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CHAPTER 6

CONSUMER AND BUSINESS BUYER BEHAVIOR


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. _________________ refers to the buying behavior of final consumers.
a. Consumer buyer behavior
b. Target market buying
c. Market segment buying
d. Business buying behavior
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 191
2. ____________ is individuals and households who buy goods and services for
personal consumption.
a. The target market
b. A market segment
c. The consumer market
d. The ethnographic market
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 191, 192
4. Understanding consumer buying behavior is not easy. The answers are often locked
deep within the consumers head. The central question for marketers is:
a. how much money is the consumer willing to spend?
b. how much does the consumer need the product being offered for sale?
c. how much does a discount or a coupon affect the purchase rate?
d. how do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 192
5. The starting point in understanding how consumers respond to various marketing
efforts the company might use is the:
a. Lipinski model of buying behavior.
b. stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
c. Freudian model of buying behavior.
d. Maslows model of life-cycle changes.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, Figure 6-1
6. According to the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior (as presented in your
text), the place where consumers process marketing stimuli prior to making a purchase
decision is called the:
a. consumers value chain.

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b. consumers cognitive schema.


c. consumers black box.
d. consumers thoughts-emotions network.
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, Figure 6-1
7. Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal, and:
a. psychographic characteristics.
b. psychological characteristics.
c. psychometric characteristics.
d. supply and demand characteristics.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, 193, Figure 6-2
8. ______________ is the most basic cause of a persons wants and behaviors.
a. Culture
b. Social class
c. Personality
d. Lifestyle
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 193
10. Marketers are always trying to spot ____________ in order to discover new
products that might be wanted.
a. opinion graphers
b. dissonant groups
c. cultural shifts
d. benchmarks
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193
11. The cultural shift toward _____________ has resulted in more demand for casual
clothing and simpler home furnishings.
a. liberal political causes
b. conservative political causes
c. informality
d. downsizing
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193
12. A ________________ is a group of people with shared value systems based on
common life experiences and situations.
a. culture
b. subculture
c. lifestyle composite
d. social class

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Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 193


13. Hispanics are often called an emerging market. Which of the following general
product categories do not sell well to Hispanics?
a. automobiles
b. computers
c. photography equipment
d. generics
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 194
18. Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share
similar values, interests, and behaviors are called:
a. cultures.
b. subcultures.
c. social classes.
d. social factors.
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page:
24. Groups which have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called:
a. membership groups.
b. facilitative groups.
c. bonding groups.
d. social groups.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 196
25. As a form of a reference group, the _______________ are ones to which the
individual wishes to belong.
a. secondary groups
b. facilitative groups
c. primary groups
d. aspirational groups
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196
26. The __________________ is a person within a reference group who, because of
special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts influence on
others.
a. facilitator
b. referent actor
c. opinion leader
d. social role player

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Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 197


27. Even though buying roles in the family change constantly, the ___________ has
traditionally been the main purchasing agent for the family.
a. wife
b. husband
c. teenage children
d. grandparent
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 198
28. A major reason for the changing traditional purchasing roles for families is that:
a. the economic conditions are forcing more teens to work.
b. more women than ever hold jobs outside the home.
c. children are spending more time on the Web.
d. men and women now shop together or shop until you drop for entertainment
purposes.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 198
29. A(n) ________________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform
according to the persons around them.
a. behavior
b. attitude
c. role
d. status
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 199
30. The stages through which families might pass as they mature over time is a
description of what is called the:
a. adoption process.
b. lifestyle cycle.
c. Values and Lifestyle (VALS) topology.
d. family life cycle.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 199
31. A ______________ is a persons pattern of living as expressed in his or her
activities, interests, and opinions.
a. role
b. status
c. position
d. lifestyle
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 199

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32. According to the SRI Consultings Values and Lifestyles (VALS) typology,
_____________________ consumers are those that buy based upon their desire
for activity, variety, and risk taking.
a. principle-oriented
b. status-oriented
c. action-oriented
d. value-oriented
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 200
34. ______________ is(are) a persons unique psychological characteristics that lead to
relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her own environment.
a. Psychographics
b. Personality
c. Demographics
d. Lifestyle
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 201
35. The basic premise of the _____________ is that peoples possessions contribute to
and reflect their identities; that is, we are what we have.
a. lifestyle concept
b. self-concept
c. personality concept
d. cognitive concept
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 201
36. A _____________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek
satisfaction of the need.
a. motive
b. want
c. demand
d. requirement
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 202
37. A good synonym for motive is a(n) _____________.
a. omen
b. need
c. drive
d. cue
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 202

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41. According to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, the highest order of needs are called:
a. self-actualization needs.
b. social needs.
c. safety needs.
d. physiological needs.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 204, Figure 6-3
42. __________________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret
information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
a. Readiness
b. Selectivity
c. Perception
d. Motivation
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205
43. People can form different perceptions of the same stimulus because of three
perceptual processes. These processes are best described as being:
a. selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention.
b. subliminal perception, selective remembrance, selective forgetting.
c. closure, modeling, and perceptual screening.
d. needs distortion, wants analysis, and perceptual screening.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 204, 205
44. Kellye is a loyal Sony user. Her television, DVD player, cassette player, and VCR
are all Sony products. When she hears or sees ads for Sony products, she almost
always remembers the good points about the brand. In addition, when she hears or
sees an ad for a competing product that points out the strengths of its products, she
tends forget these points quickly or does not process them at all. The process that
Kellye is has gone through is best described as being one of:
a. selective retention.
b. selective attention.
c. selective distortion.
d. stimulus actualization.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 205
46. _______________ describes changes in an individuals behavior arising from
experience.
a. Modeling
b. Motivation
c. Perception
d. Learning
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 205

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48. Jack Lerma has a special relationship with his dog, Chris. Seeing dog toys in a pet
store window, hearing of a special price on dog food during a television commercial,
or talking with a friend and receiving a recommendation a on kennel are all forms of
__________, which may eventually impact Jacks purchasing decisions and responses
to the objects he has seen or heard about.
a. drives
b. cues
c. reinforcements
d. dyads
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205
49. If a consumer describes a car as being the most economical car on the market, then
this descriptor is a(n):
a. rule.
b. attitude.
c. belief.
d. cue.
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205
50. If a consumer tells friends I like my car more than any other car on the road, then
the consumer has expressed a(n):
a. rule.
b. attitude.
c. belief.
d. cue.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 206
51. ___________ puts people into a frame of mind of liking or disliking things, of
moving toward or away from them.
a. A rule
b. An attitude
c. A belief
d. A cue
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 206
52. Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of the buyer decision process?
a. need recognition
b. brand identification
c. information search
d. purchase decision
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 207, Figure 6-4

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53. According to the buyer decision process suggested in the text, the first stage is
characterized as being one of:
a. awareness.
b. information search.
c. need recognition.
d. demand formulation.
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 207, Figure 6-4
54. The buying process can be triggered by a(n) __________ when one of the persons
normal needshunger, thirst, sexrises to a level high enough to become a drive.
a. awareness
b. external stimuli
c. internal stimuli
d. experiential motivation
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 207
55. The stage in the buyer decision process in which the consumer is aroused to search
for more information is called:
a. information search.
b. evaluation of alternatives.
c. search for needs.
d. perceptual search.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 208
56. The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. If the consumer
were to obtain information from handling, examining, or using the product, then the
consumer would have obtained the information by using a(n):
a. personal source.
b. commercial source.
c. informative source.
d. experiential source.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 208
57. How the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices occurs during
which stage of the buyer decision process?
a. need recognition
b. information search
c. evaluation of alternatives
d. purchase decision
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 208

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58. Generally, the consumers purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand,
but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision.
These two factors are best described as being:
a. the cost and availability of the product.
b. the attitude of others and the cost of the product.
c. the availability of the product and unexpected situational factors.
d. the attitude of others and unexpected situational factors.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209
59. With respect to postpurchase behavior, the larger the gap between expectations and
performance:
a. the greater likelihood of re-purchase.
b. the greater the customers dissatisfaction.
c. the less likely the consumer will be influenced by advertising.
d. the less likely the consumer will need sales confirmation and support.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209
60. Cognitive dissonance occurs in which stage of the buyer decision process model?
a. need recognition
b. information search
c. evaluation of alternatives
d. postpurchase conflict
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209
61. A company must always guard against dissatisfying customers. On average, a
satisfied customer tells 3 people about a good purchase experience. A dissatisfied
customer, however, on average gripes to ________ people.
a. 7
b. 9
c. 11
d. 30
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 210
62. The _________________ is the mental process through which an individual passes
from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
a. adoption process
b. consumption process
c. innovation process
d. new product development process
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 210

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63. All of the following are part of the adoption process that consumers may go through
when considering an innovation EXCEPT:
a. awareness.
b. process.
c. interest.
d. trial.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 21
64. With respect to adopter categories, the _______________ are guided by respect,
are the opinion leaders in their communities, and adopt new ideas early but carefully.
a. seekers
b. innovators
c. early adopters
d. early majority
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5
65. With respect to adopter categories, the ___________________ are skeptical and they
adopt an innovation only after a majority of people have tried it.
a. early adopters
b. early majority
c. late majority
d. laggards
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5
66. Several characteristics are especially important in influencing an innovations rate
of adoption. _________ is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a
limited basis.
a. Relative advantage
b. Synchronization
c. Compatibility
d. Divisibility
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 213
67. If a company makes products and services for the purpose of reselling or renting them
to others at a profit or for use in the production of other products and services, then
the company is selling to the:
a. business market.
b. international market.
c. consumer market.
d. private sector market.

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Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 215


68. All of the following are among the primary differences between a business market
and a consumer market EXCEPT:
a. purchase decisions to satisfy needs.
b. market structure and demand.
c. the nature of the buying unit.
d. the types of decisions and the decision process involved.
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (3) Page: 215
69. The business marketer normally deals with _____________ than the consumer
marketer does.
a. far greater but smaller buyers
b. far greater and larger buyers
c. far fewer but far larger buyers
d. far fewer and smaller buyers
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215
70. When demand comes (as it does in the business market) from the demand for
consumer goods, this form of demand is called:
a. kinked demand.
b. inelastic demand.
c. cyclical demand.
d. derived demand.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215
71. General Motors buys steel because consumers buy cars. If consumer demand for cars
drops, so will General Motors demand for steel. This is an example of the
relationships found in:
a. kinked demand.
b. inelastic demand.
c. cyclical demand.
d. derived demand.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215
72. That business markets have more buyers involved in the purchase decision is
evidence of which of the following characteristic differences between business and
consumer markets?
a. market structure and demand
b. the nature of the buying unit
c. types of decisions made
d. type of decision process itself

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Answer: (b) Difficulty: (3) Page: 215-216


73. Purchases in the business market often involve large sums of money, complex
technical and economic considerations, and interactions among many people at
many levels of the buyers organization. This is evidence of which of the following
characteristic differences between business and consumer markets?
a. market structure and demand
b. the nature of the buying unit
c. types of decisions made and the decision process
d. type of business classification
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (3) Page: 216
74. The place in the business buying behavior model where interpersonal and individual
influences might interact is called the:
a. environment.
b. response.
c. stimuli.
d. buying center.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 216-219, Figure 6-6
75. In a _______________, the buyer reorders something without any modifications.
a. habitual rebuy
b. straight rebuy
c. modified rebuy
d. new task buy
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217
76. In a _______________, the buyer wants to change something about product
specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers.
a. habitual rebuy
b. straight rebuy
c. modified rebuy
d. new task buy
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217
77. When a firm buys a product or service for the first time, it is facing a:
a. habitual rebuy situation.
b. straight rebuy situation.
c. modified rebuy situation.
d. new task situation.

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Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217


78. The in suppliers are most likely to get nervous and feel pressure to put their best
foot forward in which of the following types of buying situations?
a. modified rebuy
b. new task buying
c. straight rebuy
d. indirect rebuy
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 217
79. If a firm were to bid to do a turnkey operation where they would choose a building
site, design a cement factory to build the plant, hire construction crews, assemble
materials and equipment to run the new factory, and turn over the finished factory
ready to operate to the owners, the bidding firm would be using which of the
following?
a. core process products selling
b. design products selling
c. reciprocal selling
d. systems selling
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 218
80. The decision-making unit of a buying organization is called its _____________: all
the individuals and units that participate in the business decision-making process.
a. buying center
b. purchasing center
c. bidding center
d. demand-supply center
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 218, 219
81. Considering the major influences on business buyer behavior, as shown in a model in
the text, under which influence stage would you expect to find the influences of
authority, status, empathy, and persuasiveness?
a. environmental
b. organizational
c. interpersonal
d. individual
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 220, Figure 6-7

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82. The stage of the business buying process where the buyer describes the characteristics
and quantity of the needed item is called:
a. problem recognition.
b. general need description.
c. product specification.
d. proposal solicitation.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 223-225, Figure 6-8
83. If a buying team is asked by the purchasing department to rank the importance of
reliability, durability, price, and other attributes of an item, then the team is going
through a business buying process stage called:
a. problem recognition.
b. general need description.
c. product specification.
d. proposal solicitation.
Answer: (b) Difficulty: (2) Page: 223-225, Figure 6-8
84. ________________ is the stage of business buying where an organization decides on
and specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item.
a. Problem recognition
b. General need description
c. Product specification
d. Proposal solicitation
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 223
85. _________________ is an approach to cost reduction in which components are
studied carefully to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made by
less costly methods of production.
a. Cost analysis
b. Order analysis
c. Product analysis
d. Value analysis
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (3) Page: 223
86. Reviewing trade directories, doing a computer search, or phoning other companies
for recommendations would be methods that an interested buyer might perform in
which of the following stages of the business buying process model?
a. problem recognition
b. vendor analysis
c. product specification
d. supplier search

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Answer: (d) Difficulty: (1) Page: 223


87. Factors such as supplier reputation for repair and servicing capabilities are important
criteria for evaluation at which stage in the business buying process?
a. problem recognition
b. supplier search
c. supplier selection
d. order-routine specification
Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 224
88. Blanket contracts are typically part of which of the following stages in the
business buying process?
a. general need description
b. product specification
c. supplier selection
d. order-routine specification
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 224, 225
89. The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer writes the final order
with the chosen supplier(s), listing the technical specifications, quantity needed,
expected time of delivery, return policies, and warranties is called:
a. general need description.
b. product specification.
c. supplier selection.
d. order-routine specification.
Answer: (d) Difficulty: (2) Page: 224
90. The _______________ may lead the buyer to continue, modify, or drop the
arrangement that has been entered into by the buyer and seller.
a. performance review
b. order-routine specification
c. supplier selection
d. general need description
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (1) Page: 225
91. Increasingly, business buyers are purchasing all kinds of products and services
electronically, either through electronic data interchange links (EDI) or on the
Internet. The descriptive term for such purchases, exchanges, and links is:
a. e-marketing.
b. e-commerce.
c. e-procurement.
d. e-transaction.

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Answer: (c) Difficulty: (2) Page: 225


92. E-purchasing by businesses has its drawbacks and problems. More than 80 percent
of companies say that __________ is the leading barrier to expanding electronic
links with customers and partners.
a. security
b. privacy
c. cost
d. lack of correct technology
Answer: (a) Difficulty: (2) Page: 227, 228
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
93. One of the beauties of studying consumer buying behavior is its simplicity.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 191, 192
94. With respect to studying consumer or buyer behavior, the central question for
marketers is: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company
might use?
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 192
95. In a simple model of buyer behavior, marketing and other stimuli are processed
in a consumers black box.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 192, Figure 6-1
96. If consumers have a cultural shift toward greater concern about health and fitness,
then a correct marketing response would be to manufacture or market health and
fitness services, exercise equipment, and sports clothing.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 193
97. If the U.S. population of Asian Americans were a separate nation, its buying power
of $500 billion annually would rank twelfth in the free world.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 194
98. The fastest growing and most affluent racial or ethnic subculture within the United
States culture is the Asian American group.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 195

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99. In the United States, a source of concern is the fixed lines between social classes
and the problems that this rigidity brings.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 196
100. Inherited wealth characterizes the lower upper social class category.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 197, Table 6-1
101. Upper lowers in the United States social class lead a working-class
lifestyle.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 197, Table 6-1
102. Opinion leaders are people within a reference group who, because of special skills,
knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 197
103. Women account for nearly one-half of all hardware purchases. The most accurate
correlation with this example would be that of changing social class distinctions.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 198
104. A persons lifestyle is reflected by his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 199
105. In the VALS typology, action-oriented buyers base their purchases on the actions
and opinions of others.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 200
106. A good illustration of the Mouse Potatoes lifestyle (as described by Forresters
Technographics scheme) would be a person who is dedicated to interactive
entertainment and willing to spend for the latest in technotainment.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 201
107. A persons self-concept is also called the self-image.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 201
108. Another term for motive is self-concept.

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Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 202


109. The highest order of needs within Maslows hierarchy of needs scheme is esteem
needs such as self-esteem, recognition, or status.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 202, Figure 6-3
110. Selective attention is the tendency for people to screen out most of the information
to which they are exposed.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 204
111. Numerous studies by psychologists and consumer researchers have found no link
between subliminal messages and consumer behavior.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205
112. Learning occurs through the interplay between drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and
reinforcement.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 205
113. Research has shown that attitudes are relatively easy to change while beliefs are
extremely difficult to change.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 205-207
114. The buyer decision process model begins with information search.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 207, Figure 6-4
115. The larger the gap between expectations and performance, the greater the
consumers dissatisfaction.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 209
116. The early majority segment of adopter classification scheme shown in the text are
characterized as being guided by respectthey are the opinion leaders in their
communities, and adopt new ideas early but carefully.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5
117. In the adopter classification scheme, innovators account for about half
of the bell-shaped adoption curve.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5

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118. The business market consists of all the organizations that buy goods and services to
use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied
to others.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (1) Page: 215
119. The business market is huge, however, at present the consumer market still involves
more dollars and items for sale.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 215
120. Business buyers usually face more simple situations when purchasing than do
consumers because of the amount of information that they have prior to
purchase.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 216
121. A straight rebuy occurs when a business buyer wants to modify product
specifications, prices, terms, or suppliers.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (1) Page: 217
122. The buying center, by its very nature, is a fixed and formally identifiable unit within
an organization.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 218
123. Unlike consumer buying behavior, business buying behavior is not influenced by
interpersonal factors.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (2) Page: 220, 221, Figure 6-7
124. The first stage of the business buying process is that of problem recognition.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 221, Figure 6-8
125. Value analysis is performed in the supplier search stage of the business buying
process model.
Answer: (False) Difficulty: (3) Page: 223
126. In business buying, MRO stands for maintenance, repair, and operations.
Answer: (True) Difficulty: (2) Page: 225

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ESSAY QUESTIONS
127. Harley-Davidson Motorcycle Company has used consumer behavior studies to
advance the organizations knowledge about its consumers. This strategy has been
pivotal in meeting the challenge of the Japanese motorcycle manufacturers. How has
Harley-Davidson used focus groups to keep up with its shifting market and varying
consumer tastes? What information has the company obtained about its customers?
Answer:
Harley-Davidson uses focus groups to explore its consumers feelings about the
companys products. For example, cut-and-paste collages of pictures (assembled by
representative consumers) showed how consumers felt about the companys motorcycles.
This focus group exercise was then followed by a more extensive (16,000 surveys)
battery of psychological, sociological, and demographic questions that attempted to
classify Harley users into distinct groups (advertising could then be directed toward these
specific groups). The company found that Harley customers were buying more than just
motorcycles when the companys product was purchased. The customers were making a
lifestyle statement and displaying an attitude. These lifestyle statements and attitudes
were then captured in advertisements directed toward the target audiences. The company
believes that knowledge of consumer behavior is very important to the overall success of
their strategy and campaigns.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 189-191
128. Define the consumer market and briefly describe the elements of a simple model of
buying behavior as identified in your text.
Answer:
The consumer market is made up of all the final consumers of products and services
combined. A simple model of consumer behavior consists of (1) marketing and other
stimuli (such as the 4Ps [product, price, place, and promotion] and environmental forces
[economic, technological, political, and cultural forces]), (2) the buyers black box (that
includes the buyers characteristics and the buying decision process), and (3) the buyers
responses (which includes product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing,
and purchase amount).
Difficulty: (2) Page: 192, Figure 6-1
129. Describe the importance of culture, subculture, and social class influences on
consumer buying behavior.
Answer:
Culture is the most basic cause of a persons wants and behavior. Subcultures are smaller
groups of shared value systems based upon common life experiences or situations.
Subcultures often make up significant market segments. Social classes are relatively

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permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values,
interests, and behaviors related to product preferences and purchase behaviors.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 193-196
130. Briefly, characterize the Hispanic, African American, and Asian American
subcultures found in the United States market.
Answer:
a). Hispanic Americans consist of Cuban, Mexican, Central American, South American,
and Puerto Rican peoples. They are approximately 35 million strong, and buy more than
$400 billion worth of goods and services each year. They are expected to grow by 64
percent in the next 20 years. They are somewhat easy to reach through the growing
number of Spanish media stations and publications. This group has long been a target for
food, beverages, and household care items.
b). African Americans, if a separate nation, would (with a buying power of $500 billion
annually) rank twelfth in the free world. This group is growing in affluence and
sophistication. They are strongly motivated by quality and selection. They are brand
loyal and do less shopping around.
c). Asian Americans are the fastest-growing and most affluent of the subculture
segments. They now number 10 million with a disposable income of $229 billion
annually. They are estimated to reach 30 million by 2050. Presently, the Chinese group
is the largest.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 193-195
131. Describe what a group is, and the various forms of groups that (according to the
text) a consumer might be a part of.
Answer:
A group is two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals.
Types of groups would include:
a). Membership groupsgroups that have a direct influence and to which a person
belongs.
b). Reference groupsserve as a direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of comparison or
reference in forming a persons attitudes or behavior.
c). Aspirational groupsone to which the individual wishes to belong.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 196, 197
132. List and briefly describe the five categories of Forresters Technographics scheme,
which segments consumers according to motivation, desire, and ability to invest in
technology.

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Answer:
The five categories as outlined in the text include:
a). Fast Forwardsthe biggest spenders on computer technology. Fast Forwards are
early adopters of new technology for home, office, and personal use.
b). New Age Nurturersalso big spenders but focused on technology for home uses,
such as a family PC.
c). Mouse Potatoesconsumers who are dedicated to interactive entertainment and
willing to spend for the latest in technotainment.
d). Techno-Striversconsumers who use technology primarily to gain a career edge.
e). Handshakersolder consumers, typically managers, who dont touch computers at
work and leave that to younger assistants.
Difficulty: (3) Page: 201
133. List and briefly describe Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.
Answer:
Beginning at the bottom of the pyramid model:
a). physiological needshunger, thirst
b). safety needssecurity, protection
c). social needssense of belonging, love
d). esteem needsself-esteem, recognition, status
e). self-actualization needsself-development and realization
Difficulty: (2) Page: 202, 204, Figure 6-3
134. Discuss and illustrate the difference between an attitude and a belief.
Answer:
A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude is a
persons consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies
toward an object or idea. Beliefs may be based on knowledge, opinion, or faith, and they
may carry an emotional charge. Attitudes are primarily feelings of like and dislike.
Attitudes are difficult to change.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 205-207
135. Identify each of the stages of the buyer decision process. Be sure to give a brief
description of each stage.
Answer:
a). Need recognition: The first stage of the buyer decision process, in which the
consumer recognizes a problem or need. The buyer senses a difference between his or
her actual state and some desired state. The need can be triggered by internal or external
stimuli.

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b). Information search: The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer is
aroused to search for more information; the consumer may simply have heightened
attention or may go into active information search.
c). Evaluation of Alternatives: The stage of the buyer decision process in which the
consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set. The consumer
can use product attributes, degrees of importance, brand beliefs, total product satisfaction,
or an evaluation procedure to perform alternative evaluation.
d). Purchase decision: The stage in the buyer decision process in which the consumer
actually buys the product. Factors that can influence this action phase are: the purchase
intention, the attitudes of others, and unexpected situational factors.
e). Postpurchase behavior: The stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers
take further action after purchase based upon their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The
considerations are the consumers expectations and the products perceived performance.
Cognitive dissonance can set in, and must be dealt with before complete satisfaction can
be achieved.
Difficulty: (3) Page: 207-210, Figure 6-4
135. People differ in their readiness to adopt or try new products. Take each of the five
adopter groups mentioned in the text and give a synonym or brief description of each
primary characteristic that sets each particular group apart from the others.
Answer:
a). Innovatorsventuresomethey try new ideas at some risk.
b). Early adoptersrespectedthey are the opinion leaders in their communities and
adopt new ideas early but carefully.
c). Early majoritydeliberatealthough they are rarely leaders, they adopt new ideas
before the average person.
d). Late majorityskepticalthey adopt an innovation only after a majority of people
have tried it.
e). Laggardstradition boundthey are suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation
only when it has become something of a tradition itself.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, Figure 6-5
136. An innovative products rate of adoption is influenced by five characteristics. List
and then briefly discuss each of these characteristics.
Answer:
a). Relative advantagethe degree to which an innovation appears superior to existing
products.
b). Compatibilitythe degree to which the innovation fits the values and experiences of
potential consumers.
c). Complexitythe degree to which the innovation is difficult to understand or use.
d). Divisibilitythe degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis.

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e). Communicabilitythe degree to which the results of using the innovation can be
observed or described to others.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 213, 214
137. Explain how business markets differ from consumer markets.
Answer:
The main differences include market structure and demand, the nature of the buying unit,
and the types of decisions and the decision process within the two. Business markets are
geographically concentrated and have derived, inelastic, and fluctuating demand. Buying
is more professional and involves more people. Decisions are more complex, more
formalized, and the buyer and seller are more dependent upon one another.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 215
138. There are three types of buying situations faced by the business buyer. List and
briefly explain or characterize each of these situations.
Answer:
a). Straight rebuythe buyer reorders something without any modifications. It is
usually handled on a routine basis by the purchasing department.
b). Modified rebuythe buyer wants to modify product specifications, prices, terms, or
suppliers. More people in the firm are involved in this situation.
c). New-taska company buys a product for the first time. In such cases, the greater the
cost or risk, the larger the number of decision participants and the greater their efforts to
collect information will be.
Difficulty: (2) Page: 217
139. List and define the stages in the business buying decision process.
Answer:
(a) Problem recognition: the stage in which someone in the company recognizes a
problem or need that can be met by acquiring a good or a service.
(b) General need description: the stage in which the company describes the general
characteristics and quantity of a needed item.
(c) Product specification: the stage in which the buying organization decides on and
specifies the best technical product characteristics for a needed item.
(d) Supplier search: the stage in which the buyer tries to find the best vendors.
(e) Proposal solicitation: the stage in which the buyer invites qualified suppliers to
submit proposals.
(f) Supplier selection: the stage in which the buyer reviews proposals and selects a
supplier or suppliers.

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(g) Order-routine specification: the stage in which the buyer writes the final order with
the chosen supplier(s), listing the technical specifications, quantity needed, expected time
of delivery, return policies, and warranties.
(h) Performance review: the stage in which the buyer rates its satisfaction with
suppliers, deciding whether to continue, modify, or drop them.
Difficulty: (3) Page: 221-225, Figure 6-8
APPLICATION QUESTION
140. In the past few years, Frito-Lay snack foods introduced several new products to their
already extensive line of chips. The new products were a baked potato chip and a
reduced fat potato chip. Using information found in the chapter on factors that
influence consumer behavior, indicate cultural, social, personal, and psychological
questions that would be useful to answer so that meaningful market segments can be
derived for either of these two new products (pick one of the two products). Be specific
in your recommendations.
Answer:
The purpose of this question is to get students to review information found in the chapter
and in Figure 6-2. This question may be given as a take-home assignment since it
requires extended thought.
In order to construct an answer, the student should consider the following:
a) Cultureany relevant variables within the general culture, subculture, and social class
structure should be identified. For example, what types of Americans have an affinity for
snack foods, which groups prefer a more healthy or reduced diet, do particular
subcultures have different preferences in snack foods, do the different subcultures have
different views toward healthy lifestyles, and do social class and income (or
occupational) variables have any impact on the question?
b) Socialwould groups influence the acceptability of the new products, would there be
peer pressure (such as with stop smoking campaigns), what family dynamics would
come into play in the selection of the new products (would a Mom that wants a healthy
lifestyle have more influence than children who want traditional snack items), and would
either of the new products have an elevated status because of their newness?
c) Personalin this section such factors as the consumers age and life-cycle stage,
occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept should be
examined. For example, would these new products be aimed at those that are already
participating in a health-related lifestyle, with respect to product selection, or should the
products be aimed at those that have problems and are looking for healthy alternatives to
solve their problems?
d) Psychologicala consumers motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and
attitudes would certainly be impacted by the adoption of either of these two new
products. Does the consumer look at these two new products as being inferior to the
older, more preferred products, how much does the consumer really know about these

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products, and what beliefs or attitudes must be formed or changed for the products to be
successful?
Students should construct their answers using some type of plan that is similar to the
ideas presented above unless other more specific instructions are given. Students should
feel free to construct their own questions, however, the questions should be useful in
determining market segments that could be targeted by the company for sales and
promotional efforts.
Difficulty: (3) Page: 193-207, Figure 6-2

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