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mathematics and Indian astronomy. His works include the ryabhaya

(499 CE, when he was 23

years old)[5] and the Arya-siddhana.

The works of Aryabhata dealt with mainly mathematics and astronomy.

Biography

Name

While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names

having the "bhatta" suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells

his name thus,[6] including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a hundred places by

name".[7] Furthermore, in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either.[6]

Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhaiya that it was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga,

when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476. [4]

Aryabhata provides no information about his place of birth. The only information comes

from Bhskara I, who describes Aryabhata as makya, "one belonging to the amakacountry."

During the Buddha's time, a branch of the Amaka people settled in the region between

the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India; Aryabhata is believed to have been born there.

[6][8]

Other hypotheses

It has been claimed that the amaka (Sanskrit for "stone") where Aryabhata originated may be

the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city ofThiruvanchikkulam of ancient

Kerala.[9] This is based on the belief that Kot uallr was earlier known as Kot um-Kal-l-r ("city

of hard stones"); however, old records show that the city was actually Kot um-kol-r ("city of strict

governance"). Similarly, the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from

Kerala has been used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity; however,

many commentaries have come from outside Kerala, and the Aryasiddhanta was completely

unknown in Kerala.[6]

Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhaiya, but his "Lanka" is an

abstraction, standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as hisUjjayini.[10]

Education

It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived

there for some time.[11] Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhskara I (CE 629),

identify Kusumapura as Pt aliputra, modern Patna.[6] A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the

head of an institution (kulapa) at Kusumapura, and, because the university ofNalanda was in

Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata

might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well. [6]Aryabhata is also reputed to have

set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar.[12]

Works

Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, some of which are

lost.

His major work, Aryabhaiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively

referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The

mathematical part of the Aryabhaiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry,

and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-ofpower series, and a table of sines.

The Arya-siddhana, a lost work on astronomical computations, is known through the writings of

Aryabhata's contemporary, Varahamihira, and later mathematicians and commentators,

including Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I. This work appears to be based on the older Surya

Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhaiya. It also

contained a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (shanku-yanra), a

shadow instrument (chhAyA-yanra), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular and circular

(dhanur-yanra / chakra-yanra), a cylindrical stick yasi-yanra, an umbrella-shaped device called

the chhara-yanra, and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical. [8]

A third text, which may have survived in the Arabic translation, is Al nf or Al-nanf. It claims that it

is a translation by Aryabhata, but the Sanskrit name of this work is not known.

Probably dating from the 9th century, it is mentioned by the Persian scholar and chronicler of

India, Ab Rayhn al-Brn.[8]

Aryabhatiya

Main aricle: Aryabhaiya

Direct details of Aryabhata's work are known only from the Aryabhaiya. The name "Aryabhatiya"

is due to later commentators. Aryabhata himself may not have given it a name. His

disciple Bhaskara I calls it Ashmakaanra (or the treatise from the Ashmaka). It is also

occasionally referred to as Arya-shaas-aShTa (literally, Aryabhata's 108), because there are 108

verses in the text. It is written in the very terse style typical of sutra literature, in which each line is

an aid to memory for a complex system. Thus, the explication of meaning is due to

commentators. The text consists of the 108 verses and 13 introductory verses, and is divided into

four pdas or chapters:

1. Giikapada: (13 verses): large units of timekalpa, manvanra, and yugawhich present

a cosmology different from earlier texts such as Lagadha's Vedanga Jyoisha (c. 1st

century BCE). There is also a table of sines (jya), given in a single verse. The duration of

the planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4.32 million years.

2. Ganiapada (33 verses): covering mensuration (ks era vyvahra), arithmetic and

geometric progressions, gnomon / shadows (shanku-chhAyA),

simple, quadratic,simultaneous, and indeterminate equations

3. Kalakriyapada (25 verses): different units of time and a method for determining the

positions of planets for a given day, calculations concerning the intercalary month

(adhikamAsa), kShaya-ihis, and a seven-day week with names for the days of week.

4. Golapada (50 verses): Geometric/trigonometric aspects of the celestial sphere, features

of the ecliptic, celestial equator, node, shape of the earth, cause of day and night, rising

of zodiacal signs on horizon, etc. In addition, some versions cite a few colophons added

at the end, extolling the virtues of the work, etc.

The Aryabhatiya presented a number of innovations in mathematics and astronomy in verse

form, which were influential for many centuries. The extreme brevity of the text was elaborated in

commentaries by his disciple Bhaskara I (Bhashya, c. 600 CE) and by Nilakantha Somayaji in

his Aryabhaiya Bhasya, (1465 CE).

Mathematics

Place value system and zero

The place-value system, first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali Manuscript, was clearly in place

in his work. While he did not use a symbol for zero, the French mathematicianGeorges

Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata's place-value system as a place

holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients[13]

However, Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition

from Vedic times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers, expressing quantities, such

as the table of sines in a mnemonic form.[14]

Approximation of

Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi (

that

sahasrn m

am dvs as isah

hah .

"Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle

with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached."

[15]

This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is ((4 + 100) 8 + 62000)/20000

= 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is accurate to five significant figures.

It is speculated that Aryabhata used the word sanna (approaching), to mean that not only is this

an approximation but that the value is incommensurable (or irrational). If this is correct, it is quite

a sophisticated insight, because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761

by Lambert.[16]

After Aryabhatiya was translated into Arabic (c. 820 CE) this approximation was mentioned in AlKhwarizmi's book on algebra.[8]

Trigonometry

In Ganitapada 6, Aryabhata gives the area of a triangle as

ribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoi bhujardhasamvargah

that translates to: "for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area." [17]

Aryabhata discussed the concept of sine in his work by the name of ardha-jya, which literally

means "half-chord". For simplicity, people started calling it jya. When Arabic writers

translated his works from Sanskrit into Arabic, they referred it as jiba. However, in Arabic

writings, vowels are omitted, and it was abbreviated as jb. Later writers substituted it withjaib,

meaning "pocket" or "fold (in a garment)". (In Arabic, jiba is a meaningless word.) Later in the

12th century, when Gherardo of Cremona translated these writings from Arabic into Latin, he

replaced the Arabic jaib with its Latin counterpart, sinus, which means "cove" or "bay";

thence comes the English sine. Alphabetic code has been used by him to define a set of

increments. If we use Aryabhata's table and calculate the value of sin(30) (corresponding to

hasjha) which is 1719/3438 = 0.5; the value is correct. His alphabetic code is commonly

known as the Aryabhata cipher.[18]

Indeterminate equations

A problem of great interest to Indian mathematicians since ancient times has been to find

integer solutions to equations that have the form ax + by = c, a topic that has come to be

known as diophantine equations. This is an example from Bhskara's commentary on

Aryabhatiya:

Find the number which gives 5 as the remainder when divided by 8, 4 as the remainder

when divided by 9, and 1 as the remainder when divided by 7

That is, find N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1. It turns out that the smallest value for N is 85. In

general, diophantine equations, such as this, can be notoriously difficult. They were

discussed extensively in ancient Vedic text Sulba Sutras, whose more ancient parts

might date to 800 BCE. Aryabhata's method of solving such problems is called

the kuaka(

) method. Kuaka means "pulverizing" or "breaking into small pieces",

and the method involves a recursive algorithm for writing the original factors in smaller

numbers. Today this algorithm, elaborated by Bhaskara in 621 CE, is the standard

the Aryabhata algorithm.[19] The diophantine equations are of interest in cryptology, and

the RSA Conference, 2006, focused on the kuaka method and earlier work in

the Sulbasutras.

Algebra

In Aryabhaiya, Aryabhata provided elegant results for the summation of series of

squares and cubes:[20]

and

(see squared triangular number)

Astronomy

Aryabhata's system of astronomy was called the audAyaka sysem, in which

days are reckoned from uday, dawn at lanka or "equator". Some of his later

writings on astronomy, which apparently proposed a second model (or ardharArikA, midnight) are lost but can be partly reconstructed from the discussion

in Brahmagupta's khanDakhAdyaka. In some texts, he seems to ascribe the

apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation. He may have believed

that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular.[21][22]

Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily, and that

the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of

the earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. This is

indicated in the first chapter of the Aryabhaiya, where he gives the number of

rotations of the earth in a yuga,[23] and made more explicit in his gola chapter:[24]

In the same way that someone in a boat going forward sees an

unmoving [object] going backward, so [someone] on the equator sees

the unmoving stars going uniformly westward. The cause of rising and

setting [is that] the sphere of the stars together with the planets

[apparently?] turns due west at the equator, constantly pushed by the

cosmic wind.

Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun

and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth.

In this model, which is also found in the Paimahasiddhna (c. CE 425), the

motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, a

smaller manda (slow) and a larger ghra (fast). [25] The order of the planets in

terms of distance from earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus,

the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms."[8]

The positions and periods of the planets was calculated relative to uniformly

moving points. In the case of Mercury and Venus, they move around the Earth at

the same mean speed as the Sun. In the case of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, they

move around the Earth at specific speeds, representing each planet's motion

through the zodiac. Most historians of astronomy consider that this two-epicycle

model reflects elements of pre-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy.[26] Another element

in Aryabhata's model, the ghrocca, the basic planetary period in relation to the

Sun, is seen by some historians as a sign of an underlying heliocentric model.[27]

Eclipses

Solar and lunar eclipses were scientifically explained by Aryabhata. He states

that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing

cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary

demons Rahu and Ketu, he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and

falling on Earth. These will only occur when the earth-moon orbital plane

intersects the earth-sun orbital plane, at points called lunar nodes. Thus, the

lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the Earth's shadow (verse

gola.37). He discusses at length the size and extent of the Earth's shadow

(verses gola.3848) and then provides the computation and the size of the

eclipsed part during an eclipse. Later Indian astronomers improved on the

calculations, but Aryabhata's methods provided the core. His computational

paradigm was so accurate that 18th-century scientist Guillaume Le Gentil,

during a visit to Pondicherry, India, found the Indian computations of the duration

of the lunar eclipse of 30 August 1765 to be short by 41 seconds, whereas his

charts (by Tobias Mayer, 1752) were long by 68 seconds. [8]

Sidereal periods

Considered in modern English units of time, Aryabhata calculated the sidereal

rotation (the rotation of the earth referencing the fixed stars) as 23 hours, 56

minutes, and 4.1 seconds;[28] the modern value is 23:56:4.091. Similarly, his

value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and

30 seconds (365.25858 days)[29] is an error of 3 minutes and 20 seconds over

the length of a year (365.25636 days).

Heliocentrism

As mentioned, Aryabhata advocated an astronomical model in which the Earth

turns on its own axis. His model also gave corrections (the gra anomaly) for

the speeds of the planets in the sky in terms of the mean speed of the sun.

Thus, it has been suggested that Aryabhata's calculations were based on an

underlying heliocentric model, in which the planets orbit the Sun,[30][31][32] though

this has been rebutted.[33] It has also been suggested that aspects of Aryabhata's

system may have been derived from an earlier, likely pre-Ptolemaic Greek,

heliocentric model of which Indian astronomers were unaware, [34] though the

evidence is scant.[35] The general consensus is that a synodic anomaly

(depending on the position of the sun) does not imply a physically heliocentric

orbit (such corrections being also present in late Babylonian astronomical texts),

and that Aryabhata's system was not explicitly heliocentric.[36]

Legacy

Aryabhata's work was of great influence in the Indian astronomical tradition and

influenced several neighbouring cultures through translations.

The Arabic translation during the Islamic Golden Age (c. 820 CE), was

particularly influential. Some of his results are cited by Al-Khwarizmi and in the

10th century Al-Biruni stated that Aryabhata's followers believed that the Earth

rotated on its axis.

His definitions of sine (jya), cosine (kojya), versine (ukrama-jya), and inverse

sine (okram jya) influenced the birth oftrigonometry. He was also the first to

specify sine and versine (1 cos x) tables, in 3.75 intervals from 0 to 90, to

an accuracy of 4 decimal places.

In fact, modern names "sine" and "cosine" are mistranscriptions of the

words jya and kojya as introduced by Aryabhata. As mentioned, they were

translated as jiba and kojiba in Arabic and then misunderstood by Gerard of

Cremona while translating an Arabic geometry text to Latin. He assumed

that jiba was the Arabic word jaib, which means "fold in a garment", L. sinus (c.

1150).[37]

Aryabhata's astronomical calculation methods were also very influential. Along

with the trigonometric tables, they came to be widely used in the Islamic world

and used to compute many Arabic astronomical tables (zijes). In particular, the

astronomical tables in the work of the Arabic Spain scientist Al-Zarqali (11th

century) were translated into Latin as the Tables of Toledo (12th century) and

remained the most accurateephemeris used in Europe for centuries.

Calendric calculations devised by Aryabhata and his followers have been in

continuous use in India for the practical purposes of fixing

the Panchangam (the Hindu calendar). In the Islamic world, they formed the

basis of the Jalali calendar introduced in 1073 CE by a group of astronomers

including Omar Khayyam,[38] versions of which (modified in 1925) are the

national calendars in use in Iran and Afghanistan today. The dates of the Jalali

calendar are based on actual solar transit, as in Aryabhata and

earlier Siddhantacalendars. This type of calendar requires an ephemeris for

calculating dates. Although dates were difficult to compute, seasonal errors were

less in the Jalali calendar than in theGregorian calendar.

Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU), Patna has been established by

Government of Bihar for the development and management of educational

infrastructure related to technical, medical, management and allied professional

education in his honour. The university is governed by Bihar State University Act

2008.

India's first satellite Aryabhata and the lunar crater Aryabhata are named in his

honour. An Institute for conducting research in astronomy, astrophysics and

atmospheric sciences is the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational

Sciences (ARIES) near Nainital, India. The inter-school Aryabhata Maths

Competition is also named after him,[39] as isBacillus aryabhaa, a species of

bacteria discovered by ISRO scientists in 2009.[40]

See also

ryabhat a numeration

Indian mathematics

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Briannica Guide o Numbers and Measuremen. The Rosen Publishing

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*Clark 1930

*S. Balachandra Rao (2000). Indian Asronomy: An Inroducion. Orient

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Earth's equator."

*L. Satpathy (2003). Ancien Indian Asronomy. Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

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name and has nothing to do with the island of Sri Lak."

*Ernst Wilhelm. Classical Muhura. Kala Occult Publishers.

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that Lanka is 23 degrees south of Ujjain.)"

*R.M. Pujari; Pradeep Kolhe; N. R. Kumar (2006). Pride of India: A Glimpse

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village near the city of Patna) and wrote a book called Aryabhaiya."

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Kuttaka", Resonance, October 2002. Also see earlier

overview: Mahemaics in Ancien India.

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p. 207. ISBN 0-471-54397-7. "He gave more elegant rules for the sum of

the squares and cubes of an initial segment of the positive integers. The

sixth part of the product of three quantities consisting of the number of

terms, the number of terms plus one, and twice the number of terms plus

one is the sum of the squares. The square of the sum of the series is the

sum of the cubes."

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Elder, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive:

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incredibly he believes that the orbits of the planets are ellipses."

22. Jump up^ Hayashi (2008), Aryabhaa I

23. Jump up^ Aryabhatiya 1.3ab, see Plofker 2009, p. 111.

24. Jump up^ [achalAni bhAni samapashchimagAni ... golapAda.910].

Translation from K. S. Shukla and K.V. Sarma, K. V. ryabhaya

of

ryabhaa,

New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1976. Quoted in

Plofker 2009.

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29. Jump up^ Ansari, p. 13, Table 1

30. Jump up^ The concept of Indian heliocentrism has been advocated by B.

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34. Jump up^ Though Aristarchus of Samos (3rd century BCE) is credited with

holding an heliocentric theory, the version of Greek astronomy known in

ancient India as the Paulisa Siddhanamakes no reference to such a theory.

35. Jump up^ Dennis Duke, "The Equant in India: The Mathematical Basis of

Ancient Indian Planetary Models." Archive for History of Exact Sciences 59

(2005): 563576, n. 4 [1].

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Princeton University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-691-12067-6.

37. Jump up^ Douglas Harper (2001). "Online Etymology

Dictionary". Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-0714.

38. Jump up^ "Omar Khayyam". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6 ed.). May

2001. Retrieved 2007-06-10.[dead link]

39. Jump up^ "Maths can be fun". The Hindu. 3 February 2006. Retrieved

2007-07-06.

40. Jump up^ "ISRO Press Release 16 March 2009". ISRO. Retrieved 24 June

2012.

MODULE 1 - ARYABHATTA

476 AD

Born

Died

550 AD

Residence

Nationality

Indian

Fields

Mathematics, Astronomy

Institutions

Nalanda University

Aryabhatta I. He lived at Kusumapura or Pataliputra in ancient Magadhar or modern

Patna. He was born in 476 AD.

At the age of 23 years Aryabhatt wrote two books on astronomy (1) Aryabhatiya (2)

Arya-siddhanta. The aryabhatt deals with both mathematics and astronomy. It contains

121 stanzas in all. Aryabhatt is divided into 4 chapters called Pada (section)

Pada 1 GitikaPada 13 stanzas of basis definition of important astronomical

parameters and tables.

Pada 2 Ganita Pada 33 stanzas deals with mathematics. The topics are geometrical

figures with their properties and mensurations, series, linear and quadratic equations,

methods for extracting the square roots, the cube roots etc.

Pada 3 Kalakriya Pada 25 stanzas deals with the true position of sun, moon and

planets.

Pada 4 Gola Pada 50 stanzas deals with the motion of sun, moon and planets on

the celestial sphere.

NUMBER NOTATION

Numerical values: he made a notation system in which digits are denoted with the help

of alphabet numerals e.g., 1 = ka, 2 = Kha, etc.

Aryabhatta assigned numerical values to the 33 consonants of the Indian alphabet to

represent 1,2,325,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,100.

Notation system: He invented a notation system consisting of alphabet numerals Digits

were denoted by alphabet numerals. In this system devanagiri script contain varga

letters (consonants) and avarga letters (vowels).1-25 are denoted by 1st 25 varga

letters.

Place-value: Aryabhatta was familiar with the place-value system.

He knew numeral symbols and the sign for zero

Square root & cube root: His calculations on square root and cube root would not have

been possible without the knowledge of place values system and zero. He has given

methods of extracting square root cube root along with their explanation.

Interest: He formulated for the first time in India the formula for interest, time and

other related ones, in the problems of interest.

ALGEBRA

Integer solutions: Aryabhatta was the first one to explore integer solutions to the

equations of the form by =ax+c and by =ax-c, where a,b,c are integers. He used

kuttuka method to solve problems.

Indeterminate equations: He gave general solutions to linear indeterminate equations

ax+by+c= 0 by the method of continued fraction.

Identities: He had dealt with identities like (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2and ab={(a+b)2-(a2b2)}/2

He has given the following formula in aryabhatia

12+22+32+---------+n2=n(n+1)(2n+1)/6

13+23+33+---------+n3 = (1+2+3+------------+)2= {n2(n+1)2}/4

Algebraic quantities: He has given the method of addition, subtraction, multiplication of

simple and compound algebraic quantities

Arithmetic series: He was given a formula for summing up of the arithmetic series after

the Pth term The rule is S= n[a+{(n-1)/2+p} d]

S=(a+1) n/2

GEOMETRY

Discover the Value : The credit for discovering the exact values may be ascribed

to the celebrated mathematician Aryabhatta.

Rule: Add 4 to 100, multiply by 8, add 62000. The result is approximately the

circumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand. By this rule the relation of the

circumference to diameter is given.

This gives =62832/20000=3.1416. Which is an accurate value of . Aryabhatta

discovered this value independently and also realized that is an irrational number

Pythagorean Theorem: The Pythagorean theorem is stated as follows in his work the

square of the Bhuja (base) plus the square of the koti (perpendicular) is the square of

the Karna

(Buja and koti are the sides of a right-angled triangle. The Karna is the hypotenuse)

Circle Theorem: He has postulated a theorem relating to circle as follows In a circle the

product of two Saras is the square of the half chord of the two arcs i.e. a*b=c2 where c

is half the chord and the saras or arrows are the segments of a diameter which bisect

any chord.

Formula: Aryabhatta gives formulae for the areas of a triangle, square, rectangle,

rhombus, circle etc.

TRIGONOMETRY

Sine Table: Aryabhatta gave a table of sines for calculating the approximate values at

intervals of 90/24 = 3 45. This was done using the formula for

sin (n+1)x - sin nx in terms of sin nx and sin (n-1) x.

Versine: He introduced the versine (versin = 1-cosine) into trigonometry.

ASTRONOMY

Earth: Aryabhatta gave the circumference of the earth as 4 967 yojanas and its diameter

as 1 5811/24 yojanas. Since1 yojana =5miles this gives the circumference as 24,835

miles, which is an excellent approximation to the currently accepted value of 24,902

miles.

He believes that the orbits of the planets are ellipses. He correctly explains the caused of

eclipses of the Sun and the Moon.

Length of year: His value for the length of the year at 365 days 6 hours 12 minutes 30

seconds is an overestimate since the true value is less than 365 days and 6 hours.

Aryabhatta was one of those ancient scholars of India who is hardly surpassed by

any one else of his time in his treatise on mathematics and astronomy. In appreciation of

his great contributions to mathematics and astronomy, the government of India named

the first satellite sent into space on 19-4-1975 as aryabhatta, after him.

Aryabhatta, also known as Aryabhatta I or Aryabhata (476-550?), was a famous

Indian mathematician and astronomer, born in a place called Taregana, in Bihar (though

some people do not agree with the evidence). Taregana (also spelled as Taragna) which

literally means songs of stars in Bihari, is a small place situated nearly 30 km

from Patna, which was then known as Kusumpura later Pataliputra, the capital of the

Gupta Empire. This is the very empire that has been dubbed as the golden period in

Indian history. The best introduction to the genius of past is seen in the words of

Bhaskara I who said, Aryabhatta is the master who, after reaching the furthest shores

and plumbing the inmost depths of the sea of ultimate knowledge of mathematics,

kinematics and spherics, handed over the three sciences to the learned world.

Aryabhatta, the Indian mathematician head of Nalanda University at Kusumpura (modern Patna)

Varahamihira, the younger contemporary of Aryabhatta also mentions him as

Aryabhata. In addition to this, Bhaskara I too mentions him as Aryabhata. It seems as

if the correct name was Aryabhata and not Aryabhatta. This could mean that Bhatta

was not his surname but as part of his first name. In fact, there is a lot of confusion

about his name too. Perhaps he was called Arya and his surname was Bhat or Bhatta!

There is some disagreement about this birth place. Some are of the view that he was

born in Patliputra while some are of the view that he was born in Kerala and moved to

Patliputra and lived there. Those who say that he was in Bihar is because of this name.

His name Arya and Bhatta indicates that he was from North India. His suffix Bhatta

could have been either part of his name or his surname, till date its not known if this is

correct or not. It is interesting to note that Aryabhatta himself have mentioned himself

at only 3 places and as Aryabhata in his work Aryabhatiya.

The reason for not considering Kerala as his birthplace is that nowhere in his works he

has mentioned Kerala. In addition, all works of Aryabhatta is in Sanskrit and Sanskrit

was not used in Kerala. So to claim that Aryabhatiya was written in Kerala has no

Arabic translations as someone who hailed from Kusumpura (modern Patna), the capital

of Magadha. It therefore appears that Aryabhatta was born, lived, flourished and worked

in Magadha. He has also been described as the head of the Nalanda University.

Aryabhatta is considered to be one of the mathematicians who changed the course of

mathematics and astronomy to a great extent. He is known to have considerable

influence on Arabic science world too, where he is referred to as Arjehir. His notable

contributions to the world of science and mathematics includes the theory that the earth

rotates on its axis, explanations of the solar and lunar eclipses, solving of quadratic

equations, place value system with zero, and approximation of pie ().

Aryabhatta approximatted pi

that his presence was felt in neighboring countries and cultures also. There have been

various translations of his work among which the Arabic translation during the 820CE is

very significant.

When mathematical students are confused with trigonometry even today, Aryabhattahad

defined sine, cosine, versine and inverse sine back in his era, influencing the birth of

trigonometry. The signs were originally known as jya, kojya, utkrama-jya and otkram

jya. In Arabic they were translated as jiba and kojiba, which later when being translated

into Latin was misunderstood to be fold in a garment by Gerard of Cremona, who stated

it as sinus, which meant fold in Latin. Aryabhatta was the first mathematician to detail

both sine and versine (1 cos x) tables, in 3.75 intervals from 0 to 90, to 4 decimal

places.

Aryabhattas astronomical calculations influenced the Arabians, who used the

trigonometric tables to compute many astronomical tables. His calendared calculation

has been in continuous use in India, on which the present day Panchangam is based. His

studies are also base for the national calendars of Iran and Afghanistan today.

The Story of Numbers (0 and 1) Indian Numerals or Arabic?

Aryabhatiya

It is known that Aryabhatta has authored at least three astronomical books, in addition

he also wrote some free stanzas. Among them Aryabhatiya is the only text that has

survived to this day, whereas unfortunately his other works have been extinct. It is a

small treatise written is 118 verses, which summarizes the Hindu mathematics of that

time. This great mathematical masterpiece of the past starts with 10 verse introduction,

which is then followed by mathematical section which is written in 33 verses that gives

out 66 mathematical rules, but there is no proof to go with it. The mathematical part of

the Aryabhatiya is about algebra, arithmetic, plane trigonometry and spherical

trigonometry in addition to advanced mathematics on continued fractions, quadratic

equations, sums of power series and a table of sines.

The next section consists of 25 verses which gives us glimpse into the planetary models.

The final section of the book is dedicated to sphere and eclipses which runs into 50

verses. He states that the moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the

prevailing cosmogony where eclipses were believed to be caused by pseudo-planetary

nodes Rahu and Ketu, he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by earth or those

shadows that fall on earth. It is amazing how Aryabhatta could explain both lunar and

solar eclipse so accurately.

Statue of Aryabhatta at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Pune (India)

There is some argument over the claim of Aryabhatta being the inventor of place value

system that made use of zero. Georges Ifrah, in his work Universal history of numbers:

From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998) writes in work, ..it is

extremely likely that Aryabhatta knew the sign for zero and the numerals of the place

value system. Georges Ifrah has studied the works of Aryabhatta and found that the

counting and mathematical work carried out by him would have been not possible

without zero or place value system.

Honouring Aryabhatta

The Indian ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) named its first satellite after the

genius mathematician and astronomer. A research establishment has been set up in

Nainital, called the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIOS) to

honor his contribution to the field of science. There is also a lunar crater and a species of

bacteria discovered by ISRO named after Aryabhatta.

He worked out the area of a triangle. His exact words were, ribhujasya

phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah which translates for a triangle, the

result of a perpendicular with the half side is the area.

He discussed the idea of sin.

He worked on the summation of series of squares and cubes (square-root and

cube-root).

He talks about the rule of three which is to find the value of x when three

numbers a, b and c is given.

Aryabhatta calculates the volume of a sphere.

Aryabhatta described the model of the solar system, where the sun and moon are

each carried by epicycles that in turn revolve around the Earth. He also talks about the

number of rotations of the earth, describes that the earth rotating on its axis, the

order of the planets in terms of distance from earth.

Aryabhatta describes the solar and lunar eclipses scientifically.

Aryabhatta describes that the moon and planets shine by light reflected from the

sun.

Aryabhatta calculated the sidereal rotation which is the rotation of the earth with

respect to the stars as 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds.

He calculated the length of the sidereal year as 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes

and 30 seconds. The actual value shows that his calculations was an error of 3 minutes

and 20 seconds over a year.

Although we know nothing about the personal history of Aryabhatta, he was the genius

who continues to baffle mathematicians even to this day.

A new ebook (paperback coming soon) has been published called, Life and Works of

Aryabhata which is available on Amazon.

Alexander Volodarsky

Institute of the History of Science and Technology, Moscow

Full fifteen centuries have passed in 1976 since the birth of Aryabhata, an

outstanding Indian mathematician and astronomer.

Our knowledge of the scholar's life is very scarce. We know neither who his parents

were, nor his teachers, nor even the exact time of his death. Aryabhata was just 23

years old when in 499 A.D. he completed the famous Aryabhatiya, the only work of

his to be preserved till our time. Writes Aryabhata: "When sixty times sixty years

and three quarter yugas (of the current yuga) had elapsed, twenty-three years had

then passed since my birth". According to the Indian tradition, there are four

epochs, or yugas the Golden Age, the Silver age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron

Age and the last of these, the kaliyuga, began in 3102 B.C. It is from its

beginning that sixty times sixty years had elapsed, i.e. Aryabhatiya was written in

499 A.D. by the twenty-three-years-old author, which permits fixing 476 a.d. as the

year in which he was born.

The exact place of Aryabhata's birth is unknown. The treatise only mentions a major

Indian scientific centre Kusumapura (Pataloputra, modern Patna in Bihar), where

the scholar may have worked: "Having bowed with reverence to Brahma, Earth,

Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and the asterisms, Aryabhata sets

forth here the knowledge honoured at Kusumapura" (see ref, 1, part II, rule 1).

Some authors believe him to be a native of Asmaka, a province in Southern India (p.

93), but that view is not shared by everybody.

Of his personal biography we know nothing more, but we have got something far

more precious the work which was indeed a turning point in the history of exact

science in India. In a way,Aryabhatiya was an interface work which took of

previous development and as far as was possible had imbibed the best achievements

of preceding epochs. But on the other hand, it marked the start of a new scientific

tradition in India and was studied and analysed over the centuries. Twelve

commentaries to the work are on record, the earliest dating back to the first quarter

of the 6th century and the latest to the mid-19th century. The commentators include

famous Indian mathematicians and astronomers, notably Bhaskara I (7th century),

Paramesvara (15th century) and Nilakantha (15th - 16th century). Quite a few

manuscripts of some of the commentaries have been preserved which is an

indication that Aryabhatiya was studied rather extensively. This is also indicated by

commentaries in vernacular languages. The original Sanskrit treatise had been

translated into vernacular Hindi, Telugu, and Malayalam and was studied thoroughly.

Apart from his main work, Aryabhata had written a work on astronomy, which was

knownAryabhata-siddhanta (p. 36-42), but it has not been preserved.

Aryabhatiya is a relatively small work written in traditional Indian form of distinctly

metrical verses made up into the four parts of the treatise: ?Dasagitika or the

Ten Giti Stanzas; Ganitapada or Mathematics; Kalakriya or the Reckoning of

Time; and Gola or the Sphere.

to us. Mathematical matter is given, not just in the special second part, but

throughout all other chapters.

The treatise never mentions the ways by which rules were obtained and never sets

forth proofs or conclusions. The presentation is as succinct as could be, with all rules

stated in the form of advice or prescription. Aryabhatiya treats of diverse problems

of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, theory of numbers, trigonometry and astronomy'.

One of the most significant contribution to world science which was made by Indian

mathematicians is the establishment of decimal place-value system. Though there is

an abundant literature on the time and place of origin of this numeration, and the

components which led to its creation, these problems are still open to debate. The

scientific proceed from such clues as the shape of figures, the first application of

zero, the first record of the figures in this numeration, and the evidences of

contemporaries. All these must undoubtedly be taken into consideration, but the

most important is the rules for performing arithmetic operations according to

decimal place-value numeration. The earliest arithmetic rules known to us in this

system were described by Aryabhata in Aryabhatiya, namely the square-root and

cube-root evolution.

Closely related to the decimal place-value system was the alphabetic numeration

also given by Aryabhata. Such numerations were aimed at reducing the long strings

of words arising when numbers are written in a verbal form.

A central part in the arithmetic part of all Indian works was held by the Rule of

Three, teaching how to find a number x forming with three given numbers a, b, c

the proportion

Many problems were reduced to an application of this rule.

Indian scholars had coined a name for each term of the proportion and, in fact, gave

its name to the rule itself.

From the Indian the Rule of Three passed over into Arabic and thence into West

European mathematical writings.

The types of problem subject to the Rule of Three had been certainly known

elsewhere in China, Greece and Egypt, but it was only in India that the rule was

singled out, translated into problem solving methods, and extended to the case of

five, seven, etc. quantities.

These extensions seem to have been familiar to Aryabhata, even though he cites

only the Rule of Three. In his commentary, Bhaskara I writes: "Here Acarya

Aryabhata has described the rule of three only. How the well known rules of five,

etc. are to be obtained? I say thus: The Acarya has described only the fundamental

of anupata (proportion). All others such as the rule of five, etc. follow from the

fundamental rule of proportion. How? The rule of five, etc. consists of combinations

of the rule of three.. In the rule of five there are two rules of three, in the rule of

seven, three rules of three, and so on".

The treatise considers several problems which reduce to solving a linear equation in

one unknown. One problem, set forth in part II, rule 30, is to calculate the value of

an object if it is known that two men having equal wealth possess a different

number of objects, a1 a2 and different pieces of money remaining after the purchase,

b1, b2. The problem reduces itself to solving the equation a1x + b1 = a2x + b2.

Aryabhata formulates the rule of solving the linear equation in this manner: "Divide

the difference between the rupakas with two persons by the difference between

their gulikas. The quotient is the value of one gulika, if the possessions of the two

persons are of equal value" (See ref. 1, part II, rule 30). That is to say,

Another problem is the famous Problem of Messengers, which later peregrinated all

over the world'. algebraic literature. It is to calculate the time of meeting of two

planets moving in opposite directions, or in the same direction. Aryabhata

formulates this rule: "Divide the distance between the two bodies moving in the

opposite directions by the sum of their speeds, and the distance between the two

bodies moving in the same direction by the difference of their speeds; the two

quotients will give the time elapsed since the two bodies met or to elapse before

they will meet" (See ref. 1, part II, rule 31).

Thus, if the distance S between the two bodies and their velocities V 1 and V2 are

known, the time of meeting is found as

opposite directions or as

introducing negative numbers, which Indian scholars, beginning with Brahmagupta

(7th century) later adopted and used quite regularly.

Several of problems in Aryabhatiya lead to quadratic equations, in particular, the

finding of the number of terms in an arithmetical progression and the calculation of

interest. In the latter case, the following problem is solved, which is quoted by one

of Aryabhata's commentators: capital A yields an unknown monthly profit x, which is

then itself lent for interest for T months. The initial profit added together with the

new interest is equal to B. Find the initial interest rate. Aryabhata gives the solution

of the equation Tx2 + Ax = AB in verbal form corresponding to this expression:

Similar problem of compound interest are posed by many Indian authors. They also

occur in European manuals belonging to modern history. For example, the first

problem of quadratic equations in Elements d'algebre by A. Clairaut (1746) is for

compound interest.

Beginning with Aryabhata, most Indian mathematical texts give rules and examples

of arithmetical progression Aryabhata knew the rules for the general term, sum, and

the number of terms of an arithmetic progression. The rules for the summation of an

arithmetical progression are set forth by Aryabhata in the part II, rule 19: "Diminish

the given number of terms by one, then divide by two, then increase by the number

of the proceeding terms (if any), then multiply by common difference, and then

increase by the first term of the (whole) series: the result is the arithmetic mean (of

the given number of terms) This multiplied by the given number of terms is the sum

of the given terms. Alternatively, multiply the sum of the first and last terms (of the

series or partial series which is to be summed up) by half the number of terms" The

first part of the rule finds the sum S of the terms of an arithmetical progression from

the term p+1 to the term p+n:

Aryabhata also formulates the rules for finding the number of terms of an

arithmetical progression

Aryabhatiya states the rules for the summation of natural squares and cubes, as

well as some other series, which, however, had been previously known to

Babylonians and Greeks.

Aryabhata contributed enormously to the theory of numbers and its important

chapter the indeterminate equations. The problem first arose in India from

calendar astronomical needs of determining the periods of repetition of certain

relative positions of celestial bodies (the Sun, the Moon, and the planets) which had

different revolution periods and from other related issues. The problem reduces itself

to finding integer numbers which divide by given remainder, i.e. satisfying

indeterminate linear equations and equation systems.

In the third century a.d. the Greek mathematician Diophantus was concerned with

indeterminate equations, but he only was seeking for rational solutions. Beginning

with Aryabhata, the Indians tried to solve these equations in positive integers, which

was a far stronger proposition. Any direct Greek influence on the Indian scholars is

unlikely here, for each school had arrived at problems of the theory of numbers

proceeding from different needs and using different methods. One may rather

suppose some contacts of Indians linking them to ancient Chinese mathematicians,

who had likewise arrived at indeterminate equations proceeding from the needs of

astronomy and the problems of remainder and, moreover, also were only seeking

after integer solutions (See ref. 8 pp. 143-144). Aryabhata's contribution to the

theory of numbers was very valuable indeed; he was the first in the world literature

to formulate very elegant methods of integer solution of indeterminate equation of

the first degree.

Aryabhata gives the pertinent rule in part II, rule 32-33 for the Solution of this

problem: find a number N, which, when divided by given numbers a, c yields two

known remainders p, q. The problem leads to these indeterminate equations of the

first degree:

ax + b = cy, if p > q (b = p q)

ax b = cy, if p < q

Incidentally, the latter equation can be reduced to the former by substitution of the

unknown.

Aryabhata's rule is stated in an extremely succinct formulation, which had given rise

to a great deal of comment and debate.

Aryabhata's geometrical rules include several verbal formulas. For example, he

defines the area of a triangle as the product of the height multiplied by a half of the

base (See ref. 1, part II, rule 7) as a half of the circle's length multiplied by a half of

the diameter.

The area of any plane figure, writes Aryabhata in part II, rule 9, can be found if we

single out two sides and then multiply one by the other. The commentator

Paramesvara explains that what is meant here is the mean length and width.

Aryabhata determines the volume of a pyramid as base area multiplied by half the

height. This, rather rough approximation is refined by other mathematicians, and in

particular by Sridhara, who finds the volume as the base area multiplied by a third

of the height. Aryabhata calculates the volume of a sphere by the formula r 2r2 ,

which is equal to 147r3. This is rather approximative as compared with the exact

formula for the volume of the sphere,

An essential mathematical constant, which also had a great practical value, was

the number estimating the ratio of the length of a circle of its diameter. For his time,

Aryabhata's estimation was rather accurate (ref. 1, part II, rule 10). The value which

was given by Aryabhata is correct to four decimal places: 3.1416.

In part II, rule 14, Aryabhata gives the Pythagorean theorem: "Add the square of

the height of the gnomon to the square of its shadow. The square root of that sum is

the semi-diameter of the circle of shadow".

In part II, rule 13, the scholar gives several geometrical definitions which are rather

rare in Indian mathematical literature: "A circle should be constructed by means of a

pair of compasses; a triangle and quadrilateral by means of the two hypotenuses.

The level of ground should be tested by means of water; and verticality by means of

plumb".

A look at some of the geometrical problems considered by Aryabhata shows that he

knew the basic properties of similar triangles and proportions, had an idea about

derived proportions, relations of the segments of two intersecting chords, and the

properties of the diameter perpendicular to a chord.

The trigonometric problems expounded in Aryabhatiya axe interesting. The Indians

seem to have lent in their trigonometric studies the works of early Hellinistic

astronomers, who had a fairly developed trigonometry of chords. But the Indians

replaced chords with sines, which enabled them to introduce various functions

related with the sides and angles of the right-angled triangle. They considered the

line of sine, the line of cosine, and the line which was later in Europe named the

sinus-versus, or reversed sinus. The earliest sine table is found in Suryasiddhanta and in theAryabhatiya [ref. 1, part I, rule 12]. The table is compiled

with a step of 345' = 225', i.e. 1/24 of the quadrant arc.

Aryabhata, as well as other Indian mathematicians made a wide use of the shadow

cast by a vertical pole, the gnomon, to determine heights and distances. A number

of relevant rules and problems are given in the geometrical chapter. This anticipated

the introduction of tangent and cotangent, which were introduced in the 9th century

by mathematicians in Islamic countries; incidentally, these functions were described

by the name of "shadows".

How far-reaching was the true mathematical contribution of Aryabhatiya? It

contains the first description of the rules in the decimal place-value system; the first

description of the alphabetic numeration; it contains the first Indian description of

the evolution of the square and cubic roots; the treatise considers several very

interesting problems, which had played the great role in the development of

mathematics; Aryabhata was also the first to formulate the rule of integer solution of

indeterminate equation of the first degree in two unknowns; he set forth the

methods of finding the general term, the sum, and the number of terms of an

arithmetical progression; for his time Aryabhata's estimation of was very accurate;

his methods of computing the sinus-table in trigonometry was an important

contribution.

Those are just the principal mathematical innovations appearing in Aryabhata's

treatise. But this rundown by no means fathoms the important role

that Aryabhatiya played in the development of Indian and world's science.

Towards the end of the eighth century, the treatise was translated into Arabic under

the title of Zij al-Arjabhar. About the same time, two works by Brahmagupta were

also translated which carried some of Aryabhata's mathematical and astronomical

innovations. Later, when Arabic scholarly tests were translated into Latin, some of

Aryabhata's ideas were inherited by West European scientists.

*

April 19, 1975. Soviet spaceport. National flags of the Soviet Union and Indi waving

at a top of the ground control station. Up dashes a Soviet carrier rocket launching

into the Earth's orbit the first Indian sputnik. After a few minutes of suspense, the

loud-speaker announces: "The main fairing is off .... The second stage is working....

The sputnik has separated itself".

India has become a space power!

The first Indian artificial Earth's satellite was given the name of Aryabhata.

Antiquity and modernity intertwine.

In the history of mathematical science, it has long been a question to whom the

invention of Algebraic analysis is due? Among what people, in what region, was it

devised? By whom was it cultivated and promoted? Or by whose labours was it

reduced to form and system?

And finally from what quarter did the diffusion of its knowledge proceed? No

doubt indeed entertained of the source from which it was received immediately

by modern Europe; though the channel has been a matter of question. We are

well assured, that the Arabs were our instructors in this study. But the Arabs

themselves only play to the discovery of Algebra.

They were not in general inventors but scholars, during the period of their

success of the sciences: and the germ at least of the Algebraic analysis is to be

found among the Greeks in an age not precisely determined, but more than

probably anterior to the earliest dawn of civilization among the Arabs: and this

science in a more advanced state subsisted among the Hindus prior to the

earliest disclosure of it by the Arabians to modern Europe.

Life and the works of Aryabhatta (Aryabhata)

Pataliputra was the birth-place of another very great man, namely, Aryabhata,

the father of scientific astronomy and mathematics of the Hindus. He was born in

476 A D. and wrote his Kalakriyapada here at the age of 23 that is, 499 A.D.

Aryabhatta's Birthplace

There seem to have been a conflict of Eras at the time when Aryabhata

flourished. There was the Malava Era in Western Malwa, the Gupta Km known in

the Gupta Empire, the Saka Era, the Kalacuri Era and so on all local and tribal

eras. Time of Aryabhatta

Aryabhatta is the first writer on astronomy to whom the Hindus do not allow the

honour of a divine inspiration. Writers on mathematical science distinctly state

that he was the earliest uninspired and a merely human writer on astronomy.

This is a notice which sufficiently proves his being an historical character. Read

More on Aryabhatta

The chief doctrines which Aryabhatta professed were that he He affirmed the

diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis; an assertion which is fully borne out by

a quotation from one of his works, in a commentary on the "Brahmasphut'aSiddhanta" of Brahmagupta by Prithudakaswami: "The Earth making a revolution

produces a daily rising and setting of the stars and planets". Aryabhatta is said to

have discovered the diurnal motion of the earth' which he thought to be

spherical. Aryabhatta's diurnal motion

contemporary. Varahamihira

represented, a form varying from the circle and nearly elliptic. The chief

doctrines of Aryabhatta

Aryabhata wrote his Kala-kriya (calculation of time) here at the age of 23 that is,

499 A.D. Aryabhatta and Astronomy

ARYABHATTA was author of the Arykshiasata (800 couplets) and Dasagi-tica (ten

stanzas), known by the numerous quotations of BRAHMEGUPTA, BHAT'TATPALA,

and others, who cite both under these respective titles. Works of Aryabhatta

ARYABHATTAS text specifies the earth's diameter, 1050 yojanas; and the orbit or

circumference of the earth's wind [spiritus vector] 3393 yojanas; which, as the

scholiast rightly argues, is no discrepancy. Aryabhattas calculation of the earths

diameter

UNDER the Abbasside Khalifs ALMANSU'R and ALMAMUN, in the middle of the

eighth and beginning of the ninth centuries of the Christian era, the Arabs

became conversant with the Indian astronomy.

Early Life

Aryabhata(some time misspelled as Aryabhatta) was one of the first Indian

mathematicians and astronomers belonging to the classical age. He was born in

476 BC in Tarenaga, a town in Bihar, India. It is however definite that he travelled

to Kusumapara (modern day Patna) for studies and even resided there for some

time. It is mentioned in a few places that Aryabhata was the head of the

educational institute in Kusumapara. The University of Nalanda had an

observatory in its premises so it is hypothesized that Aryabhata was the principal

of the university as well. On the other hand some other commentaries mention

that he belonged to Kerala.

Mathematical Work

Aryabhata wrote many mathematical and astronomical treatises. His chief work

was the Ayrabhatiya which was a compilation of mathematics and astronomy.

The name of this treatise was not given to it by Aryabhata but by later

commentators. A disciple by him called the Bhaskara names it Ashmakatanra

meaning treatise from the Ashmaka. This treatise is also referred to as Ayrashatas-ashta which translates to Aryabhatas 108. This is a very literal name

because the treatise did in fact consist of 108 verses. It covers several branches

of mathematics such as algebra, arithmetic, plane and spherical trigonometry.

Also included in it are theories on continued fractions, sum of power series, sine

tables and quadratic equations.

Aryabhata worked on the place value system using letters to signify numbers

and stating qualities. He also came up with an approximation of pi ( ) and area of

a triangle. He introduced the concept of sine in his work called Ardha-jya which

is translated as half-chord.

Astronomical Work

Aryabhata also did a considerable amount of work in astronomy. He knew that

the earth is rotating on an axis around the sun and the moon rotated around it.

He also discovered the position of nine planets and stated that these also

revolved around the sun. He pointed out the eclipses; both lunar and solar.

Aryabhata stated the correct number of days in a year that is 365. He was the

first person to mention that the earth was not flat but in fact a spherical shape.

He also gave the circumference and diameter of the earth and the radius of the

orbits of 9 planets.

Aryabhata was a very intelligent man. The theories that he came up with at that

time present a wonder to the scientific world today. His works were used by the

Greeks and the Arabs to develop further. A commentary by Bhaskara I a century

later on Aryabhatiya says:

Aryabhata is the master who, after reaching the furthest shores and plumbing

the inmost depths of the sea of ultimate knowledge of mathematics, kinematics

and spherics, handed over the three sciences to the learned world.

Aryabhatas Legacy

Aryabhata was an immense influence to mathematics and astronomy. Many of

his works inspired Arabs more particularly. His astronomical calculations helped

form the Jalali calendar. He has been honored in many ways. The first Indian

satellite is named after him as Aryabhata, so is the lunar crater. An Indian

research center is called Aryabhata Research Institute of Observational

Sciences.

http://www.new1.dli.ernet.in/data1/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005af8_167.pdf

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~sohum/aak/pdf%20files/aryabhatta.pdf

https://www.google.co.in/url?

sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=27&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEwQFjA

GOBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.docstoc.com%2Fdocs

%2F154215644%2FContribution-of-Aryabhatta-in-Mathematics---PPTpresentation&ei=Dkv7U83EEpeKuASugYLoBg&usg=AFQjCNHQcMhjZvz1C_gK5BcexsoBQ0liw&sig2=QYV2k235IvBqwt8qazzIdw&bvm=bv.73612305,d.c2

E

http://es.scribd.com/doc/27160415/Contribution-of-Aryabhatta

http://www.slideshare.net/vishalthakur123/aryabhatta-23640943

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