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Chapter 4 – The BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor

4.1 BJT Basics (Structure, Symbols, Parameters)

4.2 Static Analysis

4.3 BJT Circuit Models (Ebers-Moll, Hybrid-Pi)

4.4 SPICE Analysis

Literature:

Pierret, Chapter 10-12, page 371-462 Jaeger, Blalock, Chapter 5, page 207-261

Acknowledgement Oliver Brand for slides

4.1 BJT Basics

4.1.1 Structure and Fabrication

4.1.2 Terminology and Effects

Circuit Symbols

Circuit Configurations – Modes of Operation

4.1.3 Basic Operation

Equilibrium – Active Mode

Pierret, Chapter 10, page 371-385

4.1.1 BJT Structure & Fabrication

BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor

Bipolar: electrons and holes participate in the conduction process Junction: two coupled pn-junctions with a joint base region Transistor: transistor action requires that the base width W is much smaller than the minority carrier diffusion length L in the base

W << L =

D τ
D τ

Basic Device Structures

PNP Transistor

Emitter

Base

Collector

p +

n

p

Structures PNP Transistor Emitter Base Collector p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n
Structures PNP Transistor Emitter Base Collector p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n
Structures PNP Transistor Emitter Base Collector p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n

NPN Transistor

Emitter

Base

Collector

n +

p

n

p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n + p n E B C
p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n + p n E B C
p + n p NPN Transistor Emitter Base Collector n + p n E B C

E

B

C

E

B

C

Easier to explain and understand

More common in device applications, because of the larger mobility of the minority carriers (electrons) in the base

N A,E » N D,B > N A,C

N D,E » N A,B > N D,C

NPN BJT Cross-Section

NPN BJT Cross-Section W

W

BJT Fabrication   •   •   •   • •   Epi-substrate : p-type

BJT Fabrication

Epi-substrate: p-type substrate with epitaxial n- type circuit layerBurried layer: highly doped layer to reduce collector series resistance N + -emitter/p-base: doped regions defined by ion implantation and diffusion Base width W: defined by a well-controllable vertical distance Isolation diffusion: to electrically insulate neighboring transistors

4.1.2 Terminology and Effects

Circuit Symbols –

PNP Transistor

E

p

+

n

p

E

B

C

+

V

EC

I C

I E

+ n p E B C + V – EC I C I E + V
+ n p E B C + V – EC I C I E + V
+ n p E B C + V – EC I C I E + V

+

V EB

p E B C + V – EC I C I E + V EB +
+
+
E B C + V – EC I C I E + V EB + I

I B

V CB

B

C

NPN Transistor

E

n

+

E

E

p

B

n

C

I E

Transistor E n + E p B n C – I E V CE + I

V CE

+ I C

+ E p B n C – I E V CE + I C – V
–

V BE

+

–
B n C – I E V CE + I C – V BE + –

I B

+

V BC

B

C

(i) I E = I B + I C

(ii) V EB + V BC + V CE = 0 with V ab = – V ba

Comments to Terminology

Voltages: the first letter in the double subscript of the voltages identifies the (+) terminal, the second letter the (–) terminal; V EB , for example, is the dc voltage drop between emitter (+) and base (–); keep in mind, that a voltage can also be negative, i.e. V EB < 0 actually means that the potential is more negative on the emitter compared to the base. Voltages nomenclature: the voltage nomenclature for the pnp and npn BJT are chosen in a way, that a positive voltage means a forward-biased, a negative voltage a reverse-biased junction; this way the results from the pn-junction chapters can be reused.

Circuit Configurations

Common Base Configuration

Common Emitter Configuration

Circuit Configurations Common Base Configuration Common Emitter Configuration Pierret, Fig. 10.3/10.4

Pierret, Fig. 10.3/10.4

Modes of Operation E-B B-C Biasing Junction Junction Mode Polarity Polarity Active F R Inverted
Modes of Operation
E-B
B-C
Biasing
Junction
Junction
Mode
Polarity
Polarity
Active
F
R
Inverted
R
F
Saturation
F
F
Cutoff
R
R
F = forward bias
R = reverse bias

Pierret, Fig. 10.5

4.1.3 Basic Operation – Equilibrium –

Doping:

N A,E » N D,B > N A,C

Depletion Regions (DR):

E-B Junction: DR mainly in B B-C Junction: DR mainly in C Fermi Level E F :

Flat across BJT because of equilibrium Effective Base Width W:

Smaller than base width W B because of depletion regions

Potential E-field Space charge
Potential
E-field
Space charge

Pierret, Fig. 10.7

Forward Bias Reverse Bias E-Field small saturation current recombination E F,C E F,B F,E
Forward Bias
Reverse Bias
E-Field
small saturation current
recombination
E
F,C
E
F,B
F,E

E

Sze, Fig. 5.4

Space Charge

PNP BJT in Active Mode

PNP transistor in common-base configuration with forward-biased E-B junction and reverse- biased B-C junction In case W « L B , holes injected from the emitter into the base can diffuse across the base without recombination and are then swept into the collector

hole diffusion to BC junction hole collector current

hole injection

Active Mode – The Currents I

Active Mode – The Currents I Sze, Fig. 5.5 I E I E p Emitter hole

Sze, Fig. 5.5

I E

I Ep Emitter hole current I En Emitter electron current

Emitter current

I B

Base current

I BB Recombination current

I C

I Cp Collector hole current

Collector current

I Cn

Collector electron current

Active Mode – The Currents II

Active Mode – The Currents II I E = I Ep + I En I C
I E = I Ep + I En I C = I Cp + I
I E
= I Ep + I En
I C
= I Cp + I Cn
I
B = I E − I C = I En + I
(
− I
)
Ep
Cp
!#"#$ − I Cn
= I BB

Common Base Current Gain

Common Base Current Gain × % $ I Ep ( ' % ≡ α T base

×

% $

I Ep

( '

%

≡ α T

base transport factor

#
%

I Cp

&
(

0

0 α T 1

0 γ 1

α 0 1

Good BJT:

α 0 , α T , γ 1

Common Base Current Gain α 0 :

α 0 I Cp I E

=

I Cp

I En + I Ep

# I Ep

&

%

'

(

% $ I En + I Ep

(

!#"#$ ≡ γ emitter efficiency

=

Common Base Circuit Characteristic

Output Current = I C

I C = I Cp + I Cn

= α

0 I E + I Cn

!

= γα T

independent of V BC Saturation Current = I CB0

I CB0 I Cn = I C (I E = 0)

I

2 mA

1 mA

0

saturation current through reverse-biased BC junction for open emitter (I E = 0) Circuit Characteristic:

I C = α 0 I E + I CB0

C I E = 2 mA α 0 ΔI E I E = 1 mA
C
I E = 2 mA
α 0 ΔI E
I E = 1 mA
I
CB0
I E = 0 mA
–V BC
0

Common Emitter Characteristics

( I B + I C

) + I CB0

I C =

=

α 0 I E α

0

+ I CB0 = α 0

( 1 − α 0

) I C

I B + I CB0

Good BJT:

β 0

>>

1

α 0

1 − α 0

!

≡β 0

I CB0

1 − α 0

!

I CE0

8

I C =

I B +

I

C I B = 20 µ A β 0 ΔI B I B = 10
C
I B = 20 µ A
β 0 ΔI B
I B = 10 µ A
I
CE0
I B = 0 µ A
V
0
EC

Current Gain β

β 0 = α 0 1 − α 0

0 :

mA

4

mA

Circuit Characteristic

I C = β 0 I B + I CE0

0