IMS Applications (MBMS, PSS, mobile TV now
IMS enabled)
Greater session continuity
What are the key 3GPP topics for the next
Release?
Evolution of the Radio Interface
Home (e) Node Bs
Offloading and Traffic Breakout
Machine Type Communications
Fixed Mobile Convergence
What standards are available from a radio
interface evolution point of view?
EDGE, EDGE +, W-CDMA, HSPA, HSPA+, and LTE are already available, LTE-Advanced is what is the pipeline for
3GPP.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3GPP cont i nued

What are the highlights of Release 8 and 9,


which fall under the GPRS/EDGE Evolution
umbrella?
Release 8 and earlier
GERAN/LTE Interworking
General corrections
Multicarrier BTS
A-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)
Release 9
Hybrid Location
Multi Standard Radio (MSR)

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How about UMTS Evolution (HSPA)?


There are 240 operators in more than 100 countries that
forecast 1 billion subscriptions by 2011.
To that effect, 3GPP R5 & R7 added MIMO antenna and
16QAM (Uplink)/ 64QAM (Downlink) modulation which
essentially:
Improved spectrum efficiency (modulation 16QAM,
Reduced radio frame lengths
Added new functionalities within radio networks (including re-transmissions between NodeB and the
Radio Network Controller)
Reduced latency (100ms for HSDPA and 50ms for
HSUPA)

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3GPP cont i nued

What are the LTE characteristics?


LTE was introduced in Release 8 with minor improvements
in Release 9 and R10. The LTE characteristics are:
Significantly increased data throughput
Downlink target 3-4 times greater
than HSDPA Release 6
Uplink target 2-3 times greater
than HSUPA Release 6
Increased cell edge bit rates
Downlink: 70% of the values at 5% of the Cumulative
Distribution Function (CDF)
Uplink: same values at 5% of the Cumulative
Distribution Function (CDF)
Significantly reduced latency
High mobility
Cell ranges up to 5 km; with best throughput, spectrum
efficiency and mobility. Cell ranges up to 30 km;
Mobility with some degradation in throughput and
spectrum efficiency permitted. Cell ranges up to
100 km; Supported; degradations accepted

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10

Since Release 8, there have been a lot of


myths flying around about LTE. 3GPP does
dispel those myths. What are they?
Myth 1: LTE is Data only
Reality: Support of voice was one of the key
considerations in designing LTE. The voice solution
for LTE is IMS VoIP and it is fully specified.
Myth 2: SMS isnt supported over LTE
Reality: LTE and EPS will support a rich variety
of messaging applications - including SMS. The
solution is twofold, covering both the full IMS case
and a transition solution for those networks that do
not support IMS.
Myth 3: IMS isnt ready for prime time
Reality: IMS was first developed as part of Release
5 in 2002. It is based on IETF protocols such as SIP
and SDP that are very mature. These technologies
have been embraced by the industry as the signalling
mechanism for multimedia applications.
Myth 4: LTE doesnt support emergency calls
Reality: VoIP support for emergency calls (incl.
location) in Release 9. A transition solution fall back
to 3G/2G - has existed since IMS was introduced
(Release 5).

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3GPP cont i nued

What is Release 10? Is it related to LTEAdvanced?


LTE-Advanced is a preliminary mobile communication
standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G systems
to ITU-T in the fall 2009, and expected to be finalized in
2010/2011. It is standardized by 3GPP as a major enhancement of the pre-4G 3GPP LTE standard. In short,
LTE-Advanced to be the main feature of 3GPP Release
10 which allows a smooth transition from 3G to 4G.
What will LTE-Advanced deliver?
There are a few expectations. These are the main ones:
Support for wider Bandwidth (Up to 100MHz)
Downlink transmission scheme
Improvements to LTE by using 8x8 MIMO
Data rates of 100Mb/s with high
mobility and 1Gb/s with low mobility
Up link transmission scheme
Improvements to LTE
Data rates up to 500Mb/s
Relay functionality
Improving cell edge coverage

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11

More efficient coverage in rural areas


CoMP (coordinated multiple point transmission and
reception)
Downlink coordinated multi-point transmission
Uplink coordinated multi-point reception
Local IP Access (LIPA) & Enhanced HNB to allow
traffic off-load
Is there a timeline for LTE-Advanced?
Study Item, LTE-Advanced approved in 3GPP - Mar
2008
LTE-Advanced Requirements (TR 36.913) - Jun 2008
LTE-Advanced Early Submission made to ITU-R Sep 2008
Complete Technology Submission to ITU-R - Jun 2009
Final submission to ITU-R - Oct 2009
Completion of LTE-Advanced specifications by 3GPP
- 2010 / 2011
Are there any issues with spectrum?
The figure below shows E-UTRA operating bands,and
correspondent UL and DL along with a Duplex Mode.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3GPP cont i nued

900/1800MHz GSM bands are attracting a lot of attention,


as spectrum re-farming in those bands is seen as one
way to allow the roll out of mobile broadband services.
Additional spectrum can be added to the specifications
as required (e.g. 3500MHz is currently being added).
What is Home (e) Node B?
In Release 8, 3GPP specified UTRA and LTE femtocells.
Home (e) Node B is the 3GPP term for a femtocell:
HNB = UTRA femtocell
HeNB = LTE femtocell
Here are improvements developed in Release 9:
Improved idle mode handling
Active mode mobility support to/from cells of H(e)NB
Support open/hybrid mode access to cells of H(e)NBs
O&M improvements
What is being done as far as offloading and
traffic breakout is concerned?
There are various traffic offload mechanisms that were
developed. These mechanisms are being defined in
Release 10. For example:
Local IP Access (LIPA) is used from a femtocell to
access local network resources (such as a printer)
IP Flow Mobility and Seamless Offload (IFOM) is used
to carry some of a UEs traffic over Wi-Fi to offload
femto access
Selected IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO) is used to offload
the mobile core network by breaking traffic out of the
network early.
SIPTO for femtocells may be deferred to a later
release
What are the features of Machine Type
Communications (MTC) and what is the
functionality that supports these features?
Work started on this in Release 10. OS far there are 14
MTC features that have been identified. They are:
Low Mobility
Time Controlled
Time Tolerant
Packet Switched (PS) Only
Small Data Transmissions
Mobile Originated Only
Infrequent Mobile Terminated
MTC Monitoring
Priority Alarm Message (PAM)

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Secure Connection
Location Specific Trigger
Network Provided Destination for Uplink Data
Infrequent Transmission
Group Based MTC Features
In Release 10, 3GPP will focus on the general functionality
required to support these features:
Overload control (Radio Network Congestion use
case, Signalling Network Congestion use case and
Core Network Congestion use case)
Addressing
Identifiers
Subscription control
Security
Any updates on Fixed Mobile Convergence?
3GPP is working with BBF to support FMC with convergence using EPC. Specifically, convergence addresses IP
session mobility, authentication, and policy.
3GPP is also adopted a 3-phase plan:
Phase 1: basic interworking between fixed and wireless
Phase 2: offloading of traffic
Phase 3: convergence of network nodes
So far, Release 10 is the target for completion of Phase 1.
What are the main takeaways / conclusions,
as of now?
The following items are the main focus areas for 3GPP
and where the work is being done:
3GPP LTE is set to be the major enabler for mobile
broadband
LTE is being evolved into LTE-Advanced
3GPP is progressing work on all radio interface
generations
3GPP is also addressing a variety of key areas;
Femtocells
Traffic Offload
Machine 2 machine communications
Fixed Mobile Convergence
Is all 3GPP specifications information
proprietary?
All 3GPP specifications can be freely downloaded from
www.3gpp.org. Alternatively, it can be obtained from the
3GPP organizational partners mentioned earlier.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

13

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

TeliaSonera rolls out worlds


first LTE networks across
the Nordics

Wireless Intelligence

By Matt Ablott & Joss Gillet, Wireless Intelligence


(www.wirelessintelligence.com)

Email: info@wirelessintelligence.com

Add: 7 th Floor

5 New Street Square


London EC4A 3BF
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0) 20 7759 2300


Fax: +44 (0) 20 7559 2301
Website: www.wirelessintelligence.com

This article first appeared on www.mobilebusinessbriefing.com

Swedens TeliaSonera claimed a major


PR coup in December 2009 by becoming
the first operator in the world to switch
on commercial LTE networks. The panNordic operator went live with LTE in two
of the largest Scandinavian cities: the
Swedish capital, Stockholm, and Oslo, the
capital of neighbouring Norway. In both
cases the networks use 2.6GHz bandwidth that TeliaSonera acquired in recent
auctions in the respective countries.

in Sweden, and NOK699 (US$120) per month in Norway,


though low-cost introductory deals have been available
in both markets.
In the near term, LTE services will be a niche market
in urban areas with HSPA expected to migrate to more
rural areas and become more mass market, and EDGE
used as the fallback network. This means that great
care will be required with regards to pricing to avoid
cannibalisation between mobile and fixed broadband offerings. Swedish operators have already announced that
pricing models are to be reviewed to better reflect data
consumption per user in an admission that the current
flat-rate pricing models are hampering revenue growth
and resulting in higher operating expenses.

TeliaSonera intends to ramp-up rollout of LTE across


several of its markets over the next few years. It has
committed to expand the Swedish network into 25 cities across the country by 2010 and into a further four in
Norway. It has also been awarded an LTE license in Finland (where an LTE pilot has already started) and plans
to bid for similar spectrum in Denmark and in the Baltic
region where it has subsidiaries in Estonia (EMT), Lithuania (Omnitel) and Latvia (LMT).
The operator has not yet revealed usage figures for its
initial LTE networks in Stockholm and Oslo, suggesting
they have not yet reached meaningful volumes. Uptake
is expected to be initially slow on the account of the fact
that the new networks are only accessible via an LTEonly Samsung dongle (a version capable of falling back
onto TeliaSoneras GSM and WCDMA networks is expected in the second quarter). Access to the new networks is
priced at SEK599 (US$84) per month for 30GB of data

Speeds
TeliaSonera has inevitably talked up the high-speeds
possible using the new network, claiming that maximum
speeds of 100Mb/s is achievable, making it ten times
faster than its Turbo-3G (HSPA) network. However as
the worlds first LTE networks speeds have been closely monitored and are said to be significantly lower in live
tests. A recent independent study achieved peak download speeds in Stockholm of 50Mb/s and 85Mb/s in Oslo,
though average speeds were reported to be 16.8Mb/s
and 32.1Mb/s, respectively. This is someway short of the
advertised 100Mb/s but still significantly beyond what is
possible via the operators fastest HSPA networks today.
Sweden, in particular, has proved an ideal market for
early-stage LTE rollout. According to the latest Wireless
Intelligence data, TeliaSoneras Swedish mobile subsidiary (Telia) had successfully migrated over half (50.2

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wir eless in telligen c e cont i nued

percent) of its customer base from GSM to its faster


WCDMA and HSPA networks by the first quarter of the
year. Moreover, almost a quarter of these connections
now relate to HSPA, suggesting strong take-up of mobile broadband services. TeliaSonera said that mobile
broadband subscriptions across all its markets grew by
almost half a million (436,000) year-on-year in the first
quarter to surpass the 1 million mark (1,175,000) for the
first time. Sweden is thought to be the main driver of this
growth.
However, Sweden is also a market where TeliaSonera
is set to face early competition in LTE. Last year, Tele2
Sweden and Telenor Sweden - the countrys second- and
third-largest operators, respectively - announced plans
to jointly build a nationwide LTE network and share
spectrum for its deployment. Like TeliaSonera, both
these operators acquired suitable LTE spectrum in the
2.6GHz auctions in 2008. The deal created a 50/50 jointventure known as Net4Mobility that aims to build-out its
LTE network to 99 percent of the Swedish population by
2013 - an extremely aggressive target in a country with a
small population spread across a wide geographic area.
The joint-ventures first LTE networks are expected to
be switched on this year and it claims to be able to offer
speeds of up to 150Mb/s in urban areas. The network
sharing model already widely deployed in WCDMA in

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14

Sweden is designed to keep network LTE build-out


costs to a minimum and is expected to be replicated
elsewhere in the world. The two other winners in Swedens 2008 spectrum auctions, 3 Sweden and Intel, have
yet to reveal their plans.
Denmark
TeliaSonera is also likely to face stiff competition from
larger players in Denmark, a market that is currently in
the process of awarding LTE licenses. Market-leader
TDC said this month that it is confident it will have the
licenses in place to rollout LTE as early as June in key
Danish cities such as Copenhagen and Aarhus. Such a
timeframe is likely to establish TDC as the worlds second operator to commercially launch LTE.
However, for Nordic mobile operators to fulfil industry
expectations with their LTE rollouts, high cash injections
will be required. In the Nordics, as elsewhere, last years
challenging market conditions have led mobile operators
to focus on strengthening cash flows by squeezing capital expenditure. As a result, free cash flows increased
year-on-year by around 50 percent at TeliaSonera and
Telenor, and by 45 percent at Tele2. In Sweden, average
capex declined to around 5-6 percent of total revenues
in 2009, compared to the 10-11 percent range recorded
in previous years. Moreover, capex priorities may con-

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

wir eless in telligen c e cont i nued

15

tinue to lie elsewhere. TeliaSonera spent two thirds of its


capex budget in 2009 at its operations in Eurasia and in
fixed-line broadband, while Telenor spent mainly on capacity upgrades and Tele2 invested heavily in Russia. But
the key metric to keep an eye on is operating expenditure, which remained stable at around 70 percent of total
revenues between 2008-09 in Sweden. Mobile operators
will need to substantially reduce opex, while at the same
time allowing for increased infrastructure management
costs and the costs of marketing LTE.

in 25 to 30 US markets in the fourth quarter. This would


make the new network available to a potential market of
100 million, which would dwarf the rollouts seen in the
Nordics to date. The firm is not expecting to provide LTEcompatible handsets on the network until the middle of
2011. Verizon Wireless is in a race to launch the countrys first LTE networks with regional rival MetroPCS,
which has also set a target of launching a prepaid LTE
service by year-end. However, its main rival AT&T is
not planning to launch until next year.

International LTE launches


The Nordic LTE rollouts have served to steal the thunder from the more high-profile LTE launches planned
elsewhere in the world, most notably by Verizon Wireless in the US and by NTT Docomo in Japan, which have
both pledged to go live with LTE by year-end. Verizon
Wireless the US market leader plans to switch on LTE

Wireless Intelligence is the leading market data and analysis service focused on the operational performance of mobile
network operators worldwide. With over 2.4 million individual
data points covering 1,700 networks in 200 countries it is the
de facto industry tool for market intelligence with a subscriber base of over 600 of the worlds mobile operators and leading equipment manufacturers.

Matt Ablott is deputy editor of Mobile Business Briefing and an analyst at the Wireless Intelligence
research firm. He has served many
years in business and financial journalism, including roles at Mobile
Communications Europe, Telecoms
Markets and Electronic Payments
International. A specialist in mobile
communications technology, Matt
joined the GSMAs editorial team in
March 2008.

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www.wirelessintelligence.com

Joss Gillet is responsible for the


operator forecasts as well as the
on-going management of the Wireless Intelligence service as a whole.
Before Wireless Intelligence, Joss
worked at Ovum Ltd and before that
for Motorolas Mobile Devices Division in the UK. He joined Motorola
as a product analyst before managing its market intelligence activities
in Europe.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

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17

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

2009, a Transitional Year: A Shaky Growth


for WiMAX; A Growing Number of Larger
Network Commitments Toward LTE
By Adlane Fellah, Research Director, Maravedis Inc

Maravedis
Add: 4 10 Rue des Recollets Suite 301
Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 1W2
Canada

Tel: +1 305 992 3196


Fax: +1 514 313 5465
Email: info@maravedis-bwa.com
Website: www.maravedis-bwa.com

2009 was a transitional year, and WiMAX


experienced rather shaky growth. Sales
of user devices and network expansions
continued, but this was during a transition of availability, and amongst a growing
number of larger network commitments
toward LTE. Furthermore, the end user
wireless broadband market was driven
by 3.5G web-phone device sales, which
mostly by-passed WiMAX. While the hot
tickets in broadband everywhere were
the continued growth of iPhone sales
and the explosion of Android devices,
their availability to operate on 4G has yet
to become a factor. Meanwhile, LTE has
gained momentum among device and infrastructure suppliers:
A
 ll major mobile phone suppliers say they are racing
toward commercial availability of their next hot
consumer devices.
W
 iMAX chip and some leading infrastructure suppliers
are preparing LTE micro to mini base stations as they
attempt to supply products that are either niche oriented or supplemental to Tier 1 telecommunications suppliers such as Ericsson and Alcatel- Lucent.

ltep or ta l . c om

4G Infrastructure and Ecosystem


WiMAX has established a beachhead for technological progress and commercial advancement of the next
generation of wireless networks. However it has lacked
access to spectrum, held principally by incumbent operators. That and a stalled economy have led operators
to miss earlier expectations for market growth. Nonetheless, WiMAX continues to establish its place as a new
participant in an increasingly diverse and commoditized
universe of wireless applications.
3GPP LTE has made rapid developmental progress.
Several participants have benefitted from work done in
developing 3G and 4G systems. Owing to the pedigree
of development and similarity of technologies, several
companies including Motorola, Samsung, Alcatel-Lucent, and Huawei assert support for 3G HSPA and 4G
within their product families.
A few pre-LTE networks are starting to be deployed
ahead of full compatibility testing and product stability:
Telia Sonera in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.
While these early deployments show the urgency with
which LTE is being positioned in the market, full LTE deployments are not expected to start until late in 2010.
4G Device Landscape
Indoor WiMAX modems represented 48% of the total
units shipped in 2009 while USB dongles and PC cards
stood at 43%. Maravedis believes that during the second
half of 2010 the pace of mobile device introduction will
accelerate, and the impact on WiMAX will be significant
as the missing component for adoption helps level the

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mar avedis cont i nued

playing field. Motorola, Samsung, Nokia, HTC, and Huawei are among suppliers that plan LTE phone availability
in the second half of 2010. We expect introductions into
the market before the end of the year with substantial
market rollout in 2011.
A critical factor in 4G success will spill over from 3.5G
having the hottest hand-held devices. Suppliers will
dance to the tune of the largest operators with the most
significant coverage. We expect LTE to pick up market
momentum once Verizon and other early deployments
roll out.
4G Chipset Landscape
Surprisingly, there are already many players in the LTE
base-band chipset landscape: incumbent manufacturers
(Qualcomm, ST-Ericsson and Nokia), new entrants who
never commercialized previous chipsets such as 3G (LG
Electronics and Samsung Electronics), and newcomers who leverage their OFDM expertise (Altair, Beceem,
Comsys, Sequans, and Wavesat). While LTE incumbent
providers focus on sampling dual-mode chipsets, new
entrants position themselves as technology drivers, delivering early LTE-only solutions.
Maravedis has observed that the momentum of chip
supply has shifted to WiMAX/LTE and LTE/3G multi-mode
chipset solutions, with WiFi and 3G becoming required
modes depending on the product application. Beceem,
Sequans, Altair, Comsys, and Wavesat have announced
LTE chipsets. Some have been demoed (Altair, Comsys
and Wavesat) and others will follow in Q210 (Sequans)
and Q410 (Beceem).
However, early LTE chipset suppliers may not be the
long-term winners in the dual-mode 3G/4G chipset market. Maravedis believes that few among the WiMAX chipset newcomers are seeking to be acquired in the near
term. Furthermore, diversified product entrants such as
LG Electronics and Samsung Electronics have no evident
long-term LTE chipset roadmap.
The development of the LTE modem itself is not the
most complex aspect of the global LTE picture. Interoperability, seamless hand over, architecture expertise
and management of the different bands across the world
may be the most challenging obstacles facing LTE chipset suppliers.

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18

The WiMAX chipset ecosystem has remained fairly


stable, although the top three vendors faced different
fortunes. While Beceem has secured strong revenues
mainly due to its role in the Clearwire deployment, GCT
suffered some loss of market share despite a growth
in revenues. The latters misfortune could be explained
by the diminishing role of the Korean ecosystem in the
global picture, and the embryonic state of Ciscos now
defunct WiMAX RAN Business.
The increasing market share for Motorola and ZTE
along with the full migration of Alvarion from legacy
technologies to fully-fledged mobile WiMAX have helped
Beceem achieve a leadership position, with a 50% market share. Huaweis solid performance helped Sequans
retain its 23% market share from last year.
Intels support of WiMAX remained unchanged in 2009
despite rumours fed by remarks from Intel top executives suggesting the company will not tie itself to WiMAX
interminably if the market is not there. From the chipset perspective, Intel maintained its leading role by introducing a new generation of chips that could enable
a large-scale adoption of WIMAX in notebooks, laptops,
and MIDs.

Year of Transition Between WiMAX and LTE


2009 presented a mixed bag for the broadband wireless equipment market: the overall 802.16- 2005 market
saw shallow growth, as the surge in chipsets and devices
compensated for the decline in shipments of base station sectors and the average selling price of equipment.
Shipments of base stations were impacted more deeply
by the economic downturn than shipments of devices,
especially mobile WIMAX devices which grew 147%,
which correlates to the addition of a 3.5 million subscribers throughout the year.
The most notable change of 2009 was the total shift
from legacy technologies to a single technology, which
made some players gain significant additional revenues
while others lost much of their market share. Two examples of companies who have announced impressive
shipment volumes are Beceem and Motorola.
During the second half of 2009 Motorola shipped more
units than their cumulative number of shipments since

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

mar avedis cont i nued

they launched WiMAX devices, reaching a total of 1.4 million units shipped in 2009. In Q4 2009 alone, the company
surpassed 600,000 units. At the same time, Beceem announced 1 million chipset units shipped in Q3 2009, followed by another million in Q4 2009, reaching nearly 3
million units total for the year.
Maravedis estimates total revenues from mobile
WiMAX equipment sales hit US$1.22 billion last year,
while legacy (802.16d and proprietary) wireless broadband technologies combined market reached US$420
million, despite interesting prospects in the unlicensed
band markets and vertical applications such as smart
grids. The combined WiMAX market size in 2009 was
US$1.36 billion compared to US$1.34 billion in 2008.
2009 has been a transitional year: WiMAX experienced
rather shaky growth: sales of user devices and network

19

expansions, while a transition in availability of supply,


and participation amongst a growing number of larger
networks commitments toward LTE. 3GPP LTE has made
rapid developmental progress. Several participants have
benefitted from work done in 3G and WiMAX systems.
A few pre-LTE networks are starting to be deployed
ahead of full compatibility testing and product stability:
TeliaSonera in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.
While these early deployments show the urgency with
which LTE is being positioned in the market, full LTE deployments are not expected to start until late 2010. 2011
and 2012 will certainly be the most active years in LTE
deployments among the top 30 LTE operators worldwide
which will generate the volumes to boost the emerging
LTE ecosystem.

Adlane Fellah, Eng. MBA is CEO and founder of Maravedis Inc. a world-leader
and pioneer in Broadband Wireless and WiMAX market research and analysis. He is a leading industry analyst and authored various landmark reports
on WiMAX, Broadband Wireless and Voice over IP (VoIP). Mr. Fellah is regularly asked to speak at leading wireless events and to contribute to various
influential portals and magazines such as Telephony Magazine, WiMAX Trends,
WiMAX.com, to name a few Fellah is a member of the Program Advisory
Board for the WiMAX World conference since 2004 and an active member of
the World Communications Association International and the European Broadband Wireless Association. Prior to founding Maravedis, Fellah held various
positions at Harris Corporation in charge of market intelligence and business
development for several product lines.

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20

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

New Challenges for LTE and


MIMO Receiver Test

Agilent Technologies
Add: 5 301 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95051
USA

Tel: U
 S: +1 800 829 4444

Canada: +1 877 894 -4414

Email: contact_us@agilent.com
Website: www.agilent.com
Introduction

Previous generation cellular systems


have used multiple antenna techniques
such as transmit and receive diversity and
beamsteering to improve the link budget.
In each of these cases, a single stream
of data is sent between the base station
and user equipment (UE). Release 8 of
the 3GPP specifications, which defines
the Long Term Evolution (LTE) towards
4th generation systems, includes new requirements for spatial multiplexingalso referred to as Multiple Input Multiple
Output ( MIMO)wherein the base station
and UE communicate using two or more
spatial streams. The goal is to increase
both the overall capacity of a cell and the
data rate that a single user can expect
from the system.
As a result of the increasing data rates
and flexibility, the design and test of LTE
systems differs in many ways from previous generations of cellular technology. In
particular, LTE receiver design and test
present new challenges for which test
equipment and measurement methods
must be adapted.

ltep or ta l . c om

Requirements for LTE receivers


The 3GPP specifications define the LTE requirements
that impact receiver design. For example, LTE must
support the following changes:
S
 ix different channel bandwidths from 1.4 to 20 MHz
Frequency Division (FDD) and Time Division Duplex
(TDD) modes
U
 se of the multi-gigabit DIgRF v4 standard to connect
subsystems. This requires cross-domain (digital in,
RF out) measurement capability. A digital test source
must emulate both data traffic and the encapsulated
protocol stack within the digital interface that
controls RFIC functionality.
Additionally, LTE can use transmit diversity (MISO) and
receive diversity (SIMO) as well as beamsteering, either
alone or in combination with MIMO. LTE specifies seven
different downlink transmission modes, each of which is
suited to different channel and noise conditions:
1. Single-antenna port; port 0: SISO
2. Transmit diversity: MISO
3. Open-loop spatial multiplexing: MIMOno precoding
4. Closed-loop spatial multiplexing: MIMOprecoding
5. Multi-user MIMO: MIMOseparate UEs
6. Closed-loop Rank=1 precoding: MISObeamsteering
7. Single-antenna port; port 5: MISObeamsteering
The terms codeword, layer, precoding, and beamforming
have been adopted specifically for LTE to refer to signals
and their processing. The terms are used in the following
ways:
Codeword: A codeword represents user data before
it is formatted for transmission. In the most common
case of single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO), two codewords
are sent to a single handset or UE.

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L
 ayer (or stream): For MIMO, at least two layers must
be used. Up to four are allowed. The number of layers
is always less than or equal to the number of antennas.
Precoding: Precoding modifies the layer signals before transmission. This may be done for diversity,
beamsteering or spatial multiplexing. The MIMO
channel conditions may favor one layer (data stream)
over another. If the spatial multiplexing is closed
loop, the UE provides a precoding matrix indicator
(PMI) so the eNB can cross-couple the streams to

21

counteract the imbalance in the channel.


E
 igenbeamforming (sometimes known simply as
beamforming) modifies the transmit signals to
give the best carrier-to-noise interference plus
noise ratio (CINR) at the output of the channel.
Figure 1 shows how two codewords are used for a single
user in the downlink. It is also possible for the codewords
to be allocated to different users to create multi-user
MIMO (MU-MIMO).

Figure 1. 2x2 SU-MIMO transmission

Basic LTE receiver tests


The 3GPP receiver conformance tests for LTE require
performance measurements, including MIMO performance measurements, on the entire receiver. However,
before performance can be measured, the basic receiver
sub-blocks must first be verified and the source of specific distortions quantified and reduced. These basic

measurements are made earlier during the receiver


design phase. If multiple receivers are used in a system,
it is necessary to make the basic measurements on
each receive chain separately before attempting to verify
MIMO performance. A simplified block diagram of a
typical LTE transceiver is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Simplified LTE Transceiver.

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Modern receivers utilize the same building blocks as


classic designs; however, today there is a higher degree
of integration with single components performing multiple functions. Testing these components can be more
difficult, particularly in handsets, because space is at a
premium and there will likely be fewer places where signals can be injected or observed for testing.
Open-loop testing, in which the receiver-under-test
does not send feedback information to the source, is sufficient to test the fundamental characteristics of the individual components in the receiver. Open-loop testing is
also a first step in validating the demodulation algorithms
in the baseband section. However, full verification of the
overall receiver performance in real world conditions requires closed-loop testing through a faded channel.
A unique aspect of LTE is that the UE must support
all six channel bandwidths from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz even
though actual system deployment in any one geographical area may be restricted to fewer bandwidths. The LTE
signal structure contains reference signals (RS) spread
both in frequency and in time over the entire LTE signal.
The UE and base station (eNB) receivers can use these
signals along with digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to compensate for amplitude and phase linearity
errors in the transmitter, radio channel, and receiver.
Flatness needs be tested across each supported bandwidth and band, particularly at the band edges where the
duplex filter attenuates the edge of the signal.
Measuring digital output
Traditionally, the signal from a receiver RF section can
be demodulated into I and Q components using analog
techniques. Today, however, the downconverted IF signal is usually digitized by an ADC and then fed to the
baseband section for demodulation and decoding. Measuring the output of the ADC poses a challenge because
the output is now in the digital domain.
One solution is to analyze the digital bits from the ADC
directly. The ultimate solution for DigRF testing and char-

22

acterization, the Agilent RDX platform provides a single


test environment that helps you validate DigRF v4 protocols under real world conditions. With powerful emulation software and protocol-specific hardware test cards,
you can quickly explore a broad range of test cases. The
included protocol generation and analysis software interoperates with the industry-leading Agilent Signal
Studio software and 89600 VSA analysis software to enable RF physical domain stimulus and analysis across
an RF-IC chip. The software allows you to analyze ADC
performance by making traditional RF measurements
directly on digital data, and it provides numerical error
vector magnitude (EVM) performance measurements
for verification along with detailed graphical information
that can be used during product development to isolate
the source of signal impairments.
MIMO receiver test challenges
The base station receiver faces many of the same MIMO
challenges that the UE receiver faces, but in addition
has to simultaneously receive data from multiple users.
From the point of view of MU-MIMO, each signal comes
from a separate UE, therefore each signal has a completely independent channel, somewhat different power
levels, and different timing. These characteristics can be
emulated using the Agilent N5106A MIMO receiver tester
(PXB) in conjunction with RF signal generators.
In normal operation the receiver will have to deal with
a complex and continuously changing channel, but using
a fading channel to emulate these conditions means that
tests will not be repeatable. A fading channel built from
simple phase and timing differences between paths provides a deterministic signal that can be designed to verify
the receivers performance limits. Adding noise to such
a channel can readily create a test signal in which some
subcarriers are more difficult to demodulate than others.
When a fading channel is required, a configuration such
as that shown in Figure 3 provides multiple, independent,
continuously faded paths with analog or digital outputs.

Figure 3. Receiver test system including fading.

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23

Figure 4. Demodulated LTE signals from Vector Signal Analyzer.

The plots shown in Figure 4, generated by the MIMO


receiver tester, show the demodulated signals from a
single frame of an LTE signal. The channel was flat-faded (no frequency selectivity). The two constellations at
the top of the figure show the two layers of the MIMO signal. It is clear that the constellation on the left is tighter,
which would result in a lower bit error ratio (BER) in a
real receiver.
In open-loop MIMO operation the UE sends channel
quality information (CQI) data to the eNB. The layer with
higher CQI sustains higher order modulation or less
channel coding. In closed-loop MIMO operation the UE

additionally sends PMI data, which enables the eNB to


cross-couple the streams to equalize the performance
of the two layers, as seen in the lower plots.
In LTE, the codebook index method is used to facilitate
channel precoding, with a small number of codes used to
minimize the system overhead in signaling. This means
that the codebook index provides an approximation to the
channel, implying some level of residual error. Testing
receiver precoding performance requires the use of signals with a fixed phase relationship to ensure repeatable
test conditions. An example test system configuration is
shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Signal generation system for MIMO receiver test.

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24

Figure 6. System simulation sppeds the design process.

Combining simulation and measurement to


address hardware testing
Todays design techniques rely on system simulation
to avoid costly hardware iterations and to speed up the
overall design process. It is helpful if the results can be
applied directly to hardware testing. Agilent offers design tools that, later in the design process, can be interfaced with test instrumentation to give a mixed hardware and simulation environment, so that engineers can
perform functional tests on completed components and
subsystems in a system context. Figure 6 shows a complete transmitter and receiver with a faded MIMO channel using Agilent SystemVue.
Combining simulation with test offers a number of
benefits. Simulation is a powerful, flexible way to model
both baseband and RF design elements as well as RF
path impairments and the creation of pre-coded MIMO
channels.
As the design is turned into functioning physical
blocks, combining simulation with test instrumentation
allows stimulation and analysis of the blocks in a realworld environment. Figure 7 shows an example of a

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MIMO dual-transmitter source used to perform coded


BER measurements on a complete MIMO dual-receiver
and baseband combination. The transmitter payload can
be either digital or analog IQ data, with real-time error
analysis provided by comparing the receiver data output
with the sent data. Stress-testing the receivers by applying known fading and channel precoding while measuring real-time BER builds confidence that the design will
work correctly in the real world.
Ultimately the LTE MIMO receiver will need to pass
the LTE conformance tests. The complexity of these
tests is multiplied by the number of possible RF configurations, each of which can impact receiver performance as well as the performance of the overall
system. Release 8 of the 3GPP specification defines
15 possible FDD frequency bands and 8 possible TDD
frequency bands. In each band the transmission and
reception bandwidths range from 180kHz to 18MHz.
Additionally, the UE must meet the conformance tests
already defined for the legacy technologies that it supports
as well as any new inter-RAT tests defined for LTE.

Figure 7. Combining simulation and test for closed-loop BER measurement.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

agilen t tec h n ologies cont i nued

Clearly there is a need for fast and flexible test


approaches to accommodate this complexity, and
thorough development using new methods for crossdomain testing and tools that combine simulation and
hardware measurement make valuable contributions in
this area.

25

For more detailed information on the challenges of LTE receiver design and test,
please see www.agilent.com/find/LTEbook

Moray Rumney, Technology Advisor, Agilent Technologies, has


worked for HP/Agilent since 1984 and in 1991 became Agilents
representative to ETSI, contributing to the standardization of
the GSM air interface and type approval tests. Since 1999 he has
represented Agilent at 3GPP and contributed to the development
of the W-CDMA air interface and RF conformance tests. This
standardization work has evolved to incorporate HSDPA, HSUPA
and now LTE and IMT-Advanced. Moray obtained his BSc in
Electronics from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh.

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27

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Improving throughput
performance in LTE by channel
estimation noise averaging

Steepest Ascent Ltd.


Add: 9 4 Duke Street

Glasgow G4 0UW
Scotland UK

Tel: +44 (0) 141 552 8855


Fax: +44 (0) 141 552 8855
Email: info@steepestascent.com
Website: www.steepestascent.com

Estimation of channel time and power


delay spread is necessary for successful
equalization in an Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system such
as LTE. Accuracy of trained channel estimation techniques is heavily influenced
by noise on the pilot symbols. This article
presents a channel estimation method
that averages LTE pilot symbol channel
estimates to reduce noise and improve
channel estimation and throughput performance. Algorithmic analysis of this approach uses the channel estimator from
the Steepest Ascent Ltd 3G Evolution
Lab - LTE Toolbox and Blockset for The
MathWorks MATLAB and Simulink
to demonstrate advantages of noise reduction on receiver performance. Under
a conformance test setup the optimal
level of averaging is shown to effectively
reduce noise and improve channel estimation quality, consequently increasing
receiver throughput performance.

Introduction
Signals transmitted over a multipath fading channel,
are prone to fluctuations in signal power due to propagation conditions such as: scattering, reflection or refraction. To coherently detect and decode the received signal, an accurate channel estimate is required.
LTE uses cell specific reference signals (pilot symbols)
inserted in both time and frequency to facilitate estimation of channel characteristics. Using pilot symbols
it is possible to estimate the channel at given locations
within a resource grid. Interpolating between these
estimates determines the channel response across an
entire resource grid. LTE reference signals are assigned
unique locations within a resource grid depending on the
eNodeB cell identification number and transmit antenna
port used. No other antenna transmits pilot symbols at
these locations in time and frequency, allowing channel
estimation for multi-antenna configurations to be performed.
Noisy pilot symbols affect the accuracy of channel
estimation thereby having a significant effect on overall
receiver throughput performance. Therefore it is important
to remove or reduce the noise during channel estimation.
Channel estimation algorithm
The channel estimation algorithm described in this article is shown in Figure 1 and its method of operation is
described further in this section.

Figure 1: Channel estimation algorithm

ltep or ta l . c om

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First the reference signals for a transmit/receive antenna pair are extracted from their known location within
the received subframe resource grid. The pilot symbol
values are known to the receiver, thus it is possible to
determine the channel response at these locations using
the following least squares estimate:

The above relationship shows how noise can influence


least squares estimates and affect the interpolation
used to determine channel response across an entire
resource grid.
Figure 2 illustrates the averaging window technique
used to reduce noise on the least squares estimates.
An averaging window is defined which identifies an area
where the channel response is assumed similar. Given
that the noise is a random process, the estimate located
at the centre of the window can be improved by setting it
equal to the mean of all least squares estimates within
the window, effectively averaging out the noise.

28

This type of averaging is simple and effective, however


the averaging window size must be chosen carefully. Using a large averaging window on a fast fading channel
could result in flattening out channel characteristics.
The optimal averaging window requires some knowledge of the channel delay profile and Doppler frequency;
these two factors determine the maximum level of averaging possible in frequency and time before degradation
of channel estimates occurs.
The final stage of channel estimation involves interpolating between averaged pilot symbol estimates. To aid
the interpolation process near the edges of a resource
grid where no pilot symbols may be found, virtual pilot
symbols are created; these allow extrapolation of the
data set beyond the resource grid region.

Figure 3: Channel surface for LTE propagation model using EVA


delay profile and with a 5Hz Doppler frequency

Figure 3 shows a plot of the channel surface for the


Extended Vehicular A (EVA) propagation channel model
at a Doppler frequency of 5Hz. This diagram shows the
time and frequency varying nature of the channel and
provides an indication of the optimal level of averaging.
Studying the channel surface shows that it is slow varying in time but fluctuations in the frequency plane are
clearly visible, implying excessive frequency averaging
would filter out channel characteristics and degrade the
resulting channel estimate.
Figure 2: Resource grid with pilot symbols inserted, showing area
covered by 13x9 averaging window

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Table 1: PDSCH conformance test scenario

Conformance testing
Conformance testing provides a means to measure
the compliance of a system against the LTE specifications. Steepest Ascents 3G Evolution Lab - LTE Toolbox
and Blockset provides the tools to investigate the merits
of noise averaging on throughput. The setup described in
Table 1 is an example of the LTE conformance tests pertaining to the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH)
and is used to demonstrate the effect of channel estimation and noise reduction on performance. Furthermore
the positive and negative effects of averaging with respect to the propagation channel model and noise level
are illustrated.
Conformance test results
Performance curves for a range of SNRs have been
plotted in Figure 4. These curves represent different levels of averaging and include as reference the results after equalization using perfect knowledge of the channel.

29

From the performance graph it is apparent optimal averaging parameters allow the channel estimator to perform almost as well as having perfect knowledge of the
channel. If no averaging is applied, performance is poor
and only begins to improve as the Signal to Noise Ratio
(SNR) increases. Similarly if excessive averaging is used
performance suffers and remains well below the desired
minimum even as the noise level decreases. This is due
to frequency selectivity of the channel being averaged
out, thus degrading channel estimates.
Conclusions
This article leveraged the Steepest Ascent Ltd 3G
Evolution Lab - LTE Toolbox and Blockset for PHY design, verification and conformance testing to investigate a channel estimation method capable of reducing
noise on pilot symbols. The noise reduction method was
shown to produce notable improvements in throughput
performance, rivalling perfect knowledge of the channel.
However, the size of the noise averaging window must be
chosen carefully and with knowledge of some channel
parameters.
www.steepestascent.com/lte
MATLAB and Simulink are registered trademarks of The Mathworks Inc.
Steepest Ascent Ltd specialises in the provision of mobile and wireless simulation libraries, wireless channel models, DSP software
tools, professional short courses and consulting, and embedded
communications system design.

Figure 4: Performance curves for varying sizes of averaging window

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Q&A: The Next Generation


of Mobile Broadband
in the Americas

3G Americas, LLC
Add: 3G Americas, LLC
Tel: +1 425 372 8922
Email: info@3gamericas.org
Website: www.3gamericas.org

3G Americas Expects Momentum and Innovation


with HSPA+ and LTE
Industry organization 3G Americas has
been at the forefront of the ever-evolving
mobile broadband ecosystem and has
fostered the successful deployment,
adoption and growth of the GSM family
of technologies, which now include LTE,
throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Through education and advocacy, 3G Americas works
with regulatory bodies, technical standards bodies and
other global wireless organizations to promote seamless
interoperability and convergence and to identify any
roadblocks that could hinder the success of the 3GPP
technologies. At the end of 2009, GSM-HSPA represented
73 percent market share in the Americas and that share
continues to grow. Mobile broadband deployments and
network evolution continue as operators achieve increasing
data service revenue and growing traffic with further
penetration of smart devices. 3G Americas President
Chris Pearson, and Erasmo Rojas, Director of Latin America
and the Caribbean, respond to questions regarding the
next generation of mobile broadband in the Americas.
GSM-HSPA Statistics:
602 million subscriptions in Western Hemisphere
(Dec 2009)
Latin America growth engine: 465 million subscriptions and 91% share of market (Dec 2009)
Worldwide HSPA: 324 commercial networks in 136
countries (Mar 2009)
Worldwide HSPA+: 45 commercial networks in 29
countries (Mar 2009)

ltep or ta l . c om

Worldwide UMTS-HSPA subscriptions expected to


reach over 677 million by end of 2010 (Informa Telecoms & Media)
AT&T: 40% of AT&T subscriptions are integrated devices; wireless data traffic on AT&T network grew
more than 5,000% over past three years; data services nearly 30% of ARPU
Rogers Wireless: launched first HSPA+ network in
Americas (Aug 2009) at 21 Mbps peak, now covering five largest cities: HSPA at 7.2 Mbps peak covers
84% of Canadian population
T-Mobile USA: first launched HSPA+ in U.S. in 2009;
currently HSPA+ is being broadly integrated across
the 3G network which covers 205 million people
AT&T: conducting field trials of LTE in 2010; commercial deployment expected in 2011 in 700 MHz
spectrum; AT&Ts 700 MHz spectrum covers 87% of
U.S. population
More than 1,890 commercial HSPA devices from 164
suppliers made available worldwide (GSMA, Mar 2010)
HSPA+ Dual-Carrier now commercially deployed
by Telstra at 42 Mbps peak theoretical download
speeds
What is the consumer buzz about 4G in the
Americas?
Pearson: Actually, I think consumers are buzzing more
about mobile broadband in the Americas. Operators provide the four legs of the table that holds the feast of mobile broadband: 1. Network Speeds (radio access and
backhaul); 2. Devices; 3. Applications; and 4. Coverage.
Thus, because of the operators support of this important wireless ecosystem, customers are buzzing about
mobile broadband in the Americas!

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3G amer ic as cont i nued

Why are the leading U.S. operators choosing


different paths for next generation?
Pearson: Each operators mobile broadband strategy
is understandable. Each operator has assessed their
own strengths and weaknesses in terms of their current
spectrum and equipment assets, ecosystem forecast,
competitive advantages, as well as their human and financial capital in determining their next steps. T-Mobile
USA has a very strong strategy to move quickly to HSPA+
and AT&T has a very strong strategy to move to LTE next
year. Verizon Wireless decided to move quickly to LTE as
they operate an EV-DO network and did not have the infrastructure in place for HSPA or HSPA+. All three strategies are logical.
What are other operators in the Americas
doing for next-generation (4G) technology?
Rojas: In Latin America and the Caribbean, mobile
broadband is widely deployed with 52 HSPA deployments
in 24 countries. 3G Americas expects HSPA+ to be deployed commercially during 2010 in key Latin America
markets, particularly those exhibiting high demand for
data consumption. Future LTE networks will be available
once the governments and regulators in the region have
allocated and auctioned the additional spectrum needed.
Each operator in Latin America will need to determine

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32

their exact strategy based on their spectrum and equipment assets. LTE should have a few trials in the region,
of which one already started in January in Chile with additional trials planned this year in Argentina and Brazil.
Pearson: In Canada, Rogers Wireless continues to be
very aggressive in deploying mobile broadband technologies for their customers. Rogers has deployed HSPA+
in many of the countrys major cities.
Is HSPA+ a competitive technology to the
so-called 4G technology that is in the U.S.
market today?
Pearson: The International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) has not yet certified any technologies to be IMT-Advanced or 4G. However, in the U.S. market, Sprint-Nextel has been liberally using the marketing term 4G for
its WiMAX technology. Both HSPA and HSPA+ have far
superior coverage than WiMAX and compete extremely
well against WiMAX in all aspects of important customer
metrics, such as network speed, device ecosystem, applications and did I mention coverage? To put it in perspective, HSPA delivers a typical user download speed
of 700 kbps to 1700 kbps; HSPA+ provides typical user
download speeds of 1.5 Mbps to 7 Mbps and with bursts
much higher speed.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3G amer ic as cont i nued

The U.S. has led the global market with the


introduction of many innovative smartphones
and, as a result, data traffic has soared.
What do you see in the future?
Pearson: The U.S. consumer and enterprise user will
continue to demand innovative devices, applications and
increased network speeds. The U.S. is a leader in 3G deployments and usage. The use of smartphones on mobile
broadband networks will continue to grow and the mass
market will come to expect great capabilities. Think back
to the early days of the Internet, once consumers and
enterprise users get used to great speeds, they will find
more and more ways to use them to increase productivity in their professional and personal lives.
How and why has Latin America been a growth
engine for the GSM family of technologies?
Rojas: Economies of scale are extremely important
in Latin America. This is characterized by a high mobile penetration hovering at 90 percent, a high level of
prepaid subscriptions that are favored by the average
subscriber and still holds above 80 percent, as well as
monthly ARPU which is below US$15. In order to provide a good variety of handsets at affordable prices, pan-

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33

regional operators in Latin America, such as Amrica


Mvil (in 17 countries), Telefnica (in 13 countries) and
Millicom (in 6 countries), decided to adopt the GSM family of technologies as the basic platform for 2G voice
services and the introduction of 3G data services. Seamless roaming provided by the GSM family of technologies
is present in every single country in the region and has
been a key factor in the growth of GSM-based services.
By the end of 2009, the GSM family of technologies represented more than 90 percent of all wireless subscriptions in Latin America.
Are there challenges to the introduction
of HSPA+ or LTE in Latin America?
Rojas: HSPA+ is a simple upgrade for most HSPA operators in Latin America and, thus, it will happen sooner
rather than later. 3G Americas expects some operators to
move to HSPA+ in 2010 in Latin America as they can reuse
their existing spectrum to improve their network speeds
and satisfy growing customer demand for high speeds.
LTE will also be deployed in Latin America when the time
is right. Currently, the main obstacle for LTE and mobile
broadband in Latin America is spectrum policy. Many
countries in Latin America have outdated legacy spec-

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3G amer ic as cont i nued

trum policies that need to be reconsidered. For example,


many countries have significantly low spectrum caps
and, thus, some operators are not gaining access to new
spectrum to deploy mobile broadband technologies such
as LTE. 3G Americas is hopeful that telecom policies in
Latin America will allow for more spectrum to be brought
to market for all operators and investors to allow networks to be deployed to serve the needs of society.
The introduction of HSPA+ and LTE in Latin American needs to be accompanied by the availability of lower
prices for high-end devices such as smartphones as well
as affordable price plans that address both the postpaid
and the prepaid markets. Additionally, in order to promote advanced broadband services, governments need
to review their policies on taxes and tariffs for wireless
services and equipment which, in most countries, is still
too high and represents an entry barrier particularly for

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34

the lower economic classes that urgently need broadband services.


What are the economic opportunities
presented by mobile broadband in Latin
America?
Rojas: The economic opportunities are three fold: 1.
Increase usage of mobile broadband by current and future users to increase productivity while on the go; 2.
Provide broadband Internet connectivity to the masses
by deploying the most economic broadband technologies. Given the low broadband penetration in the region
that averages 10 percent, this need is particularly more
visible in rural and less dense populated areas with limited or non-existing Internet access; 3. Serve societys
needs in business, healthcare, education and welfare to
boost the GDP of the country.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3G amer ic as cont i nued

Regulation in the U.S. has been a topic of


controversy in the past year. Where does 3G
Americas stand on the policies facing the industry today?
Pearson: There are various policies and issues that
could potentially affect the wireless industry in 2010 and
beyond. Of particular note are spectrum and net neutrality. Regarding spectrum, 3G Americas fully supports the
U.S. Governments recognition that the mobile wireless
industry needs more spectrum. 3G Americas has filed
comments with the FCC and other agencies about the
tremendous growth of mobile broadband in the U.S. and
the need to access new harmonized spectrum to continue
its growth. In regard to net neutrality, 3G Americas has
focused on the wireless debate and has filed comments
supporting the rights of wireless operators to manage
their networks. The U.S. is leading the world in many
aspects of wireless and mobile broadband with more
operators deploying 3G networks than any other country.
The U.S. has only 7 percent of the worlds subscribers
but 22 percent of the worlds 3G subscribers. Thus, there
is no need for heightened regulation when the industry
is moving forward by serving customers with innovation
and great technologies.

Chris Pearson, President of 3G Americas,


LLC, is responsible for the strategic
planning of the organization and
providing executive management
for the integration of strategy and
operations in the areas of technology,
marketing, public relations, finance as
well as public and regulatory affairs. As
President, he represents 3G Americas
Market Representation interests
within the 3GPP organization. Mr.
Pearson has more than 23 years of experience in the
telecommunications industry. He regularly provides lectures,
technical marketing training and speeches for technology
audiences throughout the world.

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35

LTE offers the future evolution for GSM,


CDMA a nd perha ps even W i MAX se r v ic e
providers. Do you see a future merging of
mobile broadband into one technology?
Pearson: No, we do not see a merger between the GSM,
CDMA and WiMAX technologies. The 3GPP/GSM family
of technologies has an overwhelming market share with
tremendous economies of scale. We expect more CDMA
and WiMAX operators to choose LTE and LTE-Advanced,
but we do not expect a merger of the actual technologies.
Is HSPA+ or LTE needed for emerging devices,
M2M and rich applications?
Pearson: Emerging devices, M2M and rich applications
all have a broad spectrum of requirements in regard to
speed, cost, capacity, network management and administration. Thus, HSPA+ and LTE both have significant
roles to play in meeting the various specific demands
of each of these categories. There will be unforeseen
business-driven applications in the enterprise and
government sectors such as e-health, e-government,
surveillance and e-commerce.

Erasmo Rojas, Director of Latin America


and the Caribbean for 3G Americas,
LLC, is responsible for providing
information to mobile operators, vendors, regulators, telecommunications
organizations, media and analysts
regarding the GSM family of technologies in Latin America and the
Caribbean. He informs key audiences
on the industrys latest developments
to facilitate the successful development
of the GSM family of technologies and next-generation
advanced mobile services throughout the region. Mr. Rojas has more than 35 years of international experience in
the telecommunications industry.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

3G amer ic as cont i nued

About 3G Americas
3G Americas is an industry association with a mission
to promote, facilitate and advocate for the deployment
and adoption of the GSM family of technologies including
LTE throughout the Americas. 3G Americas has contributed to the successful commercial rollout of GSM across
the Americas and its place as the No. 1 technology in the
region, as well as the global adoption of EDGE. The organization aims to develop the expansive wireless ecosystem of networks, devices and applications enabled by

36

GSM and its evolution to LTE. Members: Alcatel-Lucent,


Amrica Mvil, Andrew Solutions, AT&T, Cable & Wireless, Ericsson, Gemalto, Huawei, HP, Motorola, Nokia
Siemens Networks, Openwave, RIM, Rogers, T-Mobile
USA and Telefnica. www.3gamericas.org

For Additional Information on HSPA+ and LTE:


Download free white papers at www.3gamericas.org
Click on white paper cover image(s) to visit 3G Americas white papers web page.

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3GPP Mobile
Broadband
Innovation
Path to 4G:
Release 9,
Release 10 and
Beyond: HSPA+,
SAE/LTE and
LTE-Advanced

3GPP LTE for


TDD Spectrum
in the Americas

GSM-UMTS
Network
Migration
to LTE

HSPA to
LTE-Advanced:
3GPP Broadband
Evolution to
IMT-Advanced
(4G)

The Benefits of
SON in LTE

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

Simulation Software
Emulation Hardware
Consultancy
Services

Antcors LTE line of products and services can offer priceless assistance in designing and
developing your LTE products. With our simulation/emulation/consultancy products and
services your time and effort expenditure from design to an actual product is significantly
reduced, last-minute holdups are avoided and a head-start to the market is achieved.
Antcors LTE Suite is a software product based on a MIMO-OFDMA implementation of the LTE
L1/L2 stacks compliant to the latest 3GPP Release-8. The suite comprises the following
applications

LTEGrid (available now)

A free online tool (available at w w w.antcor.com) for generating the LTE


resource grid corresponding to parameters such as the transmission
band width, antenna ports, Cell ID, etc.

LTEWave (available now)

A tool which can be used for the generation of LTE-compliant waveforms,


application of signal processing techniques (filtering, PAPR clipping, etc),
addition of signal impairments (Gaussian noise, frequency selectivity etc),
and analysis of received LTE waveforms (spectral analysis, EVM
measurements, channel estimation etc).

LTELink (available now)

A very po werful link-level simulator suitable for performing advanced


performance studies of the whole downlink LTE L1 transmission chain. It
implements all transmission modes, FDD/TDD multiplexing, channel
coding/decoding etc. With this tool, results can be obtained in terms of the
BLER, BER, throughput etc.

LTESys (planned for release Q3 2010)

Additionally to LTELink, Antcors state-of-the-art system-level simulator


implements the necessary L2 functionality to perform dynamic and adaptive
studies based on feedback information from the UEs. Complex MAC-layer
operations such as multi-user scheduling, CQI feedback processing and
link-adaptation, hybrid ARQ, etc are supported. The combination of LTELink
and LTESys offers a real-time co-simulation environment able to support
advanced traffic scenarios and radical L1/L2 implementations.

LTEmulator (planned for release Q4 2010)


Based on Antcors technical expertise on LTE, an LTE L1/L2 emulation platform is currently
developed. Suitable for real-time testing of your products, the platform can bridge the two worlds
between simulation and hardware testing/development. The solution will reflect a robust
implementation and at the same time a reference testing environment for eNodeBs, femto-cell
base stations and UEs.
Consultancy Services
Antcor has a clear and consistent roadmap that follows the evolution of LTE towards LTEAdvanced. As part of this commitment we offer a large range of customer-oriented consultancy
services that address your requests. Moreover Antcor organises online webinars with a
balanced view of both financial and technical importance of LTE simulations/emulations
(www.antcor.com/LTE_webinars).

38

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Meeting the demands of


LTE eNodeBs
By Edward Young, Managing Director and
Paul Moakes, Technical Director, CommAgility
While we might still feel were getting
used to 3G, the next generation of wireless is just around the corner. December
2009 saw TeliaSonera complete the first
commercial LTE networks, in Oslo and
Stockholm, and customers are expected
to be able to start accessing the networks
early in 2010.

CommAgility
Add: Loughborough Innovation Centre
Epinal Way, Loughborough,
Leicestershire, UK. LE11 3EH

Tel: +44 (0) 1509 228866


Fax: +44 (0) 8452 991150
Email: sales@commagility.com
Website: www.commagility.com

For a high-performance application like LTE, which also


requires a high degree of flexibility to adapt to changing
standards and requirements, there are two main choices
for the processor: DSPs and FPGAs. Until fairly recently,

DSPs were the preferred choice in most designs, but the


major FPGA vendors have improved their signal processing offerings, and picking the best solution is no longer an
obvious choice.
In many cases, the optimum design may be a hybrid
multi-processor system including both DSPs and FPGAs.
Using a high-speed, low latency interconnect such as Serial
RapidIO (SRIO), a subsystem can include multi-core DSPs
and an FPGA to provide baseband processing. For example,
the CommAgility AMC-3C87F3 provides exceptional performance from three Texas Instruments TMS320TCI6487 DSPs
each with three 1GHz C64x+ cores, as well as a Xilinx Virtex-5
LX110T FPGA. This allows an application to be partitioned
for the most effective utilisation of system resources.
Adding a network processor for MAC and security processing allows a 10MHz sector of LTE to be processed on
a single card, for example the CommAgility AMC-2C87W3,
which includes a multicore Wintegra Winpath3 wireless network processor to handle the MAC and security tasks. The
AMC-2C873W3 is a complete digital baseband solution on a
single AdvancedMC (AMC) card with full LTE eNode B capability from raw IQ data to backhaul IP packets. It includes a
multicore Wintegra Winpath3 Wireless Network Processor
for MAC and security processing, two Texas Instruments
TCI6487 multicore DSPs, and a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA for interfacing and algorithm acceleration.
Other baseband centric solutions may be best-suited to
a DSP- or FPGA-only solution to support higher radio data
bandwidths. For example the CommAgility AMC-V5F-10G

Figure 1: Diagram of CommAgility AMC-3C87F3 module

Figure 2: Diagram of CommAgility AMC-2C87W3 module

Mobile data usage is growing significantly and faster


download speeds are being demanded as part of the user
experience. 4G networks based on LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology can meet these requirements by offering
download speeds of up to 100 Mbps, which is around 10
times faster than 3G networks, and improving spectral efficiency. Where Norway and Sweden are leading, many other
countries will follow.
But what does this mean for the eNodeB designers?
Higher data rates put more demands on processor power,
on the radio interface, and for I/O within the various components of the baseband processing system.

Processor choices

ltep or ta l . c om

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c ommagility cont i nued

AMC is a Xilinx Virtex-5 LX110T FPGA module for wireless


baseband with a 10Gbps optical interface.

LTE bandwidth demands


For the interface from the baseband processing to the
Remote Radio Head (RRH), there are two open standards
in common use: the Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI,
see www.cpri.info) and the Open Base Station Architecture
Initiative (OBSAI, see www.obsai.com).
A typical 4G baseband system might have 48 uplink and
24 downlink antenna streams per eNodeB, with data rates
upwards of 123 Mbps per stream. This works out as an overall
total of 6Gbps of antenna data which must be reliably handled.
If we look at CPRI, until recently the standard supported data rates up to 2.4576Gbps. For LTE this is rarely fast
enough and the CPRI standard has now been extended to
6.144Gbps in the latest specification, version 4.1. Some system designers are even using the protocols within CPRI to
achieve data rates up to 9.8304Gbps using silicon developed
for 10Gbps Ethernet links. However, this higher speed is yet
to be included in the ratified CPRI standard.
These very high bandwidths place tough demands on the
system infrastructure. Lets look at one example sub-system that has been designed to meet these requirements:
CommAgilitys AMC-V5F-10G Advanced Mezzanine Card
(AMC) module, mentioned already in this article.
For systems that require very high speed optical links
the V5F-10G includes a front panel SFP+ interface. This
provides a fast data link for protocols such as Ethernet at
10Gbps or a 16x CPRI interface which achieves the target
speed of 9.8304Gbps.
As well as the link to the Remote Radio Head, there is
also a need for flexible, high-speed I/O within the eNodeB

Edward Young
Managing Director
Edward Young is managing director
and a founder of CommAgility. Prior
to founding CommAgility in 2006, he
was employed in OEM sales, senior
account management and business
development roles at Motorola. He
previously also held marketing and
engineering roles at Blue Wave Systems/LSI and Lucas.
He holds a 1st Class Honours Degree in Electrical and Information Sciences from Cambridge University.

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39

processing sub-system. The V5F-10G provides a full Gigabit Ethernet infrastructure to allow for system expansion.
Additional optical data interfacing is enabled by dual SFP
interfaces connected directly to the FPGA.
When supporting multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
systems with channels encoded using spread-spectrum
techniques such as OFDMA, data from all radio antennas
has to be available to all baseband processing blocks. In this
kind of application, many sub-system designers are turning to SRIO, which is already implemented on the main DSP
choices for baseband processing, and can be obtained with
standard FPGA IP cores. It has a lower protocol overhead
than Ethernet and supports multiple masters, unlike PCI
Express. SRIOs multicast feature is also important in distributed systems. AMC-V5F-10G provides 10Gbps SRIO connectivity from the FPGA to the AMC backplane to allow data
transfer to other AMC modules in the system
In summary, LTE has a wide range of implementation
options and challenges, as described above. Whatever the
application, CommAgility can provide sub-systems with the
performance, I/O and flexibility to meet these requirements.

Figure 3: CommAgility AMC-V5F-10G module

Dr. Paul Moakes


Technical Director
Paul Moakes is technical director
and a founder of CommAgility. Prior
to founding CommAgility in 2006, he
was a system architect for embedded
DSP products at Motorola. He previously held engineering management
and engineering roles at Motorola
and Blue Wave Systems/LSI. He holds a PhD in Electrical
and Electronic Engineering from Sheffield University, and
a 1st Class Honours Degree in Electronics Engineering
from Bradford University.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

Dubai International Convention Centre, Dubai, UAE

e s
dl or
id at
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An excellent gathering
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41

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Mass Market Mobile


Broadband Is Reality

GSA
Add: G
 SA Secretariat

PO Box 5817
Sawbridgeworth
CM21 0BH
UNITED KINGDOM

Tel: +44 1279 439 667


Fax: +44 1279 435 443
Email: info@gsacom.com
Website: www.gsacom.com

The world is in love with mobile broadband. The evidence is all around to see.
There is no turning back.
The path to mobile broadband, which
began with 3G/WCDMA, is now commercially available on 347 networks in 144
countries. Its first evolution, High Speed
Packet Access (HSPA), significantly
boosts capacity and user data speeds.
HSPA is now deployed and commercially launched by
over 98% of WCDMA operators i.e. 341 HSPA networks
commercially launched in 143 countries. There are now
around half a billion WCDMA mobile broadband subscribers, of which HSPA represents more than 43% of
subscriptions and this segment is growing at a current
monthly rate of 7 million.
2,349 HSPA user devices have been launched in the
market by more than 230 suppliers, according to research
by GSA in April 2010, with 610 new devices introduced in
the last 6 months. HSPA-enabled devices provide high
speed mobile broadband connectivity for every segment
of the market. Taking notebooks and netbooks as examples, 432 products are specified with HSPA embedded
as standard or optional, and in the newer segments, 10
HSPA-enabled e-book readers are launched. There are
now approaching 1,000 models of HSPA-enabled phones
on the market, including smartphones which are the key
growth segment. Excluding notebooks and e-book read-

ltep or ta l . c om

ers, the number of HSPA devices which incorporate WiFi


has increased 44% since October 2009, while the number
with navigation functionality grew by a similar amount in
the same period.
Mass market mobile broadband is now a reality as
these facts confirm, thanks to HSPA which successfully delivers anywhere anytime high-speed broadband
Internet access as the killer application. GSAs studies
on HSPA network commitments and launches show that
54.5% i.e. 186 networks support a peak downlink data
speed of at least 7.2 Mbps. Uplink performance is also
impressive; 100 HSUPA networks have commercially
launched in 53 countries, with almost one-third of them
supporting up to 5.8 Mbps peak. The number of HSUPA
devices has exploded by 77% since October 2009, with a
total of 609 products now launched.
Mobile operators in countries all over the world confirm
how data usage has grown on their respective networks,
generating significant growth in new subscriptions, traffic, revenue and profitability. In several markets, mobile
data traffic exceeds voice traffic. HSPA-enabled laptops
(with embedded modules or using dongles) and smartphones are driving data usage. Cisco (VNI Mobile 2010)
stated that the average smartphone user generates 10
times the amount of traffic compared to the average nonsmartphone user. Despite the economic downturn, the
demand for mobile data, fuelled by mobile broadband,
has continued to grow. Cisco estimates that mobile data
traffic increased 160% in 2009, though individually, some
operators declared more dramatic traffic increases.
Telefonica O2 reported that its mobile data traffic in Europe doubled every 3 months during 2009. Telecom Italia

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gsa cont i nued

announced its mobile traffic grew 216% from mid-2008


to mid-2009. In the USA, AT&T reported a mobile traffic
increase of 5000 % over the past 3 years.
According to a recent prediction by Gartner Inc.,
smartphone sales will more than triple to 491.9 million
units by 2012, from 139.3 million in 2008. The PC industry
is being overwhelmingly driven by mobile devices (notebooks, netbooks). Gartner predicts that mobile PCs will
drive 90% of PC growth over the next 3 years and account
for almost 70% of all shipments by 2012. At present, mobile PCs represent 55% of the market.
Furthermore, increasingly video will account for more
mobile data traffic, estimated at 66% of global mobile
data traffic by year 2014, according to Cisco.
Further improvements in data speed, capacity and
performance come with HSPA Evolution, or HSPA+. In a
global industry survey organized in 2009 by GSA, most
respondents believed that HSPA+ mobile broadband
technology would enter the mainstream during 2010.
Our latest surveys confirm that this expectation is rapidly becoming reality. 103 operators in 51 countries have
committed to HSPA+ network deployments (April 2010),
including 52 HSPA+ systems now in commercial service in 32 countries. Most of these networks support a
peak downlink data speed of 21 Mbps, with 6 networks
supporting 28 Mbps or higher. Users can expect a real
download experience of around 10 Mbps, and operators have the capacity to support many more customers.
An additional 51 HSPA+ networks are in deployment or
planned. GSA expects that 90 HSPA+ systems will be in
commercial service by end 2010. Device capabilities have
also improved to support the rapidly evolving networks.
Excluding notebooks and e-book readers, 1,019 devices
support peak downlink data speeds of 7.2 Mbps or higher. Forty two HSPA+ devices have been announced by 11
suppliers.
HSPA+ itself has a strong evolution path. Several networks will support 42 Mbps peak downlink capabilities
this year, and the first 42 Mbps systems are commercially launched. This is achieved by combining 64 QAM
modulation and doubling the bandwidth, i.e. by deploying
dual carriers (2 x 5 MHz = 10 MHz). The specifications
for these so-called DC-HSPA+ systems were introduced
in 3GPP Release 8. The standard also enables 42 Mbps

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42

to be achieved by combining 2 x 2 MIMO technology and


64 QAM modulation in a single 5 MHz carrier. The uplink can be doubled to 11.5 Mbps peak by using 16QAM
modulation instead of QPSK. Release 9 (which is being
standardized now) will combine multicarrier and MIMO
technologies in 10 MHz carrier bandwidth to deliver 84
Mbps peak on the downlink. Using multicarrier on the
uplink can double the peak rate to 23 Mbps. Further evolutionary steps beyond that are envisaged in standardization beyond Release 9.
GSA also confirms the rapidly expanding eco-system
for deploying HSPA and HSPA+ systems in lower (below
1 GHz) spectrum, which allow operators to build coverage at lower costs, particularly in rural areas, and also
improve in-building penetration. In the 900 MHz band
there are now 321 HSPA devices (UMTS900) to support
the wave of operators now deploying or planning networks in re-farmed 900 MHz spectrum, as a result of
liberalization of the band in Europe and other markets to
enable mobile broadband services to be deployed alongside GSM voice services.
LTE is the main direction
While the migration to HSPA+ is the main trend in 2010,
LTE is agreed as the main direction for the industry.
This is confirmed by many network operators who today
provide services on GSM/HSPA or CDMA platforms. It
is certainly the case for the leading operators who have
committed to commercial LTE systems, including Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, Vodafone, China Mobile, and
NTT DoCoMo. LTE is the next step for a superior mobile
broadband user experience, not only because it brings
faster connectivity and throughput capabilities, but also
reduced latency. LTE provides operators with several important benefits, including significantly increased peak
data rates, increased cell performance, reduced latency,
the ability to be deployed in scalable bandwidths, coexistence with GSM/EDGE/UMTS-HSPA systems, & reduced CAPEX/OPEX. LTE improves the user experience
of all Internet services, and enhances more demanding
applications such as interactive TV, mobile video blogging, advanced gaming, and professional services. Furthermore, LTE is crucial to accommodate the expected
huge data service traffic growth already discussed, and

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

gsa cont i nued

43

Figure 1: Main benefits of deploying LTE

reduce the cost per gigabyte delivered to the user. This


is essential in order to successfully address the future
needs of the mass market. LTE also brings an evolution
to the core network to an all-IP architecture that benefits operators by reducing CAPEX and OPEX costs and
introduces more flexibility to handle the IP-services now
coming to the fore.
In April 2010 GSA confirmed 64 firm LTE network commitments in 31 countries, with a further 24 technology
trials underway or planned in Asia, Latin America, Russia and elsewhere. The first LTE systems were commercially launched by TeliaSonera in December 2009
in Sweden and Norway. The performance of these networks has been tested by several organizations since
their launch. All studies and tests confirm how well they
the LTE networks are performing, in many cases above
expectations. GSA was informed of the following results
collected by Signals Research Group, who conducted the
first ever extensive independent drive test evaluations of
both of the TeliaSonera LTE networks in Stockholm and
Oslo: while still in its infancy, commercial LTE networks
in Stockholm and Oslo already outperform many fixed
broadband connections, offering average data rates of

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16.8 Mbps (peak = 50 Mbps) and 32.1 Mbps (peak = 85


Mbps) in 10 MHz and 20 MHz, respectively. Measured
data rates would have been even higher if it had not been
for the stringent test methodology, which focused almost
entirely on vehicular testing (Signals Research Group,
LLC, Signals Ahead, March 2010 report). A second 10
MHz carrier has since been deployed in Stockholm.
A strong eco-system is currently being built for LTE
which already comprises chipsets, dongles, LTE-capable
netbooks, and test equipments. Over time, many of the
current 230+ HSPA device manufacturers are expected
to support the LTE market with compatible products.
The LTE specifications provide backward compatibility
with current and legacy 3GPP systems i.e. GSM/EDGE,
WCDMA-HSPA/HSPA+ to ensure continuity of mobility
coverage for users outside of LTE coverage. The first
multi-mode USB modems are anticipated to be released
for LTE customers in 1H 2010, and are expected to be
in volume production by the end of 2010. LTE-enabled
phones/smartphones are expected to be on the market
in 2011, possibly earlier.
The number of launched commercial LTE networks is
anticipated to reach 22 by the end of 2010.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

gsa cont i nued

44

Figure 2: Global LTE network commitments (April 2010)

LTE-TDD complements LTE-FDD


So far we have been discussing LTE-FDD systems. 3GPP
standardization for LTE also includes a time division
mode. LTE TDD is the perfect choice for providing high
speed mobile broadband access through unpaired radio
spectrum. It is an integrated part of the set of 3GPP standards implementing a maximum of commonalities with
LTE-FDD and offering comparable performance characteristics at similarly high spectral efficiency. So LTE-TDD
is a real complement to LTE-FDD.
Within the globally assigned IMT spectrum bands for
mobile (broadband) communications, there are significant spectrum resources suitable for LTE-TDD usage
across a wide range of frequencies. Amongst these,

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the largest contiguous bands at present are at 2.3 GHz


(100 MHz) and within the 2.6 GHz band (e.g. 50 MHz according to the CEPT band plan). Due to the recognized
demand for radio technologies for unpaired spectrum
bands and based on the commonalities as explained
above, LTE-TDD will be able to exploit global economies
of scale similar to LTE-FDD. The availability of spectrum
and the technical pre-requisites will also allow a short
time to market. Hence, it will be likely that LTE-TDD will
eventually become a globally accepted technology also
providing an excellent evolution path for TD-SCDMA and
WiMAX systems. A large-scale trial system is being conducted by China Mobile during the Shanghai World Expo
beginning on May 1, 2010. A series of technology trials

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

gsa cont i nued

and tests are also planned by three Taiwanese operators


FarEasTone, Chunghwa Telecom, and Vivo. India may
also be a promising market for TD-LTE.
Therefore we have with LTE one single global standard,
which in turn will secure and drive even greater
economies of scale, and also simplify roaming.
In addition, both LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD have a clear and
smooth evolution path towards LTE-Advanced, currently
being standardized within 3GPP Release 10 to meet the
requirements of future IMT-Advanced systems, which
are expected to be commercially launched around 2015.
New spectrum for LTE
Spectrum is the oxygen for mobile communications
systems. While HSPA systems are deployed today in
all the main cellular bands, it is clear that much more
spectrum is needed to support future anticipated growth
of services, traffic and ensuring capacity for subscriber
growth and burgeoning M2M applications. LTE brings
the opportunity for additional spectrum, initially in
Digital Dividend (DD) bands (700 MHz, 800 MHz) and
2.6 GHz. The main benefits from LTE come from larger
bandwidth deployments (up to 20 MHz) as we see today
in Sweden and Norway. LTE systems in the USA are
being deployed in 700 MHz DD spectrum by Verizon
Wireless and others. In Europe, the switchover from analog
to digital TV transmissions is underway. In Germany,
which has already switched over fully to digital
terrestrial TV, Europes first auction of DD spectrum (800

45

MHz) got underway on April 12, 2010. The 800 MHz DD


spectrum is being auctioned amongst a package which
also includes 1800, 2100 and 2600 MHz channels, and
may be used for LTE or HSPA/HSPA+ mobile broadband
technologies. Indications after the first 2 weeks of
bidding were that DD spectrum is highly valued by the
bidders, even more than the 2600 MHz (2.6 GHz)
opportunity. Timely access to new spectrum 800 MHz
for rural coverage, 2.6 GHz for capacity in urban areas,
is crucial for ensuring LTE realizes its full potential in all
markets.
Alan Hadden, President
Global mobile Suppliers Association
alan.hadden@gsacom.com
About GSA
GSA (Global mobile Suppliers Association) represents
GSM/EDGE/WCDMA-HSPA/LTE suppliers, providing reports, facts, analysis and information explaining market
developments and trends. GSA-organized seminars facilitate enhanced dialog between operators, members
and developer communities. GSA is a Market Representation Partner of 3GPP.
Website: www.gsacom.com
RSS newsfeed: www.gsacom.com/rss/gsanews.php4
GSA LinkedIn Group: www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=2313721
Twitter: @gascom

Alan Hadden has 23 years experience in the mobile communications industry,


and has been President of GSA since its formation in 1998.
Previously he was on the senior management team of a PCN/GSM 1800 operator
(today called T-Mobile UK), involved in start-up, launch, and expansion phases.
He assisted with discussions with key stakeholders and overseas regulators
to establish 1800 MHz as a mainstream band for cellular and new mobile
businesses. He represented the company at the GSM Association and the UMTS
Forum. Previously Alan was Industrial Advisor to the UK communications
regulator, and represented views influencing regulation and standardisation at
national and international level.
Alans 2nd book, Mobile Broadband with HSPA, LTE and Beyond: Services, Markets and Business
Opportunities, will be published by Wiley and Son in 2010.

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Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

HanseCom Media & Communication is a business media company.


The company, led by an experienced management team head quartered
in Porto, was founded in Portugal in 2004. HanseCom Media & Communication,
a leading IT & Telecom conference organizer, has earned itself a reputation
of excellence, specializing in specific themes, pertaining to the Information
Technology community.
HanseCom conferences are not only providing valuable updated
information, but also insight on how a given technology is likely to pan out
in the future. Under this perspective, a HanseCom event often is more of
an interface between research and industry. It is an excellent occasion
for bringing together these two worlds and it ensures a strong networking
opportunity for delegates and speakers alike.
In addition to these major conferences, HanseCom Media & Communication
is organizing practical workshops offering interactive opportunities
to gain experience on various technological subjects.
One of the most important event series HanseCom at
present is very well known for in the market is the "LTE Forum."
Delegates, speakers and sponsors from all around
the world are being attracted by these high level
conferences and workshops."

HanseCom Media & Communication


Praceta Lus Antnio Verney, 32
4100-312 Porto
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T +351 22 0159431
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info@hansecom.net
www.hansecom.net

47

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

LTE, a Compelling
Answer?

IDATE
Add: A
 lle Yves Stourdz - 34830 Clapiers, BP 4167
34092 Montpellier Cedex 5
France

Tel: +33 (0) 467 144 444


Fax: +33 (0) 467 144 400
Email: info@idate.org
Website: www.idate-research.com

Despite the economic downturn, mobile


data has become a key revenue driver for
Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in mature markets, with customers adopting
the service as never before. As data usage increases, however, so too does network congestion. Mobile broadband traffic in the European market has surged
ahead after 3G operators introduced flat
rate packages with unlimited access.
Various drivers notably video, browsing and access to
social networks, search, Webmail and other popular Internet destinations are pushing up mobile data usage.
In consequence, mobile operators are having to plan for
an explosion in data traffic from mobile handsets.
Network infrastructure
The mobile data hype took off with a 2.75G (Edge) device whose ease-of-use made browsing the Web more
comfortable the iPhone. With it, connection speed
played a crucial role in determining just how comfortable the browsing experience could be. In 3.5G (HSPA),
there are actually several different technologies with
theoretical connection speeds ranging from 3.6 Mbps to
42 Mbps close to DSL-type wired networks. The latest development of HSPA is HSPA+ and some operators
started deploying it in 2009. Although still considered as
3.5G, it offers considerably faster connection speeds. Its
coverage is, as a consequence, even lower than HSPA

ltep or ta l . c om

coverage and often limited to certain large towns. The


move to LTE means even faster connections which are
supposed to drive more traffic, data traffic in particular
as LTE has been designed for data.
Mobile data-hungry devices dissemination
The wider dissemination of smartphones (including
but not limited to the iPhone) that are most suited for
mobile Internet use is also a key driving force. Smartphone shipments represent around 15% of total shipments worldwide of mobile phones, with the share rising
to above 30% in Europe and the USA. It should be noted
that a significant number of mobile Internet users do not
have a smartphone. Mobile data traffic can also be generated by alternative devices such as portable devices
which cover datacards (including embedded services)
as well as new connected portable devices. These devices have improved dramatically with higher computing
power and memory, as well as with touch screens, all
of which has led to a revolution in usage. The software
stack for mobile phones has also benefited from major
breakthroughs under the influence of software and Web
leaders such as Apple, Google with its Android Operating
System and Adobe with Flash.
Application stores
Alongside their new devices and OS, carriers have offered application stores. They were in the spotlight in
2009 because of how they opened up ways to easily access additional content and software on mobile. The App
Store model has been copied or adapted by all manufacturers as well as by telcos. The success of Apple is now
measured, to an important degree, by the increasing
number of applications available.

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IDATE cont i nued

Strong data demand pushed by all-you-can


eat plans
The mobile phone has moved from being a luxury to
becoming a utility, and has ended up as a necessity.
From being used essentially for making voice calls in
the early stages of mobile services in the 80s and 90s,
consumers are now spending more time on their mobile
devices on non-voice (both voice calls and messaging)
activities. Growth rates for both voice and data revenues
are showing a gradual decline, but growth rates for data
are now markedly higher than those of voice revenues
a trend which will continue for years to come. It is not
only revenue growth for data which is performing better than voice. Looking at the relative revenue shares
of voice and data, data is gradually establishing a clear
lead. The percentage of revenues coming from data services are increasingly becoming a larger part of global
mobile service revenues. The launch of specific adapted
tariffs (generally below EUR 10 per month for postpaid
customers) has also been a key driver for mobile data
while not all operators in all countries are using unlimited data plans. In most cases, unlimited flat-rate
advertised plans are volume-capped. Depending on the
operator, the data cap is clearly labelled with the tariff,
as opposed to being in the small print.

48

Strong subscriber growth in mobile


broadband
Growth in mobile subscriptions slowed in 2009 but, by
then, Internet access through high-speed mobile networks from anywhere had, undeniably, already turned a
corner, in 2008.
As at end 2015, IDATE expect 13% of the subscriber
base to be accessing LTE networks with discrepancies
depending on countries. More specifically, LTE subscribers should grow in the 2012-2015 period from 27 million
to close to 300 million at end 2015 (EU5+Scandinavia, Japan, South Korea, China, USA).
The USA is a battlefield for competing mobile technologies. For 3G, Verizon Wireless and Sprint Nextel (with,
respectively, the leading and third-largest subscriber
bases) have deployed CDMA 2000 EV-DO technology,
whereas second-placed AT&T Mobility has deployed
UMTS/HSPA.
The technology battle is set to spill over onto the next
stage of mobile broadband too, with Sprint Nextel/Clearwire committing to WiMAX. This year, WiMAX networks
are being deployed in Atlanta, Charlotte, Chicago, DallasFort Worth, Honolulu, Las Vegas, Philadelphia, Portland
and Seattle, with Boston, Houston, New York, San Francisco and Washington, DC scheduled for 2010. Clearwire
has deployed WiMAX in more than two dozen US markets
and plans to cover 120 million POPs by year-end 2010.
By the same time, meanwhile, Verizon plans to have
100 million POPs covered
with LTE.
This gives Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility more incentive to deploy
their LTE services as quickly
as possible. The later their
deployment, the more time
it allows WiMAX and Sprint
Nextel/Clearwire to establish a foothold in the market.
Verizon is committed to
deploying commercial LTE
from 2010. Their main objective is to keep up with
3GPP family performances

Figure 1: Global LTE adoption forecasts (thousands subscribers). Source: IDATE

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Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

IDATE cont i nued

by switching directly from 3GPP2 EVDO to 3GPP LTE.


Moreover, the company can leverage the spectrum
it acquired in the 700 MHz band which is ideal for wide
area coverage. The spectrum provides national coverage
(7 out of the
11 pieces of the C block, plus 102 smaller licences in
smaller markets; A and B blocks).
LTE deployment is likely to be a game-changer and
will lead to faster adoption by AT&T. The operator recently decided to speed up the introduction process of
LTE and signed contracts with network vendors AlcatelLucent and Ericsson. Our assumption is that Verizon deployment will speed up progress on the USA LTE roadmap significantly.
Verizon leading the way on mass LTE commercial launch
Verizon Wireless is leading the way on mass LTE
commercial launch. Base stations/RAN are provided by
Ericsson (Seattle) and Alcatel-Lucent (Boston). Starent
Networks and Nokia Siemens Networks are supplying
the packet core equipment, and LG and Samsung the
devices. Verizon recently announced details of 4G
devices in a Webcast event in late January 2010. At
CES 2010, it introduced the ICD Ultra tablet, an Android
slate based on the Nvidia Tegra 2 chipset that packs a
Motorola 4G modem. Apple and Verizon have been
working together on a LTE iPhone. Also at CES, Verizon
demonstrated a live video conferencing over LTE using
portables from Creative Labs.
Verizon is planning a very aggressive 700 MHz-LTE
deployment, expecting to cover virtually its entire
current national 3G coverage footprint by the end of 2013.
Since mid-2009, trials have been taking place in Seattle
and Boston with 10 4G sites in each city. Verizon Wireless
is expected to roll out LTE services to 30 markets across
the USA by end-2010. although there are currently
rumours of delay in this goal.
Initial LTE trials appear to have been successful.
They included VoIP calls, streaming video, file uploads,
downloads and browsing. Verizon Wireless expects
download speeds at 7-12 Mbps and uploads speeds at
3-5 Mbps. Data modems are the priority. The US leader
sees its switch to LTE as harvesting gains from the 4G
premium, synonymous with network quality and wireless
excellence. It is also motivated by building up a 4G timeto-market advantage, and it would like to separate voice

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49

from data traffic with LTE.


According to Verizon CTO, Verizon pricing will likely
involve a base subscriber fee plus usage charges for
the bandwidth consumed on devices that need a cellular
connection.
Within Europe, the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain
and the UK) together with the Nordic countries are
expected to lead the way in LTE deployment, as was the
case for 3G. However, IDATE predicts that LTE uptake
will be slower than in the USA, Japan and South Korea,
for two key reasons.
Firstly, in Europe, there is less technological
competition, since all major operators have adopted
3GPP standards, from GSM to HSPA. Hence there is less
incentive for operators to win in the mobile technology
arena. The other reason for the potentially slow uptake
is the time being taken to decide on spectrum allocation.
Allocation of the 2.5 GHz band and the reallocation of
spectrum via the digital dividend is a major factor in
deciding LTE strategy, but in most European countries
these decisions have yet to be taken.
Depending on the competition and the spectrum
allocation schedule, the major European countries may
decide to act more cautiously and opt to first observe and
learn from the other pioneering countries.
Telia, a LTE Pioneer
The Nordic region has traditionally been at the
forefront of telecommunications development. With the
TeliaSonera 4G/LTE, it is once again in the lead, and is
the first company in the world to launch a consumerready LTE service. Telia Sonera launched its 4G network
in Stockholm (Sweden) and Oslo (Norway) in midDecember 2009; Finland will probably follow soon.
Established on a 10 MHz paired frequency allocation
within the 2600 MHz band, the service was launched in
Sweden as a 50 Mbps service, whilst in Norway it uses
twice as much bandwidth (20MHz) to deliver a 100 Mbps
service. Measurements in Stockholm show average
downlink data rates between 5 and 12 Mbps.
During 2010, TeliaSonera expects to offer its customers
4G coverage in the 25 largest municipalities in Sweden,
with Gothenburg and Malm first on the list, alongside
the four largest municipalities in Norway, including
Oslo. Ericsson has been selected as the sole supplier of
the common core network as well as providing LTE radio
access.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

IDATE cont i nued

TeliaSonera chose to work with Ericsson for the Swedish network and with the Chinese firm Huawei for the
Norwegian network. The first LTE modem that TeliaSonera will be offering its customers is from Samsung and
at the moment these USB modems are 4G only. In terms
of equipment, only single-modems should be made
available by Samsung in mid-2010. Initially TeliaSonera
will have only about 1,000 modems and they will be split
between Stockholm and Oslo. A limited selection of LTE
handsets should become available in 2011.
Until 1 July 2010, TeliaSonera will offer its LTE service
for a mere USD 0.56 a month in Sweden with no connection fee, no fee for the modem and a 12-month contract to sign. It will loan out its modems if required. Data
transfer is however limited to 30 Gb per month.
First six months cost 4 SEK/month (USD 0.56)
Second six months cost 599 SEK/month (USD 82)
As the modem is single-mode (4G/LTE-only), an extra 3/HSPA+ modem (14 Mbps Option ICON 505) can
be provided
Both modems include a SIM card (each) and can be
swapped back once Telia releases a dual-mode modem (3G/4G) in the coming quarter (or two).
In Norway, the modem costs USD 0.17 and provides
free access until the end of March 2010. After the initial
free period, the service available in Norway is sold at USD
120 (to be compared with USD 82 in Sweden). However,

50

the Norwegian network appears to be slightly faster.


Japan and South Korea are world leaders in terms of
3G subscribers, and they will also be the pace-setters for
LTE subscribers. Japan is in a particularly strong position with 3G penetration already over 95%, and data revenues accounting for roughly one-third of total service
revenues.
The two leading operators in Japan, NTT DoCoMo and
KDDI, have both announced their intention to launch
commercial LTE by the end of 2010. In particular, NTT
DoCoMo is a pioneer of LTE, devoting much R&D to the
technology, and is keen to be among the first in the world
to offer commercial LTE. Their rival KDDI, which has adopted the CDMA 2000 approach as opposed to the WCDMA of DoCoMo, will also be keen to impose itself through
offering ultra-fast data connectivity, thereby fuelling the
competition.
The two leading operators in South Korea, SK Telecom
and KTF, have both announced plans to launch LTE in
2011. Both operators currently deploy CDMA 1x EV-DO,
HSDPA and WiBro (the South Korean version of WiMAX),
effectively supporting all available standards. It can now
be expected that their expertise will turn towards LTE,
which is gaining momentum worldwide.
Japan and South Korea also have the characteristic
of being endowed with highly densely-populated cities.
This means that LTE deployment in these large cities will
provide many people with LTE access
without having that great a coverage
area, a factor which will also contribute to a faster uptake.
NTT DoCoMo LTE deployment
NTT DoCoMo was the first carrier
to commercially launch 3G services in
September 2001. It will also be among
the first carriers to launch commercial LTE-based high-speed cellular
data services, known as Super 3G, in
late 2010. DoCoMo pushed LTE deployment and is planning to invest between JPY 300 billion and JPY 400 billion (USD 3.4 billion to USD 4.5 billion)
to roll-out the technology over the
next five years. Their 2G services are
expected to be switched off as early
as March 2011. In 2001, NTT DoCoMo

Figure 2: Major operators LTE commercial deployment schedule. Source: IDATE

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IDATE cont i nued

suffered from a lack of 3G-enabled devices.


This time, DoCoMo is focusing strongly on the device
side. The high-speed cellular data service will initially
be targeted at PC users, with DoCoMo offering cardtype terminals for laptops. It will be expanded to include
handset terminals from 2011. Those terminals are intended to be dual-mode devices (both 3G and LTE), in
order to provide national coverage from the beginning.
DoCoMo demonstrated its first LTE-powered handheld
at the Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2010 in Barcelona
in mid-February. The LTE prototype chip is being developed by a coalition of technology partners including NEC,
Fujitsu and Panasonic. The demo included an HD video
transmission over an LTE network, as LTE technology
steps up transmission rates from the 3G network to approximately 100 Mbps. The chip was first demonstrated
in October 2009 in concept data cards, and its appearance at MWC 2010 was the first time that it had appeared
in a handset.
The Chinese market has a significant role to play in the
deployment of LTE. In terms of 3G, the Chinese government only announced its approval for issuing licences on
the very last day of 2008; hence the roll-out has only just
got underway. This delay was largely due to political reasons, with the government forcing its operators to use
TD-SCDMA technology so as to compete with the other
global standards.

51

This does not mean, however, a delay in the deployment of LTE; quite the opposite, in actual fact. China
Mobile has already expressed its commitment to LTE,
using the TDD version (TD-LTE) following on from their
TD-SCDMA technology. As mentioned before, they aim
to deploy both 3G and LTE simultaneously, taking advantage of the fact that many cell sites can be shared.

Founded in 1977, IDATE is one of Europes leading centres


for consulting and research. Our mission is to accompany
our clients strategic decisions in the Telecom Internet
Media sectors. IDATE is also a key player in fostering
debate between major players in these sectors, notably
thanks to the DigiWorld Programme. IDATE has built a
reputation for credibility and independence in conducting studies and consulting missions for its clients (Market
Studies, International Benchmarking, Strategic Marketing,
Public Policies).
IDATEs clients benefit from the knowledge and expertise
of its teams of specialists, and from its ongoing Research
programme (publication of reports, databases, online services, analyst support) including its LTE Watch Service
specifically designed to provide with a global LTE projects
database, a comprehensive analysis of the issues affecting
this promising market.

www.idate-research.com

Figure 3: Geographical mapping of early LTE commercial deployment. Source: IDATE, based
on operator announcements

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Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

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53

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

CDG

Profiting from 3Gfrom


and 4G: 3G and 4G:
Profiting
Now and in
the Future
Now
and
in the Future
Add: C
 DMA Development Group

575 Anton Blvd., Ste. 560


Costa Mesa, CA 92626 USA

Email: cdg@cdg.org
Website: www.cdg.org

Tel: + 1 888 800 CDMA (US toll free),


or +1 714 545 5211

inally, the era of 3G has


arrived. When just a few
years ago we all wondered when it would
happen, it arrived in a
big way. Commercials
about 3G coverage, speeds
and applications dominate
the media. We are now in
an era where handsets have
evolved from being simple
devices for phone calls to advanced communication tools
that offer instant access to
people, information, personal
resources and media
anywhere in the world.
They are always with us
and always connected to
provide access to thousands
of applications from multiple
industries.
And this is just the beginning, as connected devices in all
shapes and forms such as mobile

Internet devices, smartbooks, iPads,


machine-to-machine modules to

name a few, emerge on the mobile


landscape in greater numbers.

517 Million CDMA Subscribers Worldwide


136 Million EV-DO Subscribers

3G CDMA Devices Enabling


Services from Multiple Industries

At the core of this evolution is 3G CDMA. Few


will deny that EV-DO
and HSPA have exceeded the expectations
for mobile broadband
services worldwide. 3Genabled smartphones are
now the most popular-selling devices in developed
markets, while cost-conscious emerging markets
are seeing low-cost handsets
that offer advanced capabilities and features.
The first decade of this
millennium ushered in 3G,
which is experiencing substantial subscriber and revenue
growth. Concurrently, Mobile
WiMAX and LTE are beginning
to make their marks on the wireless
landscape, building on the success
of 3G and leveraging mature mobile
broadband business models.
To satisfy the demand for highspeed wireless data, 3G and 4G
networks will co-exist for many years
to come as 3G networks provide
ubiquitous voice and data services
to sustain profitability and fund the
deployment of complementary 4G
networks. Its clear that operators
will have a number of wireless networks, such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE,
EV-DO, HSPA and more, to meet
the unending demand for wireless
broadband.

3G is Where the Revenues Are

While the future and 4G are fun


to talk about, 3G is driving operator revenues today. In the world of
CDMA2000, affordable 3G services
ltep or ta l . c om

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c d g cont i nued

are the key revenue


drivers for over 300
CDMA operators in
116 countries, most of
which are in emerging markets producing
more than 80 percent
of all new subscribers. Growth of these
networks will be important for the overall
health of the wireless
industry and interoperability with new 4G
systems.
While operators in
developed regions are
seeing data revenues
become a higher percentage of their overall ARPUs, CDMA2000
operators in remote
places are also making money from 3G
broadband data
services. Emerging
market operators have deployed
EV-DO Rev. A networks to drive
data revenues by giving consumers
and enterprises instant access to
global information and commerce.
EV-DO is providing mobile
broadband access to more than

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54

Subscriber Migration

136 million people in over 100


countries via 168 commercial EVDO Rel. 0 and Rev. A networks.
While the expansion of EV-DO has
been impressive, almost half of
the worlds CDMA2000 operators
have yet to upgrade their networks

to EV-DO, representing a significant growth opportunity for these


markets. Furthermore, subscribership for W-CDMA and HSPA has
just now reached the same level as
CDMA2000. 3G clearly has a lot
of room to grow, and subscriber

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

c d g cont i nued

growth for these networks will


continue well beyond 2014.
And carriers continue to build
upon their early successes with
3G by implementing higher speed
upgrades. For example, Smart
Telecom became the first operator
to launch a commercial EV-DO Rev.
B network for increased speeds
of 9.3 Mbps. Another dozen
CDMA2000 operators are planning
to deploy Rev. B while they consider
their plans for LTE, including China
Telecom, KDDI and LG Telecom.
Later this year, 1X Advance
d will quadruple the voice capacity
of todays CDMA2000 1X net

works, freeing up spectrum for


the deployment of EV-DO.
Well also see simultaneous voice
and EV-DO services (SVDO) in
the second half of 2010, allowing
CDMA2000 customers to use their
favorite data applications while
on a voice call.
CDMA2000 networks are also
being complemented by Mobile
WiMAX and LTE to provide extra
data network capacity. These
multi-technology networks will rely
on CDMA2000 1X to provide highquality voice services and machineto-machine (M2M) connectivity for
the foreseeable future.

55

Emerging Network Approach


for High Data Environments

Air interfaces arent the only areas


of advancement. In order to address
the growing data usage on networks, operators are looking at refined network architectures. Clearly,
small and distributed cells will play a
key roll here, redefining the traditional concepts of network topology
and using smart network techniques
to adapt to the increasing demand
for data on 3G networks. Microcells,
pico cells and Femtocells will all bring
the network closer to the end user,
while Wi-Fi hotspots will help offload
cellular network traffic.

China Telecom: CDMA2000s Rising Star


As the largest fixed-line operator
in the world and leading 3G service
provider in China, China Telecom
has broken several industry records
and emerged as a global CDMA2000
power.
In 2009, the operator completed the
fastest and largest-ever nationwide
rollout of a wireless broadband network, introduced an expansive selection of over 500 devices, and launched
an online storefront offering hundreds
of mobile applications.
China Telecom doubled its subscriber
base in 2009 from 28 million to over 56
million customers, and is currently adding over 3 million CDMA2000 customers per month. The operator expects
to be the largest CDMA2000 operator
in the world at the end of 2010, with
over 100 million subscribers.
China Telecom is committed to evolving its CDMA2000 network, which
includes evolutionary upgrades to 1X
Advanced and EV-DO Rev. B.
China Telecom executives will
discuss their success and future
technology plans with CDMA2000
during the CDMA World Forum in
Shanghai June 1-3.

Subscribers (Millions)

Source: China Telecom, January 2010

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Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

c d g cont i nued

The Bottom Line


As carriers plan their technology
roadmaps, several considerations come
into play that will be unique to each
operator and region, including market
demand, spectrum availability and access to capital. Some will be well served
with the CDMA2000 evolution path
and smart network techniques enabled
by DO Advanced. Others will deploy
more sophisticated hybrid networks
with 3G complemented by LTE or Mobile WiMAX overlays
Its clear there is no single solution
that will meet the needs of all operators. We, as an industry, will work
together to meet the unprecedented
demand we are seeing for wireless
broadband access and to ensure
seamless integration with existing networks. Some solutions will address
the air interface, others will address
network topology. In all cases, the
wireless industry will better serve the
customers who now have grown so
reliant on wireless broadband.

Helping CDMA2000 Operators


Move Ahead

Given the enormity and complexity


of the growth of 3G and the development of interoperable 4G systems, the
CDG is working with its member companies to help determine the unique
needs of each operator and their
appropriate evolution paths. The CDG
also has several initiatives designed to
maximize the profitability of 3G and

4G networks now and in the future.


The CDG-led Open Market
Handsets (OMH) initiative allows
device suppliers to introduce
products to the open market faster,
more affordably and with less risk,
while operators benefit from reduced
distribution and inventory costs.
The CDG is also leading several
Worldmode device efforts,
including multi-mode devices with
CDMA2000 and LTE capabilities.
The introduction of CDMA Roaming Hubs will enable roaming across
a larger cross-section of global networks through the implementation
of multilateral roaming agreements.
The CDGs Smart Wireless Modules
and Services special interest group
(SIG) is enabling the rapid growth
expected in several vertical industries that are taking advantage of
machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity, including healthcare, energy,
consumer electronics and shipping/
fleet management.
All of these initiatives serve to benefit CDMA2000 operators, whether
they are operating 1X networks only,
deploying mobile broadband with
EV-DO or considering a 4G technology. Whatever their unique needs
are, the CDG is committed to helping
its members maximize their revenues,
now and in the future.

56

CDMA2000
Market Facts
308 commercial
operators
116 countries/
territories
297 CDMA2000
1X networks
115 1xEV-DO Rel. 0
networks
79 1xEV-DO Rev. A
networks
512 milion total
subscribers
137 million EV-DO
subscribers

As of February 2010

About the CDG


The CDMA Development Group (CDG) is a global
trade association formed to foster the development,
implementation and use of CDMA-based technologies and other complementary wireless solutions.
Its member companies include many of the worlds
leading wireless service providers, infrastructure manufacturers, test equipment vendors, device suppliers
and application developers. The primary activities
of the CDG include the development of advanced
features and services, the evolution of standards,
systems integration, technical education, advocacy,
regulatory support, global roaming and device avail-

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ability. As a Market Representation Partner (MRP) for


both 3GPP and 3GPP2, the CDG is in a unique position to represent its members within these standards
bodies for the development of
CDMA2000 and LTE evolution paths. Currently, there
are more than 500 individuals
working within various CDG
industry initiatives.
For more information about
the CDG and CDMA2000,
please visit www.cdg.org.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

LTE / LTE-Advanced Media Solutions Group


eNewsletters
Webcasts
eBooks
Banner ads
White papers, Technical papers promotion
Front page text-ads, links, required reading, etc.
Online microsites
Dedicated eBlasts
... and more
www.lteportal.com
info@lteportal.com

58

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Rohde & Schwarz:


Application Notes

Rohde & Schwarz


Add: M
 uehldorfstrasse 15
81671 Munich
Germany

Tel: +49 89 418695-0

LTE-Advanced Technology Introduction

Fax: +49 89 404764

Although the commercialization of LTE technology began at the end


of 2009, the technology is still being enhanced in order to meet ITUAdvanced requirements. This application note summarizes these
necessary improvements, which are known as LTE-Advanced.

LTE (Long Term Evolution) standardization within the 3GPP (3rd Generation
Partnership Project) has reached a mature state. Changes in the specification
are limited to corrections and bug fixes.
Since end 2009 LTE mobile communication systems have been deployed as a
natural evolution of GSM (Global system
for mobile communications) and UMTS
(Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System).
The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) has
coined the term IMT-Advanced to identify mobile systems whose capabilities go beyond those of IMT 2000
(International Mobile Telecommunications). Specifically
data rate requirements have been increased. In order to
support advanced services and applications 100 Mbps
for high and 1 Gbps for low mobility scenarios must be
realized. Throughout 2009 3GPP has worked on a study
with the purpose of identifying the LTE improvements
necessary to meet IMT-Advanced requirements. In September 2009 the 3GPP partners made a formal submission to the ITU proposing that LTE Release 10 & beyond
(LTE-Advanced) should be evaluated as a candidate for
IMT-Advanced. Beyond achieving technical requirements, a major reason for aligning LTE with the call for
IMTAdvanced is that IMT conformant systems will be
candidates for future new spectrum bands that are still

ltep or ta l . c om

E-mail: vertrieb-muenchen@rohde-schwarz.com
Website: www.rohde-schwarz.com

to be identified. This ensures that todays deployed LTE


mobile networks provide an evolutionary path towards
many years of commercial operation.
This application note summarizes LTE-Advanced
features. Section 2 outlines the IMT-Advanced requirements. Section 3 summarizes the main technology components including:
section 3.1 on band aggregation,
section 3.2 on enhanced multiple input / output
(MIMO) antenna technologies,
section 3.3 introducing enhancements of the uplink transmission scheme,
section 3.4 describing coordinated multiple point
transmission and reception schemes
(CoMP) and,
section 3.5 on the application of intelligent relay
nodes.
Section 4 concludes this application note and the Appendix in section 5 provides additional information including literature references. Note that this application
note assumes basic knowledge of the LTE technology as
specified in 3GPP Release 8. An easy-to-read LTE technology introduction can be found in Section 4.
 o read more download the complete
T
application note here.

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r oh d e & sc h war z cont i nued

Rohde & Schwarz:


Application Notes

Rohde & Schwarz


Add: M
 uehldorfstrasse 15
81671 Munich
Germany

LTE-Advanced Signal Generation and Analysis


This Application Note describes LTE-Advanced signal generation
with spectrum aggregation in numerous configurations using one or
more Vector Signal Generators R&SSMU200A or R&SSMBV100A.
Various examples illustrate how to analyze these signals using one
of the Vector Signal Analyzer R&SFSQ, R&SFSG or R&SFSV.

LTE (Long Term Evolution) standardization within the 3GPP (3rd Generation
Partnership Project) has come to a mature state by now where changes in the
specification are limited to corrections
and bug fixes. LTE mobile communication systems are to be deployed from
2010 onwards.
The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) has
coined the term IMT-Advanced to identify mobile systems capabilities going beyond those of IMT-2000. The
data rate requirements have been further increased in
order to support advanced services and applications.
For LTE, these enhancements are being investigated for
3GPP release 10 and beyond (LTE-Advanced or LTEA).
The proposed high peak-data rate targets for LTE-Advanced of 1 Gbps in downlink and 500 Mbps in uplink can
only be fulfilled with a further increase of the transmission bandwidth. Therefore transmission bandwidths up
to 100 MHz are planned for LTE-Advanced. Being an evolution of LTE, LTE-Advanced shall be backwards compatible. It shall be possible to deploy LTE-Advanced in
a spectrum already occupied by LTE with no impact on
existing LTE terminals.
This can be achieved with so-called carrier aggregation, where multiple LTE component carriers are aggregated on the physical layer to provide the necessary
bandwidth. Details of the LTE-Advanced component car-

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59

Tel: +49 89 418695-0


Fax: +49 89 404764
Email: vertrieb-muenchen@rohde-schwarz.com
Website: www.rohde-schwarz.com

riers are not yet specified. Expected modifications are


not assumed to have major influence on LTE-Advanced
component tests such as power amplifier tests. With the
capability to generate and analyze multiple LTE release
8 component carriers, measurements performed today
are transferable to later real LTE-Advanced systems.
This application note describes LTE-Advanced signal
generation with spectrum aggregation in numerous configurations using one or more Vector Signal Generators
R&SSMU200A or R&SSMBV100A. Various examples
illustrate how to analyze these signals using a Vector
Signal Analyzer R&SFSQ, R&SFSG or R&SFSV.
Besides spectrum aggregation, LTEAdvanced comprises
further enhancements, including enhanced MIMO (Multiple Input - Multiple Output) schemes and CoMP (Coordinated Multiple Point transmission and reception)
which are not covered by this application note. A complete LTE-Advanced technology introduction is provided
by application note 1MA169.
 o read more download the complete
T
application note here.

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

60

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Voice Options for LTE

Kineto Wireless
Add: 1601 McCarthy Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
USA

Tel: +1 408 546 0660


Email: info@kineto.com
Website: www.kineto.com

Mobile operators around the world have


embraced long-term evolution (LTE) as
the basis for the next-generation mobile
Internet. As an access technology, LTE offers a significantly lower cost per bit over
existing technologies, while providing a
very high-speed, low-latency broadband
network ideal for delivering real-time
services like packet voice and video.
While many operators view LTE initially as a data-only
service offer, ideally suited to address the recent explosive growth in mobile data traffic, it is clear that the
economics of developing and managing a new macronetwork require operators to encourage a more rapid
migration of mainstream subscribers to LTE to provide
an adequate return on investment.
Thus, sooner rather than later, operators are being
confronted with the need to deliver a wider range of services over LTE with the support for voice services being
paramount.
For many operators, the target architecture for voice
over LTE is IMS telephony. In order to realize that target, a group of companies recently announced the One
Voice initiative. One Voice is a crucial first step in bringing commercial IMS mobile telephony services to market, providing a framework for a common baseline set of
services across multiple operators.
While some operators will target initial deployment of
voice over LTE services with IMS, there will be other

ltep or ta l . c om

operators looking to leverage the LTE network for voice


prior to investing in IMS. Plus, some operators may deploy initially with an IMS voice solution but will need to
support inbound LTE roaming from networks where IMS
is not yet enabled or supported.
For these operators, there are two pre-IMS options
to deliver voice (and SMS) to LTE devices -- CircuitSwitched Fallback (CSFB) and Voice over LTE via Generic
Access (VoLGA).
In the CSFB approach, LTE handsets revert, or fall
back, to an existing 2G or 3G radio network whenever a
subscriber needs to place or receive a voice call. Whenever a subscriber needs to make or receive a voice call,
the handset will drop the LTE connection and automatically fall back to an existing 2G or 3G network.
While this approach sounds simple, in reality it is a
costly, ill-conceived technology that requires new feature investment in the legacy 2G/3G network, burdens
the LTE environment with functions required only in support of circuit switched voice, has no synergy with any
aspect of an IMS voice service and provides a poor user
experience.
With VoLGA, voice services are packetized and delivered natively over LTE bearers. As VoLGA enables inbound and outbound voice calls to be carried over LTE.
User experiences call setup times are better than subscribers receive today in 2G or 3G.
VoLGA extends the services available from existing
voice platforms to the LTE network. All telephony services available over 3G/GSM are available in LTE, including all supplementary services, emergency services, as
well as advanced Intelligent Network applications, such
as pre-paid, toll free calling and international roaming.

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kin eto wir eless cont i nued

VoLGA also offers a better path towards an IMS voice


network. It supports combinational services like IMS RCS
natively on LTE. Thus operators can begin investing in
IMS for data-only services, add RCS services to complement VoLGA telephony and ultimately evolve to a full IMS
environment for telephony and data services.
In comparing VoLGA with CSFB, its clear that VoLGA
provides a higher quality user experience at a lower cost

Patrick Tao
Vice President of Technology
Patrick Tao is an active contributor in the VoLGA Forums technical
group that drafted the specifications
in less than nine months. He manages Kinetos technology relationships
with mobile operators and network
equipment provider partners. He
was responsible for driving the evolution of UMA technology through the 3GPP standards body. He has about 20
years of experience in the wireless network industry in
technical, product and standardization roles.

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61

and with far lower risk. VoLGA builds on a ready-made


ecosystem of vendors to provide a complete range of
products enabling mobile operators to weave their core
revenue generating service and voice into all elements of
their LTE strategy.
For more information, visit
www.voiceoverlte.com

Steve Shaw
VoLGA Forum Member
Steve Shaw is a frequent speaker, blogger and general evangelist for the VoLGA
efforts. He has nearly 20 years experience in product, marketing, and business
development roles with telecommunications companies.
He blogs at http://www.voiceoverlte.com.

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62

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

VoLGA
Voice over LTE via GAN;
Path to IMS Telephony

VoLGA Forum
Website: www.volga-forum.com

by Steve Shaw, Kineto Wireless, VoLGA Forum Member

The mobile industry is embarking on a


long term evolution. Yes, the rise of LTE
as a next generation mobile radio access
network (RAN) is certainly on the minds
of mobile industry executives. LTE offers
unparalleled spectral capacity and efficiency at the lowest price point in history.
Its no wonder that, according to the GSM
Suppliers Association, 22 operators have
now committed to LTE deployments during the next 12 months.
Yet the LTE radio access network is simply another
step in this long term evolution an evolution to an all-IP
network. The framers of the LTE specifications defined it
to provide packet-only transport, rather than native support for circuit, as well as packet services like todays
UMTS RAN.
Certainly, some of LTEs efficiencies come from eliminating support for native circuit transport. The radio access network can be optimized to support packet services exclusively. With endless articles about insatiable
subscriber demand for web and internet access, the best
option is undoubtedly to optimize the radio access network for packet delivery.
This focus on packet services has had unintended (or
some may say intended) consequences. There is no native circuit voice solution available in LTE. Now, mobile
operators are faced with decisions on how to support

ltep or ta l . c om

their primary revenue-generating service.


For the time being, most LTE deployments will be data
only, relying on USB dongles to provide subscribers mobile data services. This is a good start and a great way to
test out the network with latency-tolerant services, but
most experts agree it is not possible to achieve an acceptable return on investment from a dongle-only LTE
service. Mobile service providers must migrate mainstream subscribers, and with them mainstream voice
services, to this new network to make LTE profitable.
For many operators, the plan of record for voice over
LTE is IMS. IMS offers service provides an unprecedented opportunity to consolidate multiple services (voice,
video, data) within a single IP-based application delivery
platform, opening up new revenue opportunities while
providing unique cost-saving efficiencies.
Some operators have made it clear they are prepared

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volga cont i nued

to wait for IMS telephony before launching LTE handsets.


Other operators, for a variety of business and/or competitive reasons, are interested in a low-cost, low-impact
interim approach to delivering voice over LTE while laying the foundation for IMS telephony.
Out of this need, leading mobile operators and equipment vendors formed the VoLGA Forum. The Forums
stated goal is to develop a set of specifications, based
on the existing 3GPP Generic Access Network (GAN)
standard, to extend an operators existing voice services
over LTE, hence the name Voice over LTE via Generic
Access.
The Forum launched in March 2009 and published its
complete set of specifications by December 2009.
In February 2010, at the Mobile World Congress show
in Barcelona, Deutsche Telekom (T-Mobile Internation-

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63

al) demonstrated a working VoLGA system with the full


complete of basic GSM voice capabilities (hold, forward,
conference, SMS, ) and proved that critical Intelligent
Network capabilities (E911, local number portability, toll
free calling, pre-paid,) were supported as well.
The fact that vendors were able to deliver a functional
VoLGA system less than 12 months from the formation
of the Forum, and that a mobile operator was able to
integrate the system directly into their existing mobile
network, serves to highlight the light-weight, low-complexity nature of VoLGA.
As operators begin the evolution to LTE and an all-IP
network, there are many challenges to overcome. VoLGA provides a clear path towards IMS telephony, while
enabling operators to capture voice revenues over LTE
from day one.

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64

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

GSMA VoLTE Initiative

The GSMAs VoLTE (Voice over LTE)


initiative was formally announced on 15th
February 2010 at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. In establishing the
VoLTE initiative, the GSMA has adopted
the work of the One Voice Initiative as the
basis of the work to lead the global mobile
industry towards a standard way of
delivering voice and messaging services
for Long-Term Evolution (LTE). Using IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) specifications
developed by 3GPP as its basis, the GSMA
has expanded upon the original scope of
One Voice Initiative work to address the
entire end-to-end voice and SMS ecosystem by also focusing on Roaming and
Interconnect interfaces, in addition the
interface between customer and network.
VoLTE is built upon some key, underlying
principles.
Single implementation promotes scale the GSM community of around 4 billion connections is built based on a
single technology being used across all networks and all
phones and devices. This has led to a diverse range of
GSM-enabled devices, and massive choice of form factor for the end-user. Similar principles have driven the
movement of HSPA from phones to dongles, and now to

ltep or ta l . c om

GSMA
Email: volte@gsm.org
Website: www.gsm.org

be embedded in laptops and consumer electronics. For


a Voice over LTE implementation to continue this model,
it must be applicable to the entire LTE industry, and not
subject to fragmentation or undue diversity.
Single implementation reduces complexity when many
ways of implementing a single service are deployed into
networks, to allow customers to communicate with one
another in an interoperable and inter-network fashion
is very complex. Interworking functionality is required
which can affect the overall quality of service by inserting
delay, potentially being a point of failure and not always
guaranteeing the compatibility of the two service implementations. It is better to have a single implementation
that is adhered to by all so that messages and media
flow smoothly from one customer to another, wherever
those customers are and whoever they happen to be a
customer of.
Single implementation enables Roaming the GSMA
has long held a role in defining the way in which Roaming takes place in the mobile telecommunications world.
For Roaming to work, every device must implement the
interfaces between itself and the network it is trying
to connect to in exactly the same way. Similarly, every network must accept devices that are attaching to
it because of the common implementation of interfaces
between the two entities. This only happens when everyone adheres to a single common standard.
By taking these principles as its bedrock, the GSMAs
VoLTE will develop the function and technical definitions
for the way in which Voice and SMS will work in the future, and will define the interfaces for an end-to-end
calling structure that will take into account interconnect
and roaming (see diagrams next page).

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gsma cont i nued

65

This is comprised of three sets of interfaces:

The User Network interface (UNI)


between the customers equipment
and the operators IMS network.

The Interconnect Network Network


Interface (I-NNI) between the IMS
networks of the two parties making
a call.

The Roaming Network Network


Interface (R-NNI) between the Home
and Visited Network of a subscriber
that is not attached to their normal
Home network.

The work on the UNI definition has resulted in the


production of GSMA PRD IR.92 IMS Profile for Voice
and SMS (available at http://www.gsmworld.com/documents/IR9210.pdf), whilst work on the Interconnect NNI
is nearing completion, with a target date for agreement
of July 2010. Roaming work is more complicated and is
its early stages but is expected to be have the technical
definition of Roaming architecture and interfaces completed by end of Q1 2011.
The work of the GSMAs VoLTE initiative will also encompass
The continuity of Voice calls when a customer moves
from LTE coverage to an area where LTE coverage is
not available (this is achieved through Single Radio
Voice Call Continuity, or SR-VCC).

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Optimal Routing of bearers for Voice calls when customers are Roaming.
The establishment of commercial frameworks associated with Roaming and Interconnect for services
implemented using VoLTE definitions
Capabilities associated with the model of Roaming
Hubbing.
A thorough security and fraud threat audit
GSMA VoLTE is backed by 3GPP, NGMN Alliance and
IMTC as the target solution for Voice over LTE, and is now
widely accepted by the mobile telecoms industry as the
implementation of choice for Voice over LTE.
If you would like to learn more about the GSMAs VoLTE
initiative and to find out how to get involved in the work
please e-mail volte@gsm.org.

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66

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

Why Femtocells Should be


a Cornerstone of LTE

The Femto Forum


Add: T he Femto Forum
PO Box 23
GL11 5WA
UK

Email: info@femtoforum.org
Website: www.femtoforum.org

In the past six months femtocells have


gone from the fringe to the mainstream
following a string of commercial rollouts
from some of the worlds largest operators. The reason for this is simple they
lower costs while significantly improving
network performance. Work on the business and technology enabling factors has
progressed apace, leading to a 75% increase in operator deployment commitment since November. The list of operators offering services now includes some
of the worlds largest, including China
Unicom, AT&T, Verizon and Vodafone;
as well as a string of small and medium
sized operators around the world.
With the 3G femtocell market currently enjoying sustained growth, much focus is now on next generation
mobile network deployments such as LTE. With the bulk
of rollouts on the horizon, there is a clear opportunity for
femtocells to be employed from the outset. This will enable users to benefit from the best possible user experience from day one, while allowing operators to deploy
their new networks more efficiently and cost effectively
than ever before.

ltep or ta l . c om

The Best User Experience


From a consumer perspective the most important
benefit femtocells bring to LTE is to the user experience.
The Femto Forum recently conducted an in-depth radio
study into LTE and found the adoption of femtocells allowed users to consistently receive much closer to the
headline LTE/WiMAX data rates than those connected
to macrocells. With the vast majority of data usage taking place indoors, where the macro network is least effective, femtocells represent an increasingly important
means of managing growing data usage. It would be
hard to match these massive capacity and performance
increases using the macro network alone even if you put
a base station on the roof of every home. In fact one can
equate the whole premise of trying to satisfy the needs
of capacity-hungry indoor mobile consumers using the
macro network alone with trying to improve the experience of reading in bed by making lamp-posts outside
brighter instead of installing a bedside lamp.
In fact, there is now growing evidence that femtocells
are essential in order to deliver further capacity improvements. LTE is approaching the theoretical maximum
information transfer rate (Shannons limit) and further
improvements will only be possible by rolling out more,
smaller cells. In fact, an analysis of Coopers law - which
holds that wireless capacity doubles every 30 months shows that the dominant factor in improvements to date
has been the use of smaller cells as opposed to other
methods such as revised modulation techniques, better
coding or the use of more frequencies. It follows from
this that femtocells represent the only long term solution
to the rocketing mobile broadband usage that is proving
such a challenge to mobile operators around the world.

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f emto f or u m cont i nued

New Services
The ability of femtocells to deliver the kind of broadband capacity that is simply not realistic on the conventional outdoor network makes them ideal for supporting
new services. For example, LTE femtocells would provide the best possible environment for locally streaming HD media around the home while concurrently supporting traditional cellular services. Crucially this can be
achieved with guaranteed quality of service unlike alternative local wireless technologies.
Additionally femtocells know when a consumer is in
the home thereby enabling location, presence and context-based applications that automatically trigger when
a consumer enters, or leaves, the home. A vast array of
application opportunities are opened up once this capability is combined with the ability of femtocells to connect
to locally connected devices and the internet. For example, femtocell applications include music synchronisation with the home PC when a customer returns home,
and virtual fridge notes where a message is delivered
when the recipient returns home.
Beyond the Home
Evidently LTE femtocells have the ability to provide a
vastly improved mobile connection at home and the potential to deliver an array of new services. However, this
is only the beginning. In response to demand from operators, the vendor community has already developed 3G

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67

femtocells for the enterprise. The greatest step change


however, will be the introduction of femtocells into the
outdoor network.
Numerous operators have called for such models as a
means of providing coverage in rural areas and developing markets as well as for providing capacity in dense
urban locations. In rural and developing markets femtocells can economically provide coverage where it has
never been possible before either by using fixed broadband or satellite for backhaul. In cities where mobile
broadband is rising most dramatically femtocells also
have a major part to play. New macro base stations can
take two years to deploy, whereas femtocells can be deployed in a fraction of the time and cost. This is crucial
when, for example, a new Starbucks store opens and its
customers browsing the internet on their phones or laptops immediately suck the capacity out of a macrocell. In
this instance femtocells serve as the cellular equivalent
of a rapid response team.
Rethinking Rollout
The fact that operators have been amongst the most
evangelical on the subject of outdoor femtocells indicates that there is a clear argument that rolling out completely new LTE networks exclusively along traditional
large cell lines is up for debate. This avoids the need to
build dense new networks in advance of there being demand to justify them. However, as we will see, the ability

Th e LTE / LTE -Ad van c ed Gu id e - May 2010

f emto f or u m cont i nued

of femtocells to change the economics of mobile broadband is another key argument in their favour.
Operators can use femtocells to lower the cost, and
therefore the risk, of LTE rollout by adopting a different strategy to that employed in 2G and 3G networks.
Although traditional macro base stations will still be
essential to provide widespread surface coverage, operators can use both indoor and outdoor femtocells from
the outset to carry the bulk of data traffic, thereby realising major savings on backhaul and other associated
capacity costs. Obviously femtocells can also fill the remaining coverage gaps that are uneconomical to deploy
using macrocells. Combining femtocells and macrocells
in this way allows operators to build higher quality LTE
networks incrementally in line with demand and avoid
the need to second guess user uptake.
The Femto Forum commissioned an independent analyst firm Signals Research Group to look specifically
at how femtocells can impact LTE network rollout plans.
One strategy explored in the study involves an operator
giving away free femtocells to early LTE subscribers in
order to provide the best possible experience indoors
where the services will be most used. The research found
that this could be entirely funded by simply implementing a small delay in macrocell build-out, deferring 4% to
10% of the planned macrocell sites, depending upon the
scenario.

68

The LTE Femtocell Business Case


Clearly operators can revise their rollout plans to accommodate femtocells cost effectively and thereby deliver a dramatically improved user experience but what
about the wider femtocell business case? The Femto
Forums research looked into this and found that the
business case for deploying LTE and WiMAX networks
was actually improved with femtocells as macro-offload
network savings easily exceed the cost of the femtocell
and that customer lifetime value also increases by two to
ten times in representative scenarios. A sample operator with 10 million LTE subscribers deploying femtocells
to 10% of their customer base is able to realise a return
on their incremental femtocell investment of more than
ten times.
As we have seen femtocells provide the best possible
LTE user experience and improve the operator business
case for the new networks while also offering alternative rollout models and supporting new services. The
question is no longer, why should operators rollout new
networks with femtocells, it is why shouldnt they? In response to this logic operator demand for LTE femtocells
is high and this has resulted in major recent progress in
the development of LTE femtocell standards and designs
which should be coming to market over the next 12-18
months.

Professor Simon Saunders is one of the worlds leading authorities on femtocells and is currently chairman of the Femto Forum. As chairman Simon
works to drive the uptake of femtocell technologies through open standards,
market education and ecosystem development. He is an independent wireless
communications specialist with more than 20 years industry experience. Simon has consulted for a range of companies including O2, Ofcom, NTL, BT,
Motorola, BBC and many others. He is the author of books and articles and is a
regular speaker at industry conferences. In May 2007 Simon was appointed to
Ofcoms Spectrum Advisory Board.

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69

T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010

4G and Beyond Technologies


Add: P
 lot no. 179-180, Industrial Estate, Udyog Vihar,
Phase VI, Gurgaon-122004, Haryana. India.
Tel: +91 124 4755400
Fax: +91 11 4755430
Email: info@4gwirelessjobs.com
Website: www.4gwirelessjobs.com

4G Wireless Jobs acts as a mediator


between Telecom and Wireless Industry
specialists seeking career opportunities
and those who are looking for such
talent worldwide, with special emphasis
on Next Generation Wireless Technologies.

Why we are different:


1. Among the top in Google and other Search Engines.
2. On Linkedin - Next Generation Wireless Jobs (http://
www.linkedin.com/groupRegistration?gid=2022814)
3. Media Partners of LTE Forum 2010, 4G World 2010,
4G Wireless Evolution and many more...

our visibility:

ltep or ta l . c om

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THE LTE GUIDE - MAY 2010

We couldnt have done it without your support.

Thank you!

71

l te m e d i a g u i d e m a y 2 0 1 0

LTE COMPANY DIRECTORY


The LTE Guide May 2010
Click on a company name to visit that companys profile.

Access
3i Infotech Inc.
Accipiter Systems Inc.
Agri Valley Broadband Inc.
Anvaya Networks Private Limited
Carrier IQ
CFN Services, Incorporated
Continuous Computing
Core Development Services
Glotel International
Nomor Research GmbH
RAD Data Communications
Telecommunications Construction Services
Core
3i Infotech Inc.
Blueslice Networks
CFN Services, Incorporated
Continuous Computing
Core Development Services
ELDAAS Technologies Pvt Ltd.
Glotel International
UNITELCO
Silicon, Platforms & Subsystems
3i Infotech Inc.
Accipiter Systems Inc.
CommAgility Ltd.
Continuous Computing
Glotel International
Interphase Corporation
Kontron
Mymo Wireless Technology Private Limited
RadiSys Corporation
Telecommunications Construction Services

ltep or ta l . c o m

Software & Protocols


3i Infotech Inc.
Accipiter Systems Inc.
Airo Wireless
ANTCOR SA
Codenomicon Ltd.
Continuous Computing
Creative Radio Design LLC
eXplanoTech Ltd.
Glotel International
Keima Limited
Kineto Wireless
Mentum
mimoOn GmbH
Mymo Wireless Technology Private Limited
Nomor Research GmbH
Polaris Networks Inc.
TeleResources Engineering
VAS (Value-Added Services) Providers
3i Infotech Inc.
Azetti Networks
Blueslice Networks
Continuous Computing
Finally! TV & Mobile Film Entertainment & Distribution
SunTec Business Solutions
ThinkPower Technologies Pvt Ltd.
UNITELCO
Test & Measurement
3i Infotech Inc.
Agilent Technologies Inc.
AT4 wireless
Azimuth Systems Inc.
Carrier iq

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lte c ompan y dir ec tor y cont i nued

72

LTE COMPANY DIRECTORY


The LTE Guide May 2010
Click on a company name to visit that companys profile.

Test & Measurement cont.


CelPlan Technologies Inc.
Codenomicon Ltd.
COMPRION
Drivetel Serv. Projectos de Telecomunicaes S. A.
ELDAAS Technologies Pvt Ltd.
eXplanoTech Ltd.
Glotel International
Mymo Wireless Technology Private Limited
Planetbridge Nigeria Limited
Polaris Networks Inc.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Telecommunications Construction Services
UNITELCO
ZK Celltest
Terminals / CPE
3i Infotech Inc.
Carrier iq
Drivetel Serv. Projectos de Telecomunicaes S. A.
UNITELCO
Antennas
Core Development Services
Drivetel Serv. Projectos de Telecomunicaes S. A.
Telecommunications Construction Services
Backhaul / Aggregation
3i Infotech Inc.
Agri Valley Broadband Inc.
CFN Services, Incorporated
Core Development Services
RAD Data Communications
UNITELCO
WNI Global Inc.

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Functional Entities Interfacing to EPC


3i Infotech Inc.
Blueslice Networks
Continuous Computing
UNITELCO
End-to-End
3i Infotech Inc.
CFN Services, Incorporated
Continuous Computing
ThinkPower Technologies Pvt Ltd.
UNITELCO
WireIE Holdings International Inc.
Consulting, Training, Certification
3i Infotech Inc.
Apis Technical Training
AT4 wireless
CelPlan Technologies Inc.
Continuous Computing
Core Development Services
Creative Radio Design LLC
EJL Wireless Research LLC
ELDAAS Technologies Pvt Ltd.
eXplanoTech Ltd.
Franl Limited
IDATE
Julius Robson Ltd.
Maravedis Inc.
MERA
Nomor Research GmbH
Polaris Networks Inc.
RocketCreative
Spectrum Insight Ltd.
Telecommunications Construction Services
TeleResources Engineering
UNITELCO

ltepo rt al. co m

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010 co m p any p ro f i le s

3i Infotech Inc.

Accipiter Systems Inc.

450 Raritan Centre Parkway, Suite B


Edison, NJ 08817
USA
www.3i-infotech.com

412 Fox Meadow Drive


Wexford, PA 15090
USA
www.accipitersystems.com

contact
Amit Nehru
+1 732 710 4507
amit.nehru@3i-infotech.com

contact
Dan Flynn
+1 724 933 8895 (ext. 111)
info@accipitersystems.com

company profile
3i-Infotech is a Global Information Technology company providing end-to-end technology solutions to more than 600+
customers with operations in 50 countries across 5 continents. Our industry focused practices include Telecommunications, retail, insurance, manufacturing, financial services.

company profile
Accipiter Systems specializes in the development of next
generation data communications systems for custom military
and commercial applications. Accipiter Systems is providing differentiating communications expertise to Government
agencies, Department of Defense contractors and commercial companies. Products include a 4G (LTE and WiMAX) Wireless Base Station in single width full height AMC format.

Agilent Technologies Inc.

Agri Valley Broadband Inc.

5301 Stevens Creek Blvd.


Santa Clara, CA 95051
USA
www.agilent.com

7585 Pigeon Road


Pigeon, MI 48755 USA
www.avci.net

contact
Contact Center
+1 800 829 4444
contact_us@agilent.com
company profile
Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) is the worlds premier
measurement company and a technology leader in communications, electronics, life sciences and chemical analysis. The
companys 16,000 employees serve customers in more than
110 countries. Agilent had net revenues of $4.5 billion in fiscal 2009. Information about Agilent is available on the Web at
www.agilent.com.

ltep or ta l . c o m

contact
Carol McCarty
+1 989 453 2017
mccarty@avci.net
company profile
Providing wireless broadband access via 700MHz LTE in the
northern portion of Michigans Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of Michigans Upper Peninsula.

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Airo Wireless Inc.

ANTCOR SA

12 Piedmont Center, Suite 205


Atlanta, GA 30305
USA
www.airowireless.com

Sorou 12 Marousi
15125 Athens
Greece
www.antcor.com

contact
David Schmitt
+1 404 526 9700
questions@airowireless.com

contact
Dr Ioannis Sarris
Phone: +30 210 5222290
Fax : +30 210 5222254
lte_office@antcor.com

company profile
Airo Wireless has evolved from an integrator of GPS cell
phones into a multi-faceted enterprise providing hardware
solutions for mobile workforces across the Globe. Airo offers
powerful and dynamic hardware solutions, including our rugged and intrinsically safe handsets. Customers can choose
the best products and services that allow for rapid integration of mobile workforce communications into their existing
infrastructure.

company profile
ANTCOR enables OEMs, ODMs, Chip Manufacturers, Telecom
Operators, Carriers and Service providers to improve their
profitability with expanded broadband services and products
offerings, focused on the needs of the broadband wireless access market. With our Long Term Evolution simulation/emulation/consultancy products and services your time and effort
expenditure from design to an actual product is significantly
reduced, last-minute holdups are avoided and a head-start to
the market is achieved.

Anvaya Networks Pvt Ltd.

Apis Technical Training AB

#29, 1st Main, Jaladarshini Layout


RMV 2nd Stage, Bangalore 560094
India
www.anvayanetworks.com

Tjrhovsgatan 21, 5th floor


SE-11628 Stockholm
Sweden
www.apistraining.com

contact
Venkatesh
+91 80 42107227
info@anvayanetworks.com

contact
Suleman Aslam
+46 8 555 105 00
suleman.aslam@apistraining.com

company profile
Anvaya Networks is a privately funded company founded in
2008 based in Bangalore, India. We specialize in 4G-LTE
Small Basestation Products (Micro, Pico and Femto cell).

company profile
Sweden-based and operating globally Apis Technical Training is one of the worlds leading technology training companies to the mobile industry. We have been delivering training
of outstanding quality to mobile operators, equipment suppliers, service providers, regulators and consultants since 1994.
Apis competence building programs are based on research
of the latest 3GPP, ETSI and IETF standards.

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AT4 wireless

Azetti Networks

C/ Severo Ochoa, 2
Campanillas (Malaga) 29590
Spain
www.at4wireless.com

Av. Castilla Leon 36


28702 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid
Spain
www.azetti.com

contact
Jacqueline Casini
+34 952 61 91 22
jcasini@at4wireless.com

contact
Aki Siltamies
+34 91 658 6952
info@azetti.com

company profile
A global supplier of LTE test systems, supporting the lifecycle of LTE device testing and meeting the needs of early
development, design validation, conformance and certification testing. AT4 wireless Laboratories is the right partner
for LTE Testing & Certification, offering conformance, certification, regulatory, interoperability and performance testing
in Europe/USA and Taiwan.

company profile
We deliver all IP IMS infrastructure systems, full compatible
with 3GPP and OMA specification PoC, XDMS and PS.

Azimuth Systems Inc.

Blueslice Networks

35 Nagog Park
Acton, MA 01720
USA
www.azimuthsystems.com

1751 Richardson St., Suite 7500


Montreal, Quebec H3K 1G6
Canada
www.blueslice.com

contact
George Reed
+1 978 2638 9230
george_reed@azimuthsystems.com

contact
Verena Garofalo
+1 514 935 9700
verena@blueslice.com

company profile
Azimuth Systems is a leading provider of wireless broadband
test equipment and channel emulators for LTE, WiMAX, 2G/3G
cellular and Wi-Fi technologies. Azimuths products are used
by the worlds foremost wireless semiconductor designers,
infrastructure and mobile equipment vendors and service
providers for performance, conformance, certification and interoperability testing and to improve wireless product quality
and time-to-market.

company profile
Blueslice Networks is the leading provider of evolved Subscriber Data Management (eSDM) solutions. It serves Mobile
carriers, Multi-play, VoIP/FMC operators, MVNOs, and M2M
providers and allows them to manage their subscriber base,
while delivering differentiated services and lowering OPEX.
End-users can access communication services over any type
of access with a consolidated, multi-profile subscription.
CSP3000 is the only eSDM solution that hosts the ngHLR/
AuC, LTE-HSS, IM-HSS, SIP-AS and AAA as a single logical
entity.

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Carrier IQ Inc.

CelPlan Technologies Inc.

1200 Villa Street, Suite 200


Mountain View, CA 94041
USA
www.CarrierIQ.com

1897 Preston White Drive


Reston, VA 20191
USA
www.celplan.com

contact
Mark Hadley
+1-650-625-5400
www.CarrierIQ.com

contact
Mark Crompton
+1 703 259 4037
mark@celplan.com

company profile
Carrier IQ is the leading provider of Mobile Service Intelligence
solutions. It is privately held and funded by leading players in
the VC industry. Carrier IQ is headquartered in Mountain View,
California with offices in Chicago, Boston, London, and Kuala
Lumpur. Our mission is to provide mobile carriers and device
OEMs with unprecedented insight into service performance
and usability and so enable them to deliver higher quality
products and services to their customers.

company profile
CelPlan is a leading provider of RF planning and optimization tools and engineering services to the wireless industry.
Its expertise extends from conception and development of
wireless infrastructure to planning, deployment, and optimization. CelPlan is an innovative leader in providing the most
advanced engineering solutions. Its focus on all wireless industry segments from equipment and software to applications enables successful and efficient resolution of the most
intractable wireless problems.

CFN Services Inc.

Codenomicon Ltd.

2325 Dulles Corner Blvd., 5th Floor


Herndon, VA 20171
USA
www.cfnservices.com

10670 North Tantau Ave.


Cupertino, CA 95014
USA
www.codenomicon.com

contact
Judy Misbin-May
+1 703 788 6633
info@cfnservices.com

contact
Steve Hayes
+1 650 575 7523
steveh@codenomicon.com

company profile
CFN Services is a managed telecom infrastructure services company providing network services for the Enterprise,
Public Sector, Carrier and Wireless Markets, specializing in
ultra-low latency networking, middle mile and last mile optimization and mobile backhaul. It leverages FiberSource, a
global knowledge-based platform that identifies all available
dark and lit fiber, collocation, towers, structures and lit buildings; providing network design, planning, deployment, and
managed services offerings.

company profile
Codenomicon is the market leading proactive fuzzing tool.
The state-of-the-art protocol modeling and test generation
technique ensures maximum test coverage and test efficiency for Next Generation Networks. We provide better test
results by finding more reliability/security issues, and in less
time. Codenomicon also offers general purpose tools such as
Traffic Capture Fuzzer and XML for proprietary protocols and
SOAP/XML applications.

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CommAgility Ltd.

COMPRION

Innovation Centre, Epinal Way


Loughborough LE11 3EH
UK
www.commagility.com

Technologiepark 25
33100 Paderborn
Germany
www.comprion.com

contact
Edward Young
+44 1509 228866
sales@commagility.com

contact
Ms Kathleen Loeser
+ 49 5251 699 8667, +49 5251 699 860
kloeser@comprion.com

company profile
CommAgility specialises in hardware modules for high performance LTE PHY and MAC processing, with products used
world-wide in R&D, test Systems and wireless deployments.
Our DSP- and FPGA-based modules are based on the AdvancedMC (AMC) open standard to give maximum system
flexibility. Customisation is supported, and customers can
deploy their own software or use proven LTE software stacks
available from CommAgility partners.

company profile
COMPRION sells devices for the testing of terminals, Smart
Card interfaces and Smart Cards. With COMPRION SIMfony
LTE we now provide an automated solution for combined
LTE/USIM handset testing. Consisting of our (U)SIM simulator IT Platform (or IT Prove!) and the network simulator
R&SCMW500, the system assures a handsets LTE conformity to 3GPP TS 31.121 Rel-8 USIM and TS 31.124 Rel-8
USAT.

Continuous Computing

Core Development Services

9450 Carroll Park Drive


San Diego, CA 92121
USA
www.ccpu.com

2903 Saturn Street, Suite H


Brea, CA 92821
USA
www.core.us.com

contact
Brian Wood, VP of Marketing
+1 858 882 8800
sales@ccpu.com

contact
John Koos
+1 714 729 8404
clientservices@core.us.com

company profile
Continuous Computing is the global source of Trillium-powered wireless and packet processing integrated platform solutions that enable network equipment providers to overcome
the mobile broadband capacity challenge. Leveraging over 20
years of innovation, the company enables customers to increase ROI by focusing internal resources on differentiation
for 3G, LTE, Femtocell and DPI applications.

company profile
4G NETWORK UPGRADE DONE RIGHT, THE FIRST TIME,
GUARANTEED. As the largest site development firm in California and 2009 winner of the RCR Ecosystem award, see how
our vertically integrated suite of leasing, zoning, design and
construction management services solves Californias complex zoning, permitting and entitlement challenges.

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Creative Radio Design LLC


1415 Castlecombe Lane
Monument, CO 80132
USA
www.creativeradios.com
contact
Anders Buvarp
+1 719 359 5864
anders@creativeradios.com
company profile
Design services of LTE and WiMAX systems.
Specialize in MATLAB and C/assembly implementations.

Drivetel Serv. Projectos de


Telecomunicaes S. A.
Parque Industrial Via Nova, Urbanizao Terras Compridas
Lote 7, 2625-716 Vialonga
Portugal
www.drivetel.pt
contact
Joo Fole
+351 925409750
geral@drivetel.pt
company profile
DRIVETEL is a Portuguese market leader in Radio Solutions,
founded in 1999 as a market leader in the Drive Tests activities and other Radio Engineering Support services for GSM
networks, providing high quality standards for these types of
demands. Drivetel teams wide competence and knowledge
were ready to provide additional operation & maintenance
services and in 2006 we started those O&M activities with different SLAs and Network performance requirements.

EJL Wireless Research LLC

ELDAAS Technologies Pvt Ltd.

8 Whiteneck Way
Salem, NH 03079
USA
www.ejlwireless.com

Block-1, Oxford Vista, Rustambagh Old Airport Road


Kodihalli Bangalore-560019 Karnataka
India
www.eldaas.com

contact
Earl Lum
+1 650 430 2221
elum@ejlwireless.com

contact
Prasanth R.
+91 97396 96999
prasanth.r@eldaas.com

company profile
EJL Wireless Research provides proprietary, accurate and
cutting-edge market analysis and consulting services on the
wireless technology ecosystem. The firm focuses its research
on all vertical elements of the wireless ecosystem including
mobile subscribers, mobile operators, mobile handsets, mobile infrastructure and mobile content.

company profile
ELDAAS Technologies offers cutting edge Services to the
global electronics players. Our specialized skills in PCB design, RF Design, Product design,Mobile Design for 3G and 4G,
PCB Production and Assembly services will give added value
to the customers looking for one stop solutions for their all
requirements.

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eXplanoTech Ltd.
960, Capability Green
Luton, Beds., LU1 3PE, England
UK
www.explanotech.com
contact
Business Development Team
+44 1582 635026
accounts@explanotech.com
company profile
Aspiring to be No 1 as a provider of integrated business, technology and process solutions on a global delivery platform,
innovation remains a key focus for companies looking to
achieve market share and company growth. With the Global
Partnership in place, our deployment of expertise has grown
with the addition of Managed Services (including BPO) Telementry Products (testing, measuring, developing) Multiple
JAVA platform Application Technology in addition to our existing Telecom, Wireless, Training & Consultancy experience
and expertise.

Finally! TV & Mobile Film


Entertainment & Distribution
8306 Wilshire Blvd 9th floor
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
USA
www.FinallyTV.com
contact
Melinda Miller
+1 860 315 7650
info@FinallyTV.com
company profile
Finally! TV and Mobile Film Entertainment and Distribution
produces video programs, commercials and ads for the mobile culture for all 3GP LTE delivery platforms.

Franl Limited

Glotel International

1 Crocus Way
Wokingham, Berkshire
UK
www.franl.co.uk

Hazlitt House, 4 Bouverie Street


London EC4Y 8AX
UK
www.glotel.com

contact
Frank Long
+44 7588 646087
frank.long@franl.co.uk

contact
Phil Cox
+44 7779 030087
phil.cox@glotel.com

company profile
Design consultancy specialising in the hardware design of
LTE chipsets and products.

company profile
Glotel is one of the worlds leading suppliers of resource and
project solutions to the Telecommunications market sector.
Glotel operates in more than 50 countries and has an extensive international network of offices providing multinational
clients with local expertise on a global scale now part of the
Adecco Group which is the Worlds largest HR company.

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IDATE

Interphase Corporation

BP 4167 - 34092 Montpellier Cedex 5


France
www.idate.org

2901 North Dallas Parkway, Suite 200


Plano, TX 75093
USA
www.iphase.com

contact
Jean-Dominique Sval
+33 467 144 407
jd.seval@idate.org
company profile
Founded in 1977, IDATE is one of Europes foremost market analysis and consulting firms, whose mission is to provide
assistance in strategic decision-making for its clients in the
Telecom, Internet and Media industries.

contact
Robert Ables
+1 214 654 5603
sales@iphase.com
company profile
Interphase Corporation (NASDAQ: INPH) delivers solutions
for LTE and WiMAX, interworking gateways, packet processing, network connectivity, and security for key applications
for the Communications, Aerospace-Defense, and Enterprise
markets. Learn about our technology-leading, applicationready LTE eNodeB basestation-on-a-card solution and other
LTE offerings @www.iphase.com.

Julius Robson Ltd.

Keima Limited

2 Afton Cottages
Freshwater, Isle of Wight Po40 9TN
UK

CBTC Senghennydd Road


Cardiff, CF24 4AY
UK
www.keima.co.uk

contact
Consulting
+44 796 458 3021
consulting@juliusrobson.com
company profile
Consulting by a well connected wireless technology expert.
Experience in research, 3GPP standardisation and was Chairman and spokesperson for the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative.
http://www.linkedin.com/in/juliusrobson

ltep or ta l . c o m

contact
Rupert Rawnsley
+44 2920 233090
info@keima.co.uk
company profile
Keima supplies software engineering solutions to the wireless industry. Keimas software tools and services are in use
at operators and consultancies around the world. They enable
clients to excel in radio design, cell planning and mobile network optimization. Keima make Overture, which helps engineers rollout their LTE networks better, faster, and cheaper.
See http://OvertureOnline.com for more information.

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Kineto Wireless

Kontron

1601 McCarthy Blvd.


Milpitas, CA 95035
USA
www.kineto.com

14118 Stowe Dr.


Poway, CA 92064-7147
USA
www.us.kontron.com

contact
Steve Shaw
+1 408 546 0660
info@kineto.com

contact
Customer Service/Technical Support:
+1 888 294 4558 / +1 858 677 0877
info@us.kontron.com

company profile
Kineto Wireless is the key innovator and leading supplier of
standards-based solutions that enable mobile operators to
embrace the cost and performance advantages of fixed and
mobile broadband access networks. Kineto provides software
and services to major wireless infrastructure and handset
vendors so they can deliver Smart Offload solutions based on
Wi-Fi technologies, as well as Voice over LTE.

company profile
Kontron designs ATCA / MicroTCA Integrated Platforms and
Communication Rack Mount Servers for GbE/10GbE, Carrier
Grade and IP Network applications. Kontron helps TEMs save
costs and development time with application-ready platforms
that include 3rd-party, eco-system hardware and software.
Kontron is a Premier member of the Intel Communications
Alliance, and is listed on the German TecDAX stock exchange
(KBC). Visit www.kontron.com/OCP.

Maravedis Inc.

Mentum

410 Rue des Recollets Suite 301


Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 1W2
Canada
www.maravedis-bwa.com

16/18 Avenue Morane Saulnier


78140 Vlizy
France
www.mentum.com

contact
Robert Syputa, Senior Analyst & Partner
Tel: +1 206 367-6931
info@maravedis-bwa.com

contact
Sales
+33 (0) 1 39 26 46 00
sales@mentum.com

company profile
Maravedis is a leading research and analysis firm focusing
on broadband wireless technologies including WiMAX, LTE
and other broadband wireless technologies and markets.
Maravedis has established itself over the years as the most
credible and reliable resource for market intelligence in the
broadband wireless industry. Maravedis works with equipment vendors, service providers, regulators and the investment community to produce a sound market analysis based
on hard primary data and an in-depth understanding of technology, market and regulation trends.

company profile
Mentum provides industry-leading software and service solutions that allow wireless operators, equipment vendors and
consultants to efficiently plan and optimize wireless access
and backhaul networks, plan coverage expansions and launch
new broadband wireless networks. Advanced software solutions, including Mentum Planet, Mentum Ellipse, Mentum
Fusion and Mentum Geodata, enable operators to maximize
their investment, increase revenue and accelerate time to
market.

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MERA

mimoOn GmbH

13 Delovaya Street
Nizhny Novgorod, 603163
Russia
www.meranetworks.com

Technologiezentrum fr Duisburg
Bismarckstrasse 120,
47057 Duisburg
Germany
www.mimoOn.de

contact
Alexey Myakov
+7 831 278 8801, +7 831 272 2011
request@meranetworks.com
company profile
MERA is an international corporation providing research,
software development and consultancy services in Telecom/
Datacom/Media domain with significant share of wirelessrelated projects in companys portfolio. MERA LTE projects
include:
-Research projects for eUTRAN
- EPC/IMS components design and integration
-OA&M solutions
- Network optimization tools/techniques

Mymo Wireless Technology


Private Limited
1st Floor, Entrepreneurship building, SID
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka
INDIA
www.mymowireless.com
contact
Raghavendra Sirsi
+91 99452 38964
sales@mymowireless.com
company profile
Mymo Wireless is a startup incubated by SID at the Indian
Institute of Science. The Management team is experienced
in the wireless domain to deliver products with competitive
technical features and differentiators to its customers. Mymo
is focused on 3GPP LTE UE. Offerings are IP, Reference Designs, and ASIC for LTE UE. Products are: MW1000: 3GPP LTE
UE Air Interface and Stack; MW2000: Multi UE simulator (under development); ASIC: roadmap to be published by Q410.

ltep or ta l . c o m

contact
Brian Robertson
+49(0)203 306 4500
info@mimoOn.de
company profile
mimoOn GmbH is the LTE pioneer in end-to-end software
implementation and system design on SDR platforms. Our
scalable and modular 3GPP LTE infrastructure software families mi!Femto & mi!Pico and terminal software family
mi!Mobile allows equipment manufacturers to fully exploit
the numerous benefits of SDR.

Nomor Research GmbH


Brecherspitzstr.8
81541 Mnchen Germany
www.nomor.de
contact
Mr. Naumann
+49 89 9789 8000
info@nomor.de
company profile
Nomor Research is a leading company in the R&D of future
and emerging communication systems, offering related consultancy services and products. Nomor is known for its LTE
protocol stack implementations, and EPC. We develop and
implement leading edge technologies and future standards
such as HSPA, WiMAX and LTE as well as mobile TV and IPTV
services. We have capabilities in simulation, rapid prototyping, testing and implementation. Our supplementary services
include patent evaluation, standardisation support and training worldwide. Nomor has vast experience in the area of real
time system emulation.

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Planetbridge Nigeria Limited

Polaris Networks Inc.

D1, Integrity Court, Behind Sahad stores


Off Ahmadu Bello St, Area 11, Abuja
Nigeria
www.swiftlinksventures.com

75 Robbins Road
Lexington, MA 02421
USA
www.polarisnetworks.net

contact
Kayode Adedayo
+234 803 308 2421
president@swiftlinksventures.com

contact
Aditya Saraf
+1 781 652 9603
sales@polarisnetworks.net

company profile
PlanetBridge Nigeria is in the business of private Technology
Transfer by representing blue chip companies with unique
technology worldwide and offering their products to the SubSaharan countries. We represent two companies based in
Europe and Canada. Our main product is used by the GSM,
WiMAX and VoIP operators to monitor their networks. Other
product is used in a variety of commercial and government
applications to achieve visual communication between two
geographically dispersed locations.

company profile
Polaris Networks a T&M company has developed Functional
Testers & Emulators for LTE. The Functional Testers include
tests that provide automated means of comprehensively
verifying LTE implementations to 3GPP specs. The Emulators simulate real world scenarios in the lab for performance
stress & scalability testing and also facilitates end-to-end
testing of LTE network. Polaris also provides professional
services from its India office.

RAD Data Communications

RadiSys Corporation

24 Raoul Wallenberg Street


Tel Aviv 69719
Israel
www.rad.com

5445 NE Dawson Creek Drive


Hillsboro, OR 97124
USA
www.radisys.com

contact
Ronen Guri
+972 3 6458181
market@rad.com

contact
Chandresh Ruparel
+1 503 615 1293
chandresh.ruparel@radisys.com

company profile
RAD Data Communications is a manufacturer of innovative
backhaul solutions for Tier 1 mobile operators. Its LTE cellsite gateways and aggregation devices provide affordable
intelligence with a future-ready migration path. With multiservice, multi-generation support, their advanced backhaul
sharing capabilities optimize bandwidth and provide accurate
timing, synchronization and resiliency.

company profile
RadiSys is a leading provider of innovative hardware and software platforms for next generation IP-based wireless such as
LTE, wireline and video networks. RadiSys products include
market-leading ATCA, IP Media Server platforms and application software for new IP-based communications services.
RadiSys products are used in a wide variety of applications
such as 3G/3.5G/4G wireless (including LTE) voice, data and
video and secure defense communications.

ltep or ta l . c o m

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010 co m p any p ro f i le s

RocketCreative

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG

PO Box 71427
Phoenix, AZ 85050
USA
www.rocketcreative.com

Mhldorfstrasse 15
D-81671 Mnchen
Germany
www.rohde-schwarz.com

contact
Cara Mormino
+1 480 284 8144
cara@rocketcreative.com

contact
Customer Support
+49 89 4129 13774
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com

company profile
Wireless marketing is our specialty and we have launched
successful marketing initiatives for companies across the
globe. RocketCreative can help you design and launch a marketing campaign, harness the power of social media and win
awards that will help you stand out, build a solid reputation
and create long-term relationships with your customers. Let
RocketCreative help you achieve extraordinary results.

company profile
Rohde & Schwarz is a leading supplier of solutions in the
fields of electronic test and measurement, broadcasting, radiomonitoring, radiolocation as well as secure communications. As the first vendor providing LTE test equipment Rohde & Schwarz offers signal generators, signal and spectrum
analyzers, power meters, mobile radio testers, conformance
test systems and drive test instrumentation.

Spectrum Insight Ltd.

Steepest Ascent Ltd.

2 Southfield Road, Westbury-on-Trym


Bristol, BS9 3BH, England
UK
www.spectrum-insight.com

94 Duke Street
Glasgow G4 0UW
Scotland, UK
www.steepestascent.com

contact
Keith Edwards
+44 7 999 548646
enquiries@spectrum-insight.com

contact
Amreet Bhumbra
Frank Vincze
+44(0)141 552 8855
+1 805 413 4127
info@steepestascent.com
info@steepestascent.com
200 N. Westlake Blvd. #200
Westlake Village, CA 91362, USA

company profile
Spectrum Insight is a UK based technology consultancy specialising in wireless. Our services are focused on advising international clients who are formulating strategies to seize opportunities created by the release of radio spectrum, changes
in regulation or through ownership of intellectual property.

ltep or ta l . c o m

company profile
Steepest Ascent Ltd core business is the provision of mobile and
wireless simulation libraries, DSP software tools, professional
short and long term consulting, and embedded communication systems design.PHY layer digital communication software products
include simulation libraries for 3GPP, HSxPA, 3G LTE, cdma2000
EV-DV/DO, DVB-H/T and ISDB-T.Our DSP high speed FIR optimization tool generates VHDL code for fast and efficient FIR filters
and is ideal for FPGA and ASIC implementation.Steepest Ascent
remains active presenting both general and custom short courses
for mobile and wireless communication industry.Steepest Ascent
offers a full range of embedded electronic product design services
with a focus on communication based implementations. We provide
design skills to complement your business or offer an end-to-end
service from concept through full product life cycle.

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010 co m p any p ro f i le s

SunTec Business Solutions


5 Independence Way, Suite 110
Princeton, NJ 08540
USA
www.suntecgroup.com
contact
Krishnan Jayaraman
+1 510 402 9933
krishnanj@suntecgroup.com
company profile
SunTec is a leading Billing, Mediation Vendor for Tier 1 through
Tier 3 Cable and Telecom Companies. Weve deployed our
first complete IMS solution to bill for the largest Cable company in America. We are also launching the billing for Prepaid
Wireless 4G Access Cards to a major provider soon.

TeleResources Engineering
Unit 2A 4-6 Aquatic Drive
Frenchs Forest NSW 2086
Australia
www.teleres.com.au
contact
Maurie Dobbin
+61 2 9975 2230
maurie@teleres.com.au
company profile
TeleResources is a solutions company focused on the wireless industry. We provide engineering services, training and
smart software to assist in the planning and optimization of
mobile networks. We are the authorized distributor of Atoll,
the worlds leading LTE capable planning tool in ANZ along
with other software that improves the efficiency of engineering operations supporting 2G/3G networks.

ltep or ta l . c o m

Telecommunications
Construction Services
55 Land Road, Suite 430
Fairfield, NJ 07004
USA
www.telconservices.com
contact
Richard Allessandro
+1 932 718 9022
rich.allessandro@tcsemail.com
company profile
Telecommunication Construction Services LLC (TCS) is a
company, national in scope, based in New Jersey, specializing in the design and construction of telecommunications
networks in the wireless industry.

ThinkPower Technologies
Pvt Ltd.
2nd Floor, Plot No. 25, Road No.12
Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500034
India
www.think-power.com
contact
Ravindra Barlingay
+91 9705115222
ravindra.barlingay@think-power.com
company profile
ThinkPower Technologies Private Limited is a Hyderabad,
India-based embedded & wireless product Development
Company across cross domain verticals, with competencies
in hardware, firmware and software engineering & Interoperability in DLMS/COSEM and Euridis. Products are developed
for enabling acquisition of data and transmission over any
wireless platform be it RF, ZigBee, GSM, GPRS or 3GPP LTE.

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T h e LTE / LTE - A d v a n c e d G u i d e - May 2010 co m p any p ro f i le s

UNITELCO

WireIE

Zona Industrial Vale do Alecrim


Rua do Ouro, Lote 122, Pinhal Novo, 2950-683 Palmela
Portugal
www.unitelco.pt

35 Leek Crescent, Floor 2


Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 4C2
Canada
www.wireie.com

contact
Helder Soares
+351 210 190 982
info@unitelco.pt

contact
Rob Barlow
+1 905 882 4660
info@wireie.com

company profile
UNITELCO is a system integrator company that offers thorough services in all the different market areas, viewing the
supply of Turnkey solutions. We offer correct solutions for
each case, allowing our clients to meet their objectives and
needs. Through strategic technological partnerships, high
competence, experience and know-how acquired, we create
complete and thorough solutions, with specific and innovative
answers, covering the HFC (Hybrid Fiber/Coax), FTTx (Fiber
to the x), Wireless and Renewable Energies and Environment
Solutions.

company profile
WireIE is a leader in Next Generation communications solutions. Our business is to transform telecommunications infrastructure to enable our clients to deliver a limitless network
experience. Our focus is to help forward-looking clients who
understand the compelling need for cost-effective networks
that drive economic development, innovation, and prosperity.
Our partners are some of the worlds most respected global
technology and business solution providers.

WNI Global Inc.

ZK Celltest

3064 Scott Blvd.


Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA
www.wnint.com

256 Gibraltar Drive


Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA
www.zk.com

contact
Jim Bletas
+1 408 982 9454
info@wnint.com

contact
John Sleet
+1 214 766 0000
john.sleet@zk.com

company profile
WNI - a global manufacturer and supplier of wireless communications, networking equipment, and services, offers the
most technically advanced equipment for voice, data, and video applications in licensed and unlicensed point to point and
point to multipoint configurations.

company profile
ZK Celltest is a developer & manufacturer of System Access
Monitoring (SAM) equipment. The ZK-SAM is utilized by RF
Engineers and Cellular Technicians for drive-testing & network troubleshooting. The ZK-SAM is a dedicated, non-pc
based test & measurement system which supports 2G, 3G &
4G technologies. System Access Monitors, like the ZK-SAM,
are also safer to use while operating company vehicles.

ltep or ta l . c o m

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