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CHAPTER 3

Most often machinery is excited in transverse vibrations due to unbalances, which is the most

common type of fault rotating machinery, can have. In machines the rotor mass may be concentrated

at a single location or at a number of locations or alternatively distributed along the shaft length with

shaft also has flexibility. Methods available to calculate critical speeds & forced responses are (i)

method of influence coefficient (ii) transfer matrix method (iii) mechanical impedance (or receptance)

method (iv) dynamic stiffness matrix method (v) finite element method (vi) modal analysis method

(vii) Dunkerleys formula & (viii) Rayleighs method.

It is used to calculate natural frequencies and forced responses of rotating machines. Up to two-dof

system hand calculation is feasible. For more than two-dof computerized versions are more feasible.

Method is explained for three discs mounted on a flexible shaft (Figure 3.1), running in rigid bearings,

which can be extended for MDOF and for damped flexible supports.

f1

x1 ,m1

f2

f3

x2 ,m2

x3 ,m3

Let f1, f2 and f3 are steady forces (magnitude) on discs and x1, x2, x3 are the corresponding shaft

deflections at discs. If a force f is applied to mass m1, then deflection of m1 will be proportional to f

i.e.

x1 f

or

x1 = 11 f

(1)

Now the force f is applied to mass m2, the deflection of m1 will be proportional to the magnitude of

force i.e.

x1 f

or

x1 = 12 f

(2)

x1 = 13 f

(3)

If forces f1, f2 and f3 are applied at the reaction of all the masses simultaneously, then the total

deflection at m1, will be

x1 = 11 f 1 + 12 f 2 + 13 f 3

(4)

x 2 = 21 f 1 + 22 f 2 + 23 f 3

(5)

x3 = 31 f 1 + 32 f 2 + 33 f 3

(6)

Similarly

and

or

x1 11 12 13 f 1

x 2 = 21 22 23 f 2

x

3 31 32 33 f 3

(7)

The technique can be extended to account for angular movements of the disc, and for the application

of point moments M at various locations along the shaft a part of loading on discs. The equation will

take the form

{d } = [ ]{ f }

(8)

with

x1

x

2

x

{d } = 3 ;

1

2

3

f1

f

2

f

{ f } = 3

M1

M 2

M 3

and

11

[ ] =

12

22

sym

13 14

23 24

33 34

44

15

25

35

45

55

16

26

36

46

56

66

(9)

which gives

{ f } = [ ]1{d }

(10)

132

The analysis so far has referred only to static loads applied to the shaft. When the mass displacement

is changing rapidly with time, the applied force has to overcome the mass inertia as well as to deform

the shaft.

f1

x, x

f1

m1x1

f1

(a) Disc

(b) Shaft

In Figure 3.2 free body diagrams of a disc and the shaft is shown. f 1 and M 1 are the external force

and moment on the disc m1 whereas f 1 and M 1 are the force and moment transmitted to the shaft

(equal and opposite to the reaction force of the shaft on the mass). We have from the force and

moment balance of disc

(11)

where Id is the diametral mass moment of inertia about a diameter of rotor. Similarly at other disc

locations

(12)

(13)

Substituting for f 1 , f 2 , f 3 , M 1 , M 2 and M 3 from equations (11-13) and remembering that for SHM of

discs

x = n2 x and = n2 where n is the natural frequency of the system, equation (8) gives

f1+ n2 m1 x1

2

f 2 + n m2 x2

f3 + n2 m3 x3

{d } = [ ] M + 2 I

n d1 1

1

M 2 + n2 I d 2

2

M

I

n d3 3

3

(14)

133

m1 x1

m x

2 2

m3 x3

{d } = [ ]{ f } + n2 [ ] I

d1 1

I d 2 2

I d33

with

f1

f

2

f

{ f } = 3

M1

M 2

M 3

(15)

11m1

21m1

m

{d } = [ ]{ f } + n2 31 1

41m1

m

51 1

61m1

12 m2 13m3 14 I d

22 m2 23m3

32 m2

42 m2

52 m2

62 m2

15 I d

16 I d

{d }

66 I d3

(16)

[ A]{d } =

n2

[ ]{ f }

(17)

with

11m1 1/ n2

12 m2

13m3 14 I d1

2

22 m2 1/ n 23m3

21m1

m

32 m2

31 1

[ A] =

41m1

m

51 1

61m1

15 I d

16 I d

66 I d3 1/ n2

3

(18)

Disc displacements x and can be calculated for known applied load (e.g. unbalance forces and

moments) as

[ R]{ f } = {d }

(19)

134

with

[ R] =

n2

[ A]1[ ]

(20)

where R represents receptance. In general applied forces and disc displacements will not all be in

phase with one another, since damping forces may also act upon the shaft, so a more general form of

equation (19) would be that which indicates both in-phase and quadrature terms for x and f , that is

R 0 f r d r

0 R f = d

j j

(21)

where r and j refer to the in-phase and quadrature (sine and cosine) terms, respectively. For free

vibrations right hand side of equation (17) will be zero i.e.

[ A]{d } = {0}

(22)

A =0

(23)

Example 3.1 Obtain transverse synchronous critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.3.

Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg and the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. The

disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The shaft is having diameter of 10 mm and total span

length of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless. Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2.

Neglect gyroscopic effects. Take one plane motion only.

Influence coefficients are defined as:

l=a+b

y 11 12 F

=

21 22 M

with

11 = a 2b 2 / 3EIl ;

12 = ( 3a 2l 2a 3 al 2 ) / 3EIl

21 = ab(b a ) / 3EIl ;

22 = ( 3al 3a 2 l 2 ) / 3EIl

135

Solution: To obtain natural frequencies of the rotor system having a single disc, from equation (18),

we have

(11m 1 n2 )

[ A] =

21m

( 22 I d 1 n2 )

12 I d

m 1 n2 )

12 I d

11

21m

I 1 n2 )

=0

22 d

mI d 4 11 22 122 2 ( 11 m + 22 I d ) + 1 = 0

(A)

Equation (A) becomes,

which gives two natural frequency of the system, as

It should be noted here that the linear and angular motion are coupled for the present transverse

vibrations since the disc is offset from its midspan, however, when the disc is at the center linear and

angular motions will be decoupled. The natural frequencies for such case will be

n =

1

n 2 =

1

1

=

= 22.244 rad/s

m11

10 2.021 104

1

I d 22

1

= 248.697 rad/s

0.02 0.8084 10 3

Example 3.2 Find the transverse natural frequency of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.4. Consider

shaft as massless and is made of steel with 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 of Youngs modulus, E, and 7800 kg/m3

136

of mass density, . The disc has 10 kg of mass. The shaft is simply supported at ends (In Figure 3.4 all

10

30

40

60

To simply the analysis let us consider that the angular displacement of the disc is negligible small.

From equation (23), we have

[ A] = (11m 1 n2 )

n =

1

m11

The first step would be to obtain influence coefficients. Using energy method these coefficients have

been obtained as follows:

F

EI2

EI1

0.6m

0.4m

FA

FB

For a load F at the disc, reactions forces at bearings can be obtained as (Figure 3.5)

+ M A = 0

+ F = 0

FA + FB = F

FB .1 F .0.6 = 0 FB = 0.6 F

137

FA = 0.4 F

Vx1

M x1

x

0.4F

Figure 3.6 Free body diagram of the shaft section 0 x 0.6

The bending moment in the shaft can be obtained as (Figure 3.6)

=0

M x1 0.4 Fx = 0

M x1 = 0.4 Fx

(A)

Vx2

M x2

0.6 m

x

Figure 3.7 Free body diagram of the shaft section 0.6 x 1.0

The bending moment in the shaft can be obtained as (Figure 3.7)

=0

Mx2 = 0.6 F (1 x)

(B)

U =

0.6

M x21 dx

2 EI1

1.0

M x22 dx

0.6

2 EI 2

0.6

U

=

=

0

F

M x1

M x1

F dx +

0.6

EI1

1.0

M x2

M x2

F dx

EI 2

(C)

0.6

0.6

(0.4 Fx)(0.4 x)

dx +

dx

0.6

EI1

EI 2

2

1.0 0.36 F ( x 2 x + 1)

0.16 Fx 2

0.01152 F 0.00768 F

+

dx +

dx =

0.6

EI1

EI 2

EI1

EI 2

138

F 0.01152 0.00768

= =

+

k=

11 EI1

EI 2

1

64

I2 =

64

have

k=

11

n =

1

8.45 107

=

= 2906.89 rad/s

m11

10

The influence coefficient can be also obtained by singular function approach and for more details

readers are referred to Timoshenko and Young (1968).

Exercise 3.1 Obtain the bending critical speed of a rotor as shown in Figure E3.1. The rotor is

assumed to be fixed supported at one end. Take mass of the disc m = 2 kg and diametral moment of

inertia I d = 0.05 kg-m2. The shaft is assumed to be massless and its length and its length and

diameter are 0.2 m and 0.1 m, respectively. Take Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2 for the shaft

material.

Shaft

Bearing

Disc

Figure E3.1

Exercise 3.2 Find the critical speeds of the rotor system shown in Figure E3.2 by the influence

coefficient method. Take EI = 2 MNm2 for the shaft and mass moment of inertia of disc is negligible.

139

3.0 m

1.5 m

Fixed end

80 kg

100 kg

Figure E3.2

Exercise 3.3. Obtain the bending critical speed of the rotor system as shown in Figure E3.3. Take the

mass of the disc, m = 5 kg and the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. Take shaft

length a = 0.3 m and b = 0.7 m. The diameter of the shaft is 10 mm. Neglect the gyroscopic effects.

Exercise 3.4 Find the bending critical speeds and the mode shapes of the rotor system shown in

Figure E3.4. B1 and B2 are simply supported bearings and D1 and D2 are rigid discs. The shaft is made

of steel with modulus of rigidity E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 and uniform diameter d = 10 mm. The various

shaft lengths are as follows: B1D1 = 50 mm, D1D2 = 75 mm, and D2B2 = 50 mm. The mass of discs

are: md1 = 4 kg and md2 = 6 kg. Consider the shaft as massless and neglect the diametral mass moment

of inertia of both discs.

Figure E3.4

B1

B2

D1

D2

Exercise 3.5 Find all the bending natural frequencies (critical speeds) and draw corresponding mode

shapes of the rotor system shown in Figure E3.5. B1 is fixed support (with zero transverse linear and

angular (slope) displacements) and B2 and B3 are simply supported (with zero transverse linear and

angular displacements). The shaft is made of steel with Youngs modulus E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 and

140

mass density = 7800 Kg/m3. The mass of the discs are: md1 = 1 kg, md2 = 1.5 kg, md3 = 0.75 kg. Use

both the transfer matrix method and the finite element method. Give all the detailed steps involved in

obtaining the final system equations and application of boundary conditions. Compare the order of

magnitude of the torsional and the bending critical speeds so obtained for the same system. Consider

the shaft as massless and discs as lumped masses. Neglect the gyroscopic effects.

Figure E3.5

B1

B2

D1

B3

D2

141

D3

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