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A GRAMMAR

OF

ATTIC AiND IONIC GREEK

BY

FRANK COLE BABBITT,

PH.D. (HARVARD)

PROFESSOR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE


IN TRIXITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD

NEW YORK

CINCINNATI

CHICAGO

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

FREDERICK DEFOREST ALLEN


ON August

4,

1897, occurred the sudden death of FREDERICK


of Classical Philology in

DEFOREST ALLEN, Ph.D., Professor


Harvard University.

Of the

loss

which

classical scholarship

has suffered by his death I need not speak here. His thoroughness and accuracy, his intrepid regard for the truth, and
his keen, unbiased judgment are well known both to his
former pupils and to the larger world which has read his
published writings.
Shortly before his death he invited

me to join with him in


compiling a small Greek Grammar.
During the two weeks
immediately preceding his death we had worked together as far
as the third declension, and had discussed somewhat the general
plan of the book. After his death the publishers expressed a

desire that I should complete the work which had been thus
a desire with which I could not refuse to
begun
comply.

The task has been one of sadness and of joy of sadness,


because at every turn I missed the strong counsel of a consummate scholar; of joy, at the thought that I might thus,
even in some slight measure, help to
perpetuate the memory
of a man whose name will
stand
for what is highest
always
:

and best

in scholarship.
of FREDERICK

To the memory
is

DEFOREST ALLEN

affectionately inscribed.

COPYRIGHT,

1902,

BY

FEANK COLE BABBITT.


AT.

AND

W.

ION. GREEK.
P. I

this

book

PREFACE
THIS grammar has

for its purpose to state the essential

facts and principles of the Greek language in concise


form, with only so much discussion as may reasonably be

demanded for a clear understanding of the subject.


While in recent years the ability to read a language
has rightly come to be regarded as the proper test of a
of it, this point of view, so far from bethe
study of formal grammar, more than ever
littling
insists that a thorough knowledge of the essentials of the
real

knowledge

grammar is the most important part of


him who would read a language with
tials is

meant no antiquated

the equipment of
ease.

By

essen-

lore about the vocative of

but the recurrent facts of inflection


and syntax,
nominative %fc>/>a, genitive ^o>joa?, and so
with such side lights as can be brought to bear
forth,
#eo? or of aSeX^o'?,

to

make

sion.

these facts easier of acquisition and comprehenconsiderable experience in elementary teaching

has convinced

me

that explanations are extremely useful,


and I am persuaded that an

even to very young pupils

occasional appeal to the reason rather than to the sheer


memory of the pupil will not always prove futile.

The work was begun

in collaboration with the late Pro-

fessor Frederick de Forest Allen, and, in justice to his


memory, it is proper to state that pages 13-36 and 40-46

stand practically as they were composed by Professor


Allen and myself working together.
For the remainder
I

am

solely responsible,
3

PREFACE

4
It

was the intention at the beginning

grammar

for use in the secondary schools.

to prepare a

As

the

work

progressed, however, I found that, with but a slight increase of bulk, it would be possible to include also as

much grammatical

information as is usually required by


With these additions, this work
students in college.
meets the needs of secondary schools, and at the same
time is sufficient for all ordinary demands of the college
course.

The book

incorporates the results of the more recent


The doctrine of the Ablaut is stated

philological studies.

untechnically, and it is given proper prominence in inflecDue regard is paid to the fact
tion and word formation.

that analogy plays an important part in language, and


that the context is not to be neglected in determining

the exact significance of mode and tense.


Ionic forms are given in footnotes instead of being
combined with Attic forms, and this arrangement is followed also in the Syntax and the verb list the reason for
;

so doing

is

apparent to anybody

who

has ever taught

Greek prose composition.


Contract forms are given in the contracted form followed by the uncontracted form (which is often purely
theoretical) in parentheses, and it is hoped that pupils will
realize that the Attic Greeks said TTOLCO, and not Trote'co.
In the examples under Inflection and Word Formation
the letter or syllable to which attention is directed is

made prominent by
same

The

full-faced type

in the

Syntax the

accomplished by spacing the word.


paradigms have been written to conform to our

result

is

present knowledge, although some matter has been retained solely because it has become so engrafted in current texts that it could not be omitted.

PREFACE

Homeric forms, I have, I trust,


due
consideration
to
A few things I
the vulgate.
given
others I have recorded for the
have omitted entirely
Yet I am
reason given in the preceding paragraph.
convinced that if our schools should adopt a fairly conSo, also, in the matter of

servative text of the

Homeric poems

like that of Cauer,

from which assimilated verbs and forms like AtoXou, o-Triji,


and the like, have been banished, it would lighten the
task of instruction, and the time given to explaining
unnecessary forms could be better devoted to other
purposes.

In selecting examples to illustrate the chapter on Synhave given preference to those from authors and

tax, I

works commonly read

at the earlier stages of the pupil's


printing the examples in the same type as

By
progress.
the rest of the matter, the

number of pages in the chapter


has
been
considerably increased, but the gain
Syntax
in clearness, and in the prominence of the examples, more

011

than offsets the apparent increase in bulk.


In the treatment of Syntax I have been conservative,
although I have allowed myself some license in changing
the conventional arrangement of the material.
In addition to the books mentioned on pages 6 and

7,

have found helpful also the two well-known grammars


of this country, as well as those of Sonnenschein, Kaegi,
Lattmann-Muller, and Hahne's G-rieehische Syntax.
'Space does not permit me to enumerate all the friends
who by advice or suggestion have given me help, but I
I

desire in particular to express my gratitude to Professor


George Edwin Howes of the University of Vermont, who

To
has read at least twice every portion of the proofs.
his scholarship and sound common sense I am indebted
for

many

helpful suggestions and corrections.

Likewise

PREFACE

Professor Clifford H. Moore and Mr. William Fenwick Harris of Harvard University, who have also read
the proofs, I am indebted for numerous corrections and
Others whom I should like to menhelpful suggestions.
to

by name
acknowledgment.

tion also

am

obliged to include in a general

be grateful for corrections and suggestions from

I shall

any source.

FRANK COLE BABBITT.


HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT,
March,

No
book

1901.

conscientious teacher will find answered in this


of the

all

arise in his

many perplexing
The following

mind.

questions which will


contains the titles

list

most important modern works on Greek Grammar,


which such questions are fully discussed (and some-

of the
in

times answered):
R. Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. 3te
Auflage in neuer Bearbeitung besorgt von Friedrich Blass. Hannover, 1890-1898. 8vo.

KUHNER,

Teil
652.

I. 1, 2.

Teil

II.

Elementar- und Formenlehre. S. xxiii + 645, xi +


Satzlehre.
In neuer Bearbeitung besorgt von

1.

Bernhard Gerth.

S. ix

666.

(The most comprehensive work on Greek grammar. A model of


careful and accurate scholarship.
Thoroughly conservative.)

MEYER, GUSTAV.
715.

matiken.

.of

Griechische Grammatik.

Leipzig, 1896.

Bd.

8vo.

3te Auflage.

S. xviii

(Bibliothek indogermanischer Grain-

III.)

(Deals with the sounds and inflections only, from the point of view
Comparative Grammar. Full, accurate, and moderately conserva-

tive.)

PREFACE

Griechische Grammatik.
(Lautlehre, Stammund Flexionslehre und Syntax.) 3te Auflage. S. xix +
Miinchen, 1900. 8vo. (In Miiller, I. von. Handbuch der

BRUGMANN, KARL.
bildungs632.

Bd.

Klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft.

II.

Abt.

1.)

(Written from the point of view of Comparative Grammar. Briefer


than Meyer, and more radical.)

MEISTERHANS, K. Grammatik der attischen


S. XIV. + 288.
8vo.
Berlin, 1900.
(Deals with inscriptions only.

Most

Inschriften.

3te Auflage.

of the results are

embodied

in Kiihner-Blass.)

GILDERSLEEVE, B.
Demosthenes.

L.

Pt.

I.

Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to


N. Y., 1900. Svo.

(Clear and accurate in statement, and remarkable for the excellent


collection

and arrangement of examples.)

GOODWIN, WM. WATSON.

Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the


Rewritten and enlarged,
pp. xxxii + 464 + 8.

Greek Verb.

Boston, U.S.A., 1890.

Svo.

(Deals fully and thoroughly with the syntax of the verb.)

BLASS, FRIEDRICH. Pronunciation of Ancient Greek. Tr. from the


3d German ed. by W. J. Purton. Cambridge, Eng., 1890. Svo.

(A

careful collection

and consideration of the evidence relating to

the pronunciation of ancient Greek.)

SMYTH, HERBERT WEIR.


Dialects.

Ionic,

The Sounds and

pp. xxviii

(Thoroughly accurate and

668.

reliable.

Inflections of the

Oxford, 1894.
Contains a

full

Greek

Svo.

treatment of

the dialect of Herodotus.)

VAN LEEUWEN,

Enchiridium Dictionis Epicae. pp. Ixxii + 606.


J.
Lugd. Batavorum, 1892-1894. Svo.
(Entirely radical, but invaluable for the very full collection of
material which it contains.)

MONRO, D.
xxiv

B.

436.

A Grammar

of the

Oxford, 1891.

Svo.

Homeric

Dialect.

(Deals more particularly with Homeric syntax.


but very conservative.)

2d

ed.

pp.

Accurate, reliable,

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

PAGE
PAGE

The Greek Language

VERBS
Voice

11

Mode
Tense
Person and Number
Personal Endings

WRITING AND SOUND

.....
.....
....

Alphabet
Vowels
Diphthongs
Breathings

Consonants

Inflection

.101
-/xt

.102

105

.108
.110

Formation of Tense Steins


110
The Present System
.113
The First Aorist System
118
120
The Second Aorist System
123
The Future System
124
The First Perfect System
The Second Perfect System
125
.

.....

Rejection or Transfer of Aspiration

Hiatus (Crasis and Elision)

Movable Consonants
Final Consonants
Syllables and Quantity
Accent
Proclitics and Enclitics

Reduplication
Accent of the Verb

Consonant Changes
Consonants with Vowels

Interchange of Vowels
Contraction of Vowels
Omission of Vowels

Form and

(-w

Form)
Augment

....
....

96
96
97
98
100

126
The Pluperfects Active
127
The Perfect Middle System
The Future Perfect
129
The First Aorist Passive Sys129
tem
The Second Aorist Passive
130
The Futures Passive
.131
The Verbal Adjectives
.132
.

.....

Punctuation

Synopsis of

INFLECTION

NOUNS

.....
....

Case Endings
Substantives

....

First Declension

133

.135

Irregular Verbs in

.152

-/u

Words

Formation of Substantives
Formation of Adjectives
Formation of Adverbs
Formation of Verbs

....

Irregular Declension
Adjectives
First and Second Declensions

145
151

.158
.161
.

166

.168
.169

Compound Words
Meaning of Compound Words
.

171
174

SYNTAX

The Sentence
Agreement

Syntax

.....
.....

Comparison
Adverbs
Pronouns
Numerals

Derivative

Third Declension
First and Third Declensions
Irregular Declension
Declension of Participles

Paradigms of -w Verbs
Paradigms of -/ Verbs
Second Perfect without Suffix

FORMATION OF WORDS

Second Declension
Attic Second Declension
Third Declension
Consonant Stems
Vowel Stems

-n-aidevw

....
.

of Substantives

.175
178

.180
.182

The Cases
The Nominative and Vocative 183
The Accusative
.184
.184
Direct Object

of Adjectives

CONTENTS
PAGE

The Cognate Accusative

....

184

Final Clauses

Adverbial Uses of the Accusative

Two

Purpose
186

Accusatives with One

Verb

The Genitive
The True Genitive
The Partitive Genitive
The Ablative Genitive
The Dative
The True Dative
.

191
193

....

.294

.197
.202 The
202

Dative of the Indirect Ob-

294

296
Object Clauses
Clauses of Fearing
297
Result
.298
Causal Clauses
299
Conditions
.300
Concessive Clauses
.311
Relative and Temporal Clauses 311

.188
.190

Infinitive
.
.
.315
315
Subject of the Infinitive
Uses of the Infinitive
317
The Infinitive as a Substantive
318
The Infinitive in Indirect
.

....

203
The Dative of Interest
204
The Locative Dative
206
The Instrumental Dative
323
Discourse
.
207
Place and Time (Summary)
211 The Participle
.324
212
The Attributive Participle
324
Prepositions with the Cases
Use and Meanings of the
The Circumstantial Participle 325
.213
Genitive and Accusative
Prepositions
224
Absolute
.330
Improper Prepositions
The Supplementary Participle 332
225
Syntax of Adjectives
332
.229
not in Indirect Discourse
Syntax of Adverbs
The Adverbs ov and
in Indirect Discourse
334
230
336
The Adverb &v
232 The Verbal Adjectives
.338
234 Indirect Discourse
Conjunctions
The Definite Article, 6, 77, r6
235
APPENDICES
Position of the Article
238
347
.241 A. Versification
Syntax of Pronouns
352
Personal and Reflexive
243
Trochaic Rhythms
353
The Intensive Pronoun aur6s 245
Iambic Rhythms
355
Possessive Pronouns
247
Dactylic Rhythms
357
Demonstrative Pronouns
248
Anapaestic Rhythms
359
249
Relative Pronouns
Lyric Rhythms
in
Time
360
252
Lyric Rhythms
Interrogative Pronouns
f
Indefinite Pronouns
253
Dactylo - Epitritic
.364
253
fiXXos and ^repos
Rhythms
365
254
Other Lyric Rhythms
Syntax of the Verb
255
Table of Vowel Contractions 367
Agreement of Verbs
The Voices
257
The Pronunciation of Greek
Use of the Tenses
263
Proper Names in English 368
The Tenses of the Indicative 264
Some Additional Grammati.369
Tenses of Other Modes
272
cal Terms
and
Uses of the Finite Modes
.277
Measures,
Weights,
372
Time
Statements
.281
377
2S<5
List of Verbs
Questions
Direct Questions
280
INDICES
290
Indirect Questions
422
Commands and Exhortations 291 English
437
.292 Greek
Wishes
ject

....

....
.

....
.

...

....
.

ABBREVIATIONS

10

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
= accusative,
= active, actively,
adj. = adjective,
advb. = adverb,
aor. = aorist.
cf. = compare.
D = dual,
dat. = dative,
decl. = declension,
e.g. = for example.
encl. = enclitic,
etc. = and so forth,
f
ff = following,
fern. = feminine,
fut. = future,
gen. = genitive.
ace.
act.

i.e.

that

is.

= indicative,
infin. = infinitive.
KT\. = KO.I TO. XoiTTtt (aild
indie.

the rest).

= literal,

lit.

literally,

masc. = masculine,
mid. = middle.
Mss. = manuscripts,

neut.

= passive,
= person,
perf pf = perfect,
plur., pi. = plural,
plupf. = pluperfect,
pres. = present,
q.v. = which see.
sc. = scilicet.
S. sing. = singular,
subj. = subjunctive,
viz. = namely,
pass.

impf = imperfect,
impv. = imperative,

neuter.

pers.
.

voc.

vocative.

nom.'= nominative,

= optative.
= plural,
partic. = participle.
opt.

P.

section,

sec-

tions.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITING EXAMPLES FROM

GREEK AUTHORS
Aesch.

Aeschylus.

E.

Euripides.

Pr.
Prometheus.
Aeschin. = Aeschines.
Ar. = Aristophanes.
Ach. = Acharnenses.

= Alcestis.
And. = Andromache.
El. = Electra.
Hec. = Hecuba.
Hel. = Helena.

Eq.

H.F.=Hercules Furens.

Ag.

= Agamemnon.

Nub.
San.

Equites.

= Nubes.
= Sanae.

= Vespae.
Dem. = Demosthenes.
Hm. = Homer; A, B, T,
V.

Ale.

I.

T.

Med.
Tro.
Isoc.

Lys.

Isocrates.

Lysias.

= Plato.
= Apology.
Grit. = Crito.
Go. = Gorgias.
Leg. = Leges.
PI.

books of the Odyssey. Ap.


Hdt. = Herodotus.
Hes. = Hesiod.
O.D. = Opera et Dies.

= Medea.
= Supplices.
= Troades.

Supp.

are used in refer-

El.

O.T.

Electra.

Oedipus lyran-

nus.

rica.

ring to the books of


the Iliad, and a, /3, 7,
etc. in referring to the

etc.

= Hippolylus.
= Iphigenia Tau-

Hipp.

= Menexenus.
= Phaedo.
Phaedr. = Phaedrus.
Hep. = Republic.
S. = Sophocles.
Aj. = Ajax.
Ant. = Antigone.
Menex.
Phaed.

Th. = Thucydides.
Xn.
Xenophon.
A. = Anabasis.
Ages.

Hier.

Agesilaus.

Cy. = Cyropaedia.
Hell. = Hellenica.

Hiero.

Mem. = Memorabilia.
Oec.

Symp.

Oeconomicus.

Symposium.

GREEK GRAMMAR
INTRODUCTION
THE GREEK LANGUAGE
GREEK is the language of a people inhabiting not
only the mainland of Greece, but also the islands of the
Aegean Sea and the adjacent shores, together with a small
The Greeks called themselves Hellenes
part of Italy.
("EXX^e?), but the Romans called them
the English

The Greek language belongs


group

G-raeci,

and hence

word Greek.

of languages,

and

is

to

the

related to

Indo-European
Sanskrit, Latin,

Hence comes
Persian, Slavonic, Celtic, and Germanic.
the relation which exists between many English and

A greater number of English words,


Greek words.
For
however, are derived directly from Greek words.
example, English know is the same as Greek yi-yva)-crKa),
but the English words gnomic and arithmetic are derived
from the Greek yvco/jiitcos and apiO^TLKri.
For over twenty-five hundred years Greek has been

spoken and written,

with such changes as are inevitable

but
growth and development of any language,
the masterpieces of Greek literature were written some
in the

centuries before the Christian era.

400

In the neighborhood

Greek may be said to have reached its highest


development, and it is customary to take the language of
of

B.C.

that time as a sort of standard.

In ancient times the Greek people did not

all

their language just alike, but each little country


11

speak

had

its

INTRODUCTION

12

own

dialect,

which often differed considerably from the

dialect of a neighboring country only a few miles


away.
All the dialects may be roughly divided into three dif-

ferent groups
To the
namely, Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic.
Ionic group belongs the Ionic dialect proper, together with
;

the dialect of Attica, which is known as Attic.


In the Ionic dialect were written, among other things,
the poems of Homer and Hesiod, and the history of He-

In the Attic dialect were written nearly all the


rodotus.
other great works of Greek literature which have come
down to us, and which, either directly, or through the

medium

of their Latin imitations, have influenced to such


a vast extent the literature of the world.
The dramatic

poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes,


the historians Thucydides and Xenophon, the orators

Lysias and Demosthenes, and the philosopher, Plato,


wrote in the Attic dialect.
Attic, the

most elegant and refined

of all

the Greek

dialects, finally

superseded the others in literary use.

the same time

it

and

to lose

all

At

some

of its earlier purity


began
refinements, and after about 330 B.C. it is known as

the HOMY) or Common Greek.


From this Common Greek
there was evolved in the long course of years, with a considerable admixture of foreign elements, the present language of the Greek people, Romaic or Modern Greek.

Modern Greek

so considerably from Ancient


Greek, that, although a knowledge of it is helpful, yet
one can soonest learn to comprehend the great works of
differs

Greek literature by studying directly the language


Ancient Greece.

of

This grammar deals only with the Attic and Ionic


Ancient Greek.

dialects of

WHITING AND SOUND


ALPHABET

VOWELS

14
2.

end of a word has the form

at the

Sigma

Thus

other place the form a.


2.

The

letter

F,

to be used in Attic

o-rda-is

in

any

faction.

p called van or digamma, early ceased


and Ionic Greek. It had the sound of
,

English w, and stood in the alphabet between


other obsolete letters see

and

For

156.

VOWELS
The vowels e and o
always long. The vowels
3.

and long

in others.

Z,

L>,

The mark

of length

&>

are

words

In this grammar they are marked

when

The
long.
understood to be short.
a,

are always short, 77 and


a, t, u, are short in some

is

unmarked

a,

i,

are, therefore,

u,

omitted over circumnexed vowels

(58).
4.

The Attic sounds

of the vowels, at about 400 B.C.,

are believed to have been nearly as follows:

LONG VOWELS
a as a in par.
7]

as

as

as
as

in

SHORT VOWELS
a as a in papa.

French

e as e

fete.

in machine.

ti

in prone.
in French s$r.

t>

in pet.

as i in pit.
o as o in obey.
as

in

French bwtte.

2 a. Vau, although not written in the received text of the Homeric


poems, must, from evidence of the metre and of early inscriptions, have
been a live sound when these poems were composed. Thus it appears to
have been sounded at the beginning of about forty words, the most important of which are &<TTV town, &va.% lord, dvSavu please, eiKo<ri twenty (cf.
:

Lat. mginti), &>,


epyov icork, root

of,

himself, 2

six,

root

tir-

(e?ros

word,

elirov

said),

clothing ; cf. Lat. vestis), eros


year (cf. Lat. veins'}, ydus sweet (see 36 a), root Id- (Ideiv see, oUa know;
cf. Lat. vid-ere), olxos house (cf. Lat. vicus), oivos wine (cf. Lat.
vimim),
fa,

J),

6V his.

e<r-

See also

(Zvvvjjit

clothe,

36 a and

tvd-rjs

172, 2.

DIPHTHONGS

The sounds

1.

and

They

ee.

of v

15

and v are midway between English oo

are exemplified also in the

German

w, as in

Fwsse, Briicke.

DIPHTHONGS

5.

diphthong

The

syllable.

is

a combination of

latter

vowel

is

always

two vowels
i

or

v.

in one

The

diph-

thongs are
af, eu, ou,

at, et, 01, vi,

a,

Tju.

a>,

77,

In the diphthongs a, 77, a>, the t is written below the


When, however,
vowel, and is called iota subscript.
the first vowel is written as a capital letter, i stands on the
2
thus Ai^? Hades. The ancients always wrote i in
line
1.

first

these diphthongs on the line.

The sounds

of the principal diphthongs, at about


400 B.C., were very nearly as follows:
6.

av like ou in our.

ai like ai in aisle.

eu like eu in feud.

like ei in rein,

01 like oi

in

ov like ou in yew.

toil.

vt like

In

1.

a,

77,

&),

the

m' in quit.

was originally sounded.

But

later

(about 100 B.C.) it became silent, and these diphthongs


have since been pronounced like simple a, 77, a>.
2. The sound of 771; cannot be
exemplified from English,

but

may

be represented as eh-oo, pronounced quickly to-

gether.

In the earliest times, the diphthongs et and ov had,


some words at least, actual double sounds, such as their
composition would indicate, and differed in pronunciation
3.

in

5 a.

In Ionic (Herodotus) a diphthong wu occurs thus wirros for


This diphthong uv is almost unknown in Attic Greek.

the same.

DIAERESIS

16

and

which arise from


and 5) or from
compensative lengthening (see 16). Thus, et in <yevei is
made up of e + i (see 18, 1 and 106), but in #i? for
In
*9tvT<$ (see
16, 1) et is merely lengthened from e.
ov
the
real
et
and
were
early inscriptions
diphthongs
written El and OT, while the apparent diphthongs were
Later (soon after 400 B.C.)
written with simple E and O.
both kinds of diphthongs came to be pronounced and
from the apparent diphthongs
contraction of

e-e, o-o, o-e,

et

or e-o (see

ou,

18, 3

written alike.

DIAERESIS

The mark of diaeresis (") is sometimes written over


v, to show that it does not combine with the

7.

an

or

preceding vowel to form a diphthong

nounced

in

two

thus

ySot,

pro-

syllables, bo-i.

BREATHINGS

vowel at the beginning of a word always has a


breathing, either rough or smooth.
The rough breathing (') shows that the vowel was pronounced with the sound of h preceding. Thus, ejrrd seven
8.

is

pronounced heptd.

The smooth breathing

(') shows that the vowel was

pronounced with no sound


nounced ap6.

The mark

1.

and

in front of

of h.

Thus,

CLTTO

from

is

pro-

of breathing is written over small letters

capitals

thus

dX?7#f?? true,

'Ap/cds

Ar-

cadian.
2.
In a diphthong, however, the breathing is written
over the second vowel: thus AU'eia? Aeneas, a/uro'? self.

8 a.

rough

Ionic sometimes has a smooth breathing where Attic has the


T|^\IOS sun, Attic T]Xtos ; ov/oos boundary, Attic o/>os.

thus

CONSONANTS
NOTE.
over the
w'Sij

i,

17

But in the diphthongs a, y, a>, the breathing never stands


even when this is written on the line thus "AiSr/s Hades,
:

song.

The consonant

p at the beginning of a word always


thus ptfrcop orator (Lat.
has the rough breathing (p)
9.

rhetor).
10.

happens also that all words beginning with the


have the rough breathing.

It

letter v

CONSONANTS
11.
/8

The consonants were thus pronounced:


in 5ad.

like b

in go

like th in

also

X
S
TT

"
"

"

"

<

"

in do.

in pin..
in &eg.

k
t

ph

"

p
later

in graphic.
in inMorn, later

German

>A

like cA in

1.

Gamma

"

in Zip.
in mix.

"

in

"

in red

m see.

"

is

(see also

zd, later like


z.

in mia;.

2;

j9s

in

gypsum.

represented the sound


nasal : thus ayKwv (pro-

7, %, f,

/e,

called

thin..

wow.

English

"
-v/r

(7) before

n in mk, and
nounced ankdii)

"

English

maeAen.

of

"

/LI

in top.
in
like

A in ho^ouse, later

like
( see

gamma

elbow, ayye\os

(pronounced dngelos) mes-

senger.
2.

Rho

somewhat

(/?)

at the beginning of

like hr

(compare

word had

a sound

9).

In Greek every consonant was sounded. Thus KTUTIS a


founding, <$>0i<ns decay, i/^vSos falsehood, were pronounced respectively

NOTE.

pseudos.
BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

ktisis, phthisis,

INTERCHANGE OF VOWELS

18

The consonants may be divided

12.

into three classes,

Semivowels, Mutes, and Double Consonants.


1.
The semivowels are, X, p, v, p, cr, and 7-nasal

Of

cr

2.

11, 1).

these
called a Sibilant,

is

\,

fji,

p,

v,

v, and p are called Liquids,


and 7-nasal ( 11, 1) are called Nasals.

The mutes may be

classified as follows

SMOOTH

MIDDLE

LABIAL

TT

/3

LINGUAL

PALATAL

tc

ROUGH
cf)

Those in the same horizontal

line are said to be

Cog-

nate, because they are produced by the same organ of


speech (lips, tongue, or palate). Those in the same per-

pendicular line are said to be Co-ordinate, because they

have the same degree of aspiration (or vocalization).


3.
The double consonants are f, f, ^. Of these, f
written for KCT, 7*7, or p^er, and ty for TTCT, flcr, or <j>cr.

is

INTEECHANGE OF VOWELS
13.

In the inflection and formation of

and long vowels


Si-So-fjiev we give,

of similar
i-co-//-t

I give ;

short

words,

sound often interchange

thus

\ipi\v harbor, Xt/^e^-o? of a

harbor.

The long vowel corresponding

NOTE.

to a

is

often

77

(see

15).

13 a. In Homer a long vowel or a diphthong sometimes stands for a


short vowel, especially in words which would otherwise be excluded from
the verse thus i\yd6eos very holy for ayddeos, ov\6fj.evos accursed for 6X6:

JJ.CVOS.

INTERCHANGE OF VOWELS

19

1.
The corresponding short and long forms
seen from the following table

may

be

SHORT

a or

LONG

rj

77

co

The same

14.

root or suffix often appears with a different


as, for example, \ty-co speak, \07-o? speech;

short vowel,

we

\v-o-fjLev

Xv--re you

loose,

loose.

Three different forms


same root or

of this appearance are recognized, but the

not always present all three forms.


Tliese forms are, (i) with o, (2) with e, (3) with no vowel.
Thus TTOr-aw? able to fly, Trir-o^ai fly, I-TT T-O/JLTJV fleiv.

suffix does

1.

But

in case

the third

form (without the vowel)

brings together a combination of consonants hard to pronounce, there is developed from the adjacent consonants in

pronunciation a vowel sound,

a.
Thus, instead of *e-r/o $-riv,
was
so
that the series (of
nourished,
erpa^rjv
14)

we have
becomes
Tp(j)-(0

(i)

o,

nourish,

(2)

sing, sang, sung,

An

NOTE.
'thus 7rd#os
2.

e,

(3) a: thus re-rpo^-a have nourished,

was nourished. (Compare English


and German sterben, starb, gestorben.*)

e-rpaiffr-Tjv

a sometimes appears as the vowel-equivalent of v

(for *TrvOo<s) experience, suffering.

In combination with

or v the vowels

and

o,

of

the corresponding diphthongs, so that we


course,
seem to have, on the one hand, an interchange of (i) ot,
(2) et, and (3) i, and on the other, an interchange of (i) ov

make

but it will be seen at once that


(rare), (2) ev, and (3) v
"
this apparent " interchange
is really the same phenome;

non which has been described above


Xe-Xoi7r-a have left

haste

XeiTr-ft)

o-7r\iSa>
<f)t\)y-co

leave

14)

thus

e-\nr-ov left

hasten
flee,

e-(f)vy-ov

fled

COMPENSATIVE LENGTHENING

20

The following

3.

table

this principle clearer

and examples may serve

to

make

i.

2.

3.

(a)

01

ov

tv

<f>6p-o<s

tribute

<f>tp-d>

trust

Trei'0-w

21)

)->j (

&i-<f>

T^TT-M turn

turning
-a

bear

e-r/aaTr-o/x^v

persuade

-^(v)-a

p-os chariot

TT

21)

turned

L0-av6s persuasive

e~x v-Oyv

was poured

a pouring
15.

by

e, i,
;

(pT\jjLT]

In Attic, original a becomes 77 unless it is preceded


or p. Thus, original (Doric) <a/-td report becomes
but yeveo. generation, CTO^LQ, wisdom, Tr/oa/y/ua deed

retain a.
1.
But a arising from contraction ( 18) or
tive lengthening ( 16) remains unchanged.

compensa-

COMPENSATIVE LENGTHENING

16.

short vowel

sometimes lengthened, to make up


Thus, for

is

for the loss of a following consonant.

we have

/-te'Xd-?

black.

In this process, e becomes


Thus, *6tvT-s gives

1.

of (not w).
Soij?

gives

17.
rja

to

(not

#i<?

77),

and

becomes

having placed, *oovr-s

having given.

INTERCHANGE OF QUANTITY
The combinations do and 770 often change to ea>, and
ea.
Thus, mo? temple becomes z^eco?, ySao-^Xfja king

becomes
15 a.

et

Ionic regularly has

<ro<^T],

Trpr\y^a.

Not

77

so,

for original a, even after e, i,


however, in the cases covered

and

by

15,

thus
1.

CONTRACTION OF VOWELS

21

CONTRACTION OF VOWELS
18. Contraction unites into one long vowel or diphthong
vowels which stand next each other in different syllables.

The following are the most important


(Many of them admit occasional

tion.
1.

vowel v or

7ret#oi, 777x0-1
2.

Two

yepa-a gives
3.

But

An o

6pa.-OfjLev

5.

717x0.

common

vowels unite in the

76^00,,

e-e

yevt-i gives yevti, 7rei06-i gives

long.

Thus,

6, 3).

Thus,

c^Xe-T^re gives c^iX^re.

gives

and

et,

o-o

gives ov (

gives <tX6i, TrXo-o? gives TrXov?.

</uX4.

Thus,

gives

like

715.)
exceptions,
unites with the preceding vowel to

form a diphthong.

rules for contrac-

sound absorbs

gives

But

e-o

a,

or

e,

o-e

and becomes

gives

o/xo/nez', (/uXe-oxrt

and

?;,

both give ov

<f>i\G>cn,

7eVrj, 6pa.-T\Te

19.

Thus,

S^Xo-T^re gives

Thus,

6, 3).

gives 7eVou?, S^Xo-c gives StjXov.


6.
When a and e or 77 come together, the

absorbs the second, and becomes long.

o>.

first in

order

Thus, 7eW-a gives

give^ Spare.

vowel standing before a diphthong is often conThe last


first vowel of the diphthong.

tracted with the

vowel of the diphthong is regularly retained in the contracted form, but the apparent diphthongs ei and ov ( 6, 3)
are contracted^ like simple e

and

r^a

<tXL,

(cf.

5,

\vr\-ai gives

(since
18 a.

we have

ei

1), </>tX-i gives

XT/TJ,

o.

Thus,

rZ//,a-i

gives

TtAta-oi/u gives

but rl^a-^iv gives rt/id^, Ti/za-ov gives


see
real diphthongs
6, 3).

and of here are not

In Ionic, contraction

is

much

less frequent

TrXoos for Attic vrXovs, y^vto. for Attic yevi\.

give ev (Troiev/iev we do for


often remain uncontracted.

Trote'-o/xei',

Troiewi i/iey

than in Attic.
Eo, ecu,

t?o

for

if

Thus,

contracted,

Trote'-owri)
*

but

OMISSION OF VOWELS

22

But

1.

<tXol,

or o

gives 77X01.
contraction of both

and

77X6-61

Thus, ^>t\-oi gives

01.

NOTE
two are

o-ei

and

0-97

gives

Thus,

ot.

both contract into SrjXol but


since et here is not a real diphthong

77X6-61^

77X6-1]

gives 8r)\oHV)

vowel

absorbed before

is

77X6-01

The

2.

6, 3).

When three successive vowels are contracted, the last


contracted, and with the resulting diphthong the first
then contracted.
Thus, ert/Aaeo (for *ert/>uxe-o-o) you were
1.

first

is

being honored contracts


into ert/xw.

first

into

eri/xciou,

and

this in turn contracts

NOTE 2. Synizesis. Sometimes in poetry two vowels, without


being regularly contracted, were so far united in pronunciation as
to form one syllable.
Thus, TroAews might be pronounced as a word
of two syllables, -eco- sounding somewhat like -yd-.
This is called
synizesis {setting together}.

OMISSION OF VOWELS
20.

Between two consonants

dropped.
for

crrat

a short vowel

called Syncope.)
(This
rf\.9ov came, for tfXvOov.
is

Thus

is

sometimes

ea-rai shall be,

Between two vowels the vowels * and v are someThus, TrXei-oov more becomes TrXeW */3a<rt\\)-cov becomes (Baai\eo)v of kings.
21.

times dropped.

CONSONANT CHANGES
DOUBLED CONSONANTS
Attic regularly has TT in place of Ionic ao-.
The Ionic form, however, is adopted by some of the
Attic poets and earlier writers of prose.
22.

In Homer we frequently find


22 a. Doubled Consonants in Homer.
a doubled consonant where Attic would have a single consonant thus
:

took (Attic e'\ae), aydvvHpos snowy, eSSeiae feared (Attic

CONSONANT CHANGES

Whenever

23.

initial p,

23

inflection or composition,

by

has a single vowel brought before


thus peo> flow, eppet was flowing.

the p is doubled
diphthong, however,
thus eu-poo? fairdoes not cause the p to be doubled
it,

flowing.

The pa

24.

Thus,

0ap(j-o<?

of

earlier

Attic later assimilates to pp.

courage later

becomes #appo?.

MUTES BEFORE MUTES


25.

Before a lingual mute a labial or a palatal mute

becomes coordinate (see 12, 2).


For example, *<ye Ypa$-rai becomes ^eypaTrrat has been
written, *\e\ey-Tai becomes XeXeKrat has been said, *e\enr0r)v becomes eXefyBrjv was left, *$rpif-0i)V becomes erptyOvv
was rubbed.
r

26.

lingual

mute before another lingual mute

is

changed to o-. Thus, */8-Te becomes tare you know, *eVet00fjv becomes eTrcfoQrjv was persuaded.

MUTES BEFORE LIQUIDS


27.

1.

Before

*\e\ei,Tr-fjiat,
2.

/xat
3.

Before

becomes

labial

\e\ei\Lfjiai,

a palatal

/-i

mute becomes
have been

mute becomes

many

//..

Thus,

Thus,

*7re7rXeK-

left.

7.

7r7r\eyfJLai have been twisted.

Before p a lingual mute becomes

pai becomes
In

becomes

7re7reto>iai

cases this doubling

another consonant.

Thus,

er.

Thus,

*7re7ret9-

have been persuaded.


is

to

be explained by the assimilation of

dydvvi(f>os is for

*dya-( <r)vi(pos and


<

e55etcre is for

*e5( /r)ere.

In some words

and

6iri<ru

Homer has both the single and double forms


backward, 'AxiXXetfs and 'A^tXf^s Achilles.

thus

CONSONANT CHANGES

24

MUTES BEFORE

28.

cr

mute before cr unites with it to form i/r


Thus, *Xenr-(T60 becomes XeA|/a> shall leave,
becomes c/>Xe\|; vein, *ypa^-(Tco becomes <ypd\\rco shall
labial

12, 3).

(cf.

*c/>Xep-s

write.

29.

12, 3).

(cf.

becomes

c/>Xo|

A lingual mute before

30.

becomes

crt

mute before

cr unites with it to form


f
becomes
Thus, *tcopaK-s
Kopa% raven,
flame, */3?7X~ s becomes yS?j| cough.

palatal

cr

is

bodies (dat.),

crco/^acrt

hopes (dat.), *bpvi-(n becomes

dropped.
*e'X7rt8-crt

Thus,
becomes

e\7rfoi

opvla-i birds (dat.).

N BEFORE OTHER CONSONANTS


31. When v comes before a labial mute it changes to p.
Thus, *e'v-7m/>o9 becomes e|i7ret/30? experienced, *ev-c/>az'?7?
becomes e'[juaz^? visible, *ev-^i/^o? becomes e'jj^rt^o? living.

When

32.

7-nasal.

becomes

o-v^^eo)

When

33.

Thus,

pour

together.

abide,

comes before X, fi, or p it is assimilated.


becomes eXXetTna leave in, ^ev-pevo) becomes
*o-vv-peco becomes crvppew floiv together.

When

*ev-\ei7Tco

e^evw
34.

and

comes before a palatal mute it changes to


becomes a-v^ev^ akin, *crvv-%e&>

*crvv- ryevr]<;

Thus,

i/0;

see

comes before cr it is dropped (likewise vr,


30) and the preceding vowel is lengthened

More properly a lingual mute before a- is first assimilated to


and the two sigmas later become one. In Homer we often find
the older form with <r<r thus troa--a-t feet (dat.), Attic TTOO-I (from *7ro5-cri).
30

the

a.

a,

DISAPPEARANCE OF

25

<r

in compensation (see 16). Thus, VeXav-9 becomes


Hack, *\vo-vcn becomes Xvovcri they loose ( 16, 1). Cf.

DISAPPEARANCE OF

When

99.

<T

comes between two consonants, it is reguwhen two sigmas are brought together
and
larly dropped,
of
them is dropped. Thus, *ecrraA,-(r#e
one
inflection
by
have
been sent, and *rei%e<r-o-t becomes
earaXOe
becomes
you
35.

or

rer^ecn walls (dat.).

When

36.

a word,

it is

set,

stands before a vowel at the beginning of


often changed to the rough breathing: thus

for

cr

*o~fc-<JT7?/u

When a

37.

dropped
*7ez'ecr-o9

(Latin

sisto).

comes between two vowels,

thus 7eWo? (contracted

761/01/9)

it is

regularly
of a race for

(Latin generis).

CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS


METATHESIS

vowel and a liquid are sometimes transposed.


and flpdcro? boldness.
1.
Sometimes the vowel, standing after the liquid, has its
long form ( 13) r^-vco cut, perfect Te-r\M\-fca have cut.
38.

Thus

0dp<ro9

CONSONANTS BEFOKE
39.

The vowel

(which may sometimes have the value

of a consonant), following certain consonants, gives rise


to several changes.
Thus
:

35 a.
e7re<r-<ri

At

a.

as well as

(cf.

<ra-

is

frequently kept.

Thus

2 a,
the beginning of several of the words enumerated in
van has been lost: thus in ijSvs sweet, formerly *<rpadvs
English sweet, Latin sua(d}vis} ; 6's his, formerly *<rp>s (cf. Latin situs).

36
ff

In Homer the older form with


words (dat.), Attic eTreo-i.

CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS

26

With

1.

22)

K, %, r, or 9,

an

unites to form TT (Ionic

thus (/>uXaTT6> guard, for

*</>fXaK-io)

z/rjTTa

crcr,

duck,

Odrrtov quicker, for *rax-ia)z; ( 41).


2.
With 7 or 8 an t unites to form f neCtpv greater,
for *fJLey-icov
e\7ri J
Aope, for *eX7rt8-u.
for

*^r-ia

With X an
With
or

forms XX /3aX-X&> throw, for */3aX-ia>.


an i goes over to the preceding vowel
/>,
and unites with it by contraction yuaivo/>tcu am mad, for
3.

4.

z^

REJECTION OR TRANSFER OF ASPIRATION


The Greeks

tried to avoid beginning two successive


with
a
syllables
rough mute (or a rough breathing). Thus,
and
e-re-Brjv
e-Tv-Oyv (instead of *e-Qe-0r)v and *e-Qv-Orjv)
are the aorists passive of riOr)^ put and 9vw sacrifice.
For the imperative ending -6i (changed to -TI) see 233,
40.

for the

change of a rough mute to smooth in redupli-

cation see

178.

For the same reason, a few roots beginning with 6,


and ending in $ or ^, preserve the rough mute only at the
41.

beginning or the end.


tion, the

mute

at

So, when, in the process of inflecrough mute at the end disappears, the smooth
the beginning becomes rough.
For example,

gen. sing., has for its nominative 9/oif Tpefyw


nourish has for its future Qptyco
the root racf)- becomes

T/ot^-o? hair,

0a7T- in OaTT-ra) bury.

HIATUS
42.

Hiatus occurs when a word ending in a vowel

followed by a word beginning with a vowel.


41

a.

In Ionic

we sometimes

there, for Attic

find a transfer of aspiration

is

CRASIS

27

Hiatus was usually avoided in Greek by means of


(1) Crasis, (2) Elision, or (3) the addition of a Movable
Consonant.

CRASIS
Crasis (mingling') is the contraction of a vowel or
diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong
43.

beginning of the next word. It is indicated by the


coronis ( ) written over the contracted syllable.

at the

'

in general follows the rules for contraction


18 and 19): thus TOvvavTiov the contrary for TO tvavriov,

Crasis
(

suppose for eyo)

TaxTo for TO

otyu.at,

Ool/JidrLov the cloak for TO

But some exceptions occur: thus

44, 4).

(cf.

ax>To.

NOTE 1. If the first word ends in a diphthong, its final vowel is


dropped before contraction thus Kaya0o? for /cal dya#oV
NOTE 2. Synizesis between Two Words. In poetry a crasis, not
indicated in writing, sometimes occurs between two words, and is called
synizesis (see 19, note 2).- This happens only when the first word ends
in a long vowel or diphthong thus p.rj ov, pronounced as one syllable.
NOTE 3. Apocope is the cutting off of a final short vowel before a
:

consonant.
sitions,

and

Thus
is

Trap, KOLT, for -rrapd,

Kara.

It affects chiefly prepo-

nearly confined to poetry.

ELISION
44.

of a

Elision

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end


a vowel.
In

word when the next word begins with

place of the missing vowel an apostrophe (')


thus e?r* ejjioi in my power, for ewl e/W; TTT
seven, for eTTTCi

rjcrav.

(For the accent of

enV

is

written:

fjaav were
see
66.)

most frequent in prepositions, conjunctions,


and familiar adverbs: for example, the final vowel in
1.

Elision

76, oV, Trapd,

is

a\\d,

/jid\a,

rd^a,

is

frequently elided.

MOVABLE CONSONANTS

28

The vowel

2.

is

never elided, nor

is -i

in the dative of

the third declension, nor the vowels of ra, r(, TO.


3.
In the formation of compound words, elision occurs,
but without being indicated by the apostrophe
thus
'

aTT-e^o) keep away, from cnro and e^w; eTr-dvco on top, from
eVi and avco
aTT-eprjv went away, aorist of a7ro-j3aiva>.
4.
Whenever by elision a smooth mute and a rough
breathing are brought together, the smooth mute becomes
the cognate rough mute ( 12, 2) thus a<|>' &v from which,
for CLTTO &v\ KaQ-fyfju let down, from /card and ir
;

MOVABLE CONSONANTS
45.

All words ending in

v Movable.

-en, all

verbs of

the third person singular ending


-e, and eo-ri is, when
they stand before a word beginning with a vowel, or at
in

This v
the end of a clause, regularly add a v at the end.
thus ire/movcri rov dvSpa they send
is called v movable
:

man, but TrejjLTrovcnv dvSpa they send a man; elSe


Bd\arrav he saw the sea, but el&ev 6\jriv he saw a vision.

the

TTJV

The adverb

ov before a vowel with the smooth


OVK
thus OUK el&ov did not see. Before
becomes
breathing
a vowel with the rough breathing it becomes ou% (cf.
so ov\ elXo/jirjv did not choose.
44, 4)
46.

The

preposition ef out of appears as ef before words


a vowel, and e'/e before words beginning
with
beginning
thus e| acrreco? from toivn, but eK -n}?
consonant
with a
47.

from
44

a.

Final

cu in

Homer

elided in

44, 2 a.

the city.

the verb endings

so also final

01

Rarely Homer elides

-yiicu, -<rcu,

in pot
-i

and

are occasionally

in the dative singular of the third de-

oftener in the dative plural.


44, 4 a. Herodotus retains the smooth

clension

-rat, -o-0cu,

vol.

mute

air

oJj>,

/car-^/xt.

FINAL CONSONANTS

29

FINAL CONSONANTS
48.

The only consonants allowed


word are
p, and 9.

a Greek

to stand at the

end of

i>,

NOTE. ^Observe that words ending

in

if/

(=

TTS)

or

(=

do not

violate this rule.

SYLLABLES
49. In Greek, as in Latin, each single vowel or diphthong makes a separate syllable. For example, v^Uia, has

four syllables.

In dividing a word into syllables a single consonant


any combination of consonants that can begin a word
thus
customarily written with the following vowel

50.

or
is

i~Ka-vd$ suitable, o-tyo-fjiai shall see,

pd-/3$os ivand,

/cd-^vco

labor.

Other combinations of consonants are divided


I'TT-TTO?

thus

horse, e\-7rt? hope.

51. The last syllable of a word is called the Ultima, the


next to the last the Penult, and the one before the penult

the Antepenult.

QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES
52.

syllable

is

long by Nature when it has a long


Thus, in Kpl-voi-^-qv all the syllables

vowel or a diphthong.
are long.
53.
its

vowel

is long by Position (or Convention) when


followed by two consonants or a double con-

syllable
is

In Homer a diphthong or
52 a. Epic Shortening, or Half Elision.
a long vowel at the end of a word is usually treated as a short syllable
before a vowel at the beginning of the next word thus
:

scanned

\^

eyw

ou,

scanned

ww

ACCENT

30
sonant (

Thus, in

12, 3).

both syllables are

op-rvj; quail

long by position.
Of the two consonants one or both

may be in the next


Thus, in aAAos TO'TTO? another place and a'XXo <n6iJ,a
another mouth the last syllable of the first word is long by
word.

position.

NOTE.

Observe, however, that the quantity of the vowel is not


in A.&jxo is short, although the syllable in
by position. The
which it stands is long by " position."
affected

54.

When

a vowel naturally short is followed by


( 12) the length of the syllable

mute and a liquid

Common,

that

the syllable

is,

used in verse either as

is

long or short. Thus, in rewov child, TIK|>X.O? blind, ri


ivhat is to be done ? the first syllable is common.
The mute and the

NOTE.

otherwise the syllable

is

liquid

a
is

must be

in the

yjpr)

same word

long by position.

ACCENT
55.

The Greek accent


the

of

consisted in a raising of the


It was not a stress

accented syllable.

pitch
accent like that of English.
53 a.

words a

In

Homer even

before a single liquid at the beginning of some

syllable with a short


&irb peydpoio (\^>

8pei

vi(f>6evTi.

vowel

ww

(ww

ww

is

long.

w ) from

the hall.

w) snowy mountain

(dat.).

be explained by the loss of


good many
another consonant. Thus vrfbevTi. stands for *(^<T')vi(f)oevTt (cf.
22 a).
b. In Homer one of the consonants that make the preceding syllable
of these instances are

long

the unwritten vau (f ) (see

may be

KO.KOV p^TTOS ^\j

54

a.

In

thus

2 a).

So

Ka.nbv e?ros evil

word

W w)-

Homer a mute and

syllable long

to

TO.

irpwra

a liquid almost always

w)

the first.

make

the preceding

ACCENT

31

56. In Greek there are three kinds of accent,


the
Acute ('), the Grave ( N ), and the Circumflex (~);
the last being made up of the acute and the grave.
1.
Every syllable of a Greek word had an accent, but, as
is of such frequent occurrence (standing
on every syllable which has not the acute or circumflex),
it was not written except in the case mentioned under
67.
2.
The marks of accent were not used in early times.
They were invented about 200 B.C. for the help of foreigners and of others who were studying the Greek

the grave accent

language.
57.

The marks

of accent are written over the

vowel

of the accented syllable.


1.
In case of a diphthong the accent stands over the

second vowel, unless the second vowel is i subscript


thus aurofc, avrovs
but avry (cf.
8, 2 and note).
2.
When both breathing and accent belong to the same
:

vowel, the acute or the grave accent is written after the


thus 0X05 whole, 09 ecrrat who shall be.
But
breathing
the circumflex accent is written above the breathing
:

thus

rjye

was

leading.

When

breathing and accent belong to a capital


letter they are placed before it: thus "EXX^ Greek,
3.

*HXt? Elis,

-'A^T??

Hades

(cf.

8, 1).

RULES FOR ACCENT


58.

The circumflex accent can stand only on

long by nature (

52)

the acute

may

a syllable

stand on a long or

a short syllable.
59. The circumflex accent may stand only on one of
the last two syllables of a word the acute may stand
only on one of the last three syllables.
;

RULES FOR ACCENT

32
60.

Moreover,

the last syllable

if

is

long by nature

( 52), the circumflex may stand only on the last syllable,


and the acute only on one of the last two syllables.

61.

must,

long penult followed by a short final syllable


has a written accent, have the circumflex.

if it

NOTE.
Inflection,

Some further special rules of accent will be given under


but the position of the accents on Greek words must, in

general, be learned

62.

by observation.

Examples

of accented

Acute on the ultima


"

"

"

"

"

"

penult

words are

(called oxytone)

o&o?.

(called paroxytone)

antepenult (called proparoxytone) a


Circumflex on the ultima (called perispomenon)
"

"

63.

"

penult (called properispomen on)

The diphthongs

at

and

01

end

at the

of a

word have

the effect of short vowels on the accent,


except in the
in
mood
and
the
OIKOI
adverb
thus x&pai lands,
optative
:

av6po)7roi

64.

men

but

TratSeuot,

Recessive Accent.

optative of 7rateua> educate.

word

is

commonly

said to

have Recessive Accent when the written accent stands


as far from the end of the word as the laws of accent
58-61) will allow. Thus, eXvOrjv was loosed, e\vov was
(
loosing, Oearpov theater, have recessive accent.

ACCENT OF CONTRACTED SYLLABLES

When

65.
two syllables contract into one, in case either
of the original syllables had a written accent (that is,

the acute or the circumflex), the syllable resulting from


the contraction retains a written accent ; otherwise it

ACCENT OF ELIDED WORDS


has the unwritten grave (

but

33

Thus, rlpd-ei gives

56, 1).

gives rt^a.
1.
If the first of the two syllables originally had the
acute, the acute combines with the unwritten grave
rlfjia,

rffjia-e

second syllable to form the circumflex.

56, 1) of the

Thus,

rlpd-co (i.e. rifta-co) gives

But

TI/JLCO.

the second of the two syllables had the acute,


the syllable resulting from the contraction also has the
2.

if

acute (since

Thus,

v '
will not combine into A
plain that

it is

eo-ra-o)? (i.e.

).

<7Ta-<5) gives ecrra)?.

ACCENT OF ELIDED WORDS


66.

In elision (

44) oxytone

62) prepositions and

conjunctions lose their written accent : thus aXX' e^rj but he


said, for aXXa efyrj ; other words retain it, but on the pre-

ceding syllable
NOTE.

thus

In crasis

ITTT* rja-av

43) the

first

were seven, for evrra

of the

two words

rjGav.

loses its written

accent.

CHANGE OF ACUTE TO GRAVE


Wherever a word having the acute accent on the
syllable is followed by another word in close con-

67.
last

nection,

its

king.

(For

thus Trapa
changes to the grave
but Trapa TOV jSacriKea to the side of the

acute

beside, TOV the

rt? see

148, 1.)

68. Anastrophe.
preposition of
the acute accent on the last syllable,

substantive with which

duty of a verb,

it

is

used,

two

syllables

when it
or when

shifts its written accent

having

follows the
it

does the

"from the

last

68 a. In Homer (and lyric poetry) ev, e/s, #, and is, if they follow
the words they modify, take an acute accent : thus /ca/ccDi/ e from the
base, 0e6s us as a god.

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

PROCLITICS

34

thus TOVTWV jrepi about this ; Trdpa,


syllable to the first
for Trdpecm, it is allowed.
:

PROCLITICS

syllable attach themselves so


that they lose their own
word
to
the
following
closely
Proclitics (from TT/?Oare
called
written accent.
They
69.

K,\ivo)

few words of one

lean forward)

The} are
r

The forms o,
ol, al, of the article the;
The conjunctions el if, o>9 as;
The prepositions ev in, et? (e?) into, ef (e/c,
The adverb ou (OVK, ov%, 46) not.
rj,

1.

of, a>9 to;

a proclitic stands at the end of a senfollowed by an enclitic ( 70, 8), it receives

When, however,

tence, or is

a written accent.
ov

47) out

(f)r)fjLL

I say

Thus

</>#9, f)

ov; do you say yes or

no?

no.

ENCLITICS
70. Some words of one or two syllables attach themselves so closely to the preceding word that they give up
their own written accent. These words are called Enclitics

(from

ey/c\fvci)

The pronouns

lean upon).

The

indefinite

The

croO, crot, <je;

pronoun

rt?, rl

ou, ol,

in all its forms,

Trot), irrj, irol,

indicative of elpt

second persons singular,

eW see

are

e,

and a^icn.

139, 2;

definite adverbs

The present

pe

/LtoO, JJLOI,

See however

They

262, 1)

and the

iroOev, Trore, TTW, TTW?

in;

am and
el,

<?7/u say, except the


$779.
(For the accent of

particles 76, re, rot,

1.
If the word preceding an enclitic has the acute
accent on either of the last two syllables, or the circumflex

ENCLITICS

on the

35

remains unchanged thus


man, \6ycov TLV&V ( 71,4) of some words, %c0pwv
rivtov of some lands.
2. If the
word preceding an enclitic has the acute
accent on the antepenult, or the circumflex on the penult,
thus avOpcoit adds an acute accent on the last syllable
TTOL -nz/'e? some men, <y\a>TTd TLS a tongue.
3. A
proclitic ( 69) before an enclitic takes an acute
last syllable, its accent

avrjp rt? a

accent

thus

et

rt? if

anybody, ov

fyadt,

they deny (see

69, 1).
4. If several enclitics follow each other, the last alone

remains without written accent ; each of the others rethus


ceives an acute accent from the following enclitic
:

ei

TTOV Ti5 riva [I'Sot] if

anybody [should

see~\

anybody any-

where.

Accent of Enclitics Retained.

71.

own

accent

1.

When

2.

When

Enclitics retain their

they begin a sentence, as

elcr\v

avSpes there are

men;
they are emphatic, as aXXa ae \eja) but you I

mean
3.

When

the

enclitic

ravra
4.

vowel which would be affected by the


has been elided ( 44), as ravr earl, for

e'crrt,

this is

When

an enclitic of two sjdlables follows a word


which has the acute accent on the penult, as
av0p(t)7rov TWOS of a man.

NOTE.
Some words are so frequently combined with an enclitic
that the combination comes to be regarded as one word. Thus, wore so
that

(ok

TIVOS), are

+ rot), ovrtvos of ivhomsoever (ov +


59 and 61.
not exceptions to the rule of accent given in

re), KCUTOI although (/cat

PUNCTUATION

36

PUNCTUATION
72.

The Greek marks

of punctuation are the period ( . ),

(,), and mark of interrogation (;).


point above the line, and it takes the
place of the English colon and semicolon.

colon (), comma


The colon is a

NOTE.
tion,

The ancient Greeks seldom used any marks of punctuawords continuously.


Thus EAOSENTHI

but wrote their

BOYAHIKAITOIAHMm =
voted by the Senate

and

28oev

rrj

/3ov\rj

/ecu

TO>

%ia>

the People.

ANCIENT GREEK WRITING ON STONE


(Of the Fifth Century B.C.)

FYNAIKOS

AFAGHSMN

HMATOAE

yvvaitcbs ayaOrjs
a good wife 's monument (is)

It

was

INFLECTION
Inflection

73.

is

a change in the form of a

word

to indi-

cate its relation to other words.

In inflection a part of the word remains the same,


called the Stem. Thus, the stem of avdpwiros man is
av0po)7ro-, and -? is the ending of the nominative case; in
1.

and

is

was

e-\ve he

and

loosing, \ve- is a

stem of the present system,

a prefix denoting past time.


163.)
(See also
in
their
show
more
than one form
words,
inflection,

e- is

Some

of stem.

The

2.

inflection of

Nouns (Substantives and Adjec-

tives) and Pronouns is called Declension


of Verbs is called Conjugation.

the inflection

NOUNS
(SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJECTIVES)
74.

There are

Gender, Number, and Case.

Three GENDERS
Three NUMBERS
Five CASES

in

Greek

Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter;


Singular, Dual, and Plural;

Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative,

and Vocative.
NOTE

1.

The dual number

refers to

two

objects.

It

has but two

forms, one for the nominative, accusative, and vocative, the other for
the genitive and dative.

NOTE

2.

The

in the singular

NOTE

3.

vocative in the plural


often so.

is

always like the nominative

it is

Neuter words always have the nominative and vocative


always end in -a (at

like the accusative; in the plural these cases

least before contraction).

37

NOUNS

38
75.

Declensions.

There are in Greek three declensions

of nouns, classed according to the endings of the stems.


The First Declension has steins ending in -a, the Second

These two together


The Third
Declension has mostly stems ending in a consonant (see
93) and is called the Consonant Declension.
Declension has stems ending in

are sometimes called the

-o.

Vowel Declension.

76. Case Endings.


The case endings of the vowel and
the consonant declension have many points in common, as

may

be seen from the following table

VOWEL DECLENSION
MASC.
Sing-

FEM.

NEUT.

CONSONANT DECLENSION
MASC. FEM.

NEUT.

SUBSTANTIVES
NOTE.

39

There are in Greek some

Locative Case.

Locative Case, confined mostly to names of places.


the locative in the singular is -t and in the plural -<n

Pytho (Delphi), OIKOI

at

home,"Apyei

at

of a

relics

The ending
:

thus YLvOol

of
at

Aryos, 'AOrjvrjvL at Athens.

The written accent of a


on the same sylremains
declension,
noun, throughout
lable as in the nominative singular, or as near that syllable
77.

Accent in Declension.

1.

its

as the general laws of accent will allow


thus avQpcoTros
man, ace. sing. avOpwirov, nom. plur. avOpcoTroi, but gen.
sing. av0pa)7rov ( 60), dat. plur. av6p(i)7roi<s\ ovo/jia name,
:

gen. sing, bvoparos ( 59), gen. plur. wopa-rav ( 60).


2.
In the genitive and dative of all numbers a long
final syllable, if it

thus TTOTa/409

has written accent, has the circumflex:

river,

dat.

sing,

irora^w

TTOU? foot,

gen.

plur. TTO&COV.

SUBSTANTIVES
GENERAL RULES FOR GENDER
78.

1.

MASCULINE

are

names

of Males, of

Winds,

of

and most names

of

Rivers, and of Months.

FEMININE

2.

are

names

of Females,

Lands, Islands, Towns, Trees, and Abstract Ideas.


3. NEUTER are
most Diminutives ( 283) and most

names

of Fruits.

NOTE.

Common

Gender.

Some names

either as masculine or feminine, as


child

may

79.

of beings
occasion requires.

be masculine or feminine, and

It is

may mean

may

boy or

be used

Thus,

Trats

girl.

customary to indicate the gender of Greek

words by means of the article (


for feminine, and TO for neuter.
77

144):

for masculine,

FIRST DECLENSION

40

FIRST DECLENSION
-a

(THE

DECLENSION)

Words of the first declension


culine.
They have stems ending in
80.

forms this a

FEMININES

The feminines form two

81.

They

-77,

classes

are declined as follows

X"P*

land.

(1) those ending


-a.

SECOND CLASS
honor.

-q Tifxrfj

(stem X W P*-)

(stem rind-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

and (2) those ending in short


FIRST CLASS

ij

In many of the

a.

shortened or disguised.

is

A.

in -a or

are feminine or mas-

TJ

ye'cjjxipa

bridge,

(stem -ye^vpd-)

ij

-yXwTTa tongue.

(stem -yXwrrd-)

SINGULAR

X"P a

^H- ^

x^P*"v

TIJX^-V

Gen.
Dat.
Ace.

yfyvpa-v

yX.wrra-v

Voc.

DUAL

DUAL

N.A.V.

ye<)>vpd

G.D.

Tijjiatv

-y<j>iupaiv

Ti|ia

-y({>vpai

TIJIWV

ytfyvp&v

PLURAL
N.V.

x^P aL

Gen.

x w P" v

Dat.

x^P aL 5
x^P as

Acc.

-yXwrTaiv

PLURAL

-yXwrrais

Tijxais
Tipids

-ye^vpas

Other examples of the first class are: rj^epd day (gen.


sing, fjnepas, nom. plur. ^/xe/jat), GKICL shadow (gen. sing.
cr/cta9, nom. plur. o-/aou), TTV\TJ gate (gen. sing.
nom. plur. TruXat), yvcofjLT] judgment (gen. sing.
nom. plur.

FIRST DECLENSION

41

Other examples of the second class are


paipa fate
nom.
$da
plur. /notpat),
(gen. sing, poppas,
opinion (gen.
sing. Sdj-rj?, nom. plur. Sofat), rpdire^a table (gen. sing.
nom. plur.
:

Observe that the second

82.

final syllable of three cases of

and vocative.

accusative,

class has short -a in the

the singular

The

hand, has a long vowel (a or


throughout the singular.

first
77)

nominative,
on the other

class,

in the

final

syllable

All words of the

first class originally ended in -a.


immediately preceded by e, t, or p
Otherwise it is
15); thus 7ewa, cro^t'd, %ft>/>a.
(cf.
to
the
thus
tj
throughout
singular:
TI/JLT\
changed
(formerly Ttjua).
1.
In the genitive and dative singular of words of the
second class, the use of a or 77 is determined by the same
rule thus yetyvpa.? (because p precedes the a), but 7\o)TTT|9.

83.

This a

retained

is

if

The Genitive Plural

84.

of the first declension always

has the circumflex accent on the last syllable, because -&v


is contracted from -d-wv (originally *-d-cra)v
cf
37, and
.

the Latin ending -arum in stellarum):

NOTE.

83 a.

In the accusative plural -as

is

for -avg (

In Ionic long a of the singular of the

changed to
fwlpa.^ (see

77

e.g.,

x^P^i

7^^ <n>0rj,

thus

/ji,oipi\s,

first

^pav

for

34).

declension

is

always

for Attic x^/ad, 7ered,

15 a).

In the genitive plural Homer has the older form -duv


and rarely the Ionic -twv (irv\uv).
Cf.
17.
84

b.

a.

In the dative plural Ionic has

though

rarely,

-T?S

(71-^77)77$

to rocks).

-|7<n

(yXAa-ff-gai)

Homer

uses also,

FIRST DECLENSION

42

B.
85.

MASCULINES

The masculines have

nominative singular.
o vedvias

young man.

They

the case ending

-9

d iroXiTTjs citizen.

(stem iroXird-)

d 'ArptiStjs son of Atreus.


'

(stem vcdvid-)

the

in

are declined as follows

(stem

FIRST DECLENSION

and names
tive
of

of nationality in

thus TroXmi, voc. of

oiroTretfA,???

grain

seller

-77?

43

have short

TroXtrr;? citizen

ITepcra, voc. of Tlepcrr)?

The ending -ov of the genitive singular


NOTE.
from the second declension (cf. 87 a).
In some words -ea (or -aa)

88.

All cases then have the circumflex


are declined as follows
jiva

T)

(stem

(Jtva-

mina.

is

is

Persian.

borrowed bodily

contracted to -a or

65, 1).

-77.

Such words

TJ

for (ivad-) (stem

-a in the vocao-troTroiXa, voc.

yi\-

yfj

land.

for yea. or -yaa)

6 'Ep|rfjs

Hermes.

(stem 'Epjit]- for 'Epjua-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

jJLva

-yf^

Gen.

fivds

-y*is

Dat.

nv

Ace.

jiva-v

Voc.

xva

N.A.V.

jtva

G.D.

fjivaiv

yT\-v

'Epp-fj-v

DUAL
^a
y a^ v

'Epjia
'Epjxaiv

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

jtvat

ya.1

(xvwv

y<

Dat.

p-vais

Ace.

(JLvols

So also

is
,

"yais

'Epjiat

'Epjxwv
*Epp.ais

>s

declined Bo/>pa? (for Bo/aea? with irregular


in the singular only.

-/o/>-)

87 a. In the genitive singular masculine, Homer has the earlier (and


proper) form -do ('ArpetSdo), and sometimes the Ionic form 'Arpe/ocw, the
accent remaining as in the original form (see
17).
88 a. The Ionic generally has the uncontracted forms ; thus
for Attic Boppas,

'

SECOND DECLENSION

44

SECOND DECLENSION
89.

Words

of

the Second Declension are nearly all


The few feminines are declined

masculine or neuter.
like the masculines.

The stems end

in

o.

The nominative singular of masculines and feminines


The nominative, vocative, and accusative of
-09.

ends in

neuters are alike, and they end in the singular in


in the plural in -a.
90.

Words

follows

and

of the second declension are inflected as

6 Xo^os word.

(stem

Xo-yo-)

6 (or

fj)

avOpwiros man.

(stem dvOpwiro-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

-ov,

f]

686s road.

(stem 680-)

TO Swpov

gift.

(stem 8wpo-)

SECOND DECLENSION

45

So also are declined vopos law (gen. sing, vopov, nom.


bull (nom. plur. -ravpoi),
vofjioi), KLV&VVOS danger, ravpos

plur.

river,
o-rpaT^o? general,
measure, 'i^dnov cloak.

Trora/io?

z^cro?

island,

(fern.)

CONTRACT SUBSTANTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION

Words which have stems ending

91.

in -oo

and

-eo

un-

dergo contraction in accordance with the rules given in


18 and 19.
They are thus declined
:

6 vovs mind.

6 ircpiirXovs voyage around,

(stem voo-)

circ umnavigation.

(stem

TO OO-TOVV bone.

(stem

00-T60-)

irepiirXoo-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

vov-s (vdo-s)

Gen.

vov

(i/oov)

irepiirXov

OO"TOV

(OO"TOV)

Dat.

vw

(voo>)

irepiirXo)

OCTTW

(oCTTCO))

Ace.

-ircpiirXou-v

oo-Tov-v (ooreo-v)

Voc.

vov-v (i/do-v)
vov
(voe)

N.A.V.

vc&

G.D.

votv

OCTTOV-V (o<TTO-v)

OO-TOV-V (ocrreo-v)

DUAL
(vo'w)

irpirXa>

CKTTCO

(oO"TO))

(i/ootv)

irepiirXoiv

CKTTOIV

(ocrre'otv)

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

VOt

(V006)

vwv

(vowv)

Dat.

vots

(voots)

irepCirXois

OO-TOIS

(oo-reots)

Ace.

vovs

(vdovs)

irepiirXous

oo-Ta

(oo-rea)

irepfirXoi

So also are declined


(xdveov,
1.

cf.

poO?

oo-Ta

(oorea)

OO-TWV

(ocrrewv)

stream, TO

(poo?)

/cavovv

118, 3) basket.

Observe that the contraction of

the rule of
2.

(TreptTrAooi)

ocrra is contrary to

18, 6.

Observe that the nominative dual,

if it

has written

accent on the last syllable, has the acute (contrary to


thus vcb (irregularly from vdo>).
65, 1)
:

SECOND DECLENSION

46

Observe that contracted compounds have recessive

3.

64) in spite of the contraction

accent (

thus TrepiirXw

But
(for evvooi) kindly disposed.
(for 7re/>t7rXoo>),
the written accent almost never goes back of the syllable
on which it stood in the nominative singular ( 77):
evvoi

thus

Tre/KTrXot

(not

STEMS IN

-co-

ATTic SECOND DECLENSION

To

92.

the second declension belong also a few words


in co.
They are thus declined

whose stems end

vs temple,

(stem vw-)

DUAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL
Nom. v

Nom.

vew-s

Gen.

vcw

N.A.V.

ve<&

Gen.

vtwv

Dat.

ve4

G.D.

vv

Dat.

vt&$

ACC.

V6W-V

ACC.

V6S

Voc.

vews

Voc.

vew

So also Xeo>? people, tfa'Xw? cable.


Observe that the genitive and dative, when they have
written accent on the last syllable, take the acute, con1.

trary to
2.

77, 2.

Many

of

these words were produced by an interthus Xea>?


17), do becoming ea>

of quantity (

change
from Xao'?.

In such words the long vowel at the end


does not affect the position of the accent (cf
60) thus
Mei>eXe&)5 Menelaus (from Mez^eXao?).
3. Some words have no v in the accusative
singular.
.

Thus Xa7Q>? hare has


dawn has only eco.
92

a.

ace.

This form of declension

is

sing.

\a<ya>

and Xaycov

confined almost wholly to Attic.

ew?

In

Ionic most of these words follow the ordinary second declension. So, for
Attic Xet6s, pecs, KiiXws, Xa7cis, Ionic has Adds, vrjbs, /c<f Aos, \ayu6s or \ay6s.

THIRD DECLENSION

47

THIRD DECLENSION
Words

the Third (or Consonant) Declension


have stems ending in a consonant, or in a vowel (i or u)
few
which may sometimes be sounded as a consonant.
93.

of

stems appear to end in o (but see


112, 113).
1. The stem of words of this declension
may usually be

found by dropping the ending


94.

sion

the genitive singular.

The gender of words of the third declenGender.


must usually be learned by observation, but a few

general rules
1.

-o? of

may

be given.

Stems ending in a

labial or a palatal

mute

are never

neuter.
2.

MASCULINE

those in
3.

nom.
4.

nom.

-TTJT-),

FEMININE
in -t?),

are stems ending in et>, VT, rjr (except


COT, and p (except those in -a/o-).
are

stems ending in

and v (with nom.

in

rijr,

0,

(with

-i>?).

NEUTER

are stems ending in ap,


in -09), and v (with nom. in -u).

acr,

ar,

e<r

(with

FORMATION OF CASES
Neuter words of the third declension
have
the
nominative, accusative, and vocative
regularly
like
the
A final T is dropped
singular
simple stem.
thus
aco/jia (stem o^^ar) body.
(
48)
95.

Neuters.

96.

Masculine and Feminine Nominative

Singular.

Most masculine and feminine words of the third declension form the nominative by adding -9 to the stem.
For
the euphonic change which may follow, see
2830, 34
:

thus
1.

K\l/JLa% (for */cX^aK:-9) ladder (cf. Latin dux, ducis).


But stems in -v-, -p-, -<r-, and -ovr- regularly have in

the nominative only the simple stem with a long vowel

FORMATION OF CASES

THIRD DECLENSION.

48
13)

thus

l^wKpdr^

\ifJLijv (\ifjiev-)

Some

NOTE.

of these

harbor, ptjrcop (/^ro/?-) orator,

xa/xwv winter, gen.

48).

thus "EAAryi/ Greek, gen.

^et/xwi/os,

etc.

The

Accusative Singular.

97.

(\eovr-) lion (

words retain the long vowel of the nomi-

native throughout their declension


vos, etc.

XeW

Socrates,

(J2a)fcpaTe<r-~)

accusative singular of

masculine and feminine words adds -a to consonant stems

and

vowel stems thus TTOV? foot (stem TroS-), accus.


but Tro'Xt? city (stem TroXi-), accus. sing.
sing. 7ro'S-a
-v to

TToXiv.

(Cf.

14, 2 note.)

of more than one syllable ending in tr or


without written accent on the last syllable, almost
always drop the final mute and take the ending v thus

But stems

1.

i&,

(stem

epis strife

e/?tS-),

The vocative singular is reguVocative Singular.


thus Safawv divinity, voc.

98.

larly the mere stem

(stem
see

accus. sing. epiv.

SaifJLoit-')',

yepcov old

man, voc.

<yepov

(stem

48).

1. But masculine and feminine words which form their


nominative singular without 9 ( 96, 1), when they have
written accent on the last syllable, and all other mute

stems (except those in -*S-), use the nominative singular


as vocative
thus TTOL^V (stem 7rot/-tei>-) shepherd, voc.
:

TTOI/JLIJV

<f>v\aj;

\7rt9

(but

(stem

watchman,

</>i>Xa/c-)

voc.

(stem eXvrtS-), voc.

99. Dative Plural.


When v alone is dropped before
the ending -at of the dative plural ( 34), the preceding
99
-cro-i

a.

0)

In the dative plural

after vowels.

Homer has

Thus he has

b.

In the genitive

-<ri(j')

and

(*7ro-o-t),

-eo-o-i^),

iroffl,

and

sometimes

7r65e<ro-i

with

Very rarely we find -e<ri xetp-eo-t with hands.


and dative dual Homer has -ouv for Attic -oiv.

feet, v^Kv-(T<TL to corpses.

Thus

TTOO-O-/

Trodouv of or with two feet.

CONSONANT STEMS
vowel remains unchanged, contrary to
shepherds, for

lengthened
all,

*7roifjLev-crL

But when

1.

vr

49
34

thus

Bai/jLOai to divinities,

Trot/zeo-t to

for *&aifjiov-cn.

dropped, the preceding vowel


thus Xeoucn to lions, for *\eovT-<n
7rd<rt
is

is

to

for *7ravT-ai.

Words with stems

Special Rule of Accent.

100.

syllable in the third declension regularly


accent on the last syllable of the genitive

numbers.

of one
have the written
and dative of all

If the last syllable is long, it receives the circum-

77, 2): thus TTOVS foot, gen. sing. TTO^O?, gen. plur.
dat.
TToSwv,
plur. TTOCTI.
flex (

NOTE.
(

For exceptions
TTCUS (

115, 18),

<w(129,

see 8as (
iras (

115, 19),

115, 7), ov?

115, 5), 8/xws (

125, 2),

Tpws

115, 23),

and

3).

CONSONANT STEMS
Labial and

101.

labial or palatal
64>u\ag

f|<f>d\<r/i

phalanx.

<j>v\aK-)

Stems ending in a

are thus declined

watchman.

(stem

Stems.

Palatal

mute

J|e P

hair.

6 K \cty
thief.

4>Xe'4/

vein.

(stem <j>a\ayy-) (stem rpix~) (stem K\WIT-) (stem


4>\P-)

SINGULAR

Xom.

<J>v\a

<j>d\a^

0pC

K\WX|/

<}>Xe'v|/

Gen.

4>vi\aK-os

(jxxXa-yy-os

K\ir-6s

<j>\ep-6s

Dat.

4>v\aK-L

4>x\a-yy- 1

rpix-os
T P 1 X~'

K\fl>ir-i

$\t$-L

Ace.

<J>v\aK-a

<j>d\a-yy-a

Voc.

<>vXa

N.A.V.

<}>iiXaK-e

<t>dXa-Y^-

G.D.

4>vXaK-oiv

<j>aXd-yy- lv

N.V.

4>vXa.K-S

<f>dXa^-s

Gen.

4>vXa.K-wv

^aXd-y-y-wv

rpix-wv

KXwir-aiv

<J>X|3-(ov

cj>dXa-y^i

0pi^i

KXwxjn

<|>X\(/

rpix-as

KXwir-as

<j)Xp-as

DUAL

PLURAL

Dat.

<J)vXa^

Ace.

<|)vXaK-as

<|>dXa^-as
4
BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

THIRD DECLENSION

50

So also are declined

AWioty (stem A0to7r-) AethioxaKvty (stem ^aXf/3-) steel, fj /eXt/>iaf (stem K\lpian,
6 6vv
(stem
-*) ladder, rj IICLGTI^ (stem /jLaarly-^) whip,
6

1.
For the f and ^r in the nominative singular and
For the vocative singu28 and 29.
dative plural see
lar see
For the change of to T in 0/n'f see 41.
98, 1.

102.

Lingual Stems.

are thus declined

Stems ending in a lingual mute

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

CONSONANT STEMS

51

favor, o 7</ya<? (stem yiyavr-) giant, 6 XeW (stem \eovr-*)


lion, 6 oSou? (stem O&OVT-, gen. sing. oSoWo?) tooth (the
nominative singular is formed contrary to
96, 1).

dropping of T (and

For" the

1.

before a in

vr), S, or

30.
the nominative singular and dative plural see
For
the dative plural of stems in -vr- (like yepovo-i*) see 99, 1.
For the vocative singular see 98, 1. For the accusative

singular of stems in

-IT-

and

-tS-

(^dpiv, epuv) see

NEUTER

103.
TO

<ra>|ia

body (stem

arwjjiaT-)

DUAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL
Norn.

Nora.

<rwp.a

Gen.

<rco[iaT-os

Dat.

o-wp-ar-i

Ace.

o~w|jLa

Ace.

Voc.

o-w|ia

Voc.

N.A.V.
G.D.

So also are declined


(stem

ovoiAaT-}

name,

yaXaKT-*) milk (

1.

-p- (

97, 1.

o-wnar-e

Gen.

<rw|xaT-oiv

Dat.
<rwjxaT-a

(stem aro^ar-) mouth, OVO/JLCI


(stem />teXtr-) honey, ydXa (stem

(rrofia

/-teXt

48).

few words form their nominative from a stem

73, 1)

thus

rjTrap

(gen. sing, ^vrar-o?)

in

liver, fj/JLap

(gen. sing. ^/lar-o?) c?a# (poetic).


2.

Four words,

Trepas,

Tre/oaro?,

ewe?;

repas,

re/jaro?,

(contracted from
nominatives
form
their
$a'o?), </)ft)To'?, /^A^,
singular from
a stem ending in a ( 73, 1).
(For the full declension

prodigy

fceparos,

/cepas,

of icepas see

horn

^>w?

115, 10.)

and r<?/>as have no forms with T. Thus,


nom. plur. /cfya, gen. plur. Kepdwv, dat. plur.
Herodotus changes a to e before a vowel (cf. 106 c),
K^ao-i and Kepdefffft.
but does not contract thus rfyeos, K^ei", /cfyea, Keptuv. Of 0tDs ZtgrA* Homer
uses only the uncontracted form <f>dos (sometimes wrongly written 06ws),
103, 2 a.

Homer has

In Ionic

dat. sing,

dat.

</>det,

plur.

/cfyas

/cfyat,

THIRD DECLENSION

52

Liquid Stems.
declined
104.

Stems ending in a liquid are thus

CONSONANT STEMS

53

between the v and p whenever they come together.


words are thus declined

These

6 irar^p father.

(stein irarep- or

mother.

f|

or

(stem

iraTp-)

TJ

OirydTtjp daughter.

6 dv^jp

man.

(stem Ovyarep- or

(stem dvep-

Ov-yarp-)

or dv(6)p-)

(MfjTp-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

ira-nrjp

Gen.

irarp-os

p.TlTp-6s

Dat.

irarp-C

|lT,T P

Ace.

Voc.

Ov-yarp-os

dv8p-6s

Ou-yarp-f

dvSp-C

irarep-a

0vyaTp-a

avSp-a

irdrep

Ov-yarep

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

avSp-e

irem'p-e

irarep-oiv

dvSp-oiv

Ov-yarcp-oiv

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

irarcp-wv

|JtTJTp-WV

dvSp-cov

Dat.

iraTpd-o-t

(i-qxpa-o-i

dvSpd-(ri

Ace.

ira,T'p-as

iraiVcs

av8p-s

avSp-as

Like iraTrjp is declined jacrr^p belli/. (See also 115, 2.)


1.
Observe that in the genitive and dative the shorter
forms take their written accent on the

last syllable, after

the analogy of stems of one syllable

100): thus

avSpwv (but
2.

a-

Trar/oo?,

Trareptov, avSpdai).

Observe that the vocative singular of these words

has recessive accent


3.

For the a

(cf.

104, note).

in the dative plural see

14, 1.

Stems ending in cr
106. Stems in -a-.
whenever it comes between two vowels

lose their final


(

37) and the

vowels thus brought together usually contract.


105 a. In Homer the form of the stem with e is more frequently used
than in Attic thus iraripos^ Trartpi avepa, avipes, etc. (Attic 7rar/j6s, etc.).
In dvyaT-rjp, however, we sometimes find dtiyarpa, dvyarpes, and always
From av/ip he has in the dative plural both avdpavi and &i>8pe<r<ri.
:

THIKD DECLENSION

54

Such stems are thus

inflected

NEUTER
TO

(stem

-yevos race.

TO

-yevoo--, -yeveo--)

(stem

-ye'pas

prize.

-yepacr-)

SINGULAR

Nom.

-y^vos

Gen.

-yevovs (*yeveo--os,

yeVe-o?)

Dat.

-yevci

yeve-'t)

Ace.

-ycvos

Voc.

-yevos

N.A.V.

-yc'vei

(*yeveo--e,

G.D.

-yevoiv

(*yei/(T-oti/,

N.V.

Y* vtl

(*yeve<r-a,

(*yeve(T-i,

(*yepa(T-os, ycpa-os)
(*yepao--t,

yepa-t)

(*yepa<r-a,

yepa-a)

-yepas

DUAL
yeVe-e)

PLURAL
( -yeve'wv
(

yeVe-a)

(*yei/eo-a>v)

ycpwv

(*yepa<r-a>v, yepa-wv)

-yevwv

Dat.

-yeveon

( yeVecr-ori)

Ace.

-yevrj

(*yei/(r-a,

ye'paon ( ye'pao--(7t)

(*yepacr-a,

yeVe-a)

yepa-a)

TO ap0o9 flower, TO
So also are declined TO Tet%o?
eVo5 ?/ear, TO yfjpas old age, TO icepas horn, wing (with other
forms from a stem tcepar-', see 115, 10).

Observe that neuters ending in -05 form their nominative, accusative, and vocative singular from the stem in
-oo--.
14 and 73, 1.)
(See
1.

106 a.

Thus,
K\<fa,

regularly have the uncontracted forms.

of courage, dapve'i with courage. The accusative plural


which sometimes occurs in Homer, is probably for K\te.
In the dative plural Homer has three different forms thus fie\t76 b), |8<?Xe<r-<rt, and /SAeeri ( 35) from /SAos
*/3e\e(T-e<7<ri,

b.
<T<TI

Homer and Herodotus

8dp<reos

(for

missile.

In

Homer and Herodotus words with stems

in -a<r- are usually


few words have e instead of a
of old age.
in the stem, except in the nominative: thus o55a5 ground, gen. sing.
otfSeos
/ccDas fleece, dat. plur. /cce<n.
In the nominative and accusative
c.

uncontracted: thus

777/3005

plural Homer has -a short: thus 5<?7ra cups. In the dative plural he has
three forms, 5e7rd-e<r<ri (for *5e7ra<r-e0-0-j,
37), 5ewa<r-<ri, and dtiravi ( 35).

CONSONANT STEMS
2.

55

In the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural

of neuters in -09, -ea after e contracts into a.

from

for xpee-a (*^/oeecr-a)

Thus

%/oea

stem

%/3eo? debt,

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

107.

2a>Kpa.TT]s Socrates.

(stem 2a>KpaT<r-)
NOR!.

ZcOKp<XTr|S

Gen.

2wKpa,Tous

(*2<oKpaT<r-os,

Dat.

DcoKparei

(*2(OKparecr-t,

Ace.

SwKpaTt]

(*2o>Kparecr-a,

Voc.

So

also are declined

Ay poo-Bevy? Demosthenes,

Diogenes.
1.

Observe that the vocative singular of names like


has recessive accent.

Proper names in -K\er)$, of which the last part is


the stem /cXeecr- (/cXeo? fame), are doubly contracted in
108.

the dative.

declined

HepifcXfjs

(stem

Ile/^/eXeeo--)

Pericles

is

thus

_T

Norn,

-j
(

Gen.

IIcpiK\Eovs

(*nptKXeecr-os,

Dat.

rhpiKXti

(*IIeptKXeeo--t,

IlepiKXee-t,

Ace.

IlpiK\cd

(*Ilept/<Xee(r-a,

IlepiKXee-a)

Voc.

Il6p(K\is

109.

Stems

in

alSov?

(*cu'Soa--o?,

ace. alSa)

There

-oo--.

alBws shame) which

is

IleptKXee?)

at'So-o?),

(*at'Socr-a,

one stem in

is

thus inflected

at'So-a),

dat.

alSol

voc.

nom.

at'Sa)?,

(*al$oa--i,

at'Sco?.

-ocr-

(^

gen.

at'So-i),

The dual and

plural are not found.


108

a.

In

Homer proper names

uncontracted forms.

Thus

in -K\er)s

should probably have the

'HpaicX^eos gen. sing. 'H/aa/cX^ea ace. sing, of

'HpaKX^s Heracles, but these are usually written with T;,


109

a.

In Ionic yds

dawn

is

declined like

'HpaK\rjos, 'HpaK\7ja.

THIRD DECLENSION

56

VOWEL STEMS
Stems in

110.

thus declined

-i-

Stems ending in

-D-.

6 irf\\vs forearm.

iroXis city.

f)

(stem

and

or v are

(stem

iroXi-)

TTTIXV-)

TO d'cm) town.

6 i\Qv<$ fish.

(stem do--)

(stem

l\Qv-}

SINGULAR

Nom.

ir6Xi-s

ao-Tv

Gen.

iroXe-cos

d'o-T-ws

Dat.

iroXci (TrdAe-t)

Ace.

ir6Xt-v

Voc.

iroXi

(ao-re-t)

l\Qv-'i

ao-Tv

DUAL
N.A.V.

iroXei (TTo'Ae-e)

a<TTl

G.D.

-iroXeotv

do-T6-OlV

N.V.
Gen.

ir6Xs

(7roAe-e?)
iroXe-wv

ao-TT]

(aore-a)
ao-T-wv

lx0v-S

Dat.

iroXs-o-i

d'o-T-<ri

Ace.

iroXeis

dVrr] (aorc-a)

IXOV-C

x 0v-oiv

PLURAL

110

a.

In

Homer

steins in

-i-

are thus declined

sing.

l\Qv-otv

nom.

7r6Xts,

rarely TroXet (which doubtless stands for 7r6Xu), ace.


plur. nom. ?r6Xtes, gen. iro\lwv, dat. TroXi'ecnri ( 76 b) or

TroXios, dat. 7r6Xt,

gen.

voc. TrdXt

?r6Xtv,

(rarely) TroXecrt (which perhaps stands for 7r6Xt<rt), ace. 7r6Xts and ?r6Xias.
b. From TrdXis Homer has also four forms with 77: sing. gen. 7r6X?7os,
dat.

7r6X?7i

c.
TTO'XI

plur.

nom.

TrdXT/es,

ace. 7rdX7?as.

In Herodotus stems in
(rarely ?r6Xei), TroXir,

Tro'Xtas)

TTO'XI

-t;

are thus inflected


plur.

sing. 7r6Xis,

TTO'XIOS,

WXis

(rarely

Tro'Xies, iro\i<av, TroXtat,

In Ionic, words with stems in -v- regularly have the uncontracted


forms thus #<rrei', #<rrea, Traces,
except that Homer sometimes conthus Tr\T]dvT to a multitude. In the genitive
tracts the dative singular
d.

(not -ws) thus Tnfoe-os, fore-os. The geniregular accent (cf.


110, 2): thus TTT^WP aar^uv.
In the accusative plural Homer has -us or -uas, as the meter may

singular Ionic has always


tive plural
e.

has

demand: thus

-os

its

tx&vs or t-^dvas.

VOWEL STEMS
So

also are declined

77

Svvafiis

\ercvs axe (like TTT/^U?), o or

sing,

short

77

57

power,
0-1)5

o /na'zm? seer, o Tre-

^0*7

(like

%#u<?,

gen.

oW?), /3oVjOU5 cluster of grapes (like fc%0i$5, but with


f)
Most of these words are masculine or feminine
.

the only neuter in frequent use

darv town.

is

words like TroAis and Trfjxys we


two forms of the same stem
Thus
14, 2 and 73, 1).
existing side by side, TroAi- and TroAa- (see
the nominative is formed from the shorter stem (TTO'AI-S, TH^-?)* but
the genitive was originally from the longer stem (*7roAet-o?, *7rr)xtv-os)
These latter forms, however, are not found, for the t or v at once went
over into the corresponding consonant form (/ or ^ ), and disappeared
In compensation the preceding vowel was sometimes length( 21).
ened ( 16), and thus we have TrdAry-os (in Homer) and *7rryx^-?Then, by an interchange of quantity ( 17), we get the usual Attic
forms TroAeo)? and TT^CWS. Observe that the interchange of quantity

NOTE.

have, as

It is probable that in

we have

seen elsewhere

105, 1),

does not affect the position of the accent

1.

Most

steins in -v-

60).

keep the v throughout and are

declined like l^dfe.


Stems of one syllable have the
circumflex accent in the nominative, accusative, and
vocative.

Proper names in -t? usually retain the i of the stem


thus SveWeo-w Syennesis,
throughout their inflection
So also is declined /a? weevil, gen.
gen. 2fezWcrt-o5, etc.
2.

/ao?, etc.
3.

Observe that the accent of the genitive plural

made

is

like that of the genitive singular.

irregularly
4. The accusatives
plural, Tro'Xet? and Tr^et?, are irregumade
like
the
nominatives
larly
plural.

111.

of the
(

21).

Stems ending in a diphthong lose the final vowel


stem before all endings beginning with a vowel

They

are thus declined

THIRD DECLENSION

58
6 paonXevs

6,

f,

povs

king.

ox, cow.

(stem paoaXcv-)

(stem POV-)

f]

old

woman.

(stem

SINGULAR

Nom.

pao-iXev-s

Gen.

pao-iXc-cos

Dat.

Ace.

pao-iXe-d

Voc.

pao-iXev

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

pcuriXc'-oiv

PO-OIV

ypd-oiv

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

pao-iXtis later -eis

pao-iXe-wv

Dat.
Ace.

pao-iXc-ds

po-wv

-ypd-wv

POV-O-C

ypav-a-i

POVS

vavs

ship.

(stem vav-)

VOWEL STEMS

59

(in Homer), and this, in turn, is for *(3a<n\r)f:-o<> ( 21). So also the
accusatives singular and plural have -e'-d and -e-d?, for earlier -77-01

and

-fj-a<s.

Observe that the nominative, accusative, and vocative


(ySacrtX?)), and the older form of the nominative
plural (/SacrtXi}?), are contracted from fiacriXfj-e and
1.

dual

fiacnXri-es.
2.

When

(See note.)
the final -ev- of the stem follows a vowel or

diphthong, contraction usually takes place in the genitive


and accusative. Thus, Heipcuevs Peiraeus usually has for
its

genitive Tletpatw? (for

Heipaia (for Heipaiea)


112.

Stems

Ileijocuea)?),

Stems ending in

in -01-.

singular only) lose their final


vocative (

21).

and for

They
TJ

its

accusative

are thus declined

-rreiGw

(found in the

01

in all cases except the


:

persuasion.

(stem

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

imOoi

ACC.

1Tl6<&

Voc.

ireiOoi

So also are declined 77 77^0) echo, r) A^rw Leto. All


words which follow this declension have their written
accent on the last syllable.
113.

Stems

in

-co-

(or cop).

few words of the third

declension appear to have stems ending in o>, but this


could not have been the original ending.
Possibly
112

a.

ow: thus

Herodotus often has the accusative singular of


i

lovv ace. of ~I6 lo.

ot-

steins in

IRREGULAR DECLENSION

60

such stems ended originally in


declined

are

They

-o>/r-.

thus

6 Tipws hero.

(stem

SINGULAR

Nom.

tjpws

Gen.

T]p-os

Dat.

-fipo)

Ace.

4jpco-a,

Voc.

4ips

(77/00)-';)

Tjpft)+?)

DUAL

PLURAL

Nom.

-npw-es,

Tjpws

N.A.V.

-npw-e

Gen.

fjpw-wv

G.D.

rjpw-oiv

Dat.

t]p&>-<ri

Ace.

-qpw-as, fjpws

TJpw

Voc.

So also are declined

o /A^T/OW?

mother's brother, 6

father's brother.

SUBSTANTIVES OF PECULIAR
DECLENSION
114.

1.

OR,

IRREGULAR

The Greeks sometimes declined the same word


when two different stems

in different ways, especially

would give the same nominative singular.


Thus, the
stems CTKOTO- and a/corecr- both give a nominative singular er/coTO? darkness, genitive singular O-/COTOV (2d decl.)
So also stems of proper names in
or O-KOTOVS (3d decl.).
like ^coKparea- (nom. sing. ^wKpdrrjs, gen. sing. 2to/cpdrovs, ace. sing. ^(DKpdrrf), have sometimes an accusative
-779,

singular in

-771;

(^wKpar-qv), as

if

of the first declension.

2. Again, certain cases may have been formed from stems


thus o oveipos dream (2d decl.
of wholly different words
:

113

a.

(7//3w'),

Homer has only

77/>ci>es,

the uncontracted forms

thus

recocts.

So Homer has

6 5e<7/i6s bond, plur. ol de<r/j.oi and ra


2d decl.) has also forms from a stem
thus gen. narpo/cXeeos (Ilar/ao/cX^os ?), etc. (See 108 a.)
From T)VIOXO-S charioteer, declined regularly, Homer has also

114, 2 a.

n.a.TpoK\os (gen. -ou,

TivLoxyes
Al8io\f/.

(stem

yvioxev-,

111);

cf.

At'0io7ras

and

At^ioTr^as,

ace. plur. of

IRREGULAR DECLENSION

61

regular), but gen. sing, also ovetparo?, dat. oveipari,

nom.

See also

103,

plur. oveipara, gen. oveipdrcov, dat. bveipaai.

and

2.

Again, words sometimes have different genders in


Thus, airo? grain (masc.) has for
alra
plural
(neuter) TO o-rdSiov stade has for its plural

3.

the different numbers.


its

usually ol araBiai.
115.

The peculiarities of substantives irregularly declined

can best be learned from a lexicon, but some of the more


important of these will be found in the following list
:

6 "Apt|s (stem 'A/oecr-) Ares,


"A/Deo?), dat. "A/oei, voc. "A/oe?.
1.

2. [o, 97 apjv] (stem


kind of declension as

dpv-a, apv-es, apvd-a-i.

by

a/wo?,

2d

gen.

(poetic

A/>ea>5

apev-, apv-, apva-) lamb, of the


Trarrjp (

105)

The nominative

is

singular

supplied

decl., regular.

3.
TO "yovu knee (Lat. genu), nom. ace. voc. sing.
other cases are formed from stem <yovar- ( 73, 1)

mr-o?,
4.

T]

rydvar-i,
-yuvTi

same

thus apv-6s, apv-i,

All
:

70-

etc.

woman.

All other forms come from a stem

yvvaiK-: the genitives and datives have their written accent


on the last syllable gen. sing. yvvaiKos, dat. yvvaiKi, ace.
:

ryvvai/ca, voc. yvvai

dual yvvalKe, yvvaiKoiv

<yvva,LKwv, ytoveu^t, ryvvaitcas.

(Cf.

plur.

<yvvalices,

73, 1.)

8as (SaS-) ^or^A, 3d decl., regular, but the genitive


plural Sa&cov is an exception to the rule of accent for stems
5.

T|

of one syllable (
6.

TO

115, 1 a. "ApTjs:
ace. "Aprja

100).

86p\j spear,

115, 3 a.

Homer has

Herodotus,
"yovv

Epic also

nom.

ace. voc. sing.

All other cases

gen/ApT/os and'Apeos, dat.

"Ap-rji

"A/oeos, "A/set, "Apect.

Ionic

and poetic

yotivaros, yotivaTi, yotivara,

*yovy6s, 'youv/, *you^a, yotivuv, yotivecro'i (

76 b)

and'Apei',

SUBSTANTIVES OF PECULIAR

62

from stem Sopar-

115, 3) Sdpar-os, Sdpar-i, etc.


(cf. ydvv,
Poetic gen. 80/005, dat. Soptaiid So'/oet.
73, 1).
6 Sfjuos (SyLto)-) stoe (poetic); 3d decl., regular, but

(cf.
7.

the genitive plural (Sfjubav) is an exception to the rule


of accent for stems of one syllable ( 100).
8.
ace. Ata,
Zexis (cf.
39, 2) Zeus, gen. Ato?, dat.

A;

voc. ZeO.

TO Kapd

9.

73, 1)

(/ca/oar-, /cpdr-,

Aead (poetic), gen.


even fcpara),

Kpdr-os, dat. /cpdr-i or /capa, ace. /ca/?a (or


voc. Kapd; ace. plur. (rare) rou? Kparas.

10. TO Kpas Aor?i, wing, has forms from two different


stems, /cepao-- and tcepar-. See
103, 2, and a. Sing. nom.
ace. voc. /cepa<?, gen. /ce/jar-o? or /cqoa)? (for *A:6jOa(cr)-o?),
dual nom. ace. voc. tcepdre or #e/)a,
dat. icepdr-i or /ce/?a
;

gen. dat. Kepdroiv or /cepwv, plur. nom. ace. voc. tcepdra


or /ce^a, gen. Kepcurwv, dat. icepdcri.
In the meaning wing,

forms from the stem


6, T| K-UCOV c?o^,

12.

stem

;uz>-

115, 6 a.

Epic also

#1^05,

/cvi/t, /cuz/a

Ionic

86pv:

Sotfparos,

Zevs

115, 9 a.

Kdpot:

and

poetic also

Homer

/cpaar-, K par.

N.A.

from a

plur. /ewe?, KVV&V, KVCTL, /cvvas.


Sotfpan,

8ovp6s, Soup/, 5oG/>e, SoGpa, So^pwv,

115, 8 a.

Kaprjr-,

are usually employed.


voc. sing. #tW. All other cases
tcepacr-

Z-rjvfc, Zrjvt,

Sahara,

5otf/>e(r<ri

SovpdTwv,
76 b).

dotipacri.

Zijva.

has forms from four different stems,

SINGULAR
/c</)77

also Kdp

Gen.

Kap^aTos

KdpijTos

tcpdaros

Dat.

Ka.pria.TL

KdprjTi

Kpdari

KpaTi

PLURAL
N.A.

Ka.p~fja.TO.

Kapd

KpaTa

fcpdara

Gen.

KpaTuv

Dat.

For the plural Homer usually has


115, 11 a.

(cf.

In K6/w (Kopvd-} helmet

115, 17).

Kdprjva, Kap-f/vuv,

from another word,

Homer sometimes

has an accusative

OR IRREGULAR DECLENSION

Xds stone (poetic), contracted from Xaa-?, gen.

13.

dat.

Xa-o?,
Xa-ecrcrt
14.

63

ace.

Xa-t,

Xa-z^

\aa-v,

plur.

Xa-e?,

\d-cov,

or Xa-ecrt.
r

fidpTus (papTvp-) witness, gen. yua^rf/o-o?, etc.,


regular, except dat. plur. fjidprvcri.
15. OlSnrous Oedipus, gen. OlSiTroSos or OlSiTrov ( 114, 1),
6,

dat. OlSiTroSi, ace. OlSiTrovv, voc. OtSwrov? or OlBiTrov.


16.

T|

ots sheep

oZ-9, ot-o?,
17.

6,

(stem

oZ-z;

ot-if',

for

ot-

o/rt-,

cf.

Lat. ovis), sing.

plur. ol-e?, ol-cov, ol-ai, ot?.

opvls (opvlO-) bird, declined regularly (

fj

102),

but ace. sing, both opvWa and o/3i/Z^ ( 97, 1).


18. TO oils ear, sing. nom. ace. voc. o?, all other forms
from a stem ear- (contracted from ovar- (*o(/r)ar-), see
115, 18 a):

The

thus

genitive plural

OJT-O'?,

is

for stems of one syllable (


19.

6,

TTCIIS

T|

twr-t;

plur.

w-ra, w-rw^,

oW.

an exception to the rule of accent


100).

(TratS-) child, gen. TratSo?, etc., regular,

iral.

The

Pnyx

(ttvv/c-, Uvtcv-,

genitive and dative dual (jrai&oiv~) and the genitive plural (TraiScov) are exceptions to
the rule of accent for stems of one syllable ( 100).

but voc. sing.

20.

TI

IIv\>!

38), Hv/cvos, UVKVI,

Tlvtcva.

6 irpeorpcuTqs (7r/oeo-/3efra-) embassador, rare in the


plural. Instead, the plural of the poetic 7r/>ecr/3u9
21.

old

man

is

commonly used

thus

7rpe'cr{3ecn,

115, 14 a.

fidprvs:

has always sing,

/j-dprvpos

(2d decl.), plur.

Homer has a genitive Ot'5t7r65ao Herodotus,


OlSiirous
Doric forms found in the lyrics of tragedy are gen. 05t7r65a,

115, 15 a.
Oi'3i7r65ea>.

Homer
:

ace. Oldnr65dv, VOC. Qldtirbda.

115, 16 a.

ols

ovs

Ionic usually leaves the stem uncontracted

thus

6ibs, etc.

115, 18 a.

Homer has

gen. sing, ouaros, plur. ouara, dat.

ouao-i.

8is,

ADJECTIVES

64

22. TO iT-up (stem TTU/O-) fire, gen. Trvpos, etc., 3d decl.;


but plural ra Trvpd watch-fires, dat. Trvpols, 2d decl.
the genitive plural
23. 6 Tp<os (stem T/3o>-) Trojan;
of accent for stems
an
to
the
rule
is
exception
(Tpcbcov')

of one syllable (

TO

100).

(Sar-) water, gen. vSaro?, etc.


25. 6 vlos (wo- and sometimes vo-,
21) soft, 2d decl.,
a stem vlv- or
from
regular also many 3d decl. forms
vv Q, being usually dropped between the two vowels, 21).
dual f(t)e,
These are: sing. gen. v(/)eo9, dat. u(t)e
24.

o58o)p

v(l)4owi plur. f(t)et?, f(t)eW, u(t)eVt, u(t)et9.


26. T x*ip (% et/~) ^wd, 3d decl., regular, but dat. plur.
and sometimes dat. dual %e/?oti>.

ADJECTIVES
116.

The

declension of adjectives in Greek is like that


and the general statements given under

of substantives,

the three declensions of substantives will apply also to the


declension of adjectives.

FIKST

AND SECOND DECLENSIONS


(VOWEL DECLENSION)

117. Most adjectives of the first and second declensions


masc. -o?, fern, -a or -77 ( 15), neut.
have three endings,
-ov (cf.
81 and 90).
The masculine and neuter follow

and vlv- (3d decl.),


which gives the following forms sing. gen. ufos,
Heroddat. uft, ace. via; dual vie; plur. nom. vtes, dat. uicio-i, ace. vlas.
otus has only the forms from ui6s (2d decl.).
Homer has dat. plur. x e P"^ X et 115, 26 a. xip
poetic x e/^ s X eP^>
i, and (once)
115, 25 a.

Homer has

vlos: besides the stems vlo- (2d decl.)

also a stem

vi-

'

>

FIRST

AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

the second declension


declension.

They

the

feminine

follows

are inflected as follows

d-yaOos good.

65
the

4>X.ios friendly.

first

ADJECTIVES

66
118.

They

Many adjectives in
are thus declined

-eo<?

and

-009 are contracted.

Xpvo-ovs (xpvcreos) golden.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

N.V.
Gen.
Dat.

(XP 1 "^)

XP^"<?

'

XP^"Q

(XP^"*)

Ace.

DUAL
N.A.V. xpv<rw
G.D.

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

XP^"^

(XP^"

XP'"^'"'^'

(\pvcr0)v)

Dat.

xP v<r fe (xpw<rois)
XP^ ^5 (xp^cr 'o^s)

Ace.

"

XP^

(XP^" ecu )

01 ^

XP^"*

(vpvcrfwi')

%fv<r&v

xP V(ra ^ (xpi'O'tais)
XP^ "*? (xpuo"ds)

xP uoro ^s
XP^"*

xp^^'**'

dp-yvpovs (dpyvpeos) silver.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

N.V.
Gen.

dp-yvpovs (dpyvpco?)

dp-yvpd

dp-yvpov

(dpyvpeov)

dp^vpas (dpyvpeds)

Dat.

dp-yvpw

(dpyvpew)

dp-yvpqi

Acc.

dp-yvpovv (dpyvpeov)

(dpyvpsd)

(dpyvped)

dp^vpav (dpyvpedv)

NEUT.
dp-yvpovv (dpyvpeov)
dp-yvpov (dpyupeov)

dp-yvpw

(dpyvpew)

dpyvpovv (dpyvpeov)

DUAL
N.A.V. dpYvpw
G.D.

(dpyupew)

dp-yvpoiv (dpyvpeotv)

dpyvpa

(dpyuped)

dp-yvpw

(dpyvpe'w)

dpyvpaiv (dpyvpeatv) dp-yvpoiv (dpyvpe'oiv)

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

dp-yvpuv (dpyvpewv)

dp-yvpwv (dpyupecov)

dp-yupwv (dpyvpecuv)

Dat.

dp-yupois (dpyupeots)

dp-yupais (dpyvpeais)

dpYupois (dpyvpeot?)

Acc.

dp-yvpovs (dpyupeov?) dp-yvpds

dp-yvpoi

(dpyvpeoi)

dp-yvpat

(dpyvpeai)

(dpyvped?)

dp-yvpa

dp-yvpd

(dpy^pea)

(dpyvpea)

FIRST

AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

67

dirXovs (ciTrXdos) simple.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

N.V.
Gen.

dirXov

Dat.

dirXw

Acc.

dirXovv (ciTrXdoi/)

NEUT.

dirXij

(ciTrXed)

(ciTrXdov)

dirXfjs

(ciTrAed?)

dirAovv (ctTrAoov)
dirXov (ciTrAoov)

(ctTrXdo))

dirXrj

(ciTrAea)

dirXw

dirXovs

(a7rAda))

airXovv (oiTrAdoi/)

DUAL
N.A.V. dirXw
G.D.
dirXolv

(otTrXdo))

dirXd

(dirXooiv)

dirXatv

N.V.
Gen.

dirXoi

(aVXo'oi)

clirXai

dirXd

(aVAcwx)

dirXaiv

(aTrXdwv)

dirXuv

dirXwv

((XTrAdwv)

Dat.

dirXois

(ciTrXdois)

dirXais

dirXois

(ctTrAdots)

Acc.

dirXovs (ciTrXdous)

dirXds

dirXd

(aVAda)

(ciTrAed)

dirXw

(aTrAdw)

dirXotv (a7rAdoii>)

PLURAL

1.

is

(ciTrAeai)

Observe that in contraction a short vowel before a


Thus, %pvaecus becomes xpva-ais and a?rAoa

absorbed.

a-TrAa.

In the feminine singular, however, this takes place


apyvped, apyvpa, but aTrXea, a?rAr} (cf.
83).

only after p

Observe that adjectives in


feminine from a stem in -ea-.
2.

-005

form their contracted

3.
Adjectives of material in -eo? irregularly have their
written accent on their contract syllables. Thus, ^puo-eo?,

when

contracted, becomes xpvaovs.

nominative dual

(^/oucrco) cf.

For the accent

of the

91, 2.

ADJECTIVES OF TWO ENDINGS IN THE VOWEL


DECLENSION
119.

By an

adjective of

two endings we mean one that

uses the masculine form also for the feminine.

masc. and

neut. rja-v%ov quiet.


adjectives, as a rule, have only

Thus,

fern. 1701^09,

Compound

two endings

so a-Xo70?, a-\oyov irrational, ei^ou?, ev-vovv well-disposed.


They are thus declined :

ADJECTIVES

68

I'Xews propitious.

quiet.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

MASC. & FEM.

MASC. & FEM. NEUT.

Nom.

tjo-vxos

TJO-VXOV

t'Xews

tfXewv

Gen.

TJO'VXOV

Tj<rvx ov

tXeco

t'Xcco

Dat.

TJOTVXW

H"*'X < )

tXecp

iXeu>

Ace.

T]<rux ov

r\<rv\ov

ifXcwv

iXeoov

Voc.

T]<rx>x

ti<rvxov

t'Xews

fc'Xewv

TJ<TVX<>

TI<TVX W

tXew

tXeco

i\a"v\oiv

T)<rvx lv

tXewv

tXewv

i\

1^\

<

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

PLURAL
XT TT
jN

"

V.

*'

t|<rvxoi

Ti<rvxa-

tA.fa>

tAca

Gen.

Tj(riix

wv

Tj(rvx<>v

tXewv

tXewv

Dat.

T)rtxo i s

fi<rvx oi s

tXcws

t'Xews

Ace.

TICTVYOVS

Ti(rvxci

iiXews

iXea

So

also

77^-0^0^09,

are

declined

7TL-<l>0ovov

/3ap/3apo9, fidpftapov barbarian,


envious, a-T6/cz^o9, a-reicvov childless :

so also with contraction (see

91, 3),

eu-z'ou?

(eu-z'oo?),

ev-vovv well-disposed.
1.

For the accent

2.

One

of TXew? see

92, 2.

adjective, 7rXeo>9/WZ, has a feminine 7r\ed.

THIED DECLENSION
(CONSONANT DECLENSION)
Adjectives belonging wholly to the consonant
declension have only two endings, the masculine being
the same as the feminine.
120.

Most

of these have stems ending in

are thus declined


119

a.

120 a.

nom.

eo-

or ov.

Homer has tXaos and TrXeios for Attic I'Xews and TrX^ws (see
Homer rarely, if ever, contracts adjectives in -rjs. Thus,

plur. of

dv<r/j.ev^s

They

hostile.

92, a).

THIRD DECLENSION

69

true.

happy

cv8aifjt(Dv

SINGULAR
MASC. & FEM.

NEUT.

Nom.

MASC. & FEM.

dXT]0 S

NEUT.
ev'8aifj.ov

Gen.

dXr^ovs (d\iy0-<

vSai|iovos

etiSaijiovos

Dat.

dXT)0l

v8aCfiovi

vSaip.ovi

Ace.

ev5ai(xova

vSai(iov

Voc.

v'8ai|j.ov

v'Saip.ov

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

V)8ai(JLOV

dXr)0oiv

dXT,00lV (dXiy0-

vSaip.6voiv

v8aip.6voiv

fivSaijjiovwv

v8ai|iova>v

PLURAL
N.V.

dXt]0is

v8ai|j.ova

Gen.
Dat.

Ace.

dXTj0is

So also are declined


120, 3);

needy (see

For

male.

fuller

O-CK^TJ?,

aa)(j)p(i)v,

tvSaifioo-L

v8ai(ioo-i

cv8ai|iovas

v8ap.ova

cra^e? clear ; e

o-wcfrpov

discreet; apprjv, appev


-e<r- see

information about stems in

106-107.

Observe that the accent of the neuter

1.

evSaifjiov

is

recessive.

Compound

2.

on the

adjectives in -77?, without written accent


have recessive accent even in con-

last syllable,

thus, masc. and fern. avrdpKTj<; self-sufficient,


neut. avrap/ces, gen. plur. avrdp/ccov (instead of avrapicwv

tracted forms

from avTapKe(a}-G)v.

The

3.

an

contraction of ea following an e (and sometimes


118, 1): thus evSea for e

or v) gives a (cf.

from
121.

ev&eijs

needy.

Declension of Comparatives in

some

-<ov.

To

this

form

belong also comparatives in -cov, which in


cases are often formed on a stem in -oa- (
73, 1)

of declension

ADJECTIVES

70

(cf. Lat. mel-ior-is for *mel-ios-is),

They

are thus declined

and so suffer contraction.

pgXrtwv

better.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

MASC. & FEM.

Nom.

peXrtwv

pc'Xriov

Gen.

peXrfov-os

pcXrtov-os

Dat.

pcXrfov-1

p\rfov-t
or
*

Ace
'{

Voc.

pcXria) (for

8eATlo((r)-a)

P\TIOV

P\TIOV

DUAL
N.A.V. P\TTOV-

P\TIOV-

G.D.

P\TIOV-OIV

pe\Ti6v-oiv

PLURAL
^

p\rtov-S, or

peXrtov-a, or

| p \Tfovs (for */3eATlo((r)-s)

"1

peXrtw (for */2eATZo((r)-a)

Gen.

P\TIOV-CDV

p\Tl6v-wv

Dat.

peXTtoo-i

p\Tto<ri

peXrfov-as, or

pcXrfov-a, or

peXrtovs

peXriw (for */?e\TZo(o-)-a)

'

So

also

are

declined

pei^tov

greater

(neut.

more beautiful, Odrrcov swifter.


Observe that the neuter (J3^\rlov) is recessive in accent.
The accusative fieXrtovs (which should properly be
for /SeXrZo(o-)-a?) is imitated from the nominative.

rcaXXtcov
1.

2.

OTHER ADJECTIVES OF TWO ENDINGS IN THE


CONSONANT DECLENSION
Some

other adjectives of two endings are made by


compounding substantives with a prefix. Such, for example, are

eu-eXTU?, ev-\7TL of

sing. masc.

and

good hope, gen. sing.

fern.

eveKinv

ei)eX7rtS-o9, ace.

97, 1), a-Trdrcop, a-irarop

fatherless, gen. sing, airdrop-os, etc.

THREE ENDINGS OF FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS

71

ADJECTIVES OF THREE ENDINGS OF THE FIRST


AND THIRD DECLENSIONS
Adjectives of the consonant declension which have
a separate form for the feminine always inflect the femi122.

nine like the second class of substantives of the

first

declension (
81, 82).
1.
The feminine is formed from the stem of the masculine

by adding

-ta,

but the

The

2.

regularly combines with

and 39).
of
the
feminine always has the
genitive plural

the preceding letter (see

18, 1,

circumflex accent on the last syllable (


123.

Stems

in -v-.

v are thus declined

84).

Adjectives with stems ending in

swift.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

Ace.

Voc.

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

PLURAL

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.

Tdxis

Tdxid9

Tdxe'd

a. For the feminine -e?a, -e/as, etc., Herodotus has -&t, -^s, ^, -^av,
and Homer sometimes has them thus fiadta, ^Sa^s, etc. (Attic
In the accusative singular Homer sometimes has -fa for Attic
/3a0eia).

123

etc.,

-6v

thus

efy>ea irbvTov

broad sea.

ADJECTIVES

72

So also are declined

y\vicv<i

sweet,

ffpaBvs sloiv, evpvs

wide.

Observe that the genitive singular masculine and


-09, and that the neuter plural is uncontracted.
Compare the declension of Trfjxvs and CLCTTV
1.

neuter ends in

no).
The feminine

NOTE.

ra^eta

is

14, 2

for *rax^v-ia (cf.

and

21).

124.

Stems in

-av-.

av are thus declined

Adjectives with steins ending in

black.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

Nom.

NEUT.
p-e'Xav

fieXavos
[xeXavi

(xcXav
p.e'Xav

lie'Xave

peXdvoiv

pe'Xava
p.eXdvcov
p.e'Xaa-1

p.eXava

Like /^eXa?
NOTE.
1.

is

declined only raXa? wretched.

The feminine

/xeAatva is for */x,eA.av-ia (see

39, 4)

The nominative

singular masculine is formed with 5,


Observe that the nominative singular

96, 1.
contrary to
masculine (/tteXa?) has long a according to
34, while the
short a of the dative plural (/-te'Xao-t) is in accordance

with

99.

THREE ENDINGS OF FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS


Stems

125.

in

Stems in

-in--.

-IT- are

thus declined

73
:

irds all.

pleasing.

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

No in.

\aplev

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

irds

irdo-a

irdv

Gen.
Dat.

iravri

-rrcwrT)

iravri

Ace.

irdvTct

irdcrav

irdv

Yoc.

irav

ird<ra

irdv

irdo-ai

iravra

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

Xapievroiv

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

xa P

l*

x a P * VTWV

VTa)V

Dat.

\api6crt

Acc.

Like %apieis are inflected

NOTE

1.

-irdo-wv

iravTcov

trcri

irdo-ais

irdcrt

iravras

irdo-ds

iravra

The feminine

Trre/ooet?

-rraa-a is

see
125, 1)
Xapt'eo-o-a (-erra,
form of the stem (papier-).

voiced.

winged,

for *7ravr-/a, *7ravr-o-a

for *x<xpieT-ia (
The dative plural
is

39, 1),
^apt'co-i

34), while

from a shorter
(for *xapieT-<n,

30) also comes from this stem.

NOTE

2.

The nominatives

for *xa P tJ/T"? an d


1.

*7rai/T-?.

The feminine

poetic diction,
of TT ( 22).

singular masculine xapUis and


See
34.

7ras are

of adjectives like %a/nei? occurs only in

and so the feminine ^apieo-cra has o-a instead


The Attic prose form of this word would be

%ap terra
2.
Observe that the genitives and datives
.

Trdvrwv, Trdcn

100.
are accented contrary to
3.
Observe that the neuter singular irav irregularly has
a,

imitated from the masculine.

ADJECTIVES

74

ADJECTIVES OF ONE ENDING

126.

neuter,
alike

few adjectives from their meaning have no


and the masculine and feminine are inflected

so a-7rais childless, gen. sing. a7raiS-o$, etc.

poor, gen. sing.

TrevrjT-os, etc.

ADJECTIVES OF IRREGULAR DECLENSION


The

127.

and
and

irregular adjectives

fjieyaXo-,

TroXXo-,

73, 1)

and

great (stems

/-te^a?

TroXu? much,

many (stems

73, 1) are thus declined

iroXvs much,

great.

TTO\V

many.

SINGULAR
MASC.

Nom.

pfyas

FEM.

Gen.

(Jic'ydXou

p.*ydXr|s

Dat.

(le-ydXco

|A-y<*Ml

Acc.

|xyav

Voc.

[ic-yas

NEUT.

MASC.

fxe*ya.\o

FEM.

NEUT.
iro\v

iroXvs

iroXX^j

iroXXov

iroXXtis

iroXXov

iroXX^

iroXXfj

iroXXw

iroXtiv

iroXXv

iroXv

jie-ydXT]

DUAL
N.A.V.
G.D.

fie-ydXoiv

N.V.

(xe-yaXoi

fi-ydXai

iroXXoi

iroXXai

iroXXd

Gen.

jx-ydXwv

p,-ydX<ov

iroXXwv

iroXXwv

iroXXwv

Dat.

p.-ydXois

iroXXois

iroXXais

iroXXois

iroXXovs

iroXXas

iroXXd

PLURAL

Acc.

In TroAv? two stems are to be seen ( 73, 1), one with


NOTE.
and one without o: thus (1) TTO\V- and (2) TroAvo-, i.e. TTOA/TO, and

by assimilation
127

Homer

TroAAo.

Herodotus has 7ro\X6s, TroXX?^, Tro\\6v, declined like &ya66s.


also frequently uses this form, as well as other 3d declension

a.

forms (not Attic), from the stem


gen. TroX&oj', dat.

TTO\V-

7roX^eo-<rt (

thus gen. sing.

76 b),

7roX6r(ri,

and

7roX6>s,
TroX^o-i,

nom.
ace.

plur.

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES
128.

Declension of irpaos.

Tr/oao?

mild (stem Trpao-)

feminine and usually most of


stem Trpdv- ( 73, 1). Thus, nom. sing.

forms

its

*7rpdev-ia

or

Tr/oaefc,

cf.

75

its

plural from a

fern. Trpdela (for

123, note), nom. plur. masc. irpaoi


Trpacov or (usually) Trpde&v, etc.

ra%eta,

gen. plur. masc.

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES
129.

All participles of the middle voice, together with

the participle of the future

passive, are

inflected

like

ay a06<; (

117).
All other participles, namely, the participles of the
active voice, together with the participle of the aorist
passive, belong to the first and third declensions ( 122).
The stems of all of these, with the exception of the perfect
Such participles are thus
active participle, end in in.

declined

povXeuwv planning,

(stem povXevovr-)

oiv

being,

(stem OVT-)

SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

Nom.

povXevwv

povXevovo-a

Gen.

POV\OVTOS

Dat.

POV\VOVTI

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

pouXcvov

wv

ov<ra

pov\evov<rT]s

POU\VOVTOS

OVTOS

ow<rr]s

OVTOS

povXevovo-r)

POU\VOVTI

ovrt

ouVr)

O'VTI

6'v

Acc.

povXevovra

povXevovcrav

povXvov

6'vra

ovo-av

6'v

Voc.

pouXevwv

povXevouo-a

povXevov

wv

ovcra

6'v

DUAL
N.A.V. povXevovre
ovrt
ov<rd
OVT
povXcvovo-d
povXevovrc
G.D.
povXcv6vTOiv povXtvoxio-aiv povXevovroiv O'VTOIV ovcraiv O'VTOIV

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

povXcvovrcs

povXevovo-at

pouXevovra

O'VTCS

ovo-at

6'vra

pouXtuovTwv

povXevovo-wv

povXevovrwv

O'VTWV

ov<rwv

OVTWV

Dat.

pouXcvovo-i

pouXevovo-ais

pouXevovo-i

ovo-i

ovVais

overt

Acc.

pouXevovras

povXwov<rds

povXevovra

6'vras

ovVds

6 vra

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES

76

SiSovs giving (SiSovr-)

SCIKVVS showing

SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

Nom.

SiSovs

SiSovcra

NEUT.

MASC.

SiSov

SCIKV^S

FEM.

NEUT.

SciKvvcra

SCIKVVV

Gen.

8l86 VTOS

8i8ovo-T]s

8i86vTos

SIKVVVTO<

8eiKvvcri]s

Seucvvvros

Dat.

8iS6vri

8i8ovo-T|

8i86vri

SIKVVVTI

SeiKvxJCTT]

SEIKVVVTI

Acc.

8186 vra

8i8ovo-av

8i86v

8eiKvvvra

SeiKvvcrav

Voc.

SiSovs

8i8ovo-a

8iS6v

SCIKVVS

N.A.V.
G.D.

8186 VT6

SiSovcra

SiSovrc

SiSovroiv

SiSovcraiv SiSovroiv

8i86vTs

SiSovcrai

SiSovra

SCIKVVVTCS

Gen.

SiSovrwv

SiSovcriov

SiSovTwv

SCIKVVVTWV SCIKVVCTWV SIKVVVTWV

Dat.

SiSovcri

SiSovcrais SiSovcri

Ace.

SiSovras

SiSovcrds

Seiicvvv

SeiKvvv

DUAL
SCIKVVVTC

SeiKwcra

SCIKVVVTC

SCIKVVVTOIV SciKVvcraiv SCIKVVVTOIV

PLURAL

SiSovra

SCIKVVO-I

SeiKVvcrai

SiKvv<rais SCIKVVCTI

SciKvvvras SeiKvvcrds

Xvcrds having loosed (Xvcravr-)

Scivvvra

SeiKvvvra

Xv0is loosed (Xv9vr-)

SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.
XV0V

Nom.

Xvcrds

XvVacra

Xvcrav

XvGeis

Gen.

Xvcravros

XvcrdcrTjs

Xvcravros

Xv0vros

Dat.

Xvcravri

XvcrdcrTj

Xvoravn

Xv0c-vTi

XvOeio-T)

Acc.

Xvcravra

Xvcrdcrav

Xvcrav

Xv0evra

Xv0icrav

Xv0V

Voc.

Xvcras

Xvcracra

Xvcrav

Xv0eicra

XV0'V

Xvcrdo-d

Xv<ravr

Xv0VTOS
Xv0VTl

DUAL
N.A.V. Xijtravre
G.D.
Xv<rdvToiv

XvOc'vre

Xv0icrd
Xv0icraiv

Xvcracraiv XVO-OLVTOIV

Xv0VTOlV

PLURAL
N.V.

Xvo-avTS

Gen.

Xvo-avrcov Xvo-do-wv XVO-OLVTWV

Xv<rd(rai

Xvcravra

Dat.

Xvo-do-t

Xiio-aorais Xvo-d<ri

Acc.

XiJo-avras

Xv<rd(ras

Xvcravra

XvOevres

XvOeicrai

XvOcvra

XvOt'vTwv

Xv0io-<Sv

XvOeVrwv

Xv0icrt

Xv0io-ais

Xv0io-i

XvOe'vras

Xu0i(rds

XvOe'vra

So also are declined TraiSevcov educating (like


\nrd)v (2d aor.) having left (like wi^), kic&v willing (like wz^),
having educated (like Xwcrd?), tVra? erecting (like

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES
,

77

TraiSevOek educated (like \u#etV), TiOek putting (like

Observe that all stems in -OVT-, except those of -\ii


verbs ( 170), form their nominative singular masculine
All other stems in -vrwithout -9, according to
96, 1.
form their nominative by adding -9.
2. Observe that the accent of the neuter
singular folIOAVS that of the masculine (/SouXeOo^, unlike evSaifjiov,
1.

120, 1).
3.

Observe that participles of one syllable keep their


first syllable in the genitive and

written accent on the

100.

dative, contrary to
4.

Observe that the vocative singular

native (cf.
130.
-GO))

is like

the nomi-

98, 1).

The present

and the future

contracted.

They

participle of verbs in
(-ao>, -e'&>, and
of
verbs
participle
liquid
( 213) are

are declined as follows

honoring (contracted from

SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

XEUT.

Nom.

TIJIWV

(-awv)

Tifiwcra

(-aoiKra)

TIJJLWV

Gen.

TIJJLWVTOS

(-aovros)

TIJJK&O-TIS

(-aoixrr/s)

Ttp.covTos

(-aovros)

Dat.

TIJXWVTI

(-aoj/rt)

TIJJLWCTTI

(-OOWTJ)

TIJJLWVTI

(-aoi'Tt)

(-

Acc.

rinwvra

(-aoi/ra)

Tifj.t3<rav

(-aovcrai/)

Ti(j.c5v

(-aov)

Voc.

TIJJIWV

(-awv)

Tijjiwcra

(-aou(ra)

Ti|j.(5v

(-aov)

TtjjLwvTC

(-aoi/re)

DUAL
N.A.Y.

TiftwvT

G.D.

TIJJIWVTOIV (-adi/TOtv)

Tifxc6(raiv (-aoixrcuv)

TinvTs

(-aovres)

Tijiwo-at

(-aovcrai)

TijAtovra

(-aovra)

TipnovTcav

(-aovrwv)

Tificao-wv

(-aovfraiv)

TIJXWVTWV

(-advrwv)

Dat.

TIJJLWO-I

(-aovcri)

rijicoo-ais (-aouo-at?)

Tijiwiri

(-aovcrt)

Acc.

TifJiwvTas

(-aovras)

Tino-as

TifiwvTct

(-aovra)

(-aorre)

TIJIWVTOIV (-advrotv)

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

(-aovcras)

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES

78

<j>iXv loving (contracted

from

</>iA.eW)

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

Nom.

(JuXtov

Gen.

cjuXovvros

Dat.

<}>I\OVVTI

(-eoi/Ti)

Ace.

<|uXovvTa

Voc.

4>iXwv

NEUT.
4>l\OVV

<|uXov<ra

(-

<j)l\OVVTOS

(-

4>lXoV(TT)

<J>i\ovvTi

(-e'oi/ri)

(-eoi/ra)

<f>iXov<rav (-<

<j>l\OVV

(-OV)

(-<ov)

<}>iXov(ra

4>l\OVV

(-OV)

DUAL
N.A.V.

<|>iXovvT

G.D.

<|>i\ovvToiv (-eoi/Toiv)

(-t'ovre)

4>LXovcrd

(-eov(ra)

<j>iXovo-aLv (-coverall/)

<|)lXoi)VT

4>iXovvroiv (-eoVroiv)

PLURAL
N.V.
Gen.

<|>lXovVTS

4>iXovarcu

(-eovcrai)

<j>iXovo-wv (-covo-wv)

Dat.

<|>i\ov<ri

Ace.

<j>i\oiivTas

1.

(-OVTS)

(-eWras)

4>iXovvTa

4>iXovcrais (-eovaats)

<|>iXovo-i

<|)iXovo-as

ijuXovvra

(-covcrds)

(-eovra)

<|)lXovivTft)V

The present
,

is

forms do
131.

participle of STJ\W (-o'&)), ^Xwz/ (for ?;The uncontracted


inflected exactly like fyik&v.
not occur.

The stem

Perfect Active Participles.

active participle ends in or or


sion is as follows

o<r

73, 1).

of the perfect

The

declen-

X\VKCO$ having loosed (stem XeXvKor-jXtXvKoo--)

SINGULAR
FEM.
XeXvKuia

NEUT.
XeXvKOs

XeXvKoros

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
So also are inflected
educated;
(eo-raxr-),

ecrrco?,

ea-ro'?

-/co?

having

(stem

eo-Twr-

-/cvia,

standing

contracted from eo-raor-).

The neuter

XOTE.
distinguish

TreTrai&ev/ccos,

eo-Tcocra,

79

of eorws

is

usually written CCTTOS, probably to


since otherwise both would be

from the masculine,

it

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
132. Comparison by -Tpos, -TCITOS.
Most adjectives
form the comparative degree by adding -re/ao?, -re/oa, -repov
(declined like /-ta/e/xfc, 117) to the masculine stem of the
The superlative is formed by adding -raro?,
positive.
-rax?;, -Ta-Tov (declined like ayaOos,
117) to the same

Thus

stem.

COMPARATIVE

POSITIVE
/cov(f)o<>

(Ta(f>r)$

^a/)iet9

light

/covcfro-Tepos

bitter

Trucpo-repos

sharp

o%v-repos

black

/-leXa^-re/oo?

ofu-raro?

clear

a-afyea-Tepos

pleasing

^apiecr-repo^ (for *%a26


piT-Tepo<; see

and
1.

SUPERLATIVE

Stems in

-o-

125, note 1)

lengthen the final o of the stem unless


is long (either by nature or
posi-

the preceding syllable


52, 53).

tion,

Thus:
COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

cro(/>o?

ivise

<ro^)(o-Te/309

o-oc/xo-raro?

afio?

worthy

afico-repo?

a^oa-raro?

POSITIVE

2.

few words usually drop the

thus 7epai09

final o of the
x

stem

0t Xo9 friendly,
/
Xraro9.
superlative
0t
comparative <^tXrepo9,
old,

comparative

7e/oatrepo9

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

80
133.

Adjectives in -wv and -ou? (-009) are compared as if


ended in ecr thus aaxfrpcov discreet, compara-

their stems

tive awcfrpovecr-Tepos, etc.

evvovs well disposed, comparative

etc. (for *evvoecr-Tpos~).

A few adjectives
Comparison by -LOV, -UTTOS.
compared by adding to the root of the positive the
endings -Icov, -lov to form the comparative, and -tcrro?,
The superlative is
-UTT7), -UTTOV to form the superlative.
134.

are

declined like ayaOos (

comparative see

121.

am

pleasant (cf.

for the declension of the

COMPARATIVE

POSITIVE
jyS-v-s

117)

Thus

178-0/10.1

^S-tcov

SUPERLATIVE
^S-tcrro?

pleased)
OOLTTIOV (for *Ta^-tcov,

ra^-v-s swift (cf. ra^-os

39, 1

swiftness)
jU.ey-o.-s

great (cf. /u.y-$os

ju,eia>v

ra^-icrro?

and 41)

(for

39, 2)

greatness)
o-s liostile(c,L

>9 shameful

^-05
(cf.

ato^-os

135. Comparison by (idXXov, [iaXurra.


Adjectives are
sometimes compared by means of the adverbs iia\\ov more
and fjid\ia-Ta most. Thus, c^uXo? friendly, ^a\\ov (^tXo?
more friendly, fidXiara ^t'Xo? most friendly.

a. In Epic poetry the comparative ending -uav has short t.


In poetry the forms in -uav, -IO-TOS occur much more frequently than
Homer has several comparatives and superlatives that are not
in prose.
thus icvdurros most glorious, (fttprepos more excellent,
usual in Attic
OTT \6repos younger; all these will be found in the lexicon.

134

b.

ADVERBS
136.

The following

Irregular Comparison.

the most

81
contains

list

important adjectives of irregular comparison


COMPARATIVE

POSITIVE

dya0os good

SUPERLATIVE

d/xetVcov

aptoTos

(cf. dp-err; virtue)

Kparicrros (cf. Kpdr-os strength)

Awcrro?

bad

KaKKTTOS

KOLKltoV

(deterior)
r)Ki(TTa adv. /eas^

(inferior)

small

/ztKprepos

q/*a^

/xiKporaros

eAdrra>i/ (for *eAa^-

39,1)

tcuv,

v? much,

TrAeuov, TrAeojv (see

many

TrAeccrros

21)

KaAos beautiful

KaAAtwv

KaAAtcrro; (cf. /cdAA-os beauty)

dAytwv

dAyioro? (cf aAy-os pain)

paSios easy

pacrros

dAyetvos painful

ADVERBS
137.

Form

of

Adverbs.

Most Adverbs end

in

-a)<?,

and

Their form is in
are regularly derived from adjectives.
all respects like the genitive plural, except that the last
letter is ? instead of

v.

Their form can always be determined by substituting


for the final v of the genitive plural.
Thus, o-o(w? wisely (cro^d? wise,
vra^Tft)?

wholly

(TTO,?

whole,

gen.

gen. plur.

aofywv),

plur. Trdwrwv),

ra^ew?

quickly (ra^u? quick, gen. plur. ra^eW), crac/xw? clearly


(e7a(?j? clear, gen. plur. contracted ( 120) o-a^wz^).

NOTE.

The adverb corresponding


BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

to dya#o? good

is

ev

z^eZZ.

ADVERBS

82

1.
Besides the regularly formed adverbs many nouns
(some of them obsolete) and some pronominal stems are
used in certain cases adverbially.

Thus, TTO\V much


at home (see

olicoL

Trot

battle,

nowhere

(cf.

336), O-TTOU&J earnestly (

76, note), Trpw early,


whither, TTOV where (cf.

389),

a^a^ei without
358),

ov&a/jiov

358).

Certain local endings of the nature of case-endings


76) are used to form adverbs of place. These are -61,

2.

Place Where, as in d\\o-6i elsewhere


as in olico-Oev

Place

from home,

; -Oev,

Trdvro-Oev

from

Place Whence,
all sides ;

-Se,

Whither, as in oiica-Be homeward, 'AOrjvd^e (for


?-8e toward Athens.

138.

Comparison

of

Adverbs.

Adverbs

in

-o>?

employ

for their comparative the neuter singular of the comparative of their adjective ; for their superlative they employ

the neuter plural of the superlative.

Thus, cro(a>? wisely, ao^corepov more wisely, o-o^corara


most wisely paSio)<? easily, paov more easily, paara most
;

easily.
1.

Adverbs

ending in

have the comparative and superlative


Thus, ava> above, avcorepco higher, avcordra)

in

-co.

-co

highest.
2.

(for

The adverb
fjLa\-iov,

137, 2 a.

Homer

The

thus

/LtaXa

39, 3),

very has for

and

local endings

ofrcofli

are naturally

at home, ovpavbdev

(house), irbXivde to the city, etc.

its

comparative /jia\\ov

for its superlative

much more

from heaven,

frequent in

T)fj.eTp6vde to

our

PRONOUNS

83

PRONOUNS
The pronouns

The Personal Pronouns.

139.
first,

second, and third person are thus declined


SECOND PERSON

FIRST PERSON

of

the

THIRD PERSON

SINGULAR
Nona.

i^yw

orv

Gen.

(iov; p,ov (enclitic)

Dat.

jio

Ace.

fie'

JJ.QI

(enclitic)

Voc.

<rou (enclitic)

him, her, it
ov; ov (enclitic)

o-oi

ol; ol (enclitic)

<ro;
<r

(enclitic)

|i

you

<rov

o-

(enclitic)

(enclitic)

4';

(enclitic)

o-v

DUAL
N.A.(V.)
G.D.

vi&

we two

o-<j>

vv

you two

o-<bwv

PLURAL

Nom.

VJJL61S

Gen.

TJH.WV

VfJLWV

Dat.

TJJJ.IV

VJXIV

yOU

<r<j>is

o-cjncri

Ace.

<r<j>as

Voc.
P:.

The stems

of the

pronoun of the

first

person are

(e)/xe-

(the nominative eyw being of different formation), vco-, and ly/w-e(from <l/>t)U,e-) of the second person <rv- (for TV-), ere (for *r/re-) cr^xo-,
and v/xe- (from v/x/xe-) of the third person e- (originally *cr/re-, 36 a),
;

ce-

(for

*cre/re-),

and

cr<^>e-.

From

the shorter stem TV- of the second

From
127, note).
person comes only the nominative crv (cf. TroXvs,
the longer form of the stem of the third person ee- (*oref e-) conies the
Homeric form

ace.

ee,

enclitic ( 70) forms are used when there is no


on
the pronoun. Thus, Sofcel /-tot it seems (t,o me).
emphasis
But when the pronoun is emphatic the forms with written
accent (and in the first person the longer forms e/toi), etc.)
This is
are employed
thus etVe Kal e'/W tell even me.
regularly the case when prepositions are used with
1.

The

PRONOUNS

8-4

the pronouns
about you.

thus irap

The pronoun

2.

of the third person

as a direct reflexive (

139

Homer has

a.

beside me, Trepl crov

from

e/Jiov

470),

is

never

o,

ot, e,

when used

enclitic.

the following forms of the personal pronouns

SINGULAR

Nom.

eytbv

e*7<6,

( l/xe?o, e/i^o,

Gen.

fj,
-J

vv, rvvrj
e"/xeO,

ev (encl.), e/j.edev

o-eto,

cr^o,

eto,

<reO,

(rev (encl.),

aedev

eo (end.),

0,

eu (encl.),

ei',

Wev, Mtv (encl.)

Dat.

pot (encl.)

tfjiot,

^,

Ace.

(encl.)

fjif

croi,
0-e",

TOI (encl.), retv


<re

(encl.)

eo?, of, oi

(encl.)

e^, ^,

(encl.)

fj.iv

DUAL
N.A.
G.D.

i/c6

j/wi,

v&'iv

o-0o>^ (encl.)

o-0c6

0-0(31',

o-0 wiV, o-04)j' (5

62)

<r<j>uitv

(encl.)

PLURAL

Nom.

&fA/j.es

^/>te?s,

^ TjfJ.eiwv,

PP

6/ie?s,

tfneuv

vfj.fj.es

vpttav

vfj.elwv,

(rcftetuv,

<7(f>euv

Dat

'

^"' ^^C")

^'"' ^/"C")

o-0ti'
'

^/*Me

u/x^as,

u/u^e

b.

(encl.)

o-0<f

of the plural in d^u-

(encl.),

(encl.)

o-0^os, o-0e<is (encl.),

The forms

(T(p(tJv

<r<t>lffi(v\ (?(f>L<ri(v)

as
Ace" / ^^^

(r^ewv^
(encl.),

and vpn- are Aeolic

in origin.

In Herodotus the personal pronouns have the following inflection

SINGULAR

Nom.

f^(S)

Gen.

^o,

Dat.

efwi, /ML (encl.)

o-o/,

Ace.

e>?,

<re,

Nom.

ijfj.eis

ifj.e?s

<r(f>eis

Gen.

iineuv

v/jiewv

vtyewv,

Dat.

Tjfjuv

vfj.iv

(rfylffi,

Was

o-0^as, o-0eas (encl.),

<rv
e(j.ev,

/j.e

jju-v

(encl.)

(encl.)

o-fo, o-eu, o-eu

(encl.)

TOI (encl.)

ae (encl.)

ev (encl.)
ot

(encl.)

e (encl.), /UP (encl.)

PLURAL

Ace {

as

<T(f>ewv
o-0t(j-i

(encl.)

(encl.)

neut. <r0ea (encl.)

PRONOUNS
NOTE

1.

pronoun use
and plural.

85

The Tragedians for the accusative of the third personal


and oxe (encl.) for all genders both singular

VLV (encl.)

NOTE 2. The genitive, dative, and accusative plural of the first


and second persons sometimes throw their written accent to the first
thus
syllable (often shortening at the same time the final syllable)
:

140.
self,

The Intensive Pronoun

same

is

thus inflected

a/Ore's.

The pronoun

SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

Nom.

avros

avro

Gen.

avrov

avrov

Dat.

avrw

avrw

Ace.

avrov

avro

avrci

avroiv

avrdl

avruv
avrois

avrd

Like auro? is inflected also a'XXo?, a\\rj, a\\o other.


1. In Attic the
oblique cases of ai/nfc are usually employed
instead of the pronoun of the third person

oft, ot, e,

etc.

141. Reflexive Pronouns.


The reflexive pronouns are
formed from the stems of the personal pronouns compounded with auro?. From their meaning they can have
no nominative case. The third person has also a neuter.
In the plural both stems are declined together, yet the

PRONOUNS

86

third person plural has also the


are thus declined
SINGULAR

compound form.

They

myself.

himself, herself,

thyself.

Gen.

IfJiavTov, -ijs

Dat.

efxauTo),

Acc.

ejiavrdv, -^jv

-fj

creavrov, -TJS

lav-rov, -tis, -ov

creauTw,

lavr,

-fj

-fj,

lavrov,

creavrov, -i\v

itself.

-w

-^jv, -6

PLURAL
ourselves.

themselves.

yourselves.

Gen. Tfiwv avrwv

avrwv

lavrwv
or

Dat.

T)|iiv

Acc.

T)nds avrovs, -as

avroiS) -ais

vfxtv avrots, -ats

or
VJJL&S

avrovs, -as

creavrov
;

<r<{>i(riv

<r<j>as

and eavrov are often contracted

avTois, -ais
-a.

avroiis, -as
:

aavrov,

auroO, aur^?, etc.

Reciprocal Pronoun.
meaning one another, from its
142.

The

reciprocal

Stem

d\\T!\o- (for *d\\-aX\o-)

DUAL

pronoun,

meaning has no singular

number, and no nominative or vocative case


declined

avTwv

lavrovs, -as,

or
1.

<r<j>tov

lavrois, -ais, -ols

It is

thus

PRONOUNS

87

The possessive pronouns


Possessive Pronouns.
formed from the stems of the personal pronouns.

143.

are

are

They
e/xd?

atj

os

17

place

77,

^/xeVepos

-d

-ov

our, ours.

thy, thine.

v/tere/oo?

-d

-ov

your, yours.

ov

his (Jier, its)

o-^eVepos

-d

-ov

their

fj.6v

own.

The
is

144.
o,

my, mine.

(TOV

fj.ij

(TO?

1.

TO,

own.

possessive o? is not used in Attic prose, but


taken by the genitive of auro? (
4778).

Demonstrative
is

Pronouns.

thus inflected
Stems

TO-

The

and

6 (for <ro-,

SINGULAR

36)

definite

its

article

PRONOUNS

88
145.

The demonstrative pronouns

euro?, avrrj,

rovro

SINGULAR
MASC.

Nom.

6'Se

Gen.

Tov8

Dat.

Tw8

TTJ86

Ace.

N.A.
G.D.

TotvSe

Nom.

ol'8c

a'iSe

Gen.

TwvSe

TwvSc

Dat.

Toto-Se

Taio-8

Ace.

o-Se

oSe,

%$,

this, that, are thus declined

Tao-Se

ro'Se this,
:

and

PRONOUNS
such case a preceding short vowel

89
is

dropped

thus

6Bf,

Tavrt.
148.

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.

rogative pronoun

pronoun

is

ri?,

thus declined

rl,

is

rt?,

TL

enclitic (

INTERROGATIVE

who? what?

The

70), some, any.

The

inter-

indefinite

They

are

PRONOUNS

90
149.

The

Relative Pronouns.
is

who, which,

thus inflected

relative

pronoun

o?,

ij,

SINGULAR
FEM.

MASC.

Nom.

os

Gen.

ov

Dat.

NEUT.

ti

tjs

ov
a)

fj

Ace.

ov

ijv

<3

<3

c3

otv

olv

otv

DUAL
N.A.
G.D.

PLURAL

Nom.

oi

at

Gen.

iSv

*5v

cSv

Dat.

ots

ats

ols

Ace.

ovs

as

The

indefinite relative pronoun, o<rm,


written
o, rt) whoever, whichever, is
(sometimes
and
both
o?
-m,
joining
parts being declined.
150.

#m,

o Ti

made by

149 a. Beside the forms given above ( 149) Homer has also gen. sing.
6'o
90 a), often wrongly written 6W, and fern, trjs (!).
(

masc. and neut.


In

Homer

the demonstrative pronoun,

6, ^,

r6

144 a),

is

often used

as a relative referring to a definite antecedent (cf. English that).


When
so used the forms with r- (rot, TCU,
144 a) are employed in the nominative plural.

b.

Herodotus has from the relative the forms

6's,

r),

oi',

and

at.

For

other forms he employs the demonstrative [6, ^] r6, roO, rrjs, etc. (cf.
149 a), except after certain prepositions (mostly prepositions of two
thus yuer' 775 with
syllables, of which the last syllable may suffer elision)
all

whom,

air

wv from which

44, 4 a).

150 a. Homer has several forms of the indefinite relative in which the
stem 6- is not declined thus sing. nom. &Yts, neut. 6Vn, gen. 6'rreo,
and dVeu, dat. oYey, ace. 6'rtva, neut. O'TTI plur. gen. Sreuv, dat. 6
For the neuter plural he uses a<r<ra, nom. and ace.
ace. Snvas.
b. Herodotus has gen. sing. oVev, dat. sing. 6'rey, gen. plur.
dat. plur. oT&>i<n, neut. plur. nom. and ace.
:

PRONOUNS

92
INTERROGATIVE

DEMONSTRATIVE

INDEFINITE

RELATIVE

(enclitic)

ADJECTIVES
TTOO-OS

how

great.

Troops of some

(roVos)
Too-dcr8e

size.

ocros

as great

oTToVos

as.

TOO-OVTOS
TTOIOS

of what

of some

TTOtds

kind.

kind.

otos

T0to

kind.

OTTOIOS

|
J

of such
kind as.

TOtOVTOS

Of
what age.

Trif)\LKO<S

age.

such
fj\iKos
| of
oTnyAiKos J age as.

TT/XlKOVTOS

ADVERBS
TTOv where.

TTOV somewhere.

7rd0ev whence.

iroOev from

ov, OTTOV where.

[roOev (poetic)

some place.
Trol whither.

TTOI to

oQev, OTTO^CV

whence.

some

ot, oTTOt

whither.

place.

sometime.

7TOT

TOTC

ore,
jyvtKa, OTrrjviKa, at

what

time.

TrjviKavTa
Try

which ivay.

TTCOS

how.

which time.

T^viKaSe

TTTJ

someway.

TTCOS

somehow.

rrj-St this ivay.

[TWS (poetic) thus.]

^, OTTT;

which way.

ws, OTTWS as.

Observe that some correlative forms are lacking,


having been supplanted by other words. Thus, evQdSe or
evravda is the usual word for here; o>Se and oimw? thus
have crowded out the earlier (Epic and poetic) TO>?.
1.

The indefinite relative pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs


be made more indefinite by adding ow, 817, or SYJ TTOTC- thus
GKTTIS ow (or OOTIO-OW), 6oTto--8r;-7roTe, or even cxTTLa-Brj-TTOT-ovv whoNOTE.

may

so-ever.

NUMERALS

NUMERALS
152.
SIGN

The Greek numerals

are as follows

NUMERALS

94
CARDINAL

SIGN

600

cu,

700

farrcucdotoi, at,

800

OKTdKoo-ioi, ai,

900

vai<6<rioi, at,

1000

xtXioi, ai,

2000
3000
10000
20000
100000

vaKO(rio<TT6s

XiXiaKis

rpio-xtXioi, ai,
p.upioi, ai,

OKTdKOO-lOO-TOS

SiorxtXioi, ai,
/y

ADVERB

ORDINAL
a

etc.

(xvpiaKis

fiVplOO-TOS

etc.

Si<r|xvpioi
,P

For

153.

21, 22, etc., 31, 32, etc.,

teal el?

or

we have

et? teal

In the ordinals

elicocriv et?, etc.

we have

for 22d, etc., 32d, etc., Seure/oo? KOI eltcoo-rds and el/coo-rbs
KOI Sevre/x)?, etc., but for 21st, 31st, etc., always el? /cal
et/cocrro?, el? /cal TpidicocrTos, etc.

154.

The numbers

18, 19, 28, 29, 38, 39, etc., are

com-

(or Svolv) SeWre? (ivanting) el'/coert,


monly expressed by
vavvl
etc.: thus
ftta? Seoixrais TrevTrjfcovra with 49 ships.
ez>o?

155.

The

Declension of Numerals.

numbers

cardinal

from 5 to 100 inclusive are indeclinable. The cardinals


from 200 upwards and all the ordinals are declined regu152

a.

Homer has

for four

22)

and

(Aeolic),

and

for nine times etvaKis.


b.
(80),

155

Herodotus has
5i77-6(Tioi

a.

(200),

rfoo-epes (4), dvtideKO. (12), Tpi^Kovra (30),


rpi77/c6(Ttoi

(300),

Beside the feminine pia

and

Homer

efvaros, e/vd/cts (Attic ci/aros,

has also

fa, i'^s,

t'f/,

Tav,

and once

the dat. sing. neut. 1$.


He uses 5tfo, or 5tfo>, indeclinably, and he has
also a longer adjective form, dual 5oiw, plur. 5oto/, -a/, -a, declined like
the plural of dya66s ( 117).
b.

Herodotus often uses

Suwv, dat.

dto indeclinably.

If declined,

he has gen.

NUMERALS

95

The cardinal
larly like adjectives in -09 ( 117).
bers from 1 to 4 are declined as follows
:

num-

VERBS

96

VERBS
The verb

157.

distinguishes in

its

inflection

Voice,

Mode, Person, Number, and Tense.


1.
By its Voice it indicates whether the subject acts
(active), acts for himself (middle), or is acted upon
(passive).
2.

By

action

its

Mode

it

thought of

is

indicates the
:

for

manner

in

which the

example, as a fact or as a

possibility.

Person it indicates whether its subject is the


or
some second person spoken to, or some third
speaker,
or
person
thing spoken of.
3.

By

its

4.

By

its

Number

it

indicates

how many

persons or

things are concerned in its action.


5.
By its Tense it indicates the time of the action.

VOICE
158. The Greek verb has three
and Passive (see 236).
1.

The

voices, Active, Middle,

passive voice has a separate form of inflection

only in the aorist and future ; elsewhere the middle


is used both for the middle and passive.
2.

Many

verbs,

form

from their meaning, are used only

in

the active.
3. Deponent Verbs.
Likewise many verbs have only a
middle (or passive) form. Such verbs are called Deponent.
Those which have the middle form throughout
are called Middle Deponents
those which have the
passive form for the aorist (and future) are called Passive
;

Deponents.

MODE

97

MODE
Greek has four modes the Indicative (the mode
the Subjunctive and Optative (the modes of
possibility), and the Imperative (the mode of command).
These modes are called the Finite Modes.
1. Beside the four finite modes are the Infinitive and Participle, which are properly verbal nouns (although some159.

of

fact),

The infinitive represents the action


times called modes).
thus elvai to 50, the act of
of the verb as a substantive
:

The

participle represents the action of the verb


thus o Trapwv /caipos the present occasion.
as an adjective
being.

To

must be added the Verbal Adjectives in -TO?


and -reo9, of which the former denotes what has been or
may be done (thus Xvro? loosed or loosable), and the latter, what needs doing (thus Xfre'o? needing to be loosed).
2.

160.

these

Mode

The subjunctive and the optative


mode suffix. The subjunctive has a long

Suffix.

have a special
vowel -co- or -77-

The

1.

use of

as that of o

and

the optative has -i- or -in-.


or 77 is determined by the same rules

o>

e (

169).

The mode

sign

-in- is

regularly

used in the singular active of -pi verbs and contract verbs


In the third plural of the optative
elsewhere -L- is used.
;

appears as the mode sign.


In the singular active of contract verbs -t- very rarely is
NOTE.
found as mode sign, while in classical Greek -try- was probably never
-te-

used in the optative dual or plural of any verbs.

and

note,

(See also

199,

233, note.)

Verbs whose stem ends in a vowel usually contract


suffix with the final vowel of the stem (
170,
2-3 200, 1 211, 1-2 233, 1-2).
2.

the

mode

160

a.

Homer

often forms the subjunctive with a short vo-wel (o or e),


never, however, in the present of -o> verbs ( 169).

especially in the aorist

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

VERBS

98

TENSE
Greek has seven tenses

161.

Present, Imperfect,

Future, Aorist,
Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect.

The Greek

NOTE.
tense

thus

aorist corresponds closely to the English past


The other tenses correspond to the same

ciroirpra did.

tenses in English or Latin.

The

1.

tenses of the indicative are divided into

Primary (or Principal)

(1)

or future time

tenses, expressing present


the present, future, perfect, and future

perfect.
(2) Secondary (or Past) tenses, expressing past time
the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect.

TENSE SYSTEMS
162.

The

various forms of the Greek verb group them-

Tense Systems, each of which is formed


on a common Tense Stem. The tense systems of the Greek
selves into certain

verb are as follows

including the Present and Imperfect,


" Future Active and
Middle,
" 1st Aorist Active and
First Aorist system
Middle,
" 2d Aorist Active and
Second Aorist system
Middle,
" 1st Perf. and 1st
First Perfect system
Plup. Act.,
Second Perfect system " 2d Perf. and 2d Plup. Act.,
"
Perfect Middle
and Fut. Perf.

the Present system


the Future system
the

the
the
the
the

system

the First Passive system


the Second Passive system
1.

ing

The
first

Perf., Plup.,

"

Mid:,

and 1st Fut. Pass.,


" 2d Aor. and 2d Fut. Pass.
1st Aor.

tenses called second differ from the correspond-

tenses in form, but they usually have like meaning,

TENSE

99

unless, as rarely happens, the same verb has both first and
second forms of the same tense in use at the same time.

207, note 3.)

(See

"

The " principal parts of a verb


Principal Parts.
are the first person singular indicative of every system
used in it. Thus,
2.

TraiSevco

educate,

e7rai$evo-a,

TraiSeva-a),

See

eTraiSevOrjv.

leave, A,en/r&),

TreTraiSevtca,

eXmov, \e\oL7ra,

ItefyOijv.

\e\eijJLfjiai,

{3ov\o/jLai wish, f3ov\r)<ro[jLai, /3e/3ouA,?7/<teu, e^ov\rjOr]v

sive deponent,

163.

That part

Theme.

to all its forms

are formed

(middle

158, 3).

Verb Stem).

the

(pas-

158, 3).

yfrfVOfjuu become, yevqa-ofjiai, eyevdfjirjv, yejevrjfjiaL

deponent,

common

vre-

236.

thus

From

is

of the

Greek verb which is


Theme (or by some

called the

theme the various tense-stems


theme /ce\ev-, present stem

this

ice\evu> order,

K\ev%:, future stem

/ceXei/crg:,

For the formation

of

aorist

the

stem

/ee\eu<ra-, etc.

various tense-systems see

186-234.
1.

According

as the verb

theme ends

or a liquid ( 12), verbs are classed as


Verbs, or Liquid Verbs.

in a vowel, a mute,

Vowel Verbs, Mute

164. Irregular Verbs.


Sometimes, when two or more
verbs happen to coincide in meaning, each is used only in
certain tenses, usually in such a way as to supplement

each other.

Thus, Tpe%(D run is used only in the present system ;


in the other tenses another verb from the theme Bpa/jLso Bpafjiovfiai, shall run,
corresponds in meaning to rpe^co
In the same way, corresponding in
ran, etc.
;

VERBS

100

meaning to o/xw see (theme o/aa-), we have otyofiai shall see


(theme OTT-), and el&ov saw (theme -). Such verbs are
often called Irregular Verbs.

Primitive and Denominative Verbs.

165.

verb forms

its

tense stems from a root

Primitive

a Denominative

verb from a longer theme, originally a noun stem ( 269).


Thus, rto) (root rt-) give what is due is a primitive verb,
while TL/jLa> (-ao>) honor is a denominative verb, derived

from a noun,

rlpr) honor.

Most primitive verbs have themes

XOTE.

of one syllable.

(See

270, note.)

PERSON AND NUMBER


There

166.

are

three

persons

First,

Second,

and

Third.

Greek noun, has three numSingular, Dual, and Plural.


74)
In the inflection of the verb, the person and number
are shown by certain endings, attached to the tense stem,
which are called Personal Endings.
1. The active and the middle voice have each a different

The Greek

bers (

verb, like the

set of personal endings.

The

passive voice has no endings of its own, but in the


employs the ending of the active, and in the

aorist it

future those of the middle.


indicative mood has two sets of endings in each
for primary tenses and the other for secondary
one
voice,
2.

The

tenses (
3.

161, 1).

The subjunctive mood employs

the same endings as

the primary tenses of the indicative.


4. The
optative mood has the same endings as the
secondary tenses of the indicative.

PERSON AND NUMBER

101

167. The forms of the personal endings may be seen


from the following table
:

Middle

Active

INDICATIVE

INDICATIVE

(primary tenses) (secondary tenses)

Sing.

1.

(secondary tenses)

AND

AND

AND

AND

OPTATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

OPTATIVE

-v

-|u
-<ri),

-<r0a,

-0a

-s,

-<r8a

3. -<ri (for -TI)

INDICATIVE

(primary tenses)

SUBJUNCTIVE

2. -s (for

Dual

INDICATIVE

-|j.ai

-jiT)v

-<rai

-<ro

-rat

-TO

2.

-TOV

-TOV

-<r0ov

-<r0ov

3.

-TOV

-TTJV

-0-00V

-OT0T]V

1.

-|16V (for -/ue)

-J16V

-H.600,

-)160a

2.

-T6

-T6

-0-06

-0-06

-V, -Q-ttV

-VTttl

-VTO

3. -VO-l (for -vri)

Middle

Active

IMPERATIVE
Sing. 2.

-<ro
-0-00)

-0-00V

-0-0WV
-(T06

VERBS

102

NOTE
ending

The present

3.

-avert:

thus

third plural active of

riOe-acri they

verbs has the

-/xt

put (for *n-0e-av<n),

tcrracrt

they erect

(for *i-oTa-avcri).

NOTE

An

4.

ending of the third plural imperative rarely found


thus i-Taxrav let them go. In later Greek

-Toxrav (middle -o-0to<rav)


this ending often occurs.
is

INFLECTION
There are in Greek two slightly different ways of
inflecting verbs, called respectively (from the ending of the
first person singular active) the -co form and the -jit form.
168.

In the -co form of


Form of Inflection.
stem ends in the variable vowel
( 14).
Before p or v, and in the optative mode, o is employed,
elsewhere e thus \vQpev we loose, Xure you loose, Xvoi/jiev
169.

The

-co

inflection the

optative

To

1.

so also \VOVCTL, for *\vovcn, they loose.


the -co form of inflection belong all futures
;

the present, the imperfect, and the second


variable vowel ( 210).
167 a.

from
tive:
b.

In

Homer

-<r0a

is

more frequent than

in Attic

aorist

and
with

thus

from <f>rjnl say ; so sometimes in the subjunceet\r)-<rda (Attic etfAfls), from <?0e?Xw wish.
Homer sometimes has -rov for -Tt]v and -<r6ov for -ad-rjv in the third

Tl0T)/j.i

put;

0?7-<r0a,

person dual of secondary tenses.


c. Homer often has -v for
active, before

they went,

-<rav as an ending of the third plural


which the preceding vowel is always short: thus epa-v

%<f)a-v

they said,

erpafa-v they were reared

(Attic

e/3r)-<ra.i',

d. Ionic often has the endings -arat, -aro, for -VTCU, -VTO (cf.
14, 2, note).
In the optative these endings are always found often in the perfect and
pluperfect indicative, and sometimes in the present and imperfect of -/
;

thus ^ov\ol-aro (Attic /SouXot-iro), from /SotfXo/xcu wish ; rerpd0-arai


226 a), from r/>^0w nourish ; rifle-area (Attic n'tfe-vrcu), from r/077/u put.
e. For an ending of the infinitive Homer has also -pevai or (usually

verbs
(

before vowels) -fj.ev (for the accent see


as well as irtfjiTreiv to send.
',

185, 1 a): thus

7re/x7re'-yue/>cu

or

FORMS OF INFLECTION (GENERAL)


The

170.

Form

-|u

inflection

is

of Inflection.

older than the

-co

103

In the -/u form of


form) the endings

(which
added directly to the stem without the variable
The endings retain more nearly their original
vowel
in
the -co form of inflection.
than
form
1. A final vowel of the stem
usually has its long form
are

in the singular of the indicative active

elsewhere the

short form: thus Ti0i\-fu I put, riOe-pep we put;


I cause to stand, torfe-fte? we cause to stand.
2. In the
subjunctive a final
contracted with the mode suffix

In contraction,

for T4#io, n#'Q9.


(

gives

077

ft>

18, 6

(contrary to

a,

Ti08>,

ri0r\s,

is

etc.,

gives rj (77) and


19, 2): thus larr^ai

arj (a?;)

and

St&o? for StSor)?.


In the optative the i of the

with

or o of the stem

and

for laTO,T\Tai
3.

e,

thus

tVrr|-/LU

vowel of the stem

the final

mode

suffix contracts

160, 2)

from TiQj]^i put.


In a few forms -pi verbs have the

thus TiO^v,

TiOtlpev,
4.

tract verbs in

-eco

e&ibovs, eoYSou,
TiQripi

put

sing. nOels,

or

from

-oco

BiSco/jLi

give,

and

so also impv. SiBov, ridei.

and

inflection of con-

thus regularly impf.

act. eS&ovv,

from
Sometimes also 2d

ertfets,

eriOei,

opt. TiQolro, nOolvro, Oolro.

NOTES ox THE PERSONAL ENDINGS

NOTE

The endings -/xt and -at


Primary Endings of the Active.
found only in -fja verbs. In tenses of the -w inflection the
person singular active of primary tenses ends in -co (Avoo loose).
1.

(for -rt) are


first

170 a. Homer often retains the endings -/ (1st per.) and -o-t (3d per.) in
the subjunctive thus ^0Ao>/u, edeXyri (Attic ^0Aw, &?Arj), from e0Aw wish.
b. In the third plural Homer often has -v for -aav ( 167 c); the
:

preceding vowel

is

always short

said (Attic ^vv-ie-aav^


170, 4 a. In Ionic,

thus &v-ie-v they gave heed, eQa-v they

e^Tj-o-ai').

-m verbs follow the contract system

a few more forms than iu Attic

thus

5i5o?s, 5t5o?, r^et,

ret.

of inflection in

VERBS

104
The second person
making

singular

was probably

originally *Ave-o-i,

which

37), and later -s was added from the secondary tenses,


Avets, to distinguish this form from the third singular Avet,

became *Auet

for Ave-o-t (originally *Aue-ri,

37).

the primary ending of the third person plural active, v is


regularly dropped before <r ( 34), and the preceding vowel is lengthened thus Avov<rt they loose is for *Xvo-vcn (-VTI), AeAvKdor they have

In

-van,

is for *Ae-AvKa-ixn, Ti0e'd(ri they put is for *Ti0e-av(n (


167,
note 3).
In the second singular of the imperative an ending -s is sometimes
found thus o^t's from ef^w have, 8o's from 8i'8w/u.i, give.

loosed

NOTE

2.

endings,

-v

and

Of the secondary
Secondary Endings of the Active.
(3d plural) belongs regularly to the -co form of inflection,
The first person singular active of the
to the -fu form.

-o-av

optative

mode

160, 1)

NOTE

3.

uses the primary ending -pi

thus Xvoifu,

when

the

mode

sign

is -i-

Avcrat/xt.

The Endings

of the Middle.

In the endings

-<rai

and

-cro

of the second person singular middle the a- is regularly dropped ( 37),


and the vowels contracted. Thus, from Avco loose we have pres. indie.
AUT; or Auet (for *Ave-<Ttu), pres. subj.

Xvy (for *Ai5?;-o-at), imperf. indie.


eAuov (for *eAi)e-(ro), aor. indie. eXvcra) (for *eAvo-a-o-o).
In the optative the a- is dropped, but the vowels do not contract
thus XVOL-O for *Auoi-<ro. In the present and imperfect of the -JJ.L verbs,

the

<T

of these endings

is

usually retained

thus

riOe-o-ai,

ert'^e-cro,

from TiOqfU put.

NOTE

we

side the presents indicative of early


<d-/ju (Attic <>T-/X,I ) say and Latin inquam, we shall
closely the present endings of Greek and Latin agree.
4.

If

place side

by

Greek (Doric)
see

how

SINGULAR
1.

<d-/u

inqua-m

PLURAL

AUGMENT

105

AUGMENT
171. The augment is the sign of past time.
It belongs
therefore only to the past or secondary tenses of the
indicative
namely, imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect.
;

The augment has two forms,

Syllabic

and Temporal.

Verbs beginning with a consonant augment by prefixing e-.


Such augment is called
172.

Syllabic Augment.

syllabic, since it increases

word: thus

the

number

of syllables in the

was loosing; ypd^co


write, aor. t-ypatya wrote ; pluperf i-ye-ypd(f>ri had written.
1.
Words beginning with p double it after the augment
\vco loose, imperf. '<i-\vov
.

23)

thus e-pprTTToy, imperfect of

pLTrra)

throw.

few verbs which originally began with a consonant, but which now begin with a vowel, still have
The most common of these are
syllabic augment.
2.

break, aor. eaa


avSdv(0 please, aor. e-aSov

(for *e-/raa).
(for *e-o-/ra8oi/).

av-oiya) open, impf. av-epyov

(for

ea> (-aoj)

(for *e-o-e/raov?).

permit, impf. etcov


accustom, impf. eWi^ov

(for

aor. et'Atfa

(for

roll,

\KCO draw, impf. el\/cov

tvork,

impf.

(f or *c-o-7ro/xr;i/)

(for *e-o-ep7roi/)

In Homer and in lyric poetry the augment is often omitted


went, eXacre drove, e%e held (Attic e/^j/, ^Xatre, e!%e).
In Herodotus the temporal augment is often omitted the syllabic

171 a.

b.

(for *e-/re/3ya^o/xr;

elpya^d/jLTjv

creep, impf. elp^rov

thus

(for *e-o-eAKoi/).

follow, impf. elTro^v


L

*di/-e-/:oiyoi>)

(Bijv

augment only
172, 1 a.

syllabic

in the pluperfect

In

Homer

augment: thus

and

in iteratives

191 b).

other liquids besides p may be doubled after the


f
22 a).
\i\ia0e learned (cf.

e\\aj3e took,

VERBS

106

(-ao>), entertain,

impf. e/ariW

have, hold, impf. el^oi/


let go, aor. (dual) elroz/

(-a<)

impf. ecopwv
push, impf. e&dovv

-eoyu.6u) 5l^, impf.


(eX-) to&e, aor. etXoz;
(18-) sea, aor. etcra ( 30)
(t'S-) see,

(for *-o-exoi/).
(for *e-o--rov).

see,

(-eo))

(for *e-/re<rriaov).

(for
"

(for

eayvov/JLrjv (for

(for *-yrcAoj/?).

(for *e-o-S-o-a).

aor. el&ov

(for

NOTE

1.
Observe that 6pw (-aw) and avofyw, in addition to the
augment, lengthen the first vowel of the stem.
NOTE 2. The consonants at the beginning of most of these words
may still be seen in other languages. For example, with e&^w, eAKw,
CTTO/XCU, e8-, IB-, may be compared Latin suesco, sulcus, sequor, sedeo,

syllabic

video.

173. Temporal Augment.


Verbs beginning with a
Such
vowel augment by lengthening the first vowel.

augment

called temporal, since

is

it

usually increases the

time occupied in pronouncing the syllable


thus r\\avvov,
from
t\avvw
drive
from
aor.
;
Ofjivv/ju swear;
oS/^oo-a,
imperf.
from
i/cereva)
a and d
The
vowels
i/cerevov, impf.
supplicate.
:

become rj thus ^70^, impf. from ajco lead; r\0\ovv, impf.


from d#Xft) (-eco) contend.
The other long vowels remain
thus
from i\joii/jLac (-e'o//.eu)
T\yov/jirjv, impf.
unchanged
:

lead.

Diphthongs lengthen the first vowel thus r^o-6avoimpf. from diaOdvo^aL perceive ; TJtfabz>, impf. from
guess; a/crlpov, impf. from ol/crfpco pity ; T\\>pio-/cov,
But ov-, and a- when it is an
impf. from typicr/co) find.
thus
6,
apparent diphthong (
3), remain unchanged
1.

ovra&v,
yield.

impf.

of

ovrd^co

wound,

AKOV,

impf.

of

uca>

AUGMENT
174.

Augment

of

107

Verbs compounded

Compound Verbs.

with a preposition take their augment after the preposition: thus elcr-tfapov impf. of ela-^epco brine/ in; Trpoa-r^ov
impf. of Trpoa-dya) lead

to.

But sometimes compounds, of which the simple verb


not commonly used, are augmented at the beginning,
thus ij^tWa, aor. of
if they were not compounds at all

1.

is

as

clothe

so often

i/caOrjfjirjv,

impf. of

/cdO-rj/jiaL sit.

Denominative verbs formed from nouns already


compounded take their augment at the beginning. Thus,
175.

the imperfect of ol/coSopco (-eo>) build (from ot'/co-So'yuo? housebuilder) is toKobofjiovv the imperfect of evavnovfjiaL (-doyiiat)
;

oppose (from eWzmo? opposite) is i\vaimov^r]v.


1.
But since there are so many verbs compounded with
prepositions, some confusion arises in the case of verbs
derived from compound nouns whose first part is a prepo-

Thus, the imperfect of eTnararw

sition.

eTreo-Tdrovv,

and

of /cartjjopa)

(-e<a>)

(-eo>) oversee

accuse

is

is

/carT]y6povv,

although both of these are denominative verbs, derived


respectively from eTna-raV??? overseer and Karrjyopos accuser.

NOTE.

few verbs even have two augments, one before and one

after the preposition

176.

Augment

thus

cu>-e'xo/Aai

endure, imperfect

The

of the Pluperfect.

no augment except the syllabic

I^-CI^O'/AT/I/.

pluperfect takes

thus

i-\e\v/cr) (perf
the perfect stem
begins with a vowel, the pluperfect has no augment thus

Xe'Xu/ca), pluperfect of \va) loose.

When

eardX/crj
el\tj<j)r)

(perf.

&(f)e\r]Ka),

NOTE.

from

a.

Xa/u/SaVa) take

from &><eXw (-e<)

crre\\ay

send;

w^eXrj/c^ (perf.

help.

But verbs with "Attic Reduplication"

take augment in the pluperfect


176

pluperfect

ecrraX/ca),

(perf. et'X^a),

of

thus

TI/O^KO^,

(
179) regularly
plup. of aKrJKoa have heard.

In Herodotus the Attic reduplication

is

never augmented.

VERBS

108

REDUPLICATION
177. Reduplication belongs regularly to the perfect
system (including the pluperfect and future perfect),
where it denotes completed action. It is sometimes found
in the present and the second aorist systems.
It consists

in doubling the

sound

at the

beginning of the word.

In the perfect, verbs


178. Reduplication of the Perfect.
beginning with a consonant repeat that consonant with e
A rough mute in reduplithus \v-co loose, perf. Ae-Ai^a.
:

cation

thus
1.

changed to the corresponding smooth

is

40):

Ovco sacrifice, perf. fi-Ovica.

In verbs beginning with two consonants (except a


liquid), a double consonant, or p, the redupli-

mute and a

thus e-^eva/jLai, perf. of


of
o-reAAo)
send; <i-ppi<f>a ( 23),
tyevSofjLai, lie; e-crraXica, perf.
perf. of piTTTQ) tlirow ; but "yi-ypafya, perf. of ypd^w write.
cation consists of

But

NOTE.
of

2.

thus

e-

merely

of yi-yi/wo-Kw know.

Five verbs reduplicate with


\afjL/3dvco take,

\ayxdvo) get by
\eyco

et-.

perf.

(only in composition) collect,

NOTE.

et-

e't-fJLaprai it is

fated.

"

say

et-prjica.

The explanation

See, however, et/aw

"

"
prj-)

These are

"

lot,

(/*/>-)
(<?/>-,

by means

yv- is usually reduplicated in the perfect

e-yi/ooKa, perf.

of this reduplication is very uncertain.


in the Verb List,
729.

and /mpojuat

Verbs beginning with a short vowel reduplicate by


lengthening the vowel a diphthong lengthens the first
vowel a long vowel remains unchanged thus ^%a, perf.
3.

REDUPLICATION
of

lead;

o/yo)

179.

with

a,

r\prj/ca,

of

aipa>

109

(-eeo)

take;

ox^eX^/ca,

of

Attic Reduplication.*
few verbs beginning
or o, followed by a single consonant, reduplicate

6,

by repeating the first vowel and consonant, and lengthening the first vowel of the theme thus aX-rjXupa, aX:

of

anoint;

eX-^Xa/ca, e\-rf\.a^aL^
perf.
aXe^xu
of eXavvco drive; op-a)pv%a, op-copvy/jLai, of opvrra) dig.
ri\ifjLfiaL^

The apparReduplication with e- before a Vowel.


mentioned
in
which
vowel
verbs,
172, 2,
ently
originally
began with a consonant reduplicate regularly, but the
disappearance of the consonant leaves only e- (which is
often contracted with the following vowel)
thus edya
180.

of

ayvv/ju
(originally *pe-pd/a), perf.
perf. of ny/u send, etc.

break;

elfca

(for

*0-e-ere/<;a),

181.

verbs,

In compound
Reduplication of Compound Verbs.
in verbs derived from compound nouns, the

and

174reduplication has the same place as the augment (


of
thus
ctTro-Kt-Kpi/ca,
perf.
a7ro-/cpfvco separate;
175):
a, perf. of %eipo-Tov(o (-eo>) elect.

182.

Reduplication of the Present.

plicate in the present (


first

consonant with

183.

193, 3

thus

197, 1)

few verbs redu-

by repeating the

yi-yvcoa-KO) knoiv,

Reduplication of the Second Aorist.


Homer) the second aorist

in Attic (often in

reduplication.

See

208, 1

and

ri-OijfjiL

is

put.

Sometimes
formed by

a.

179 a. In Homer the "Attic" reduplication is found in more verbs


than in Attic, sometimes without lengthening the first vowel of the theme
thus ep-tpnrro, from tpelirw overthrow ( 219, note 2). Cf. in Attic
(infin. dy-ayeiv'), 2d aor. of #70? lead.
:

VERBS

110

ACCENT OF THE VERB


184.
is

The

accent of verbs (both simple and compound)

regularly recessive (

But

64).

compound verbs the written accent cannot


recede beyond the augment thus irdpeL^i be present, Traprj
1.

in

was present.
185.

Infinitives, participles,

and verbal

adjectives, since

they are in reality nouns ( 159, 1 and 2), do not


under the rule of accent for verbs.

come

The accent

of the infinitive and participle in each


must usually be learned by observation
but present and future infinitives and participles of the -co
1.

tense and voice

form

and all
on the penult.

169, 1) are recessive in accent,

in -vai take their written accent

infinitives

The

verbal adjective in -TO? takes its written accent


thus Xfro?, \vrrj, \vrov loosed, gen.
on
The verbal adjective in -reo? always has the
\vrov, etc.
thus Xureo?, \vred, \vreov
acute accent on the penult
2.

the final syllable

needing

to be loosed,

NOTE.

gen. \vreov, etc.

Contract verbs

199) are not an exception to the rule of

184, since their accent in the uncontracted form was recessive. Some
other apparent exceptions in accent are to be explained by contraction.

See

200,1; 210, 1-2; 233, 1-2.

FORMATION OF TENSE STEMS


186.

The

various tense stems are formed from the theme

by means

of a tense suffix (or prefix, sometimes both).


In primitive verbs ( 165) we usually find also a variation
185, 1 a.

The

epic infinitive in

-/wri/cu

or

-/j.ev

written accent on the syllable preceding the ending


to lead.

167 e) always has its


thus 56/ievcu to give,

FORMATION OF TENSE STEMS

111

vowel of the theme (


13-14): thus pres. TT\K-CO
aor.
melt,
Trcr-o^iat fly, 2d aor. e ITT-O^V ;
pass. e-raK-rjv
Xi7r-&> leave, perf. Xe-Xoi7r-a, 2d aor. e-XiTT-oz'.
in the

Verbs which show a variation between long and


(13) usually have the short vowel in the
second aorist elsewhere the long form thus TTJ/C-O), TTJ<W,
etc. melt, but 2d aor. pass. e-roiK-ijv.
2. Verbs which show the vowel variation o, e, (a)
( 14)
regularly have in the second aorist, and often in the
224, note), the form with no vowel
perfect middle (cf.
or with a ( 14, 1), in the second perfect the form with o,
and elsewhere the form with e. Examples are
1.

short vowels

PRESENT
steal

/eX7T-T<

kill
(for *KTCV-IO>,

2D PERFECT

K\tyco

K-ic\0(f>-a

tcTtv-a)

e-KTOv-a

Xcn/ro)

Xe-Xot?r-a

2o AORIST

(Epic)

e-i

39, 4)

leave
(

FUTURE

e-Xnr-ov

14, 2)

Qtipa)
(for

destroy

.*V.

fyOtp-G)
39, 4)

e-<f)0op-a

PERFECT MJDDLE

In most verbs whose theme ends


Vowel Verbs.
this vowel is long outside of the present
system. After e, i, or p, an a becomes a, otherwise rj (15):
187.

in a vowel,

thus

Tl/JLw
,

honor,

(-act))

eTl/JLr\07]v

rl^aw,

<tX<w (-<u) love,

ert/zT|o"a,

(-dfo) show, S^Xaxro), eSrfXwcra, etc.


edcro), etc.

Spw

re-Ti^ica, re-

<^tXT|cra), e(>i\i\a-a,
;

e'w

etc.;

(-aw) permit,

(-da)) do, Spaao), etc.

188. But some apparently vowel verbs had originally


themes ending in a consonant. Such verbs naturally pre-

VERBS

112

serve the short vowel throughout all their tenses, and, by


analogy, some real vowel verbs do the same thus reXw
:

(-,

for *Te\o--tft), cf. re'Xo? end) finish, fut. reXo), aor. eYe-

Xcra, perf. re-reXc/ea, etc. 7eX&> (-cuw), 7eXdo-o/>tat, e^e'Xacra.


1.
few verbs have the short vowel only in certain
:

tenses

thus alpco (-&>),

alpi\crco, etc.,

but aor. pass.

Most verbs which keep the short vowel in all their


188), and, by analogy, some others, have in the
middle
and aorist passive (and verbals,
perfect
235)
a a at the end of the theme
thus reXw (-<w) finish,
189.

tenses (

perf.

mid.

a/covco

hear has

aor.

rereXecr-yLtat,

and

r)fcov<y/jLai,

and

pass.

ereXccr-^T;^

r}tcova-0r)v

/eeXeuo)

so

also

order has

e/ce\eva'0r)v.

NOTE.
As most of these verbs originally had themes ending in
26 27, 3), there is nothing strange about the
or a lingual mute (
in the perfect middle and aorist passive.
;

o-

190.
Some verbs vary between
in Tense Formation.
themes with e (77) and themes without e (77). Usually
both themes are not found together in the same tense, but
even this sometimes happens thus /3ouXo/*at (/3ot>X-) ivish,
:

fut.

{3ov\r\(TOfjLai

remain, perf.
ceive,

fut.

So/ceo

(-eo))

(ySofXc-),

yue/-teVr|/ea

al<jQi\cropai
(So/cc-),

aor.

(/-tez'C-)

e/3ov\r\6ijv
;

/JLCVCO

(/-te^-)

aladdvqjjiai (euV0-) per-

aor. yaOdfJuiv (atV0-) ;


No rules in this
(So/o).
the eccentricities of such

(alcrdt-),

fut.

Sofft)

matter can be laid down, but


verbs may be learned from the Verb List,
191 a. 9 in Tense Formation.

729.

In Homer, and sometimes in the Attic

poets (very rarely in prose), a few verbs have forms from a present (or
aorist) stem made with the suffix -6- (-e0g: or -a0i:): thus <?-5iwK-a6o-i>
(5tw/coj

pursue),

/xe-r-e-/cf-a0o-j'

(xiw 0o), 0Xe7-'6w

(0X^yw burn), e-crx-0o-f

(e X a>

hold).
191 b. Iterative Forms.

In

Homer and Herodotus

iterative

forms

THE PRESENT SYSTEM

113

THE PRESENT SYSTEM


(PRESENT AND IMPERFECT)
192.

to the

Verbs may be divided into five classes, according


in which they form their present stem. These

way

are

classes

(3) the

the

simple class,
(2) the r class,
v
the
O-K class.
the
class,
(4)
(5)

(1)

class,

The simple class employs for


193. The Simple Class.
the present stem the simple theme, with or without the
variable vowel ( 169).
Verbs with the variable vowel
show -ft> in the first person singular of the present indica(theme Xey-, present stem Xe7;).
Verbs without the variable vowel are -pi verbs ( 170):
thus (?7/u say (theme $77-, </>a-, present stem $77-, ca-).
1.
Primitive verbs whose themes show the interchange
of long and short vowels ( 13) usually have in the present
the form with the long vowel ( 186, 1): thus rr[/ca) melt
(theme rrj/c- and ra/c-), Xu&> loose (theme Xi>, Xu-). The -pi
verbs, however, have the long vowel only in the singular
tive active: thus Xeyo>

of the indicative active (see

170, 1).

Primitive verbs whose themes show the vowel varia-

2.

tion

o, e(a)

with

(
et

(or

14), usually have in the present the form


or eu,
14, 2) thus TT^TTCO send (theme 7re//,7r-,
:

-,
present stem 7reyii7r:), Xe/7r&> leave (theme
-, Xi?r-,
present stem Xet7r:), favyco flee (theme
See
-, present stem 0euy;).
186, 2.

and aorist are found, to denote a repeated past action.


are formed by adding the iterative suffix -aKe- to the tense stem of
the imperfect or aorist: thus ^ve-a-Ko-v kept remaining (/JL^VU remain),
of the imperfect

They

-v

kept doing

(71-010)

do), <j>vye-<rKo-v used to flee,


inflected like the imperfect, and

(-^w)

w flee)
These forms are
have an augment ( 171 a-b}.
BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

aorist

seldom

VERBS

114
Here belong

NOTE.

also the verbs TrXew

sail, ^eco

swim, TTVCW breathe, pcwjlow, whose themes end in

i/co

See

etc.

3.

pour, Oea) run,

-ev-

(for *7rXev-o>,

21).

few verbs, mostly

the present system (

(70^-, yev-, 7^-)

verbs,

-/-u

182)

thus

become.

have reduplication in
Ti-drjfii

(0e-,

Latin

(CL

#??-)

put,

gi-gno.')

Some verbs, with stems in TT, /3, or


The T Class.
form the present tense stem by adding -T: to the theme

194.

<,

(cf

Latin flee-to)

thus

TVTT-TO) strike

stem Tf7TT:), /ca\v7r-rct) cover (theme


dig (theme 0-/ca<-,
25).

The

195.

Class.

their present stem


(cf.

(theme

/eaXu/3-,

TUTT-,

present

25),

Many mute and liquid verbs form


by adding the suffix -t: to the theme

Latin fac-io), but this suffix almost always combines


letters.
See
39, and

some way with the preceding

in

292.

cf.
1.

22)

With
thus

tf7?puTT?:)

*Tapa X
2.

K, %, T,

/crjpvTTO)

<r(f)d(i)

unites to form TT (Ionic


fcqpvtc-,

crcr,

present stem

rapdrrw disturb (theme rapa ^) for


1

39, 1.)

(See

With 7 and

proclaim (theme

for */cr)pvK-io)

-iu.

the

6,

i unites to form f
39, 2): thus
(
*
slay (theme o-<f)ay-) for a^ay-io) Trai^co play (theme
for *7rat-ft>.

NOTE

B the

1.

Themes

in -yy- lose the first y:

thus /cAaco (theme

/cAayy-) for */cAayy-i<o.

NOTE

2.

In a

number

of verbs y-t

seems to combine into TT

thus TaTTo) arrange (theme Tay-, cf. Tay-os commander), but a good
many of these words can be shown to have had parallel themes in -K-,

and these probably influenced the

rest.

195, 2 a. This form of the present in -f- sometimes gives rise to


In Homer verbs in -w not
uncertainty about the aorist and future.
in the aorist and future: thus TroXe/ufaJ (7roXe/5-),
infrequently have

THE PRESENT SYSTEM


With X

3.

the

ayye\\a) (theme

assimilates to form

115

\\

39, 3):

thus

a<yje\-^) for *ayyeX-ico.


p the i goes over to the preceding

4.
With v and
vowel
and unites with it by contraction ( 39, 4) thus fyaivw show
(theme (f>av-) for *(f)av-io) /cpfvco distinguish (theme
for *Kpiv-ia)
aTreipo) sow (theme <TTT/O-) for *o"7re/3-t&>.
:

NOTE.

few apparently vowel verbs form their present with


theme /cav-, 21) burn, KAauo (for
theme K\av, 21) weep.

this suffix: thus K<UO> (for *Ka/r-t-w,


*/cAa/r-i-<o,

The v Class.
present stem by adding
196.

Latin

(cf.

cut

number

of

theme a

verbs form their


suffix

containing

cer-n-o^).

Suffix

1.

to the

(theme

Some verbs add

-i.

alone

thus re^-vco

re/>t-).

thus
good many verbs add -ai>TalaO-dvofjiai perceive (theme alo-0-).
If the last syllable of the theme is short, a sympathetic
with a labial, 7 with a palatal)
nasal (y with a lingual,
in
the
theme
thus
^avO-dvw learn (theme fta#-),
appears
take (theme Xa/3-), \ay%-dva) get by lot (theme
2.

Suffix -a^e--

JJL

3.

Suffix -ra-,

-VT}-

pev we
4.

thus
5.

sell,

theme

Suffix -i*.

170, 1).

poetic, take a suffix

-z>a-, -vrj-

7re/>)

A very few verbs, mostly


thus irep-vri-^i sell (irep-va-

few verbs take a

suffix -vet (

itc-vov-pai (-^6o-/>tat) arrive (theme IK-).


Suffix -w-.
Several verbs have a suffix -w-:

SeiK-vv-/j,L

NOTE.

shoiv

(theme

thus

Seitc-*).

suffix appears as -wv-, but in most of


from the assimilation of another conwhich the theme originally ended thus Zwv/u clothe (theme

After a vowel this

these cases the extra v comes

sonant in

190)

originally f

(7-,

cf.

Latin

vestis) for *ecr-vv/xt.

VERBS

116

Several verbs form their present


197. The O-K Class.
stem by adding to the theme -ovce- or -KTK~ (cf. Latin
gno-sco) (regularly, vowel themes take -cncll, and consonant
themes -uric ^): thus ape-a-Kco please (theme ape-), evp-Lcr/ca)
;

find (theme eu/o-).


1.
Some of these verbs have also reduplication in the

present system

182)

thus yi-yvw-a-KQ) know (theme

7^0)-).

INFLECTION OP THE PBESENT AND IMPERFECT


198. The -co Form.
For the paradigm see
237
for
an explanation of some of the forms see
170, notes 13.
;

the final
for the

paradigms see

248-250.

In the optative, contract verbs almost always have


mode sign in the singular and -i- in the dual

1.
-IT?-

Verbs in <w (-aa>, -ea>, -oew) contract


vowel of the stem with the variable vowel

Contract Verbs.

199.

for the

and

plural.

NOTE.
seldom,

Rarely -t- is found as mode sign in the singular, while


160, note)
appears in the dual and plural (cf

if ever,

-irf

199 a. Contract Verbs in Homer.


In Homer verbs in -tu and -dw are
sometimes contracted as in Attic, but often remain uncontracted thus
reX^ei and reXetrai, from reXw (-^w) finish, vaterdw dwell, pevoivq,?, from
fjivoivu> (-du) be eager.
Rarely verbs in -du have the inflection of verbs
:

thus /j-evoiveov (from nevoivu (-dw) be eager}. Cf.


199 e.
"ASSIMILATION."
Verbs in -dw, when uncontracted, not infre199 a, but
quently have the regular uncontracted form, as stated in
more often they show in the manuscripts a peculiar assimilation, an o
sound prevailing over an adjacent a sound, and an a sound over an e sound
in -tu

b.

thus

O/DOW for opdw, opdas for opdeis (opa) (-dw) see).

long syllable in

the original form is represented by a long vowel (or improper diphthong)


in the assimilated form
thus opootvres for opdoires, 6pdo>/u for opdoi/u,
Two long vowels in succession are regularly avoided,
6/>6a><ra for opdovcra.
:

unless they are necessary to preserve the meter:


i]P<!o)i>Tes')

for Tr^aovTes, ^/Swoi/u (not ^^Sww^ii) for

thus iip&ovTes (not

INFLECTION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT

117

of two syllables in -eo> (originally -et/&>,


193,
contract
only when the contraction will give et
note)
thus TrXeiw sail,
otherwise they remain uncontracted

Verbs

2.

vrXet?,

TrXet,

7r\eiTOV, 7r\elrov, TrXeo/Lte^, TrXetre, irXeovcn.

But 8o> (for 8ew, *Se-io>) bind is contracted throughout,


NOTE.
and eo> (for *<ro)) scrape is usually contracted throughout.

3.

few verbs seem to have stems in -77-, and so


wherever the ordinary contract verbs have a:

have

77

thus

fo>

g?,

etc.

partc.
live

live,

779,

opt.

?ij

?<piyy,

Joyie^,

$}TOI/,
o>7?9,

etc.

The most common

a>v.

V?Te,

impv.

??,

fwo-i

etc.

subj. Jw,
infin.

?>

of these verbs are

and ^pu^ai wse; for the others see the Verb

f<w

List,

729.

for

(jLcvoivcuta,

rjpuxaaa for ^ooixra, since otherwise the original quantities

would not be preserved.


199 c. Verbs in -6w hardly ever remain uncontracted, but if uncontracted they show an "assimilation" precisely as if they were verbs in
-da

thus

apbuKii.

for apoov<ri (ap& (-dw) plow}.

There can be little doubt that these "assimilated" forms are


spurious forms dating from Alexandrine times, produced from the contracted forms 6/><2, op^s, etc., which were the only forms of such verbs in
Observe that the "assimilated" form has exactly the
use at the time.
NOTE.

same quantities as the uncontracted form, and the latter can be everywhere restored to the text.
d. AEOLIC FORMS.
Homer sometimes treats contract verbs in -ew
as

if

they were

from

-pi

verbs like rtfq/u

thus

^opTj-vai,

<j>opri-/jLevai

(cf

200

a),

200 a), imperfect dual


(-60) bear, aireiK-fi-T-riv (cf.
from diri\u> (-&>) threaten.
e. Contract Verbs in Herodotus.
Verbs in -do> in Herodotus are
infinitive

<f>opC)

often contracted as in Attic, but sometimes when the a comes before


an o sound it is changed to e, and the form then remains uncontracted:

thus

6/)o>,

6/)Wi, 6/)oi'Ts, Attic

opcD (-aw), etc. see.

Verbs in -&j are usually uncontracted except when the e is preceded


by a vowel then eo and eou usually contract into eu ( 18 a): thus
eirolfvv (for Attic TrotoOo-t, eirolovv), from TTOIW (-&;) do.
Verbs in -6w are regularly contracted as in Attic.
;

VERBS

118
200.

254.

For the paradigms see


The -[XL Form.
Observe that the end vowel of the stem

in the singular of the indicative active (


where short.

251is

170, 1)

long
else-

In the subjunctive and optative the mode sign is


regularly contracted with the final vowel of the theme
1.

( 170, 2-3); thus -ndfe (subj.) for


for TiOe-fyv, from TiQj]^i put.

NOTE.

nOeirfv (opt.)

rttfe-fl?,

Three deponent verbs,

Kpe/xa/xat hang,

utiGOntracted

Bvvafjuu. can, eirt'orafiai understand,


are accented in the subjunctive and optative as if

Swoo/xcu,

CTrtVrw/xat,

Kpe/xto/xcu

3d

opt.

sing. Svvairo,

/cpe/xairo.

THE FIRST AORIST SYSTEM


(ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)

The

201.

the theme

first aorist

thus

stem

TrcuSeva)

is

formed by adding

v-aa (aorist stem TraiBevaa-)


200

a.

Homer sometimes has

-era-

to

educate (theme 7rat8ef-), aor.


.

the end vowel of

-/At

verbs long in forms


thus ri6-f)-ijjeva.i,

other than those of the singular of the indicative active

infinitive active of rt'^/xt put.

b. Homer and Herodotus have in the third plural rt0e?<rt, 5i5oC<ri. etc.,
for * nde-vai, * 5ido-v<ri, etc. (the accent is irregular) ; but regular forms
tdffi, from eljui go (
261), and ed<ri, from dpi be ( 262 a).

thus 8iSudi
c. Homer sometimes has -61 in the imperative
Herodotus in the third plural of the middle has forms with -OTCU,
:

give.
-a.ro

167 d) Tidtarai eridtaro.


(Attic -VTO.I, -VTO,
201 a. In Homer the first aorist (and future,
212) of a good many
verbs has era-, but in nearly all such cases the theme of the verb originally
:

<r or a
80 a): thus <?-TAe<r-<ra, from reXw (ew)
lingual mute (cf.
(theme reXeo--, cf. rt\os end) e-Ko/uo'-cra (for *e-Ko,cu5-<ra) from
KOfjiifa carry (theme /co.utS-).
b. Homer has forms of the first aorist with a variable vowel f:
instead of a thus e/3?J0-6To went, from jSaiVa; lov came, from i/cw
lead (impv.), from ayu.

ended in
Jininh

THE FIRST AORIST SYSTEM


The theme

1.

with

first

aorist

thus

erp^a

of primitive verbs usually appears in the

or with the long vowel (see


eri\t;a melted.

Most vowel verbs show a long


suffix (

aor.

Tt/i<w

15)

15)

7TOLO)

do,

(-e'&>)

187): thus
honor,

(-a<w)
aor. e-TroiTj-cra

allow,

(-a'o))

aor.

l-rt^-aa
(-oa>)

S??A,c5

For some apparent exceptions see

show, aor. e'-S^Xto-cra.


188.

Mute Verbs.

203.

186, 1-2):

turned,

202. Vowel Verbs.


vowel before the aorist
eta-era

119

labial

or palatal

mute

at the

stem combines with the a- of the suffix, and


28 and 29): thus e-icotya, from KOTTTCO
forms i/r or
(see
cut (/C07T-)
e-c/>uXa|a,
e-ypatya, from rypd^a) write (jypa(f)~)
from (puXarTO) guard ($fXa/e-) e-cr(/>a|a, from cnaa> slay

end

of the

A
(

lingual

30)

thus

mute

34), from

(see

and
vowel
preceding

jt?owr (o-Tre^S-).

Liquid verbs lose the

later,

thus

crreXXcw send

distinguish

NOTE

(theme

shoiv

<paivo)

(theme

crreX-), aor.

(theme

of the

cr

16) lengthen the

in compensation (

aorist suffix,

and

<77reVS<

Liquid Verbs.

204.

e(f)T\va

dropped before the cr of the suffix


from TreiOw persuade (7re#-) e-GTreiva

is

e-7reicra,

The <r of the suffix was first assimilated to the liquid,


when the two liquids became one, the preceding vowel was

1.

other letters

r)

(ircpav-) finish,

but
204

a.

tcptvo)

Kpuv-), aor. eKplva.

lengthened in compensation ( 16). Thus, *e-/xev-cra became


(which is the Aeolic form), and finally l/xciva.
After i or p the lengthened form of a is always a
NOTE 2.

-<ra,

aor.

0ai>-),

ecrrciXa

sometimes appears, contrary to


aor.

<cuW

7repdva

so

after

thus TrepcuW

KepSatVoo (/cepSav-)

gain,

aor.

(<av-) show, aor. I^Tjra.

Homer sometimes keeps

from

also

15, 1

ef/xcvra

dpaptVfcw (dp-)

fit ;

o-

in the

e-/cep-<ra,

aorist after a liquid

from ndpw

(/cep-)

shear.

thus

VERBS

120

Three verbs

205.

send,

See

edrfKa.

elsewhere

211, 3.

suffix

Very

thus sometimes

give,

See-')

'(rjfjn,

(!-, 17-)

form the singular of their

put

with the

active

aorists

StS&fAi (80-,

(#e-, Or)-)

riOrj/jii

-/ca

thus

eBco/ca,

rjica,

form intrudes
e-So-crav, 3d plur.)

rarely this

eSco/cav

(=

they gave.

INFLECTION OP THE FIRST AORIST

The

206.

first aorist

differs from the active only


thus active e-Tra&ev-cra, middle

middle

in the personal endings

For the paradigms see


NOTE.
-c

In the third singular of the indicative active

The imperatives

CTratSevcre.

240.

are irregular,

Trcu'Sevtroi/, Trcu'Sevcrai,

and cannot be

-a

changes to

and the

infinitive

satisfactorily explained.

THE SECOND AORIST SYSTEM


(ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)

number

form
and
suffix,
employ only the
These aorists fall into two
simple theme of the verb.
those with, and those without the variable
classes,
207.

their

considerable

aorists

of primitive verbs

without any

vowel.
1.

Consonant themes are inflected with the variable


vowel themes follow the -pi form of inflection.

vowels

NOTE
the

1.

NOTE

2.

very few second aorists go over to the inflection of

so c-^e-a (t^eva) poured (for *l%ev-v,


14, 1, note).
The stem of the second aorist always differs from the

first aorist

present stem, since otherwise


of the imperfect.

its

forms would be confused with those

207 a. In Homer the second aorist is found much more frequently


than in Attic, and consonant themes are often inflected in the middle
without the variable vowel thus t-dty-wv, from S^X-O/ACU receive ; -/UK-TO,
from neiy-vv-fjii mix. Liquid themes sometimes undergo metathesis ( 38)
:

thus p\i)-To was

hit,

from /3dXXw (theme

/3a\-).

THE SECOND AORIST SYSTEM


NOTE

Few

3.

verbs have both a

same time.

at the

In such

meaning, the

differ in

intransitive

thus

first

eorryo-e

first

121

and a second

aorist in use

however, the two aorists always


aorist being transitive, and the second
case,

caused

to

stand, erected, IOTT/I/ stood.

The second aorist


of the -co Form.
form has regularly that form of the stem with
no vowel or with a (see
14; 186, 2): thus e-7rr-6pr)v,
from Trer-opcu fly ; e-rpa/rr-ofiriv, from Tpew-co turn; so also
14, 2)
e-\i7r-ov, from XeiV-ft) leave (
e-(f)vy-ov, from (pevy-w
Second Aorist

208.

of the

-ft>

14, 2).

flee (

1. The verb
dyco lead has a reduplicated ( 183) second
aorist tfyayov (infin. ay-ay-elv,
179); so also elirov said,
r
root
jr-ov
for
*e-pe-pe
f7r-).
(from
probably

209.

In the second
Second Aorist of the -ju Form.
form the stem is the simple theme of the
thus e-crrrj-v (era-, err?;-) stood, e-So-fjiev (So-, &>-)

aorist of the -pi

verb

gave (1st person plural).

INFLECTION OF THE SECOND AORIST

The

210.
is

The second

Form.

-co

inflected with the variable

vowel

-co form
For the paradigm

aorist of the
~.

241.

see

The following imperatives

NOTE.

have irregular accent eiTre


but not when compounded
:

211.

The

Form.

-\LI

active of

the second aorist

say, eA0e come, tvpifind, iSe see, \a(3e take


thus aTr-eAfle be off!

In the

-pi

form the endings are

attached directly to the stem, the final vowel of which is


long in the indicative, infinitive, and imperative (except
208, 1 a.

thus

In

Homer

ire-(f>v-ov

210

a.

slew

In

reduplicated second aorists are rather frequent

from 0pdfw

t-Trt-<()pa5~ov,

(cf. 06^-os

declare,

ire-ind-ov,

from

persuade,

murder}, etc.
verb sometimes has forms with and without

Homer the same

the variable vowel

ireidw

thus e/cXvo-v heard, imperative K\v-6i.

VERBS

122
the impv. 3d plur.):

but opt.

ftfyai,
1.

ftafyv,

thus e<m\v stood,

The subjunctive

theme with the

or

a>

contracts a final
77

of the

In the optative the

mode

&o for

0TJ5 for #-T|S (ri6r]^i put),


2.

went, infin.

e/3T\v

3d plur. impv. fiavrwv.

the final vowel of the theme (

e,

or o of the

170, 2)

sign (

Sd-a>

mode

of the

a,

thus

(Sta>/u give).
sign contracts with

170, 3)

thus Otiyv,

put).

But two deponent

NOTE.

257) and

verbs, eTrpia/Ariv bought (

received profit, are accented as

if

uncontracted

200, note).

(cf.

Three verbs, SiScofju give, LTJ/JLL send, TiQj]^L put, keep the
vowel of their stems short throughout the second aorist in
the singular of the indicative active they have forms with
-/ca (
205); and in the infinitive and imperative they are
255, 256, 260.
slightly peculiar. For their conjugation see
3.

211 a. Properly, in the second aorist, as in the present, of -fj.i verbs,


the long form should be found only in the singular of the indicative active

So we should have

200).

(see
plur.

into

sing,

ejS-rjv,

e/Sr/s,

fprj,

dual e/Sarov,

etc.,

But in Attic the long vowel of the singular has crowded


the dual and plural, except in 5i'5w/, fy/xi, Tld-rj^i.
In Homer, as
ej3a.fj.ev,

etc.

might be expected, we sometimes find forms with the short vowel thus
Parriv they (two} went, e-%v-ro was poured (exva).
211, 1 a. In Homer the subjunctive of the second aorist of -/j.i form is
thus dt-wpev, d0-^-7?. But in such case the root
usually uncontracted
vowel usually appears in its long form: thus di\--g (Attic #775, for 0^-7?s),
:

d(St-r]-(Ti

or

6(0-77

of the active,

short

(Attic

and

in

6(p,

for 56-rj).

most forms

Before the endings

of the middle, the

-TOV,

mode vowel

-/j.ei>,

is

-re

then

160 a): thus ar-h-t-Tov, 5(b-o-/j.ev, /SX^-e-rat (from /SdXXw throw},


(from <t>Qivw waste away}.

<t>6i-6-/jLeo-8a

211,

b.

junctive,
(TTa-w-/ti',

211, 2 a.

happens
Sfoj

(for

In Herodotus -aw and

-eo>

remain uncontracted

-aw as elsewhere becoming -ew


Attic ffT&ij.ev}.

199 e): thus

in the sub-

(rri-w-iJiev

(for

In Attic no second aorist optative of themes in -u- or -tIn Homer such an optative is sometimes found thus

to occur.
*5i>iT/),

dvfj.ev

(for *00uro)

(for

from

*8vi(ji.ev},

<t>9ivu

from dvw

enter,

waste away, perish.

<{>di

wv

(for

*<j)OuiJ.i]v},

THE FUTURE SYSTEM

123

THE FUTURE SYSTEM


(ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)

The stem

212.

that of the

vowel

of the future

is,

in general, the

same

as

(
201), except that the variable
in
the
suffix
instead of a
thus Trai&ev-w
appears
first aorist

el

educate, aor. e-Trat'Seu-cra, fut. TratSev-ao) (stem 7rai$evar)


1.
Some few verbs in -<w (-e&>) and -aa> drop the a- of
.

This happens only when the


of the tense sign is preceded by a short vowel (a or e)
which in turn is preceded by a short syllable thus reXw

the future and contract.


<j

(-eo>) finish, fut. reX<w (for reXe-ao), reXeo));

go, fut.

fiiftto

for

(/3t/3a-o-o>,

These
oned among the Attic futures of
213.

make

so also e'Xw (for eXa-crco),


futures are usually reck-

/3/3aa))

future of eXavvco drive.

/3t/3ao)

215.

Liquid verbs form their futures


(for -ecro>,
37); the e is contracted

Liquid Verbs.

with the

suffix

-ea>

with the following vowel, as in the present of <tX<w (-eV),


thus fyaivw show (theme $az>-), fut. (f>avco,
199, 249
:

for

</>az>ea>.

The e here is probably a mere help vowel, generated in the


pronunciation of a liquid before o- thus *<av-o-ou (regularly formed
like Xv-cra>) soon became *<cu/o-o>, then <ai/e'co, and finally <avo>.
XOTE.

A few verbs form their future with


which
-o-e~,
undergoes the regular contraction.
This is found only in verbs which employ the future middle
in an active meaning
such verbs have also the regular
214.

Doric Future.

a suffix

future in -vo^ai
Trvevcro/jiai

213

a.

in -aw (cf.

thus

Trveco

<eiryo) flee, fut.

few liquid verbs


204 a)

in

breathe, fut. Trveuo-cv/jiai or

cj)ev^ov pai

Homer and

thus opvvtu rouse,

or 0eufo/uat.

This

the Attic poets have a future

fut. 6p<ru.

VERBS

124

the regular form of the future in the Doric dialect, and


so it is usually called the Doric Future.
is

Verbs

Attic Future.

215.

in -%co also take the future

but drop the <r between the two vowels ( 37),


which then contract thus VOJJL^CO think, fut. vopiti (for
This is usually called the Attic Future.
*vojMcrec!), %o//.ea>)

suffix

-<7e?I,

Four or

216.

five

verbs have no future

their future tense has the

form

suffix, so

of a present

that

thus eBo^ai

shall eat, Trtb/zat shall drink.

These forms are really old subjunctives with a short mode


160 a), which have come to be used as futures (cf. 555, note).

NOTE.
sign

INFLECTION OF THE FUTURE


217.

for the

The future belongs

to the

-co

form of inflection

238-239.

paradigms see

THE FIRST PERFECT SYSTEM

(ACTIVE)

(PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT)

The stem

formed by reduplicating ( 178) the theme and adding the suffix -/ca
thus \e-\v-fca, from \vco loose.
218.

of the first perfect

is

1.

from

A lingual mute is dropped before -tea thus ire-irei-ica,


7ret6-ft)
persuade. A v either disappears or is changed
:

to 7-nasal
(fray-ica,
2.

thus

from

Ke-/cpL-/ca,

from

iepiva>

distinguish, but

Tre-

(frawco show.

Vowel verbs

before the suffix

usually have
-/ca

a long vowel (
187)
thus re-ri^-Ka, from rlfjia) (-ao>)

from TTOLCO (-ea>) do.


themes
liquid
undergo metathesis ( 38), and
so are treated as vowel themes ( 163, 1) thus {3e-@\r]-Ka,
honor ;
3.

7re-7roLi\-/ca,

Some

218

a.

In

Homer

the

first

perfect

is

found only in vowel verbs.

THE SECOND PERFECT SYSTEM (ACTIVE)


from {3d\\co (/3a\-) throw;

ted- tc pi) -tea*,

from

125

/cdjAvco

labor.

Stems of one syllable with the vowel variation o, e, (a)


14, 1) have in the first perfect the form with a,
(
borrowed, probably, from the perfect middle ( 224, 1,
thus eVraX/ca, from o-reXXa) (<rreX-, crraX-) send ;
note)
e(f)@aip/ca, from <f)0eipct> ($0o/3-, <j>6ep-, fydap-) destroy.
4.

THE SECOND PERFECT SYSTEM

(ACTIVE)

(PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT)

The stem

219.

of the second perfect (confined almost

primitive verbs) is formed by reduplicating


wholly
thus 76the
theme, and adding the suffix -a
178)
(
<ypa(f>-a, from ypd(f)a) (7/oa0-) write.
1.
Most stems ending in TT, /3, AC, or 7 change the last
to

letter into the

corresponding rough mute

from

/3e-/3Xa<|>-a,

/SXaTrra) (/3Xap-) injure ;

12, 2): thus

^X" a

'

rom ^7^

(a-y-) lead.

Verbs whose themes show the variation of long and


13) have in the second perfect the long
vowel ( 186, 1): thus re'-r^ic-a, from TT^KW (TTJK-, ra/c-)
2.

short vowels (
melt.

219 a. Properly in the perfect system (which really belongs to the -/it
form of inflection) we should have in the singular of the indicative active
the* form of the theme with o, and elsewhere the form with no vowel or
with a

forms in
eoiKa

am

(Compare the

14).

Homer
like;

are

made

^7r^7ri0/iej>,

inflection of o?5a,

clear

from

by

259.)

Many

peculiar

this simple fact: thus ^KTIJI/,

W-Troitf-a trust;

yeydr^v (for

from

*ye-yv-T-r)i>,

from 7^-70^-0 have become; 7r<?-7rcur0e (for *7re-7ra0-re, 26),


have suffered. So also 7re-0u7-/ic^os, perfect middle partiof fatiyw flee.
So also in Attic T^-rpa/x-/xat, r^-0/>a/*-/xcu, e-<7rpa^-/xat,

14, 1, note),

from
ciple
etc.

-n-t-TTovd-a

224,

219,

1 a.

1,

note).

Homer never makes rough a

perfect active.

labial or palatal

mute

in the

VERBS

126

Verbs whose themes show the vowel variation o, e,


14) have in the second perfect the form with o
(
(or ot) ( 186, 2): thus Te-rpocfr-a, from Tpecfxo (r/3o<-,
nourish ; Xe-XotTT-a, from XetVa) (XotTr-,
rpe(f>-,
r/>a(/>-)
3.

(a)

Xetvr-,

XTT-) leave.

NOTE
have
lar

Themes with the

1.

variation ov,

ev,

14, 2)

should also

second perfect, but the only example of this reguAll others have cv, as
the Epic l\r)\ovOa have come.

(o) ov in the

form

is

from <evya> (<evy-, <vy-) flee.


Verbs with Attic reduplication ( 179) regularly have
the short form of the root: thus aX-^\\.<f>-a, from dAeC^xu anoint.
7T-^)vy-a,

NOTE

2.

few second perfects are formed without any


the
suffix,
endings being added directly to the reduplicated theme
thus e-ara-fjiev we stand, re-Ovd-vai, to be
220.

Such forms are never found


219 a and 258).

dead.

in the singular of

the indicative (cf.

INFLECTION OF THE PERFECTS ACTIVE


(FIRST AND SECOND)

The

221.

first

their inflection.

NOTE.
to

-e

1.

ciple

used

and second perfect systems are alike


242-243.
For the paradigms see

In the third singular of the indicative active

7T7rai8evK

(cf.

-a

in

changes

206, note).

For the subjunctive and optative the perfect partiwith the corresponding form of elfit am is very often
:

thus

TreTratSeu/co)?

The imperative

a>,

TreTratSef/cco? eirjv (cf.

227)..

hardly ever found except in perfects with present meaning


thus eo-raOi, stand.
2.

is

THE PLUPERFECTS ACTIVE


(FIRST
222.

The stem

AND SECOND PLUPERFECTS)


of

the pluperfect active is the same


with the substitution of e or

as that of the perfect active,

THE PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM

127

a of the suffix thus 1st perf. \\v/ca, 1st plup.


2d perf. yeypacJMi, 2d plup. ee-\e-\v-tcrj

77

for the

INFLECTION OF THE PLUPERFECTS ACTIVE


(FIRST AND SECOND)

For the inflection of the pluperfects active, see the


242-243.
For the augment see 176.
paradigms
223.

THE PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM


PERFECT, PLUPERFECT,

AND FUTURE PERFECT

224. The stem of the perfect middle is the reduplicated


theme, to which the endings are attached directly thus
:

Xe-Xf-fiat,

from

\vco loose.

The

perfect middle in general agrees with the first


in vowel changes of the theme and the
active
perfect
retention or rejection of v.
Examples are
1.

from TL^W (-ao>) honor.


7re-7rotT|-yLtat, from TTOLCO (-ea>), do.
27, 3), from ireiO-a) persuade.
7re-7ricr-/Licu (
from
(rre'XXa) (o-reX-, <rraX-) send.
e-crraX-yiiat,
from /cptva) (^ptv-) distinguish.
t
38, 1), from /3aXX&> (/3aX-) throw.
(
T-Tf/jLj\-fJLai,

NOTE.
Properly the perfect middle of primitive verbs with the
vowel variation o, e, (a) (
14, 1 and 186, 2), should have the form of
the theme with no vowel or a: thus re'-0pa/x-/u.at (rpe^w nourish), TCTpa/x-/Aou (rpeVa) turn), t-crrpa/x-jaai

sow), T-ra-/xat

(crTrep-)

stretch), 7re-7rvcr-pxxi

(rev-)

form of the theme with


send),

For
see

(for

(crrpe^w (urn),

*T-Tv-/xat

14,

1,

|-cr7rap-yaat

note),

(TTW&IVO/JUH (wevO-, TTV@-) learn)

has often intruded

thus

((77rtpw

from recVw
;

but the

Tre-rre/x-puxi (Tre/xTr-oo

persuade).
at the end of the stem in the perfect middle of

7re-7ricr-/xat (7reiQ-<o
a-

some verbs

189.

222 a. Ionic usually has the uncontracted forms -ea, -ea-s,


singular of the pluperfect thus ireiroldea trusted, Tjdee(v) knew.
:

-ee

in the

VERBS

128

INFLECTION OF THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE


225.

1.

The

vowel verbs

inflection of the perfect middle system of


244.
In mute or liquid
be seen in

may

verbs the final consonant of the theme before the personal


endings- is subject to the euphonic changes mentioned in

25-31 and 35.

These may be seen from the paradigms

247.

When

end of the perfect middle stem


of some verbs (
189) comes before cr in a personal
ending, the two sigmas are reduced to one ( 35) thus
re-reXed-fiai, re-reXecrat (for *re-reXecr-crafc), from reXa> (-e'a>)
2.

the

cr

at the

finish; see

247.

In the third person plural of the indicative middle


consonant stems employ the perfect participle with el<ri
they are for the perfect, and with rjo-av they were for the
226.

pluperfect, since the endings -vrai, -vro are regularly used


only after a vowel thus ^pevoi elai, they have been led.
:

227. The perfect middle subjunctive and optative (like


the third plural of the indicative) are periphrastic. They
are made by combining the perfect participle with the

subjunctive and optative of et/u am (cf. Latin amatus sim,


amatus essem)', thus TreTraiBevfjievos o>, TreTraibev/jLevos eirjv.
226

a.

In Ionic the endings

-arcu, -a.ro (Attic -PTCU, -VTO,

167 d), are

employed in the third plural with consonant themes, and sometimes even
with vowel themes before these endings TT, 0, /c, 7, are usually changed
to the corresponding rough mutes
thus re-rdx-arat, e-re-rdx-aro, from
rdTTb) (T<ry-) arrange (Attic Teray^voi eiV, reray^voi ?j<rav').
So also
Herodotus is very fond of these
/3e-/S\T7-aTo, from /SdXXw (/3aX-) throw.
endings, and uses them often with vowel verbs (the vowel before them
being always made short): thus ot'/c^-arai (Attic ^/CTJ-J/TCU), from
;

-<?w

inhabit.

THE FIRST AOKIST PASSIVE SYSTEM

129

NOTE.

few perfects middle that have a present meaning form


and optative directly from the stem so /xe/avry/xat
remember, from /xt/xv>/crK(o remind; subj. /xe/xvio/ixu, opt. /xc/uv>/ pyv or
2d pers. /xe/xi/jj-o, for */xe-/w,vr;-i-((7)o, etc.

their subjunctive

THE FUTURE PERFECT


The stem

of the future perfect is formed by adding


A vowel before
of
the perfect middle.
stem
-criin
the
is
-cr~_
perfect middle it may
always long, although
have been short thus \e-\v-cr o-pai (perf. mid. Xe-Xu-yucu)
from \vw loose; Se-frrj-cro-ftat (perf. mid. Se-&-/-tcu) from
228.

to the

So)

(Sew) bind.

INFLECTION OF THE FUTURE PERFECT

The future

perfect is inflected with the middle


from
the future middle only in having
endings.
Its meaning is almost always passive.
reduplication.
For the paradigm see
244.
229.

It differs

Future Perfect Active.

230.

Most verbs form

their

future perfects active periphrastically by combining the


perfect participle with ecrofjiai shall be : thus 76-7 pantos
shall have written (cf. in Latin the corresponding

ecro/nai

passive form scriptus ero).

But two

perfects with present

meaning, in frequent use, have developed a special future


These are redvr^ica am dead {(a7ro)6vr)(ric(D
perfect active.
die), fut. perf. TeOvijgco shall be

(fomjfu

set

up), fut. perf.

ear^a)

dead; and earrjKa stand


shall stand.

THE FIRST AORIST PASSIVE SYSTEM


231. The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by
adding to the theme of the verb the suffix -6e-, the e of
which appears as 77 in the indicative, infinitive, and imperBABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

VERBS

130

ative (except the 3d plur. impv., cf.

from
1.

(TT,

e-\v-0r)-v,

Before the 6 of the suffix a labial or palatal mute


a lingual mute
ft K, 7) becomes coordinate ( 25)
;

becomes a
do

211): thus

\v(o loose.

26): thus

; e-\efy-07)-v

from

TreiBo)

the perfect middle

from
from

give;

SiSwfjLi

from

Trpdrrco

; eTrefo-Orj-v (7ret6-),

a vowel of the

thus

e-rl/JL^-Orj-v

e-S6-0r)-v

(perf.

mid.

perf.

-/cpi-0r)-v,

same length

(perf. mid.

as in

Te-Ti'/-n]-//,at),

mid.

8e-o-/-iat),

ice-tcpi-paL,

from

distinguish.

For the

r)/cov<T07)v,

tion

honor;

rZ/zw (-a&>)

tcptvco

4.

leave

persuade.

Vowel verbs show

2.

3.

e-Trpd^-Oij-v (Trpcry-),

(Xenr-), from XetVo)

before the suffix of some verbs (ereX&lipK,

cr

etc.) see

189.

Primitive verbs whose themes show the vowel variao, e, (a)

14) usually have in the first aorist passive


e
thus e-Tptcfr-Orj-v, from r/oeVo) (T/OOTT-,

the form with


rpeTT-, T/>a7r-)

turn;

e-Xct^)-^?;^,

from

\ei7rco

(\oi7r-, Xe^TT-,

Xt?r-) leave.

SECOND AORIST PASSIVE


The stem

232.

by adding

of the second aorist passive is


the suffix -e- to the theme of the verb.

formed
This e

appears as 77 in the indicative, infinitive, and imperative


211) thus e-cfrdv-rj-v, from
(except the 3d plur. impv., cf
.

(f)aLV(0

(<ai>-) shoiv.

1.
Primitive verbs whose themes show the variation
between a short and a long vowel ( 13) have in the
second aorist passive the form with the short vowel
thus e-TCiK-rj-v, from Trj/c-a (T^/C-, ra/c-')
186, 1)
(
:

melt.
2.

tion

Primitive verbs whose themes show the vowel variao,

e, (a)

14)

have

in

the

second aorist passive

THE FUTURES PASSIVE


the form with a (

186, 2)

thus

131

from

-crTa.\-rj-v,

crriXXco

(crreX-, <rra\-) send.

INFLECTION OF THE AORISTS PASSIVE


(FIRST AXD SECOND)

The

and second

aorists passive are alike in


the active endings ( 166, 1),
and closely resemble the second aorist of the -fit form.
For the paradigms see
245-246.

233.

first

They take

their inflection.

The subjunctive

1.

with the

co

or

rj

contracts the e of the passive suffix


mode sign ( 160, 2): thus \vO&

of the

for \u-0-o> (\vco loose).

The

2.

and
is

optative has for

mode

sign

The

in the plural (

-irji

in the singular

of the

160, 1).
contracted with the e of the suffix (
i

mode

160, 2):

sign
thus

\v0tirjv, \v6tifjLev (\vco loose).

In the dual and plural -nq- sometimes is found as the


sign, but there is little doubt that this is due to errors of
copyists, who were influenced by the analogy of the singular.

NOTE.

mode

3. The
imperative ending -0i in the first aorist passive
becomes -n to avoid rough mutes at the beginning of two

successive syllables (

40): thus \v0rj-ri (for *\v6j]-6C).

THE FUTURES PASSIVE


(FIRST
234.

adding
233
for

a.

-<rai',

AND SECOND FUTURES PASSIVE)

The stem
-<rjl

the future passive is formed by


to the stem of the aorist passive (cf.
212;
of

In the third plural indicative

Homer

always with a short vowel preceding

often has the ending -v


thus e-rpaQ-e-v
167 c)
:

were reared, Attic ^-Tpd^-tj-ffav.


233, 1 a. In Homer the subjunctive of the second aorist passive has
the same peculiar form as the second aorist active of the -/M form (see
211, 1 a): thus
(

160 a) from

001/77-77

dd/j.vrnju

(Attic <t>avri, for ^a^-rj) from


subdue.

<f>a.Lvu

shoiv,

VERBS

132

thus XvOrf-ao- pai (aor. pass.

228):
loose;

from

\vco

show.

<f>aiva)
(aor. pass. e-(f)dvrj-v^,
is inflected like the future middle.

<j)avij-cro-/jLai,

The

1.

from

e-\v0rj-v~),

future passive

For the paradigms see

245; 246,

1.

VERBAL ADJECTIVES
The stems

235.

-TO-

and

of the verbal adjectives are

adding
same form as in the

mute

is

formed by

theme, which usually has the


aorist passive, except that a rough

-reo- to the
first

made coordinate

before the r of the suffix (

25)

thus,

VERBALS

AORIST PASSIVE
Xuo> loose

e-\v-6rjv

(-a&))
)

rp(f>co

honor

e-rlfjLrj-Qrjv

persuade

e-Treia-Orjv

7raa--ro'?,

distinguish

e-Kpi-Orjv

Ac/34-rd?, tcpi-reos

arrange (ray-) e rd^-Orjv


nourish
e-dpe^-Orjv

ra/c-ro?, ra/c-reo?

The

verbal adjectives belong to the


declensions of adjectives (XuroV, -r), -6v
1.

See
2.

may

117.

The

For the accent

and second

Xureo?, -a, -ov).

185, 2.

verbal in -TO? expresses what has been done or


that in -Teo? what needs doing thus XUTO?

be done

loosed or loosable

236.

see

first

Xtn-eo?

The meanings

needing

to be loosed.

of the different persons, numbers,

modes, tenses, and voices,

may be seen from the following


paradigm and synopsis of TratSevco educate. The meanings
of the subjunctive and optative have no brief equivalent in
English, and they must be learned from the chapter on
Syntax.

SYNOPSIS OF

133

7raL&ev(0

PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE OF

ircuSevw educate

SINGULAR
1.

ircuSevb)

PLURAL

/ educate

iraiSvo|tv
t

2.

3.

irai8uis you educate


iraiSeuei he

educates

educate

educate

educate

SYNOPSIS OF THE VERB

educate

ice

you (two)

irai$tvov<rithey educate

iraiSevw educate

THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT


Active
iraiScvco

cate
Indie.

Middle

Passive

I edu- itai8vio|iai I educate for The present middle is


used also as passive
(or am
myself, get educated

educating)

(or

am

getting edu-

158, 1)

cated}

I was

ciraiScvov

TTcuSev6p.r|v

I was

get-

ting educated

educating
Subj.

iraiSevco

Opt.

iraiScvoifii

luipv.

iraCSeue

Infin.

iraiScvciv to edu-

TTCuScVWfJLCU

educate

cate

iraiStvov get educated

iraiS6Va-6ai to get edu-

cated

Partic. irai8vwv

edu-

ircuScuoficvos

getting

educated

cating

THE FUTURE
Indie.

iraiScv<ro>

I shall

educate
Opt.

iraiSevcroifju.

Infin.

iraiSevo-civ to be

about

to

/ shall get

educated

edu-

irai8evo-<r0ai to be about
to get

educated

cuSv0r|cro|iai
be educated

/ shall

be
to
irai8u0T|(rtr0ai
about to be educated

cate
Partic. ircuSevcroov about
to educate

iraiSvo-6(ivos about to
get educated

ircu8u0T]or6[ivos
to be educated

about

VERBS

134

SYNOPSIS OF

ircuSevw educate (continued}

THE AORISTS
Middle

Active
Indie.

liraiScvo-a

I edu-

Passive

/ got edu-

iirai8euo-d(j.T]v

cated

cated
Subj.

iraiSgvo-tt

Opt.

TTCuSeucraifu

Impv.

-iraCScuo-ov

icas

C7rcu5eu0r|v

edu-

cated

irat8ev0iT|v

edu-

educated

ircuSevcrcu get

be educated

cate
Infin.

iraiSeva*ai

to

irai8v<ra<r0ai to get edu-

irat8v0T]vcu to be edu-

cated

educate

hav-

Partic. ircuSevo-ds

cated

having

iraiScvo-djAcvos

iraiSevdei's

got educated

ing educated

having been

educated

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT


I have got
534) educated

irirai8Ufj.ai

have educated
Indie.

reirouScvKT]

(or am,

(ortcas,

/ had got
534) educated

ireirai8ev|ivos

irirai8V(ivos el'tjv
irirai8V(ro be educated

Partic.
.

158, 1)

(ortobe,53)educated

having

ireiraiSevpe'vos

having

have got

ireircuSevo-Ocu to

have educated

is

Subj.

Opt.
Infin.

perfect middle

'used also as passive

iireirai8cv}j.T]v

had educated

Impv.

The

edu-

got educated, or simply

cated

educated

534)

THE FUTURE PERFECT


Active.
Indie.

See

230.

irircuSeuKb>s eVojicu

/ shall

(Middle and) Passive. See 229.


jTTrai8v<ro|Aai I shall have (got or)

have educated

been educated, or shall be educated (cf.


538)

Opt.

7reirai8eu<roifXT|v

Infin.

e'cr<r9ai

about
Partic.

to

to

be

irTrai8v<reo-0ai to be about to have

have educated etc.

(got or) been educated


<

ir

irai8ixr6|ivos about to have (got


or) been educated

<

VERBAL ADJECTIVES
educated or capable of being educated
needing to be educated

PARADIGMS OF
237.

-&)

Present System

VERBS

135

PARADIGMS OF

136

-ft)

VERBS

Future System.

Vowel Verbs.

238.

239.

7raiSev-a> educate.

(f>aiv(i)

MIDDLE.

ACTIVE.

((av-) show.

MIDDLE.

ACTIVE.

Future (contracted).

Future.
s.

Liquid Verbs.

iraiSevcro-|iai
~ ^
(

4>av T1 or
>avetTCU

4>aveis (-&is"

3 ircuScvo-ci

<f>av6i

D. 2 irai8vo--Tov
P. 1

irai8euo--<r0

<|>avi-TOv

<f>avi(T0ov (-^e-

(-t

<f>avov-fjkcv (-

4>avot'fi0a

<}>avi-T (-&-)

<|)avior0

<(>avov(ri

<j>avovvrai (-

No

No

Subjunctive

Subjunctive

S. 1 ircuSevo-oi-fu

(--]

irai8v<roi-}XT]v

<j>avoiT]-v (-

2 irai8v<roi-s

iraiStvo-oi-o

<j>avoii]-s (-601775) <})avoi-o (^oto)

3 irai8ev<roi

iraiScvo-oi-ro

D. 2 irai8vo-oi-TOv iratSevo-oi-o-Oov

<f>avoiT] (-foirj}

4>avoi-ro (-eoi-)

<|>avoi-Tov (Woi-)

<|>avoi-(r0ov (-^01-)

3 irai8ev(roi-TT]v irai8U(roi-<r0T]v 4>avoi-Tt]v


P.

<{>avei-Tov (-<

irai8vo--o-0ov

^
c

(-&i)

2 ircuSevcroi-TC

3 iraiSevtroie-v

(-co/-) <j>avoi-<r0T]v (-eo/-)

<j>avoi-T

irai8V(roi-vTO

(-^ot-)

<J>avoi-cr0

No

No

Imperative

Imperative

iraiScvo-civ

irai86t<r-(T0ai

<J>aviv

Part.

iraiScvo-wv,

irai8v<r6-|JLvos,

<|>avwv (-^wi/),

-oxxra, -ov

-T],

-ov

For an explanation

(-^eiz/)

-oii<ra,

of

some

of the

(-^01-)

<j>avoi-vTO (-^ot-)

<j>avoi-v (-^ot-)

Infin.

NOTE.

<j>avoi-|i0a (-eo/-)

<j>avoi-[JLv (-eoi-)

irai,8V(roi-(JL6v

4>avei-cr0ai (-^e-)
<j>avov-(Jivos(-e(S-),

-ovv

forms see

-TJ,

-ov

170, notes 1-3,

PARADIGMS OF
240. First Aorist System.

-a)

VERBS

137

241. Second Aorist System.

PARADIGMS OF

138

VERBS

-a)

242. First Perfect System.

243. Second Perfect System.

AdVa)

TrcuSev-to educate.

(AoiTr-, ACITT-, AITT-,

14, 2)

leave.

ACTIVE.
1st Perfect.
1

ACTIVE.

1st Pluperfect.

jre-iraiSevKO,

l-irt-iraiSewKt]

2d Pluperfect,
c-XcXoiirrj

2 ire-iraiSevica-s

-ir-irai8VKTj-s

XcXoiira-s

e-XeXoiirt]-s

3 ire-iraiSeuKe

-'ir-irai8VKi(v)

Xc'Xoiire

4-XXoiim(v)

D. 2 ir-irai8evKa-TOv l-ire-iraiSevKe-TOv
3 ire-iraiSevKa-TOv
P.

2d Perfect.
XcXoiira

XeXotira-rov 6-XeXoiirc-riiv

l-i
-;

irc-iraiSevKa-fjtev

2 ir-irai8VKa-T

-1

-ir-Trai8cvK-(rav
S. 1 ire-iraiSevKw

XeXoiira-rov 4-XeXoiire TOV

(See also

2 1T-ir(uSVKT|S
3

-XcXoire-(rav

XcXoiircuri

(See also

XeXoiirti)

221, 1.)

221, 1.)

XeXoCiqis

-,

D.2

XeXoiir-q-Tov

P.

Tr-irai&VKci>-(Xv

2 ire-iraiSevKTi-Te
3 ire-iraiSevKcixri
S. 1 ire-iraiSevKoi-ixt

XeXoiirq-re
XcXoiirbxri

or

2 ire-iraiSevKoi-s

-oii\-v

(See also

-O(TJ-S

221, 1.)

'*

3 ire-iratStvKOi

-OITJ

D. 2 ire-iraiSevKoi-TOv

XeXoiiroi-p.1

or

-oli\-v

(See

-oit]-s

also

"

XeXotiroi-s

'

XtXoiiroi

-oCr,

XeXoCiroi-rov

221
I-)

3 ire-iraiStvKoi-Tqv
P. 1 ir-'irai8TJKOi-fi.v

S.

XXoi1TOl-T

XeXoiiroie-v

2 [ire-iraC8VK
3 ire-ircuSevKe'-Tco

(See also
221,2.)

(See also

[Xe'Xoiirc

XeXonre'-Tw

221, 2.)

XeXoiire-TOV

3 7T-ir<u8VK-Ta>V

XcXonre-Twv

P. 2 1T-irai5VK-T

3 ire-iraiSevKo-vTtov]
Infin.

ire-iraiSeuKe'-vai

Part.

ire-iraiSevKws, -Kvia, -KOS

NOTE.

The

XXoiir6-vTwv]

XeXoiirws, -via, -6s

For an explanation of some of the forms see


and participle active are irregular in accent

infinitive

170. notes 1-3.


(

185).

PARADIGMS OF

-&>

VERBS

244. Perfect Middle System


7raiSev-<D

educate

139

PARADIGMS OF

140
245.

First Passive
TTcuSev-o)

-o>

246.

System

Second Passive System

educate

1st Aorist

appear

<f>aiva} (<^>av-)

1st

S. 1 e-ir<u8v0T]-v

Future

2d Aorist

ircuSu0ifjaro-|Aai

-<j>dvT]-v

or

2 i-irai8v0T)-s

D. 2

VERBS

irai,8u0^(r6-<r0ov

-irai8cv0ii-TOv

4-<j>dvTj-TOv

3 4-irai8v0T|-TT]v
P.

-1T<u8V0Tl-|WV

6-1

4-i

-<|>dvT]-flCV

4-<|)dvT]-T
-<|>dvTj

S. 1 iraiSev0a>

2 irai8ev0fjs
3 ircu8v9fj

D. 2

<rav

<|>ava>

<j>avfjs

No

<|>avfi-TOv

Subjunctive

<f>avfi-TOv

TOV

ircuSevOi]

3 irai8ev0T]-Tov
P. 1 ircu8v9a>-|iv

2
3
S. 1 irai8v0iTi-v

<j>aviT)-s

<

4>aviT]

irai8v9if|(roi-TO

D.2

<|>aVl-TOV [-IT]TOV]

3 ircuSevOci-TTiv

<J>aVl-TT]V [-l^)T^v]

[-CITJTTJV]

P. 1 irai8U0l-|JLV [-lT]p,v]

4>aVCl-|lV [-lT]fJlvJ

2 irai8V0l-T [-ll]T]
3 irai8u0i-v [-tT]<rav]
S.

[-IT]T]

4>avei-T

4>av6i-v [-eiTjcrav]

2 iraiSev'Ori-Ti

<j>dvTj-0i

4>avr|-Ta)

No

D. 2 irai8u0T]-TOv
3 irai8v0T|-Ta)v

CJ>dvt]-TOV

Imperative

P. 2 rrai8v0t]-T
3 irai8v0-vTwv
Infin.

irai8eu0fi-vai

Part.

iraiSevOeis,

-i<ra,
1.

The

future passive of

<}>dvT]-T

<j>av-VTWV
4>avf]-vai
Trai8\)0T)o-6-fUvos.
-OV
-T],
<f)aivw

ai)

is

-etcra.

-ei

inflected exactly like

For an explanation of some of the forms see


XOTE.
170, notes 1-3.
For the accent of the aorist subjunctive and optative see 233, 1-2. The
of
the
aorist
are
in
accent
and
infinitive
participle
irregular
(
185).

PARADIGMS OF

-ft)

VERBS

141

247. In the perfect and pluperfect middle of stems ending in a consonant various euphonic changes occur ( 225).
AetTTOJ (AeiTT-,

14, 2)

ayoo (ay-)

<ati/a>

14, 2)

2 Xe-Xeitj/ai
3 Xe-Xeiir-T<H
D. 2 \-\ei<j>-0ov

<

q-y-p.cu

ire'-imcr-p.cu

ni aL

ire-irewrai
ire-ireio'-Tai

ire-<|>av-Tai

ire'-ireio-0ov

ire'-<f>av-0ov

^x~^ ov

ire-ireio-0ov

rf-y-H-eOa

ire-ire io--|i6a

-rjx"

P. 1 \-Xei|i-[Jt0a
2 \e'-\i<|>-0

^X~

Xe-XeifJi-fie'voi etcri

ire'-4>acr-|iai

[ire-<J>av-o-ai]

ov

-rjK-Tai

3 \-Xet4>-0ov

(<av)

show.

persuade.
PERFECT INDICATIVE.

S. 1 Xe'-Xein-ficu

7ret$(u (jruO-,

lead.

leave.

T]-y-[j.e'voL

etcri

ir-<})av-0ov
-^ ir-<j>do--(ie0a

ire-ireio-06

ire'-(j)av-0

ire-ire io*-p.voi ettri

Tre-c^acr-fj-e'voi elo*C

PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE.
S. 1 l-Xe-Xe((JL-}JLT|v

e-ire-ireio'-ji'rjv

TJ'Y-IXTIV

-ire'-ireio-o

i-Xe'-XeixJ/o

-rj^o

D. 2

e-Xe-Xei<|)-0ov

-qx~

ov

e-ir-ireio-0ov

^-Xe-Xe(<j)-0T|v

'HX~" TI^'

-ire-ireio"0T|v

P. 1

-Xe-Xeip.-|ie0a

TJf-|ie0a

-Xe'-Xei<j)-0e

'HX' 6

3 Xe-Xei(i-fievoi rjo-av

rcy-jJievoi

e-ire-ireio--p,e0a

e-ire-<f>do--|iT|v

[e-ire'-<})av-o-o]

e-ire-<})av-0ov
-ire-<p(xv-0T]v

e-ire-4>do--|i0a

e-ire'-ireio-Oe

-ire-j>av-0

rjaav ire-ireia-jxe'voi rjaav ire-^aa-fjte'vot -qorav

PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE.


w
TJ-yF vos *
ire-ireio--(Ji'vos w
ire-<j>ao--|jL'vos w
'

Xe-Xeip.-|ievos

PERFECT IMPERATIVE.
S. 2 Xe'-Xei\(;o

D. 2

^o

ire'

ireio-o

[ire-<J>av-o-o]

Xe-Xei<|>-0a)

-rjx'Ow

ire-ire(o-0a>

ir-<f>dv-0o

Xe-Xei<|>-0ov

TJX~^ OV

ire-ireio-0ov

ire'-<j>av-0ov

3 Xe-Xei<f>-0a>v

TJx-0<>v

P. 2 Xe-Xei<)>-0e
3 Xe-Xei4>-0o)v

'HX"

j\\-Qo)v

ire-ire io-0a>v

ire-<|>dv-0a)v

ire-ireio-0e

ire-<|)av-0e

ire-ire io-0o>v

ire-<j>dv-0wv

PERFECT INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE.

1.

Xe-Xei<j>-0ai

^X~^ at

ire-ireto--0ai

Xe-Xeiji-jjie'vos

TJY"rl * vos

ire-irio--(JLe'vos

ire-(j>dv-0ai

Like

in a labial

ning with
(TTC/XTT-)

\e\ifjifj.ai are inflected all stems of the perfect middle ending


mute. But stems in -/J.TT- lose the TT before all endings beginthus 7r^7re,u//,cu (for *7re-7re/Liir-/iai), TrtTrefji^ai, etc., from TT^UTTCJ
/JL:

send.

Like %y/j.a.i are inflected all stems of the perfect middle ending in a
But stems in -77- or -7%- lose a final mute before all endpalatal mute.
thus tX-fiXey-fj-ai (for *e\r)\ey)(r fj.ai^ from tXeyx **
ings beginning with ^
2.

(Ae?*-) convict ( 179).


3. Like 7r^7rei<r/icu are inflected
in a- or a lingual mute.

all

stems of the perfect middle ending

PARADIGMS OF

142

TLfJi.il)

ACTIVE
Present
1

Imperfect
crfjiw-v (-aov)

Tip,w (-do>)

2 Tinas (-dets)
3 Tlp4(-dei)

D. 2 Tip,d-Tov
P.

VERBS

Present System of Contract Verbs in -aw

248.

S.

-a)

^onor

MIDDLE (PASSIVE)
Present

Irtjid-s (-aes)

rijia (-drj or -det)

6Ttp.d(-ae)

Tip,a-Tai (-de-)

(-de-) Irip-d-Tov (-de-)

3 Tip,d-Tov (-de-)

Ti|xd-Tt]v (-ae"-)

Tl|JLW-|lV (-do-)

Tlp.W-|iV (-do-)

2 rlfid-re (-de-)
3 Tijjtw<ri (-dof-)

Tip,d-T (-de-)

crtp-wv (-aov)

Imperfect

11 (-do-)

Ti|xw-nt]v (-a6-)
TI|JLCO

(-dot;)

6Ti(jia-TO (-de-)

Tip.d-<r0ov (-de-)

Tiptd-o-0ov (-de-)

Tip.d-or0ov (-de-) 6Tip.d-o-0T]v (-a^-)

Tl|id-(T0

(-ae-)

lTtp.d-o-0

Tlp,(b-VTai (-do-)

S. 1 Tip.a (-da>)

(-dwyicai)

ri|ia (-dy)

D. 2 Tijid-Tov
3 Tl|ld-TOV

Tip.d-o-0ov

P. 1 Tlfl-}JlV ( ~~r
2 Tip,d-T (-dTjre)

3 Tip,w<ri (-dwo"tj
S.

(-dcovrat)

1 Tip,wT]-v(-ao{-)

2 Tip,wr]-s (-aof-) [TIJJLWS (-dots) ]

3
I).

[Tip,w (-dot)]

Ttp,wT| (-aot-)

2 TIJJ.W-TOV (-dOLTOv)
3 Tl|A-TT]V (-OO^Tiyi')

P. 1

Tl(JLW-|X6V (-dot/*ei')

(-doto)
TlfJLW-TO (-doiT

TijJtw-<r0T]v

rip.w-p.e0a (-a.oLfj.eda)

2 Tip,-T6 (-dotre)
3 Ti|A-v (-doiei')
S. 2 rffia (-ae)
Tip,d-(T0(o (-aecrdwi)

D. 2 Ti(id-Tov

Tip.d-cr0ov (-dea-^oj'

(-

3 Tifid-Tcov (
P. 2 rind-re (-dere)

3 TIJJUO-VTWV
Infin.

Part.

(-

Tip,d-<r0a)v (-aea-0ui>
Tip.a-<r0

(-decree)

Tip,d-<r0fa)v (-

Tifid-<r0ai (-

rijjtd

-<ra, -wv

Tl(lW-p,VOS (~a6),

(-de-)

Tlp.(0-VTO (-do-)

-TJ,

-OV

PARADIGMS OF
249.

-a)

Present System of Contract Verbs in


)

ACTIVE
Present

Imperfect

love

Present

Imperfect

<|>iXov-n<u (-&>-) 6<t>iXov-(iT]v (-

2 (fnXeis (-^

etfnXei-s (-ees)

3 <juXt (-&
D. 2 <|>i\i-TOv

iffta

(-ee)

<i)i\6t-TOv (-^e

3
P.

143

MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

S.

VERBS

cjnXei (-^77 or -eVt) e<j>i\ov (-e'en)

<|>iXei-T<u (-^e-)

cjuXet-o-Oov (-^6-)

l<fiXC-TO (-^e
4>i\6i-<r0ov (

<j>i\t-<r0ov (-^e-

2 <>i\i-T
3

(-

(-ee-)

4<)i\o

<|>i\ov<ri (-

<|>i\ov-vTai (-eo-)

I<|>i\t-<r06 (-^

<JI\OV-VTO (-

S. 1 <fu\a> (-^w)

<J>iXTJs

<j>iXfj (-^T?)

D. 2

(-^s)

3 4>tXf]-Tov
P. 1 (fuXw2 <j>iXri-T

<}>iXti-o-0ov {-

4>iXfj-(r6ov (-

{-

<{>iX(6-p.eOa

(-ew

4>iX<o-VTai

(-eWrat)

(-

<j)iXwcri (-

S. 1 4>iXo(T)-v (-eo/-)

<}>iXT]-Tai (-

<|>iXfi-TOv (-^77x01')

<j>iXotT]-s (-eo/-)

[<(>iXoi-(jii (

<f>iXoi-fit]v (-

[4>tXot-s

<|>iXot-o (-eoio)

<|>iXoi-TO (-eoiro)

D. 2 <JnXoi-TOv

(-

<|)iXot-<r6ov (-

3 <j>iXo-TT]v

(-

<{>iXoi-(rOr|v

P. 1 <jnXoi-[J.v (2 <|>iXoi-T (-^

3 <}>iXoi-v

cf>iXoi-(i0a (<|>iXot-<r0

4>iXoi-vro (-eW-ro)

S. 2 4>CXi (-ee)

<JnXov (-^ou)

3 4>lXl-TO) (D. 2 <JnXei-TOv (

<j>iXi-<r0ov (-

cjuXei-TttJ' (-eeYwj')

P. 2 <juXi-T

<|>iXi-<r0a> (-

(-^ere)

<>iXi-cr0

(-

<|>iXov-vT<tfv(-e6i>Ta>i')

<j>iXei-o-0a>v (-

Infin.

<f>iXciv (-^eii')

4>iXi-<r0at

Part.

4>iXwv (-^wi'), -overa, -ovv

<|>iXov-(Jivos (-e6-),

(-

-t],

-ov

PARADIGMS OF

144

-co

VERBS

Present System of Contract Verbs in

250.

o\?Aa>

(877X0-0)) manifest

MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

ACTIVE
Present

Imperfect

S. 1 8r]Xa> (-6w)

-o

48^|XOV-V (-OOP)

Present

Imperfect

8T)XoV-|iai (-OO-)

8T]XoV-fl.T]V (-06-)

2 6ri\ots (-6eis)

8^X01 (-677 or -6ei) 48ii\ov (-6ov)


cSrjXov-s (-oes)
3 8ti\oi (-6ei)
StjXov-Tai (-6e-) eStiXov-ro (-6e-)
iS^Xov (-oe)
D. 2 8r]Xov-TOv(-6e-) 8T]Xov-TOv (-6e-) 8t|Xov-<r0ov (-6e-) eSiiXov-o-Oov (-oe-)
3 8T]Xov-TOv(-6e-) 8T]Xov-TT]v(-o^-) 8rjXov-o-0ov (-oeP. 1 8rjXov-|Xv (-60-) l8T]Xov-p,6v(-6o-) 8t]Xov-|X60a(-o6-) l8TjXov-|Jt60a(-o6-)

2 STjXoO-T (-6e-) 48T)Xov-T6 (-6e3 StjXovo-i (-6ou-) eSrjXovv (-ooi')

8t]Xov-vTai (-60-) ISTjXov-vro (-60-)

S.

2 SrjXois

8t]XoE (-677)

(-6rjs)

SrjXw-Tai (-677x04)

StjXoi (-677)

D. 2 SrjXw-TOv

(-677x0?')

8T)Xa>-o"0ov (-6Tj<rdov^)

3 SijXw-Tov

(-677x01')

8t]X-o*9ov

(-6770"0oi')

P.

2 8TjXw-T
3 8r]Xwcri

8riXw-<r0

(-677Tc)

(-6770-06)

8-qXw-vrai (-6wi'rat)

(-6wo-i)

S. 1 8T]Xoiti-v (-00^-) [8TiXoi-fu(-6oi-)] 8tiXoi-|XT]v (-

2 8r]XoiTi-s (-oof-) [SrjXoi-s (-6ois)]


3 8r]Xoiri (-oof-) [8^X01 (-6ot)]
D. 2 SrjXoi-TOv (-6oiro')

3 StiXoi-TTjv
P. 1

S.

8^X01-0 (-6oto)
8r]Xoi-TO (-6oiro)
8T)Xoi-<r0ov (-6oto"0o')
8T]Xoi-o-0T]v (-ooladriv)

(-001x771')

8r]Xoi-}JL0a (-ool/meda)

8r]Xoi-(Jiev (-boifj.ev')

2 8tjXot-T (-6oire)
3 S-qXoie-v (-6otei/)

87]Xoi-<r0

2 SrjXov (-oe)
3 8i]Xov-Ta> (-o^xw)

8-qXov (-6ou)
8i]Xov-or0w

D. 2 8i]XoO-TOv (-6exo^)

SrjXovv

Part.

SijXwv (-6wi/),

(-

8r]Xov-or0fc)v (-

8r]Xov-or0
8t]Xov-o-0a)v (-

(-o6i'xwj')

Infin.

(-

8r]Xov-<r0ov

3 SrjXov-Twv (-o^xw^)
P. 2 8t]XoO-T (-6exe)

3 8t]Xov-vTtov

(-6oio-0e)

SriXoi-vro (-6otj^ro)

8t]Xov-o-0ai (-

(-6eti')

-oiio-a,

-ovv

SriXov'-^vos (-06-),

-TJ,

-ov

PARADIGMS OF

-yu

VERBS

Present System.

251.

TL@r][j.i (0e-, 6rj)

ACTIVE.

put.

MIDDLE (PASSIVE).

145

146
252.

PARADIGMS OF

-/u

Present System.

VERBS

PARADIGMS OF
253.

-/xt

Present System.

VERBS

147

148

PARADIGMS OF

-fjii

VERBS

PARADIGMS OF
255.

-p,i

VERBS

Second Aorist System

149
256.

PARADIGMS OF -u VERBS

150
257.

loriy/xi (ora-, crrry-)

Second Aorist System


set

PARADIGMS OF
258.

fJii

VERBS

Second Perfect System without Suffix

151
220)

IOT77/AI (ora-, orr^) set

SECOND PERFECT ACTIVE


Indicative
S. 1 (2o-TT]Ka)

stand

TT,

2-crra-TOv

2-o-ra-Tov

P. 1

-o-ra-nv
I-O-TOIO-I

(l<TTi]Kl)

4-<rTaiT]-v, etc.

257)

(like <TTaCt]v,

Imperative

257)

Optative

D. 2

~<TTCl~T

Indicative

etc.

(like <TTW,

(Slo-TTjicas)

3 (&TTT|ICC)

SECOND PLUPERFECT ACTIVE

Subjunctive

2-arTa-fwv
(l-<TTa-T6

~(TTCl-wL

<t-<TTa-a

e-o-rd-Ttt, etc.

Infinitive

av

Participle

eo-rd-vcu

eo-Ts,

c-a-Two-a, I-CTTOS

131, note)

Ot8a (for */ro^a ( 2 a), stem oi*-, e*8-, t^-, 14, 2),
a perfect with present meaning, is formed without redupli259.

Its inflection

cation.

(somewhat irregular)

Indicative

Subjunctive

o!Sa

ciSw

oicrSa

elSfjs

otSe

Optative

TJ'STJ

l8f\TOV

UT|UV

etSei|iv

ctSeire [-ir]T]

t(rr

brcurt

ctScicv [-iT](rav]

I'o-rwv

Infinitive

a.

^<rav,

Participle

etScvai

TJ<TTOV

ct8eirT]v

t<TT6

259

[fj'Seiv]

f|8(v)
to-rov

olda-

Indicative

Imperative

6l8f|TOV

tCTTOV

P. 1

as follows

clSfj

D.2 tTTOV
3

is

SECOND PLUPERFECT

SECOND PERFECT

is, etSxria,

tS6s

gen. etSoros, etc.

131)

Ionic occasionally has other (regular) forms from the stem

thus

otSas, o?5a/uej>, orSacrt.

Homer

has perf. 1st plur. td/j.ev


pluperf. rfSea, fj8r)<rda (^e/5?;s),
or y5ei (^etSet). 3d plur. foav: subj. 1st sing. ei'S^w, et'Su), t'Sew plur.
fern,
infin. W/iewt, f5/tej/ ( 167 e)
efSoAtey ( 160 a), eftere ( 160 a), ei5<ri
b.

7?5ee

Future efcro/xat and fl5ri<ro/j.a.i..


Herodotus has 1st plur. ?5/aej/: pluperf. 1st sing. g5eo, 3d

participle idv?a.
c.

2d

plur. ^S^are

future

e/57?<7w.

sing. ySee,

IRREGULAR VERBS

152
260.

~!T\\LI

(theme

251, 255).

Tidrj/jLi (

send

e-, 77-)

T||U

inflected nearly like


aorist sys-

MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

ACTIVE
Indicative

is

The present and second

tems are inflected as follows


PRESENT

IN -

IMPERFECT

Subjunctive Indicative

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

Indicative Subjunctive Indicative

IRREGULAR VERBS

IN

In the optative, forms of the -w inflection


times found

(i'orre,

The future of irjfju is rjo-w perfect e?/ca, efytcu


and the perfect hardly ever occur except
;

Etju (theme

present system.
Indicative

totey,

olro) are

some-

170, 4).
;

aorists

261.

153

-p.L

Z-, el-

PRESENT.

Latin

aorist passive eWrjv.


in

The

compounds.

eo, z're)

#0 has only the


IMPERFECT
Indicative.

IRREGULAR VERBS

154

Elju (theme ea- ; Latin


present and future systems.
262.

IN

-/xt

has only the

be

es-se)

PRESENT.
Indicative
S. 1

CO

ftjJLl

IMPERFECT

Optative

Subjunctive

IT]V

TJ,

el

TJS

C^TJS

tcrOi

lorrC

eo-rw

V[

eft]

CTT6v

TJTOV

ctrOV, ei'fJTOV

<TTOV

<TTOV

T|TOV

etrTjv, elTJTTjv

rTa>v

<T(Jtv

aifjiev

etfiev, dr\\itv

<TT6

T|T

tire,

cocri

eiev, eiTjcrav

cUrt

FUTURE
etc.

participle

infinitive

for *eo--vat

<o,

eli/at is

o\5<rt]s,

(20));

-qO-TC

rjcrav

etc. (

optative

129)

foolfiriv,

for *e<r-/>ii ( 16) et is for *eVt


The suboriginal ending rt.
the optative efyv is for *eV-t>;-v. The
et'/u is

eV-rt retains the

from

*eo--o>;
;

the participle

on/ is

for ewy,

from

*ecr-coi'.

All forms of the present indicative, except the second

person singular
262

eVrcocrav

^o-6/xej/os, -?;, -oi/.

The present indicative

(originally ecr-cn
junctive (5 is for

1.

^T,

tcrrtov.

indicative eVo/zcu, etc. (3d sing. eVrcu

infinitive eVeo-flcu

NOTE.

TJCTTOV

Partic. wv, ovcra, 6v, gen. OVTOS,

elvai

Infin.

-qv

<TT

tt]T

TJV

rjcrGa

D. 2

P.

Indicative

Imperative

a.

Homer

el,

are enclitic

But the third person

70).

has

Present indicative 2d sing. *Wi',

e!s

1st plur. d/j^v

3d

plur. etV/, edVi.

Imperfect 1st sing, ^a, ea, eoi/ (?); 2d sing, e^o-^a, ^a^a; 3d sing,
3d plur. ^<rai', eaai'. Iterative e<TKoi> ( 191 b).
eT/i/, ^T;I/, Ijv;
Subjunctive 1st sing, ew,

-et'w;

3d

sing.

eTjo-i,

^<rt, CT/,

^e^,

efy^); 3d plur.

ewcrt.

Optative also
Infinitive also

eots, eot.
f/j./j.evat

Participle ewp, ^oOo-a,

Future also

and (Doric
b.

Imperative
(for *eV-/*ei'cu)

214)

e/ie^ot,

e<ro-o

e/x/xej',

(middle).
167 e).
,

e/xe^ (

etc.

eoi',

eV-o-o/wu, etc.;

future,

3d

sing. eV-o-ercu, eo-erat

35), etrrai (

<?<r<mrcu.

Herodotus has

Present indicative 2d sing,

els;

1st pi.

efyceV.

Imperfect ea; 2d sing, eas; 2d plur. eare.


Subjunctive ew,

ecu<rt.

Iterative

Optative (once) eWoi.

<TKOI>

(191 b).

Participle

&v.

20),

IRREGULAR VERBS
singular eVrt takes

When

it

its

eanv

it

first syllable

stands at the beginning of a sentence

who

is this

as

expresses existence or possibility

IBelv it is possible

When

155

-/xt

written accent on the

Be TI? ouro? / but

When

IN

as aol pev

to see ;

for you

follows the conjunctions et,


the adverbs ou/e, /-IT;, or o>?
as ou/c eanv
it

/cat,

or aXXa, or

is not.

NOTE.

In composition the participle is accented as in the simple


thus 7rap-wv present. In the subjunctive and optative, Tra/o-oi
See
170, 2), Trap-ei/xei/, etc., the accent is not irregular.
(for -co,
170, 2-3 and 185, note.

verb

Latin fa-ri) say


(<a-, <f)ijas
follows
present system
PRESENT
263.

$T|[ii

is

inflected in the

Indicative
S. 1

tout

{>, <j>fj s

<}>TIS

<}>T]<rC

Indicative

<|>fj,

e^o-ea or e^s

257)

(like <TTW,

Hv

etc.

fyr\

Optative

D. 2

?4>aTov

<f>arov
c|>a(T,v,

cfHxrov

P. 1

4>a.[iv

j,a^s, etc.

<j>aT

(JXXCTL

.^

257)

(like o-rairjv,

c4>a(Jicv

Imperative.
<j>d6i

Infinitive

or 4>a0i,

<}>a.T(o,

g^art
etc.

<(>a(rav

Verbal Adjectives

Participle

but in Attic
used instead.

4>ds, 4>a<ra, <f>dv,

<j>dvai

<j>do-Kwv is

The future
1.

IMPERFECT

Subjunctive

is

0^0-w, etc.

<j>ar6s, <f>ar'os

aorist e^Tjo-a, etc.

All forms of the present indicative, except the second

person singular

are enclitic

$77'?,

70).

263 a. Homer has subj. 3d sing. 07777 ( 211, 1 a). For f<t>av (imperfect
3d plural) see 167 c.
He often uses the middle forms of <t>-r)/j.l, which are
seldom or never found in Attic thus imperf. e0ci u77J>, e0aro ; impv. 0do,
:

a7,

etc.

infin. (frdcrdai

participle 0ci^evos.

b. Herodotus often uses the middle participle

<f>d[j.ei>os.

IRREGULAR VERBS

156

IX

-JJLL

264. Kcijicu (/cet-) lie, am laid (regularly used as the


perfect passive of TiOrj^i pu).
PRESENT
IMPERFECT
Indicative

Indicative

Subjunctive

S. 1

K61JJ.CU

K(0|iai,

Kei<rai

Kt]Tcu, etc.

KClTttl

KlfJLT]V

Kt'fl,

CKCKTO

KLTO,

D.2

mfarOov

K t<reov

Optative.

MOIRV,

KIOIO,

KCOITO, etc.

P.

KfCpda

K6 io-0e

KtLVTUL

Kifj.e0a

Infinitive

composition
contrary to 184)

Ka.Ta.Kl<r6a,

future

265.

is Kel<ro/j.ai, etc.,

Ki|ievos

regular.

HjjLat (*}<r-) sit retains

the endings

system

CKCIVTO

Participle

KetcrOat (so also in

The

eKcio-Oe

Imperative.
KCIO-O, Kl<r0CO, 6tC.

-rat,

and

cr of its stem
only before
found only in the present

the

It is

-TO.

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

Indicative
if-fiou. i]<r<u, ij<r-TCU
fj

Indicative

rjcrOov, TJ<r0ov

TJ'-(JIT]V,

(i0a, T](r0, T]-VTCH


Infinitive

Imperative
,

etc.

if(ro,

iftr-ro

rf<r0ov, Tf<r0T]v

T]-^0a, i|o-0, rf-vro

Participle

i]o-0ai

The subjunctive and optative of the simple verb are


not found.
264 a.

Homer has

pres. indie.

3d plur.

impf. 3d plur. e/cetj/ro, KO.TO


iterative 3d sing. ( 191 b) ^^-(r/cero.
;

b.

Herodotus usually has

perhaps in

and

^aro (=
and

for

ei-

eKetj/ro).

See

T?OTO

(ei'aro in

rodotus always has

KetVrcu, Ktarai (

167 d),
in the

e/ceiro, Kei<r6ai (^/c&ro, /c^e<r^ai).

265 a. For the 3d plur.


&ZTCU,

-ee-

/ceiaro

3d

subj.

167 d), KeLarai.

3d sing,

sing. (K&TCU)

He always

/c^rat,

sometimes

has K^arai (= KeivTai)

167 d.

Homer

some

arcu, ^aro.

has rfarcu (elarat in some editions),


Heeditions), ^'aro (Attic ^rat, ^I/TO).
See

167 d.

IRREGULAR VERBS
For
rjfiai

IN

157

Attic almost always uses the compound


(properly sit down), which loses the <r of its stem
rjfjLai,

everywhere except in the form


It is inflected as follows

PRESENT

/caOfjvTo of the imperfect.

IMPERFECT
Indicative
Ka0TJ|n]v

or

CK(X01]0-0

6Kd0T)TO

KO,0T]CrTO

Ka0T|(r0ov

Ka0f|cr0ov

K<X0T|<r0T]V

K0.0T|0-0T]V

CKa0T)(r0
o

Ka0f|cr0e

Ka0f|vTO

FORMATION OF WORDS

268. Words are formed in two ways (1) by Derivation


and (2) by Composition.
1.
Derived words are formed by means of suffixes
(which are not themselves separate words) either from
roots or from the stems of other words.
Thus, BLK-TJ right
(from the root &#-), St/ca-to? just (from the stem &/ea-) are
:

derived words.
2.
Compound words are formed by combining two or
more words or stems of words into one. Thus, tVTro'-Sa/uo?

compound words.
Of course derived words may be formed from stems of
compound words. Thus, ol/coSopw (-eo>) build a house,
horse-tamer, neyd-Ov/ios great-hearted, are

from

ot'/co-So'/io?

house-builder, is a derived word.

DERIVATIVE WORDS
269.

Word

Primitive and Denominative Words.

Primitive

formed directly from a root by means of a suffix;


a Denominative Word is formed from the stem of a noun.
Thus, &y-o-v yoke is a primitive word, being formed from
the root &y- by means of the suffix -o-.
From the stem
is

158

DERIVATIVE WORDS
of

&<ydv (fi^o-)

is

159

formed the denominative verb

^vyco

yoke, join together.

(-oft))

Less correctly the terra Primitive Word is sometimes


word formed by means of a suffix from the theme of

NOTE,

applied to a
a verb.

270.

The

Roots.

root of a word, like the perfume of

It merely
a flower, has no separate, tangible existence.
suggests the meaning of a word or group of words. Only
when united with inflectional endings (and usually a
suffix as well)

does

it

receive definite form

and meaning,

and become a full-blown word.


NOTE.

Roots consist usually of only one syllable.

From

roots

formed by means of suffixes, and from stems words are


formed by means of inflectional endings. (Very few words are formed
Thus
directly from roots without any suffix.)
steins are

271.

many

sfea

Words

Stems
Aoy-

Aoyo-

Aoyos speech

The same

root often appears in


different words which are formed from it in various

ways.

Word-Groups.

Such words are commonly said

Group.
Thus, from the root

<ypa<f)-

are

to

form a Word-

derived (directly or

indirectly)
ypd(f)-ci)

mark, write,
writing,
?

painter,

-t? style,

fypa<f)-itc6s

pencil,
suited for writing

or painting,

^pap-fAr) (f or *ypa(f)-/jiv,

27, 1)

line,
7/oa/-i-/-ia letter,

7/5a/-t-/uareu? clerk, secretary,


<ypafjL-fjiarei>cD

be secretary,

^pa^-^ariKri grammar,

writing tablet.

DERIVATIVE WORDS

160

From

the root

oZtf-o?

dwelling,

olfc-id

house,

oltc-

ol/c-eiorrj^

olfc-eia)

lit-

283)

(diminutives,
tie

house,

make

one's oivn,

making ones own,

appropriation,

house-slave (masc.),
olie-ens house-slave (fern.),

ol/c-a>

pertaining

belonging

(-e<w) dwell,

inhabited,

ol/c-rjTos

to

house-slaves,
olic-elos

(-00))

olic-eiooa'is

oltc-eTrjs

olic-eTiic6^

relationship, friend-

ship,
ol/c-iSiov

olic-iaKOS,

olic-iov,

are derived (directly or indirectly)

to the

OIK-TJO-IS

habitation,

OLK-rjfjua

dwelling place,

olfc-ijrwp inhabitant,

household,

oltc-ifa colonize,
ol/c-iartfs colonist.

These examples are enough to show the importance, for


a ready understanding of Greek, of a thorough knowledge
of derivation.

In the formation
Changes of Roots in Derivation.
words from roots, Greek has a very clear method of
differentiation by means of the vowel variation (o, e, (a)),
272.

of

14:

spoken of in
Xt7r-fi> leave,

See below,
273.

thus

XotTr-o? left;

277, 1-3

Changes

of

Aey-&>

speak,

o-TrevB-co hasten,

and 280,

Xo7-o?

speech;

crTrovB-tj haste.

1.

Stems in Derivation.

When

suffixes

are added to stems the usual euphonic changes take place ;


that is, vowels thus brought together usually contract,

and consonants, and consonants and vowels, undergo the


25-39. Examples are:
changes described in
old
(for *a/)^a-io-?), /SacrtXeia kingdom (for
a/o^alo?
*/3acrtXD-ia,
ojJL/^a

21), a\r)0tia truth (for *a\7)0e<r-ia,

eye (for *oir-fta,

28),

Sifcaa-Trjs

(for *\7rt8-ifi),

judge (for
39, 2).

37),

27, 1), o\|? look, vision (for *oir-crt9,


*&A;a8-T??9,

26),

\7rta> hope

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES
274.

noun stem may vary

its final

161

vowel before the

suffix, or, before a suffix beginning with a vowel, may


thus ol/ct-Trjs house-slave,
44, 3)
drop it altogether (cf
:

from

ottfo?

(stem

otVo-)

house

ovpdv-ios

heavenly,

from

ovpavd? (stein oupavo-) heaven.

NOTE.
stem

Before a

7rotT]-cris

suffix

beginning with a consonant the end vowel


form ( 13): thus

usually, but not always, has its long

of a

a making, TTOIW (-o) make.

In Greek, as in other
Formation by Analogy.
words
were
formed
languages, many
by analogy. Thus,
iTTTrev-co be a horseman is formed from iV-Treu-s horseman;
but since ITTTT- is common to more words (tTTTT-o?, mir-i/cos,
etc.) than is iTnrev-, the letters -eva came to be felt as a sort
275.

of suffix,

which formed

iTTTrevco

from

ITTTT-,

and so could be

used to form other denominative verbs from various stems


thus

a slave (SoOXo-9 slave), /3ov\-evco plan


(/3oLX?7 plan*), Trai^-evco educate (?rat?, TratS-o? child).
In the formation of verbs analogy plays a great part,
SouX-eu&> be

and the important verb endings

of this sort are given

292.

in

So

sometimes in the formation of nouns, endings


-etc?, for -a-to-<? and -e-io-9, formed by
-tothe
suffix
to a stem ending in a- or e- (eu-, e<7-)
adding
287, 5, 'A^mto?, ot'/ceto?, /3a<nXeo?), are used in
(see
also

such as -ato? and

similar

fashion

thus oveoT-ato?

(cr/co'ro?)

dark, avSp-elos

examples of such formations see


283,1; 284,1; 287,5).

(avrip, cbSp-o?) brave (for

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES

276.
very few substantives are formed from roots
without any suffix thus <Xo' (<Xo7-) flame
:

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

11

DERIVATIVE WORDS

162

277. The following are the most important suffixes in


the formation of substantives
:

1.

Masculine in

-o-.

(agent) and

-05

(Roots with the vowel variation

o, e, (a) (

rpo<-o-s nurse (rpe<-w nourish)


\6y-o-<s speech (A.ey-oo

po-o-s stream

*PV~>

vy~6-v yoke

Nominative in -a or

-a-.

-77

(Roots with the vowel variation


Tpo(j>-irj

nurture (rpe^-w nourish)

Nominative in

-co--.

all

<f>op-a

o, e, (a) (

(018-, eiS-, 18- see)

cvp-o

Nominative in

-eu?

o-tD-T-qp

3.

-Top-.

o.)

(oTrev'S-w

hasten)

14), regularly

show

e.)

pair (evy-i/u/u
^oA:e,

^om)

M;i6?^ (cvpv? w;t

masculine.
ITTTT-CV-S

(ypa<-o> write,

horseman

(tTTTros

horse)

tep-ev-s priest (tepds sacred)

paint)

-Tip-.

show

AGENT

ypa<f>-ev-s painter

2.

haste

V 7~)

278.

-u-.

(pz-wflow)

bearing (<e'p-to bear)

evy-o?

yv-) &e born)

1.

es-

106, 1): neuter.

-o? (

ye'v-os race (ytyvo/xat (yov-, yev-,

form

o.)

(cvy-vv[U yoke)

14), regularly

aTrovB-trj

(Roots with the vowel variation

ct8-os

show

feminine.

o, e, (a) (

\oifi-ripouring (XetyS-w pour)

3.

14), usually

-ov.

cort)

38) do}
2.

neuter in

TTO/XTT-O-S escort (Tre/MTT-o) send,

speak)

work (pca> (p e y~>

Ipy-o-v

-09,

Nominative in

-r^/o

savior (<r<ou> saye)

8o-rrjp

Nominative in
orator (ep-, pe-,

p?y-

masculine.

-TO)/?

speak-)

giver (StSco/xi

(So-,

8o>-)

masculine.
oiKy-Ttop dweller (OIKOJ

(-eco)

dwell)

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES

163

Nominative in -T?;? masculine.


Nominative
native in -rt?
> feminine.
,.
XT
in -rpx
Nominative
:

-Ti8-.
(-rd-.

-Tpio-.

OlK-TT/-5 (6), OIK-TIS (^) hoUSC-

OLV\r]-Tr]-<;

lave (OIKO-S house')

Nominative in

-TI-.

ret^w

-0*1-

the flute)

-rt?

feminine.

(7T010-, irei^-, TTt^-)

persuade,

(weakened from -rt-). Nominative

Kpi-(n-s

-aid-.

Nominative
ise

am,

in

-crt?:

feminine.

28)

in -<na: feminine.

(yv/xva<o (yv/u-

SoKi/xa-cri'a

examination

(8oKi/xa8-) examine,

30)

30)

RESULT OF ACTION

280.
1.

26)

7rpai-s action (Trparrw

judgment (KpfvwjufJge)

c^,

3.

ttvA-ty-T/MS (17)

ACTION

279.

2.

(6),

flute-player (auAw (-e<o)

(6), 7roA?-Tis (17) citizen

1.

-p-aT-.

Nominative in

neuter.
-/ia
great many
substantives are formed from verb stems by
:

this suffix.

(Roots with the vowel variation


TTpay-fML deed (Trpdrro) (Trpay-)

-[io-.

14), regularly

pev-/xa stream

(po

have

(pov-,

e.)

pev-,

pv-) flow)

(/o)

2.

o, e, (a) (

Nominative
o-s wailing

in -^09

(oSup-o/xai

masculine.
Aoyr-/xo-5
/xcu

calculation

(Aoyti^o-

(AoyiS-) calculate)

DERIVATIVE WORDS

164
3.

-[id-.
yvw-fjLr)

Nominative
opinion

in

(yi-yi/<o-o"Kto

-fJLrj

feminine.

know)

ypa/n.-/ji,rj

line

mark,

(ypa<^>-(o

27, 1)

MEANS OK INSTRUMENT

281.
1.

-Tpo-.

Nominative in -rpov

neuter (cf

Latin claus-

tru-m).
<epc-rpoi/ bier (<ep<D carry)

apo-Tpov plow (dpu) (-do)) plow)

QUALITY (ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES)

282.
1.

-id-.

Nominative in -id feminine (cf. Latin memor-ia).


This suffix (cf.
287, 5) is the one most
frequently employed to form abstract sub:

stantives.
cro<t>-La

wisdom (<ro<o-s wise)

evSat/aov-i'a

TrcuSeta (for *7rai8ev-td,

21) ed-

ucation (7rai8ev-a> educate)

happiness (ev8at/xcov

happy)
2.

-ia-.

Nominative
tives in
(*a\.r)0e(T-La,

in -ia

feminine (mostly from adjec-

-779).

37) truth

evi/oia(cf.

This

suffix

133) good will (cwovs

well-disposed)

Xry^eo--) frwe)

forms also a few concrete feminines corre-

sponding to masculines

thus
upeia (f or *tepev-ia,

39, 4)
oxoretpa (for *<ra)Tep-ia,
savior (fern.) (o-to-r^p savior,

(tep-ev-s priest,

21) priestess
278, 1)

278, 2)
3.

-TT|T-.

Nominative

in -TT??

feminine (cf Latin veritds,


.

-tdt-is).
swiftness (ra^u-s swift)

veo-rrys ?/ow/A (veo-s

young)

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES
Nominative

-auvd-.

4.

8iK(Uo-(Tvvr) justice

in

-crvvrj

(Si'/oxio-s

feminine.

<T(D<j>po-crvvr)

discretion (creo<pu>v,

34)

discreet,

just)

165

DIMINUTIVES

283.

(Often used as pet names.)


-LO (-tS-to-, -ap-io-,

1.

TrcuS-ib-v

7rcuS-apio-v

(TTCUS

2.

(;rai8-)

275).

Nominative in

child

little

oiK-tSio-v

child)

neuter.

house (OIKO-S

little

house)

Nominative

-KTKO-, -lo-Kd-.

-tov

in -tcr/eo?

(masc.) or

(fern.).
OIK-ICTKO-S little house

(OIKO-?

house)

/i'W/e

TraiS-t'cTKr;

boy} (wais

</&W /

child)

PLACE (OR MEANS)

284.
1.

TraiS-ia-KO-s little

From

-io-.

substantives in

-TT;^ (

278,

2,

mostly obso-

Nominative in
278, 1).
lete) and -eu? (
and
-eoz>
*-ef-ioz>,
21): neuter.
-Trjpiov
(for
SiKao-rr^p-io-v courthouse
Ti^p

(=

St/cao-TTJ?)

(Si/ccur-

judge)

BtajjiwTTfjp-io-v prison (*8ecr/x(jo-r^p

=
So,

arj/Ji-eLov

r;o-etov

-cov-.

signal (cf. cn}/xa

Nominative

s?'(/w)

in

-o>z>:

dv8p-wv men's room (dvr/p (dvSp-)

man)

(Kovp-ev-s

temple of Theseus (77-

275),
ju,ov<r-aov sea< q/"
fjiovara

2.

barber shop

barber}

<rv-s Theseus)

SeoyxwT^s prisoner)

by analogy (see

Kov/oetov

^/ie

muses (cf

muse)

masculine (place only).


ITTTT-WV stable (?7nro-s horse)

DERIVATIVE WORDS

166

PATRONYMICS (descendant of)

285.

Nominative in -tSrjs masculine.


Nominative in -19 feminine.
:

'

J-i8d-.
1 -18-.

MASCULINE
y-s

FEMININE

son of Tantalus

son of Danaus
(

from

Aava-ts

from Aavao-s
from Ilr/Aev-s

21) son of Peleus

-a8-.

Nominative in -a8?99 masculine.


Nominative in -ok feminine.
:

FEMININE

MASCULINE
Bope-aSrj-s son of Boreas
efrrt-aSr/s son of Thestius

-18-.
!-v-.

from

Bope-a?

from

ecrri-as

Bope'a-s
e'cmo-s

GENTILE OR PLACE NAMES

286.

Nominative in
Nominative in

278, 1): masculine.


285, 1): feminine.

-et? (cf.
-/9 (cf.

FEMININE

MASCULINE
Meyap-ev-s a Megarian

(Meyapa Megara)

Meyap-t?

Nominative in -r?;<? (cf.


"1-T18-. Nominative in -rt? (cf
>

Tai/raAo-s

2.

TavraA-is

278, 4): masculine.

I-ri-

278, 4)

MASCULINE

FEMININE

Teycd-Tij-s a Tegean

Teyea-ns

feminine.

(Teyc'a Tegea)

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES
287.

The following

forming adjectives
1.

-\)-.

178-^-5

Nominative

in

the most important suffixes

-u?, -eta, -v (

sweet (cf. ^8-o/xat

pleased)

are

am

123) (from roots only).

ra^-v-s
ness)

s?0{/j!

(cf.

ra^-o? swift-

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES
2.

Nominative

-0--.

AOITT-O-S

5.

-io-.

120) (mostly compounds).


i/^evS-rys

remaining

in -09, -a (-77),
AetV-w

(cf.

false (cf. i^evS-o/xat h'e)

120).

remind)

(cf. /xi-tti/j/o-Ka)

Nominative

-o-.

-e? (

Nominative in -pav, -pav

-jiov-.

mindful

4.

-779,

clear (<ra<-)

rys

3.

in

167

-oi>

117).

(XoiTr-, ACITT-, AITT-) leave)

Nominative in -to?, -to, -tov (sometimes -to?, -tov,


This is the most common adjective119).
suffix.

ovpav-io-5

heavenly

mestic (OLKO-S house)

TrAow-io-s

(for

/Sacrt'Aetos (f or *^8a(nXev-io-s,

*7rAovr-to-s)

wealthy (TrXovro-s wealth)


'AOrjvaios

(for

kingly (^ao-iAev-s

by analogy

(TKOT-CUOS

tn

dvSp-eio?

(O-KOTO?

manly

(dn;p,

man)

darkness)

6.

savior)

275),

(see

darkness

tn^r (crooTTyp

21)

fa'n^r)

283, 1) preserv-

o-wr^p-io-s (cf.

*'A^r;va-io-s)

Athenian (*A^vat ^4^ens)

So,

274) do-

OIKCIOS (for *oiKC-to-s,

(ovpai/o-s

heaven)

-iKO- (-/co-).

Nominative in -o?, -/CTJ, -/coV. Next to


most frequent adjective-suffix.

-io-,

this is the
/xovcr-iKO-5

musical

<^v(r-tKO-s natural
iroXe/x-tKO-s

7.

-vo-.

muse)

(fj.ov<Ta

(<f>v(Tt-<s

O"/CCTTT-IKO-S

reflective

(O-KCTTTO-?,

verbal of (TKeV-ro/xat investi-

nature)

warlike (TroAe/xo-s war)

Nominative

in

-i>o9,

-^,

$tL-v6-s terrible (ci. -BeL-(ra feared)

oAyeii/o-s (for *dAye<r-vo-s)

ful (aXyos pain)

pain-

-vdv.

orvy-vo-s
hate)

7<a^erf

(cf crrvy-S) (-o>)

DERIVATIVE WORDS

168
8.

Nominative in

-po- (-e/jo-, -u/30-).

eX$-po-s hateful (cf l^0-o<shatred)


Aa/xTT-po-s

bright

(cf.

e;(-vpo-s secure

-Xo- (-eXo-, -aXeo-).

-pov.

injury)

Aa/X7r-a)

shine)
9.

-/oo?, -/>a,

(3Xaj3-ep6-<s injurious (cf.

Nominative

in -Xo?,

(f

*X~

-X?;, -Xoi/ (-aXeo?,

-aXe'a, -a\eov).
oei-Xo-s timid (cf.

-8ei-cra

et/c-eAo-s //A'e (cf. eiK-ws Z/^e)

feared)

Kep8-aAeo-s shrewd (cf.

cnwTny-Ao-s stYen^ (o-iwTny silence)

KepS-os

jjratn)

MATERIAL OR SOURCE

288.
1.

-o-

(for

-to-,

the. same as -to- in

Xpvcrov? golden, for ^pvc-c-o?,


2.

-LVO-.

Nominative in

XP^"

IO" S

287, 5).

(Homer), from

-tz>o?, -ti/iy, -ti/oi/

Ai'0-ivo-s o/ sfone (At^o-s stone)

(cf.

avOpwtr-ivo-s

xpvcro-s

#0W.

287, 7).

human

(av0po>7ro-s

FULLNESS OR ABUNDANCE

289.
1.

"

-VT- (for earlier -pevr-}. Nominative in


(mostly poetic).
graceful (^api-s grace)

-et?,

-ecrcra, -e

dve/xo-s windy (ave/xo-s wind)

FORMATION OF ADVERBS
Beside the adverbs regularly formed from adjectives
137) and from pronominal stems ( 137, 1), and the

290.
(

nouns used adverbially ( 137, 1), adverbs are formed


also by means of certain endings approaching the nature of
Of these the more important are:
suffixes (cf.
137, 2).
1.

-86v.

o-^-8ov nearly
o-

e-,

(cf.

38) hold)

e^w

(*(re^-,

ofJio6vfj.-a.-S6v

with one accord

FORMATION OF VERBS
2.

-S-qv.
/SoL-Syv

on foot

Kpv/S-fyv

(cf. flaivd) (/?a-)

secretly

Kpv7rra>

(cf.

(Kpvfi-) hide)

go)
3.

169

-T.
aAAo-T

aZ another time

TTOLVTO-TC. at all

(aAAo-s

times (?ras all)

other)
4.

-dias.
Terp-a/as

ybwr

ft'mes

Some adverbs end

NOTE.

many

TroAA-a/a?

(re'i-rapes

times

also in -a: thus yuaXa very,

(?roAAot

ra^a

quickly.

FORMATION OF VERBS
291.

Primitive verbs (such as

(^rj-^i

or \ey-a) say) are

formed directly from roots ( 165), while denominative


verbs are formed from the stems of nouns.
292.

The

Suffix

-i?_~-

The

suffix

by which nearly

all

denominative verbs were originally formed is -i (or more


properly -/I), but between vowels the i disappeared ( 21),
and with consonants it combined to form other letters

Thus arose several classes of denominative verbs,


( 39).
their form depending on the form of the noun from which
they were derived, then by analogy ( 275) the endings
of these verbs were used to form other similar verbs from
various noun stems.

The most important

of these classes

(as seen in the present indicative) are given


1.

(-O-OD).

From stems in

-o-

By analogy

make plain, from

penalty)

below
275)

(mostly causative).
(4?7/Ai-o<jo)

877X0) (S^Xo-co)

ain

-oco.

punish

dvSpw (dvSp-oo>) make a man


of

(di/ryp,

dySp-os

man)

DERIVATIVE WORDS

170
2.

From stems

(--(o).

274) and

(see
OIKW

(otfce-(i>)

e/weW,

in -o-

By

analogy

-eo--.

from

275)

-ea>.

TnX f.ipS>

(e7rixp-eV)
(x etP nan d)

OIKO-?

attempt

oAyoi (dAy-ew) be pained (aAyos

house

fut. dAyTJo-w, cf.

pam),

TeAu>(TeAe'-a>,for*TeAe<r-ia>,37)

188.

Jinish, from TAos(TeAe<r-)ene?


3.

From stems in -a(a becomes a from analogy with -eft) and -oft>).

(-a-io).

from

Tt/xw (rl/xa-w) ^onor,

By

analogy (
yo^ ( yo -aco)

(dvri-aco)

meet

opposite)

From stems

(-cxi-co).

-a&>.

m^)
avriw

ri/xiy

(rt/xd-) Aonor
4.

275)

lament (yoos

ySao-iAev-w be king,

from

in

By

/3acri-

analogy

275)

-<

275)

-ift>

(TOOV bow)

Aev-s
5.

From stems

(-TT-O)).
-*->

-%>

-^-

-T-,

in

(see

195, 1).
Kr)pvTT-(o proclaim,
-

6.

from

herald

(-^-o)) (-<&>, -afo)).

From By analogy

steins in -8- or -7- (see

iy5, 2).
eATTt'^-o)

Tei^-i'^w fortify (ret^os ?ra/Z)

^ope,

from

eATrt's

/xr/S-i^w/ai'or

stone,

from

At^a?

8iKa-^a)

judge

Me Medes

From stems

292, 2 a.
292. 3 a.

in

-e<r-

Homer

prime

(see

199 b).

(eroi/xo?

often has the older form of the

thus reXe/w (for *TeXecr-tw) finish.


Homer has d in some verbs in -dw

rjpdw be in one's

(M>}8os

($iKr) right)

eady

verb in -ew

and

-afco.

thus nevoivdw be eager,

COMPOUND WORDS
7.

From stems

(-XX-co).
-X- (see
dyye'AA-o)

171

in

195, 3).
announce, from ayye-

Aos messenger
-IV-CD

(for

'1-lp-O)

(for

Stems in
-az^-)

and

-v-ioi)

|P_

By analogy

-p-ui)j
-z^-

275) -atvw.

KepSWvco gain (KepSo? gain)

XaAe7r-cuW am angry (xoAcTrds

(especially

195,

-p- (see

hard)

4>
from

/ue'Ads

determine

from

blacken,

/u-eAcuV-to

(/xeAav-) WacA:

TK/xatp-o/xat
signs,

NOTE.

from

re/c/xap s?^?i

Many

verbs in

-/xaiixo

(gen. -/WIT-OS) which originally

no-men with

Greek

*crrjfJiav-Lw) indicate,

9.

(-ijv-o);

wo-/xa,

from

(suffix

are formed from substantives in -/>ux


had stems in -/xav- (compare Latin

ovo-^txar-os,

293.

sweeten,

-We-?

from

Desideratives.

thus

(for

o-rj/Miiva)

a^/xa, <r>y/>iar-os s/^n.

cf.

From ad196, 1).


jective Stems in -V-.
ijSu-v-o)

name)

By analogy

275)

dtAy-vvw ;>am

/xeyaA-wco

i}Sv-s

Verbs expressing a

something are usually formed by tbe ending


7eXa-o"eift) desire to laugh (7eA<w (-aa>) laugh*).

desire to
-creteo

do

thus

COMPOUND WORDS
FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS
Compound words are formed by combining two
more separate words, or stems of words, into one word.

294.

or

Their accent

is

usually recessive (

64)

thus

COMPOUND WORDS

172

) long-lived, 7rpo-^ov\rj

(jrp6

+ ftov\rf)

fore-

thought.
1.

The compound word thus formed

often follows the

inflection of its last part, as in the examples above, or it


may go over into a different form of inflection thus
:

c/>iXo-rZ/i09
0eo-cf)i\r}S

(TI/JLTJ)

honor-loving, eu-yevrjs (761/05) well-born,

(<i A,o?) dear


greatly

Trpdy/jLar-os)

to the

gods, TroXv-Trpdy/jiwv (jrpdyiJLa,

meddlesome, ev-^pav

active,

(<$>pr)v)

glad-hearted.
295.

When

the

compound word

part of a

first

inflected word, only its

stem

(Xo70-5)

Treid-ap^os

speech-writer,

is

used

an

is

thus \oyo-y pdfos


obedient

(jreid-di)

to

command.
1.

final short

vowel (a or o)

is

elided

part began with a vowel (but see


(^0/30-5)

chorus-leader

god -like.
2. Stems other than

(but
-o-

2 a)

Oeo-ei&rjs

stems,

(0eo5

if

the second

thus

1 r

xP~ l i^

+ /reZo?,

when used

to

2)

form the

part of a compound word, have a strong tendency to


take the form of -o- stems thus Atyx>-7roo? (\vpa) lyremaker, Trarpo-tcrovos (Trarrjp, 7rar/?-o?) father-slayer, parricide, (f)V(no-\6yos (<u<7-5) natural philosopher, l%dvo-Tra)\r)<;
first

(t'^#i>5) fish-seller.

NOTE.

Sometimes other

the parts of a

e, t, or <n) appear between


thus 8aK^-^u/xos soul-consuming, aly-L-

letters (usually

compound word

This seldom happens


/?OTOS grazed by goats, Sa-o-i-Sat'/xcoi/ god-fearing.
except when the first part of the compound is a verb stem, and such
compounds are usually to be explained as formations from earlier
(mostly verbal) noun stems which ended in this way.
some part in such formations.

Analogy

275)

also probably played

296.

In compound nouns

a,

e,

or

o,

at the

beginning of

the last part often becomes long (TI or CD), unless the syllable in which it stands is already long by position ( 53)
:

FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS


thus

nameless (cf.

(oVo/-ia)

army -leader,

(a/ya>)

<TT/oaT-T]7o?

general,

173
av-^vv^o^

132, 1).

297. Apparent Compounds.


Sometimes words often
used together come to be written as one word (cf.
71,
note): thus Aiocr-xopoi sons of Zeus (i.e. the Dioscuri,

and Pollux),

Castor

Such words,

send away.

a7ro-7re)ii7r&>

although they are usually classed among compound words,


are not real compounds, but only apparent.

Verbs can be compounded (see

Compound Verbs.

298.

297) only with prepositions (which were originally adverbs modifying the verb) thus eVt-/3a\Xo> throw on.
:

It must be noticed that in denominative verbs formed


NOTE.
from compound nouns the verb is not compounded. Thus, 7ret#o/xcu
means obey, but disobey is not *d-7rei0o/Mat but aTreiftu (-e'eo), a denominative verb formed from a-TrtiOrjs disobedient.

299.

the

part of

compound words have no

The most important

ence.
1.

(before a consonant

civ-

Certain words used to form

Inseparable Prefixes.

first

tive)

not,

like Latin

are
a-,

in-,

separate exist-

usually called alpha privathus av-aiSrjs

English un-

shameless, a-#eo? godless.


2.

d- conjunctive

3.

8t)<r-

4.

thus a-Xo^o? bed-fellow.

(the opposite of eu well),

ill,

difficult:

thus

Bvcr-

TTOT/AO? ill-starred, Sva-^ep^ hard to handle.


T|ju- half- : thus r)pi-6eos demigod.

298

In Homer, and often in other writers, this adverbial use of the

a.

prepositions can be clearly seen, for the preposition is often separated by


one or more words from the verb which it modifies: thus KO.I eirl nvtyas

475), ava 5t Kpelwv 'Aya/j.t/j.i>wv CO-TV


stood up (B 100). This is often improperly called

^\0e and darkness came on (A


and

lordly

Agamemnon

Tmesis (cutting}.
299

a.

The poets have


unpunished,

also

tpi-Ki>5i?is

vrj-

not and

very famous.

apt-, fyi-, fa-

intensive

thus

MEANING OF COMPOUND WORDS

174

MEANING OF COMPOUND WORDS


The meaning

most compound words is at once


evident from the meaning of their parts.
In nearly all of them the first part limits or determines
300.

of

the meaning of the second part

thus ^rev^

prophet, o>o-Sou\o9 fellow-slave, a-ypa(f>os unwritten, a

Oearpov round theater,

^et/oo-TroirjTO? hand-made, apyvpo-Tot;os


a silver bow, fyXavK-wTris bright-eyed.
Observe that compound nouns may be either sub-

silver-bowed
1.

= having

stantives or adjectives, and that often a verbal element


in a compound word may have either an active or a

passive

meaning

thus compare \oyo-y p a $ 09 speech-writer

with a-ypa<f)0<; unwritten.


In compound words whose last part is a verbal formed
NOTE.
by the suffix -o- the written accent regularly stands on that part of
the word which indicates the agent (or instrument) thus /^T/OO-KTWOS
:

slain by a mother ;
by stones. When the written
stands on the penult if that

mother-slayer, matricide, /A^T/OO-KTOVOS mother-slain,

i.e.

Ai0o-/:?oA.os stone-throwing, \L66-j3o\os struck

accent
is

is

on the

last part of the

word,

it

short, otherwise "on the ultima: thus \oyo-ypd<j>os speech-writer,

Xoyo-TTOios speech-maker, orpaT-r/yos army-leader, general.

but

SYNTAX
301.

Syntax (o-iWaft? arrangement) treats of the


words to one another.

re-

lations of

An attributive word,
Attributive and Predicate.
taken for granted, modifies another word a predicate word is stated to modify another word.
Thus, in
o dyaObs dvrjp the good man, dyaObs is an Attributive
302.

it

is

in o dvrjp dyaOos lariv the man is good, ayaOos


adjective
a Predicate adjective.
In Greek, attributive and predicate words are usually
distinguished by their position with reference to the
;

is

article (see
1.

An

genitive
(

451 and 453).


may be

attributive
(

an

adjective,

a limiting

348-355), an adverb with adjective force

429, 1), or a prepositional phrase.

THE SENTENCE
A

303.
sentence expresses a thought, and contains a
Subject and a Predicate.

The Subject.
The subject must be a substantive,
some word or words having the value of a substantive

304.

or

TTOU? ypdfai the child is writing, eyco ypd<p(t> I am


writing, ol TO re dvSpeioi rjcrav the men of that time were
brave, efyvyov
Trepl 6/cTafcocriovs about eight hun-

thus

dredfledX.il. Hell. 6,5, 10.


175

SYNTAX

176

The subject is not usually


Subject not Expressed.
it
is
indicated
when
expressed
clearly
by the verb ending or
305.

by the context

thus

a/covco

I hear, a/covaare

hear ye, eVaX-

trumpeter) sounded the trumpet Xn. A.


vei it (i.e. Zeu? or 6 #eo?) rains, fydai they (i.e.
1, 2, 17.
people) say, TOV XayUTrr/Jpa 6771)9 ^poo-evey/cara) let him
Triyge he (i.e. the

the servant) bring the light close

(i.e.

Xn. Symp.

5, 2.

The origin of the so-called impersonal use of the verb


comparatively rare in Greek) is probably to be explained
in this way ( 305): thus Set /xax^s (the condition of affairs) needs
a battle, Trapta-nevao-rac JJLOI (things) have been made ready by me.
NOTE.

(which

is

The predicate is a verb or some


The Predicate.
words equivalent to a verb thus kdpelos r^adevei
Darius was ill, KO/oo? ftacn\ev<s TJV Cyrus was king, KO/oo?
r^v Cyrus was brave.
306.

word

or

307. Copula.
When a verb like et/u am,
become, fyaivopai appear, etc., is used merely to connect a
predicate noun with the subject, it is called a Copula (cf.
rjv

in the last

two examples above).

308. Omission of the Verb.


The verb is sometimes
omitted when it can be easily understood especially the
copula of the third person eari is or elcrL are : as e^Opwv
abwpa Swpa foes' gifts no gifts S. Aj. 665. wpa \eyeiv (it's)
;

speak, rc5 VO^JLW Treiareov obedience (is) to be rendered


law.
rt a\\o ovroi T) eTreftovKevaav ; what else (did)
these men than plot against us ? Th. 3, 39.

time

to

to the

NOTE.
Omission of the copula of the first or second person is
found eyo>
av amos
erot/xos / (am) ready Dem. 4, 29.
you (are) to blame Xn. Symp. 6, 7.
rarely

THE SENTENCE

177

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE


309. A simple sentence contains but one subject and
one predicate, as Ar/peto? r)<r6evei Darius was ill.
310.

of the Simple Sentence.


The subject
be enlarged by an attributive ( 302, 1)
317) TO Mevcovos crrpdrev/jLa a^tfcero

Enlargement

of a sentence

may

or

appositive (
Menon'' s army arrived, Aa/aeto? o /3a<rtXeu<? ycrdevei Darius

was

the king

ill.

311. The predicate of a sentence may be enlarged by


329 and 375) or cognate
an object (direct or indirect,

331), or

accusative (

thus

rrf

(TTparia

army wages,

by adverbial words or phrases

aTreSajfce

evftcrja-e

rrjv

KOpo? fjaadov Cyrus paid

the

won

ev

fjid^rjif

he

Xeyet? Trepl rovrcov you speak well about

the

battle,

this matter.

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE


312.

compound sentence

coordinate simple sentences


crv 8e

Oavy him

we'll send,

consists of

thus rovSe

and you

two or more

Tre/jL-^ro^ev

shall die E. /. T. 614.

1.
The subject or predicate of a compound sentence is
not needlessly repeated thus o Se TreiOerai /cal o-v\\a/j,/3 ci:

was persuaded ( 525), and (he) arrested


Kvpov
Xn.
A.
1, 1, 3.
Cyrus
el%e TO fiev Se^iov MeWz/ /cal ol
(rvv avru) Menon occupied the right wing, and those with him
(occupied it) Xn. A. 1, 2, 15. av re yap E\\7jv el /cat
for you are a G-reek, and (so are) we Xn. A. 2, 1, 16.
vet

he

f/

NOTE.
Here belongs the phrase KOL ovros and he, and tins, commonly found in the neuter plural /ecu TO.VTO. and that too thus Mei/on/a
Se OVK e^T6, Kat ravra Trap' 'Apiaiot; wi/ rov MeVwvo? e'vov he did not
ask for Menon, and that too (he didn't do) although he was from Ariaeus,
Menon's guest-friend Xn. A. 2, 4, 15.
:

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

12

SYNTAX

178

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE


313.

complex sentence consists of a main and a sub-

ordinate sentence: thus KOI

/3ao-t,\ev<; /jiev Brj,

eTrel rj/cova-e

TiacrcKfrepvovs TOV Kvpou aro\ov, CLVTI Trapecrfcevd^ero and


the

King, of course, when he had heard from Tissaphernes of


move, made counter-preparations Xn. A. 1, 2, 5.
^ev Srj Si tea i a TTOirfaw OVK olSa whether I shall do

Cyrus
e

know not Xn. A. 1, 3, 5. eTropevofjLrjv iva


a)<t>6\oi7]v avrov I marched to help him Xn. A. 1,

right

NOTE.

complex sentence

may

3, 4.

include more than one subordi-

nate sentence, and a subordinate sentence may in turn have other


subordinate sentences dependent on it thus 6 8' MS aTrfjXOe
., (3ovAeverai OTTW? /xr/Trore T6 carat CTTI T<3 d8eA<a>, aAAa, yjv Suv^rat, /3(i(nhe planned to be no longer in
\tvcru avr eKctVoi) wlien he came back
.,
:

power of his brother, but, if possible, to be king in his stead. Subordinated to the main sentence, fiovXevtrai, are the sentences o>s
the

aTT^X^e, OTTCOS

has dependent on

ecrrai,
it

and

/JamAeixrei, while

another subordinate sentence,

rjv

/JacnAewrei

SWITCH Xn. A.

1, 1, 4.

AGREEMENT
314.

General Principles of Agreement.

The

inflected

parts of speech, in general, indicate their relations with


other words by agreeing, so far as possible, in gender,

number, case, and person, with the words they modify.


So a word in apposition with another word stands in the
same case ( 317), an adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, number, and case ( 420), a pronoun takes
the number and gender (and sometimes the person) of
its antecedent (
462), and a finite verb agrees with its
subject in number and person ( 495).
NOTE.

Observe that as verbs have no distinction of gender, so


462) have no distinction of person,
be used with any person (although most frequently with the

substantives (and some pronouns,

and may

AGREEMENT

179

e/uoTOKA.^? rJKWTrapa <re(I), Themistocles, have come to you


ei /?ovAe<r0e /xoc ot re orpaTT/yot Kat ot Xo^ayot eA.$eiv
if (you) generals and captains are willing to come and see me Xn. A. 2,
os ye KeAevas (you) w#o bid Xn. J/em. 2, 3, 15.
5, 25.
third), as:
Th. 1, 137.

315. Construction according to Sense.


word not
infrequently violates the formal rules of grammar by
agreeing with the real gender or number of the word it

modifies.

So a collective substantive often has a verb or participle


neuter words or circumlocu321, 500)

in the plural (
tions (like J3ij]

HpaK\r)Lr] mighty Heracles, lit. the might


of Heracles') denoting persons often have participles or
relative pronouns agreeing with their real gender (
422,
464).

316.

Attraction.

Sometimes a word, owing

to the in-

fluence of other neighboring or preceding words, takes


different number, gender, case, or mode, from that ex-

pected, or even demanded, by the construction of


clause in which it stands
this is called Attraction.

the

So an adjective standing with an infinitive may be attracted into the accusative, although the word it really
modifies is in the genitive or dative ( 681, 1)
a pronoun
may be attracted to the case of its antecedent ( 484)
or to the gender of its predicate substantive ( 465)
a
;

verb

may

be attracted to the number of

predicate sub-

501) or to the mode or tense of another verb

stantive (

on which

its

it

depends

590, notes 1

and

4).

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES
AGREEMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES
APPOSITION

317.

word,

substantive used to describe another substantive

denotes the same thing, agrees with

if it

agrees also in

it

if

it

possible,
(Apposition)
gender, but this cannot always be: thus KOpo?
;

Xev? Cyrus,

the king, KOpo? KOI


Croesus, the kings (cf.

Cyrus and

Trora/io? the river Euphrates,

Peltae an inhabited

in case

number and
*6

Kpotcro? ol

421), o

but IleXrat Tro'Xt?

city.

A substantive (in the


318. Apposition to a Sentence.
nominative or accusative case) may stand in apposition to
the thought expressed by a sentence.
KOL, TO neyicrrov,
and
most important of
on
efyofSelro
o^OJcrecrOai, e/^eXXe
he

all

Cy.

was afraid because he was

3, 1, 1.

fjucrOov ifiicrTwv Xoywv happireward for sweetest words E. El. 231.

word

in apposition

adverbial force: thus

317
tence
rotcrt

TO

a.

In

Homer

with a sentence

the demonstrative

o (5e) at

the beginning of a sen-

often explained by an appositive further on thus


ywij Kiev and she unwilling with them icent, the
vTrepTTTOLTo

acquire an

may

Sevrepov av 2oAv/xoun /xaxeWaro and secondly

is

5'

Xn.

evSai/jLovolrjs,

ness be yours

XOTE.

seen

likely to be

xaXfeov

eyx

but

it

X275.
180

77

5'

MKOVV a^a

woman A

348.

flew over (him), the brazen spear

AGREEMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES
(lit.

the

second thing) he battled

the sake

of see

ivith the

Solymi

184.

181
(For x^P lv

for

336.)

word in apposition may


319. Partitive Apposition.
describe only in part the word to which it refers
thus
:

oltciai

7ro\\al

fJLV

had

the houses mostly

89.

OVTOL

o\lyat
few were still

eTreTTTCotcea'av,

fallen, but a

Th.

left

1,

a XX 09 d\\a \eyei these say one one thing,

another another

Be Trepirjaaif

Xn. A.

2, 1,

15.

PREDICATE SUBSTANTIVE

320.
substantive used as a predicate (cf.
326, 341)
317)
agrees in case (often also in number and gender, cf.
with the word it describes thus avepes ecrre, (f>i\oi be men,
:

my friends
77

TToXt?

Aa/oeto? (3acri\v<s rjv Darius was king.


<f>povpiov /carearrj the city turned itself into

734.
.

a fortress Th.

7,

28.

him satrap Xn. A.

avrov o-aTpaTrrjv

made

eTrotrjae he

2.

TOVTOIS xptovrat, Bopvtydpois


1,
these they use as body-guards Xn. Hier. 5, 3.

NOTE.

1,

Observe the difference between the construction of the

predicate substantive and that of the direct object

meaning

become, appear, choose, regard, name,


have a predicate substantive.
be,

Words

329).

and the

like,

can

PECULIARITIES IN THE MEANING OF SUBSTANTIVES


321.

Collectives.

collective substantive, while sin-

gular in form, may really have a plural meaning (cf.


so (77) ITTTTO? cavalry, 8^05 people, TrXr/^o? mul315)
etc.
titude,
Tpoidv \6vT<s 'Apyeiwv crroXo? the Arrives
:

army (which had} taken Troy Aesch. Ag. 577.


322.
is

Abstract for Concrete.

often used with concrete

/ucro?

hateful

thing

(lit.

An

abstract substantive

meaning (Antonomasia)
hate),

o\e6po<s

baneful

thus

person

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES

182
(lit.

destruction), rcrj&evpa relative (lit. relationship) ; so,


process, ra oir\a (lit. arms)
camp, l%6ves

by a similar

= fish
(lit. fish)

market, etc.

THE CASES
In earlier times Greek (or, at any rate, its parent
language) possessed three other cases besides those in regu323.

These were

lar classical use.

(1) Ablative (separation),

(2) Instrumental (including accompaniment), and (3) Locative (place where).


The ablative has become one with
the genitive, and the instrumental has been absorbed by
the dative.
Of the locative some traces still remain (see
76, note),

but most of

its

forms and functions have been

absorbed by the dative.


324.

of

The Greeks had

a keen sense of the finer shades

and did not


constructions with the same

meaning conveyed by the

hesitate

use different

to

word: thus

different cases,

\oyov to hear a speech ( 356),


356
hear (the whole of) a speech (
note 1), aKoveiv \6yw to hearken (i.e. be obedient) to a
a/covens

atcoveiv

\6yov

speech (

to

376).

Often a combination of words may demand the use


of a certain case which no one of them alone could
1.

command:
ekfyOijv)

as e/jLavrfj Bia \6yayv a^HKo/JLrjv (= e/^avrf} Biheld converse with myself (lit. come through

I have

words with myself) E. Med. 872.


2.
So verbs compounded with a preposition are thereby
(either with the help of the preposition alone, or from the
general meaning of the compound) enabled to take a case
which the simple verb could not command. (See
345,
370,

and 394.)

THE NOMINATIVE CASE

183

For practical purposes it becomes necessary to clasvarious usages, and in the following pages the
these
sify
various uses of the cases are given in detail, but in the
use of the cases, as elsewhere, analogy is at work, and it
3.

must be remembered that not every use

of a case can
be put into the grammatical pigeon holes here provided.
(As a rule, only the general principles are here stated,

and the exact usage with any particular word


be learned from the lexicons.)

is

always to

THE NOMINATIVE
The

325.

case

thus

subject of a finite verb


r)<rdevei

KVOLTO whosoever came, fj,r)$els

326.

is

in the nominative

Adpeios Darius was


vo/jLicrdra) let

ill,

ocrrt?

a<f)i-

nobody think.

noun

subject of

in the predicate ( 320) agreeing with the


a finite verb is also in the nominative case
:

thus Kvpo? /Sao-tXeu?

rjv

Cyrus was

king.

The nominative is not infrequently used in address and


NOTE.
exclamations where we might expect the vocative thus Zev Trdrep
'HeAios B\ os TTCXVT' e<opa9 Father Zeus and the Sun who lookest on
:

all

things

"EAA^ve?
A.

1,

5,

277,

*at Ilpo^eve KO! ol aAAoi ot Tra/ooi/res


and you other Greeks here present Xn.

KAeapxe

Clearchus, Proxenus,

16,

OVTOS,

TL Trai<T\u<*

hard of heart!

Here you,

ivhat's the

matter? Ar. V.

1,

403.

THE VOCATIVE
327. The person (or thing) addressed stands in the
vocative case, often preceded by w
thus av Op wire, ri
Xn.
what
are
&>
man,
you doing?
Cy. 2, 2, 7.
:

Adrjvaloi

men

of Athens.

(Cf.

326, note.)

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

184

THE ACCUSATIVE
328.

The function

of the Accusative is to

and directly the meaning

modify closely

of the verb.

DIRECT OBJECT
329. The direct object of a transitive verb stands in
the accusative case: thus rbv av&pa 6pw I see the man

Xn. A.
1.

1, 8, 26.

Many

verbs which are transitive in Greek have no

transitive equivalent in English.

The following

are note-

worthy: bfivvvai TOU? #cou? to swear by the gods, \avOdveiv Tivd to escape the notice of anybody, alSelo-dat or
ai<T"vve<jQai riva to feel ashamed before anybody.
2.
On the other hand, many Greek intransitive verbs
which are followed by a genitive or dative can be rendered
See
356 and 376.
into English by transitive verbs.
330. Circumlocutions equivalent to a transitive verb
324,
may, of course, take an object in the accusative (cf
.

1)

thus eVto-r^/xo^e? r^aav ra 7rpocri]Kovra they under-

duties Xn. Cy. 3, 3, 9.


o-vvOrjfcas e^apvos
the
he
denies
Dem.
171. ecrri
ra
23,
agreement
jijverat
he
is
a
co
student
above
PI.
e
of things
per
pa (frpovricrrris
Ap.
stood their

So the verbs \eyo) say and TTOLCO (-ew) do, with the
of
an
adverb or cognate accusative ( 331), are enabled
help
to take a direct object of the person
as v or fcafccos \eyeiv
18

b.

Tiva

to

speak good or

ill

of anybody (cf

340)

THE COGNATE ACCUSATIVE


In Greek, almost any verb, intransitive or transimay be followed by an accusative of kindred meaning

331.
tive,

with the verb, to define

it

more

closely:

thus

THE COGNATE ACCUSATIVE


run a

to

185

race, apta-Trjv ftov\7]v /3ov\eveiv to

plan

the best plan, I 74, tjvrv^rjo-av rovro TO e u r v ^77 yu- a they


had this good luck Xn. A. 6, 3, 6, owtyvye rrjv (frvyrjv

had

ravrrjv he

his share in this

banishment PI. Ap. 21

a.

Circumlocutions equivalent to a verb may, of


course, take a cognate accusative (cf.
330) thus croc^o?
332.

wv rrjv e/cLV(0v aofyiav being wise in


Ap. 22 e.
333.

The Greeks were very fond

wisdom

their

PI.

of the construction of

the cognate accusative, and used it with astonishing freedom. Often the kindred meaning of the accusative is

The following examples will


only implied in the verb.
serve better than explanation to make the matter clear
I live a grievous life S. El. 599. CLTTOVw jBiov
/jio^drjpov
:

\o)\

/ca/cov

rjycovl&vTo
4, 8, 27.

popov
.

A.

he has perished (by}

an

evil fate,

a 166.

o-rdSiov they competed in foot-racing Xn.

ra Av/caia

eOvcre he celebrated

Lycaean (festival) Xn. A. 1, 2, 10.


to make a wound, 6$bv
TropeveaOcu

Od\arrav

by

sacrifice the

So eX/co? ovrdaai,
to

make a journey,

o-raO /AOVS
e^e\avvei
he
marches
to breathe
three
Trvelv
r/oet?
days'" journey, jrvp
446.
r
(forth) fire, TTV/O
7; /3ov\rj
BeSoprca)? looking fire
7T\elv

to sail the sea,

e/3\ei/re

el/Jii

(cf.

330) Xn. Cy.

vanrv the Senate looked mustard Ar. Eq. 631.

Seiz^o?

334.

ravrrjv rrjv

re^v^v I am

clever at this business

8, 4, 18.

neuter adjective or pronoun

is

often used as a

cognate accusative, since the substantive with which it


would agree is already implied in the verb: thus ovSev
tyevberai

lie's

telling

Ar. Ach. 561.

no

rovro

lie

(i.e.

ovSev

-v/reOSo? i/reuSercu)

rjpcord he asked this question (i.e.

TOVTO TO eptoTrjjAa), fj,eyd\a a)<j)6\iv

to

help greatly, rl

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

186
CLVTU)

TL KaraKetfjiai

will he make of him Ar. Ach. 935.


why am I lying down? Xn. A. 3, 1, 13.

what use

335. Accusative of the Part Affected.


Closely allied
with the cognate accusative is the accusative of the Part
Affected, found mostly with passive and intransitive verbs

335 a)

(see

belly

284.

thus

ra?

ftdfiXijcu

tcevecova you are hit in the

<f>peva<$ vyiatveiv to be

sound in mind

a\yelv rou? Tro'Sa? to have gout Xn. Mem.


ri TO Sep//,' ewaOes what's the matter with your
1, 6, 6.
hide ? (lit. what have you experienced in your skin f*) Ar.

Hdt.

Pax

3, 33.

746.

336. Adverbial Uses of the Accusative.


From the free
use in Greek of the cognate accusative ( 333), there have
arisen several adverbial uses of the accusative
thus
:

rrjv Ta%icmjv (sc. 68ov) the shortest ivay (originally with a


verb of motion), rovrov rov rpoirov in this manner,

%dpiv
for the sake of (originally an accusative in apposition with
a sentence,
318; e.g. efirjv %dpiv for my sake), Sitcrjv
in the fashion of, like (e.g. TrwXov Si/crjv like a colt*), ov
dpxtfv n t &t att 0- e n t (to make) even the begin.

ning),

fjieya

^jd\a)

greatly, TO TTO\V (ra 7ro\\a) for the

most part, Trpwrov at first, Trporepov formerly, TO XOLTTOV for


the future, reXo? finally,
335

a.

"

WHOLE AND PART

and a good many others whose


" CONSTRUCTIOX.

In

Homer (and some-

times also in other poets), an accusative of the part affected often follows
an accusative of the direct object as rbv 5' &opi ir\rj!-' av^^va him, with
:

his sword, he smote (in) the neck A 240.


y 0-e 7r65as vtyei she shall wash
This construction is often explained as
(for) you your feet r 356.

"partitive apposition," but, since the

word denoting the part appears

in the corresponding passive construction in the accusative case (while

the other accusative becomes a nominative,


appositive (see

512).

511),

it

can hardly be an

THE COGNATE ACCUSATIVE

187

meanings will readily suggest themselves. Here belong


comparative and superlative of adverbs in -&>?

also the

138).

The

Accusative of Specification.

337.

much used words

of certain

accusative case

like ovo^a name, t/^ro? height,

evpo? width, /^etfo? size (perhaps originally cognate), very


early came to be felt as adverbial, and soon other accusatives

came

KuSyo?

same way

to be used in the

eSpo?

ovo/j,a,

thus

Trora/jLos

Svo ir\e9pwv a river,

name, two plethra in width Xn. A.

Cydnus by
TroSa? aircvs

1, 2, 23.

'A^AAeu? Achilles swift of foot, Hm. rf^Xo? rd r ayra


rov re vovv rd r op par* el blind in ears, and mind, and
0. T. 371.

eyes, art thou, S.

The

Accusative of Extent.

338.

accusative (modifying

a verb) is used to denote the extent of time or space


thus e/jieivev r;//,e/99 irevre he remained five days Xn. A. 1,
:

2, 11.

aTre^et

77

Kovra Plataea

is

NOTE.

TlXdraia rwv
seventy stades

o-rabiovs

r)/3a)v

from

Thebes Th.

eftBofjLt'j-

2, 5.

accusatives denoting extent can readily be seen to


be cognate: thus eeAawa o-TaOfJiovs rpets he marches (a march

Many

of) three days' journey

Xn. A.

1, 2, 5.

e/?ia>

lived (a life of) ninety-six years, Isaeus 6, 18.

the usage

339.

came

to be

Irt]

ei/ei/TJ/covra

lie

as these

extended to other verbs.

The

Accusative of Limit of Motion.

Greek

Kat

From such verbs

limit of

mo-

expressed by the accusative (in prose


with
the
regularly
help of a preposition) thus e%e\avvei
e/? KoXo<rcra? he marched to Oolossae Xn. A. 1, 2, 6.

tion in

is

339

a.

sition)

is

In Homer and other poets the accusative alone (without a prepothus Kvia-r) 5' ovpavbv
often used to denote the limit of motion
:

we and the fragrance came to


she came to the suitors a 332.
to

Argos E.

/.

T. 604.

the heavens
Tr^/'ei

317.

/j.vr)ffTripas d^f/cero

yap "Apyos for he will take

it

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

188

TWO ACCUSATIVES WITH ONE VEKB


Since the cognate accusative may be used with
331), it follows that some verbs may

340.

transitive verbs (

take two accusatives, one of the object and the other


cognate thus TOCTOVTOV e^^o? %0aipa) ere with such hatred
:

do

hate thee

S. El.

1034.

MeX^ro?

eypd-^raro rrjv

/jue

ypa(f)r)v ravTrjv Meletus brought this indictment against me


PI. Ap. 19 b.
KOjOo? TO (TTpdrev/jLa Kareveipe ScoBe/ca
pepr) Cyrus divided his army into twelve divisions Xn.

Cy.

ravra TOVTOV

13.

5,

7,

Hdt.

115.

1,

TOL"?

eTrolrjaa this

1&Oplv9iOV<S TToXXa T

did

to

him

K CL K CL

Kal

e\j he said many bad things of the Corinthians Hdt. 8, 61.


Kvpov alrelv 7r\ola to demand vessels of Cyrus Xn. A.
1,

Tot/?

6 TroXu? /3/oro? long life


TroXXa bidder/eel,
me many lessons E. Hipp. 252. avafjiv^aw uyu-a? Kal
KivSvvovs I will remind you also of the dangers

14.

3,

teaches
.

/JL

Xn. A.

11.

f/

rou?

Ei\\r)va<> TTI]V
deprive the Greeks of their land Xn. A. 1, 3, 4.
rrjv /jiev Ovyarepa eicpwirre rov ddvarov TOV dv&pos from
his daughter he concealed her husband's death Lys. 32, 7.
2,

3,

atyaipeicrOai,

<yr)v to

these verbs are those

Among
clothe,

meaning

to ask, teach,

remind, conceal, deprive, say (anything) of or do

to (a person), and many others.


these verbs are used in the passive, the cognate
thus
accusative is retained in the same case (
512)

(anything)
1.

When

TvirrecrOai

TrevTiJKovra vrX^^ya?

Aeschin.

1,

in music

PL Menex. 236

this they

341.

139.

^OVO-LK^V
a.

name, appoint, regard, and the

rovro OVK

were not deceived Xn. A.

Predicate Accusative.

struck fifty blows


TraiSevOeis instructed

to be

2, 2,

e^revaOr](Tav in

13.

Verbs meaning to make,


like,

may have

a predicate

PARTICULAR USES OF THE ACCUSATIVE


accusative agreeing with the object (

189

320): thus arparrj-

him general Xn. A. 1, 1, 2.


we riOrjaOa you make us wakeful i 404. vo/ju^e
/Jiev Trarpiba ol/cov regard your native land as your
house Xn. Hier. 11, 14.
1.
This construction is exactly parallel with o KOpo?
o-Tparrjyos a7re&ei%@r) Cyrus was appointed general, and in
the passive construction both accusatives become nomina-

ybv avrov

tives (

aTreoeige he appointed

511).

PARTICULAR USES OF THE ACCUSATIVE


342.

The

Subject of the Infinitive.

infinitive stands in the accusative case (see

subject

of

the

629).

NOTE.
Originally the accusative in this construction was probably
a direct object, while the infinitive (a verbal substantive,
628) was
used to define the verb still further, but as the infinitive partook more
and more of the functions of the verb, the origin of the construction
was forgotten, and the accusative came to be used with great freedom
as the subject of

343.

any

infinitive.

Accusative Absolute.

The

participle of

an im-

personal verb ( 305, note), having no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence, stands in the

Accusative Absolute

658).

Xo doubt

NOTE.

the accusative absolute, like the genitive absolute (


369), owes its origin to a loosening of its grammatical
So in a sentence like
connection with the rest of the sentence.

p\0tv
P

32, or

S='

re V^TTIO? eyvco eren a fool can see a thing that's been done
Se aurois evOvs fj.v aSvvara yv iTn\f.ip^tv it was

SeSoy^ievov

impossible to take up arms at once

a thing which had been voted by

318) Th. 1, 125, the participle came to be thought of as


having little or no connection with the rest of the sentence (" when a
" it
even a fool can see it" and
having been voted
thing has been done
them

(cf.

by them" etc.), and so such participles


independent construction.

came

to be freely used as

an

THE GENITIVE CASE

190
344.

Accusative of Swearing.

The

accusative

is

used

in oaths, regularly preceded by vtj or pd


vtj or val yu-a is
always affirmative ; ov //.a or pd alone is negative thus
vrj Ai'a by Zeus, val pd Aia yes, by Zeus, ov fjud A/a or
:

A/a

fjud

345.

no,

by Zeus.

Some verbs by

Accusative with Compound Verbs.

being compounded with a preposition, which can be used


with the accusative ( 346), are thus enabled to take an
accusative which they could not otherwise command ( 324,
y

thus eo-TrXe'ozm rbv \6viov tc6\7rov

2):
.

7r\eovTi e? rov

1, 24.

1, 2, 6.

VTreppri \aivov ov&dv he stepped over the

Gulf, Th.

Xn. A.

(=

one sailing into the Ionian


rov rov $t,a/3afi having crossed this [river]

398, note 1)

/c6\7rov,

to

threshold -of stone, 6 80.


346. Prepositions with the Accusative.
The use of the
Accusative to express Extent ( 338) or Limit of Motion
(

339)

is

often

of prepositions.

made more clear and


The preposition efc

improper preposition 009


only with the accusative

to),

from

its

definite

by the help

into (as well as the

meaning, can be used

Other
so also in prose ova up.
;
are
used
sometimes
with
the
accusative
prepositions
about, Sid through, eVt towards, Kara down, //.era after, irapd

d^i

to

round about, TT/OO? towards, vTrep above,


400417.
For the details of their use see

the side of, Trepi

VTTO

under.

THE GENITIVE
*
uses of the genitive in Greek can be grouped
under two heads the true genitive and the ablative geni347.

The

tive (

361), but in

many

instances the two have become

fused together, and not every use of the genitive can be

THE TRUE GENITIVE (POSSESSIVE)

191

in fact, many uses of


surely referred to one or the other
the genitive are very hard to classify: thus Sen-a? olvov

cup of wine may appear to some a partitive genitive ( 355),


to others a descriptive genitive (of material,
352, and
lam
this
race
of
note) ; raim?? TJ?? yeveas elfu
may appear
to

some a descriptive genitive

of source (

and many

352), to others a genitive

365), to others still a partitive genitive ( 355),


other examples of a similar sort might be quoted.

A.

THE TRUE GENITIVE


POSSESSIVE GENITIVE

348. The genitive limiting a substantive may denote


Possession or Belonging thus oltcld irarp 09 father's house,
Kv/jiara T?}? Oa\drrrj(; waves of the sea, 'EXeVty fj At 09
:

Helen

the

(daughter) of Zeus.

The

possessive genitive can stand equally well in


the predicate: thus at Kw^ai
Hapva-ariSos rjaav
the villages were Parysatis* Xn. A. 1, 4, 9.
vo^i^ei vp,a<;
1.

eavrov

you are his own Xn. A. 2, 1, 11.


l^dxi) vlic&VT&v KOI TO ap-^eiv ear lv for to rule is
(the right) of those ivho conquer in battle Xn. A. 2, 1, 4.
elvai he thinks

rwv yap
also

The
when the

NOTE.

possessive genitive

is

often used with the definite

substantive with which the article would agree can


be easily supplied (see
424) thus IloXe/xapxo? 6 Ke^aXov Polemarchus the (son of) Cephalus, TO. TT/S Tro'Aews the (affairs) of the
article

State; so also eis


2.

more

TOV dSeXc^ov

to

my

brother's (i.e. to his house).

The meaning of the possessive genitive is often made


clear by the addition of adjectives like TSto? one's

own, oiVeto? belonging


t'epo? 6

%%>o?

to one's house, lepos

T?}? 'A/ore'/uSo?

of Artemis Xn. A.

5, 3,

13.

sacred (to)

thus

the place is (a) sacred (place)

THE GENITIVE CASE

192

SUBJECTIVE GENITIVE

genitive limiting a substantive sometimes exrelation which would be expressed by the subthe
presses
a
thus ^>o/3o? TWV TroXe/jblayv fear of the
of
verb:
ject
349.

enemy

(i.e. ol

evvoua ra)v

enemy are afraid),

will of the citizens.

The

line between the subjective and the possessive ( 348)


hard
to draw, for the two imperceptibly shade into
very

NOTE.
genitive

(frofiovvrai the

iro\e^ioi

ITO\ITWV good

is

each other.

OBJECTIVE GENITIVE
350. The genitive may express the relation which would
be expressed by the object (direct or indirect) of a verb
thus <o/3o5 TWV 7ro\jjLia)v fear of the enemy (i.e. (f)o/3elrai rt? rot/? 7ro\6fjiLov<; some one fears the enemy), evvoia
:

ITO\ITWV good will toward the citizens (i.e. evvoel TL<$


TroXtrat? some one is well disposed toward the citizens),
T/}? cro^/a? desire for wisdom, TOVTCOV alria the
cause of

this.

Objective Genitive with Adjectives.


Adjectives
kindred to verbs which take an object may be followed
351.

by an objective genitive
standing the art

P \.
t

late in learning injustice

responsible for

this

eTTLo-rrj^wv

448

Cro.

b.

rrjs

re %z^^9 under-

o^lri/jLaOr)?

PL Hep. 409 b.

r?}?

TOVTWV

ai'

Ar. Eq. 1356.

DESCRIPTIVE GENITIVE
352.

The

genitive

may

limits: thus Trat? Berca

describe the substantive which

erwv

a boy of ten years, ^l\ia)v


drachmae
thousand
a
suit, apyvpiov fiva a
Spax^wv &i/cr)
silver mina, a/zafat crirov wagon loads of grain, Tpolrjs

it

TTTo\ieQpov city of Troy (poetic;

cf.

317).

THE TEUE GENITIVE (PARTITIVE)


The descriptive genitive
NOTE.
of measure, material, value, etc.

is

193

often subdivided into genitive

The

descriptive genitive often stands in the predicate


thus rjv erwv GO? TpiaKovra lie was about
348,
1)
(cf.
Xn. A. 2, 6, 20. 77 tcpwTrts ecm \i6a)v
old
thirty years
the foundation is of large stones Hdt. 1, 93.
1.

Here doubtless belongs the infinitive of purpose with rot)


NOTE.
used by Thucydides and later writers ( 639) as <f>povpiov tV CLVTOV
TOV fj.r) ecrTrXetv Meyapev<n /xrjS' CKTrXeiv /XT/8eV on it there
rjv
was a fort so that nothing should sail in or out for the Megarians,
:

Th.

2, 93.

With words of valuing, buythe genitive (perhaps originally


352) is used to denote the value

Genitive of Value.

353.

ing, selling,

and the

like,

a descriptive genitive,
or price
thus pei^ovos aura rl^vrai they value them
:

more highly Xn. Cy. 2, 1, 13. S/m^/xr}? irpiacrOai to buy


rayv TTOVWV TrcoXovaiv rj^lv
for a drachma PL Ap. 26 e.
Trdvra raydtf ol Oeoi the gods
of

toil

Xn. Mem.

SiSdo-Kei

Five minae
NOTE.
thing,
1.

it

2,

1,

what

TrevTe /JLVWV

PL Ap.

But

if

sell all

is

his price

for instruction?

20 b.

the price

is

regarded as the means of acquiring a

stands in the dative (see

The

things to us at the price


TTOO-QV

20 (from Epicharmus).

genitive of value

387).

may be made more

clear

by the

help of adjectives like dl-ios worthy, avd^ios unworthy, dv-

thus agios TTO\\OV worth much,


(things) unworthy of me PL Ap. 38 e.

rfto9

equivalent, etc.

avd^ia,

e'yLtoO

PARTITIVE GENITIVE
354.

word denoting anything

of

which only a part

considered, stands in the genitive case.


BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

13

is

THE GENITIVE CASE

194
355.

Partitive Genitive with Substantives.

substan-

tive (or substantive pronoun) may be described by a genitive denoting the whole of which it is a part
thus r w v
:

7r\rao-ra)v

dvtfp a

man

Xn. A.

of the peltasts

4, 8, 4.

r)\6ov e
r^? 'IcoWd? they came from Ephesus (a
ol aXoWe? 'E\\ijv(ov
part) of Ionia Xn. A. 2, 2, 6.
those of the Greeks who were captured Hdt. 7, 175.
TroXXot,
err par tear wv many of the soldiers, ou&et? TWV TroXeno one of the enemy, e/9 TOO-OVTOV r 0X^77 9 to such a
'E<e<trou

(point) of boldness Lys. 12, 22.


1.
Adjectives or adverbs of the superlative degree are
often followed by a partitive genitive ( 427, 1): thus
ySeXr^cTTo?

avOpwTTcov

best

(man) of men.

Here belong also poetical expressions


among women 8 305, etc.

The

NOTE.

like

Sia

yuvaiKwi/

partitive genitive with substantives has

the predicate position

divine

commonly

454).

The partitive genitive can stand equally well in the


predicate: thus fjv &e KOI 6 ^.(o/cpdrr)^ TWV a^l M/Xi/TO*
a-rparevofjievcov Socrates also was (one) of those engaged
2.

in military
0e?

operations

rwv

around Miletus Xn. A.

7re7reicrfMva>v
of the converts PI. Rep. 424 c.
e'yLte

356.

put me down

Partitive Genitive with Verbs.

Any

1,

2,

3.

as (one)

verb whose

action affects the object only in part is regularly followed


by the genitive. Many verbs, from their meaning, are

almost always so used, others only occasionally.


Thus,
verbs meaning to share, touch, take hold of, be full of,

aim at, hit, miss, taste of, smell of, enjoy, hear, rememand forget, care for and neglect, spare, desire, exercise
authority (in some respect) over, and the like, regularly
begin,

ber

THE TRUE GENITIVE (PARTITIVE)

195

take the genitive: thus Xa/3oz>ra? rov (BapftapiKov o-rparov taking (part) of the barbarian army Xn. A. 1, 5, 7.
TT}? 7779 erepov they
Bel

u/m?

ravaged (some) of the country Th.

^ere^eiv you must share the


crv\\rfao/jLai Be rovSe VOL Kayco

dangers Xn. .0e?. 2, 4, 9.


TTOVOV but I too will take part with you in
946.

and

TWV \oycov Anaxagoras' books are full


PL Ap. 26 d. rov \6yov Se ^/o%ero

subjects

thus he began his speech Xn. A.


he reached for his child Z 466.

have met with victory Xn. (7/.


eating of lotus i 102.
o\iyoi

food Xn. A.

tasted of

banquet r 68.

Xn.
6Sov

shouting
oitcaSe

you

3, 2,

25.

180.

I have

E. Med.

vt/cij$
4,

3, 1, 3.

1,

aeOev

\CDTOLO

we

<j>ayu>v

atrov eyevcravro few


Scuro? ovrjao enjoy the

we forget

lest
8'

6700

TOVTCOV rcov

the

homeward way Xn.

OLW a\,eyla) but

I care

^aOrj/^drcov Trakai

Xn. Mem.

not for

CTTiOv/JLO)

2, 6, 30.

Oa\daa-r]<i they were masters of the sea Th.

Xef/3/cro^>o?

sophus led the

TTv%ijKajj,ev

2.

TT}? /cpavyfjs yaOovro they perceived the


Hell. 4, 4, 4.
SeSoLfca /JLTJ e7rt\a0cb/jLe0a TT}?

I fear

rrj<;

30.

of these

wSe and

TrouSo? opegaro

3, 2, 7.

long been desirous of this learning

Kpdrovv
1,

this task

Xa/3e Trerp^?, r?)? e%ero Ae seized hold of the rock,


to this he clung e 428.
ra 'Avaj;ay6pov ^tjB\ia ye/jiei

TOVTWV

A.

1, 30.

Kivbvvwv

ra)v

f)yelro

army Xn. A.

rov arpaTev /^aro?

Ohiri-

4, 1, 6.

NOTE 1. Of com*se, when these verbs affect the object as a whole,


they take the accusative: thus ov /xereAa^Se TO TT^TTTOV /xepos TOOI/
i/'T/^wv he did not get (as his share) the fifth part of the votes PL Ap. 36 a.
Oeov K\vev av&rjv he heard the voice of the god O 270.
Trie oivov
drink wine

by the girdle
yl.l, 6, 10.

NOTE

2.

347.

2Xa/?ov T>} ?

w v 77 s rov 'Op o VT a v

they seized Orontas

seized Orontas, but took hold of his girdle) Xn.


(i.e. they
we ravage their land Th. 1, 81.
rjv rr/v yf)v OLVTWV re/xw/xev if
As partitive is to be explained the genitive with verbs

of imploring (poetic)
as c/xe XtoWo-Kero
(taking hold of) my knees I 451.
:

yovvwv

she besought

me by

THE GENITIVE CASE

196

357. Partitive Genitive with Adjectives.


Adjectives
(and sometimes their adverbs) of kindred meaning with
verbs which take the partitive genitive ( 356) may also
be construed with the genitive. See also 351. (Usually
such adjectives stand with a copula, thus forming a circumlocution equivalent to a verb cf. 330): thus /xero^o?
(Tofitds partaking of wisdom, /^ecrro? KCLKWV full of evil,
\r)6rj<; wv TrXe'o)? being full of forgetfalness PL Rep. 486 c.
eVtcrr 77/^77? /eei/o? void of knowledge (but cf.
362, 2 and
;

347), TrXouovo? (f)povija'(i)5 rich in wisdom, VTDJKOOS TWV


KCLKWV
ryoveayv obedient to his parents PL Hep. 463 d.
ayeu0-ro<? without taste of evil S.

unmindful of

evil

Ant. 582.

E. H. F. 1397 (but

a/jLvrj/mwv

cf.

fca/cwv

351).

The partitive geni358. (Partitive) Genitive of Place.


tive (in prose regularly with the help of a preposition or
adverb, see
398-418) is used to denote the place within
some part

which an action takes place thus ievai TOV


go (into any part of the county) ahead Xn.
Trpocra)
A. 1, 3, 1. So also Sefm? and dpio-repds (sc. ^etpo?) on the
TO Se dpiareprjs ^e/oo?
right and on the left (hand)
it
stands
and
a
ea-TrjKe
(on
portion of the ground) on the
Hdt.
77.
So
5,
left
Trepl rpoirios about (part of) the keel,
Sia TreSlov through (part of) the plain, Trepdv TOV Troraof

to

358 a. In Homer (and sometimes in other poets) the partitive genitive


of place (without a preposition) is freely used: thus ^ O$K "A.pyeos ^ej>
icas he not (anywhere) in Argos ? y 251.
epxovrai wedioio they are
,-

TO%OU TOV ertpoio he


marching along (in) the plain B 801. lev
ear Ids ae<ro/i0dXon
sat (in a part of the space) by the other icall I 219.
e'crTTjKej/ 17577 fj.f)\a already stand the victims at earth's central shrine Aesch.
.

Ag. 1056.
b. In Homer (and sometimes in other poets) the partitive genitive of
place is occasionally found with adjectives: as tvavTtoi e<rrav 'AxciicD?
More commonly
they took their stand over against the Achaeans A 214.
such words are found with a dative (
376 and 392).

THE ABLATIVE GENITIVE


some part

of the space) across the river, 7r\rja-lov


Seo-/jua)Tr)piov (in some part of the space) near the

(in

rov

197

prison, etc.

Here belong
etc. (

also the adverbs in -ov like TTOV, ovSapov,

137, 1).

The genitive is
359. (Partitive) Genitive of Time.
used to denote the time within some part of which an
thus /3acrtXeu5 ov ^a^elrai Be/ca rj^epwv
action takes place
:

the king will not fight (at

A.

1, 7,

18

any time) within

ten days

Xn.

so frequently ?$/iepa? by day, VUKTOS by night,

in the icinter, etc.

Adverbs of
Partitive Genitive with Adverbs.
time
be
with
a partiand
used
(rarely others) may
place
360.

tive genitive (see


thus TTOV 7/79 where on
358, 359)
earth (Latin ubinam gentium)
ovSa^f} \lyv7rrov noivhere
r
in Egypt, ov% opas (v et /ca/cov you see not in ivhat plight
:

you are S. Aj. 386. Troppco rov ftiov far on in


Ap. 38 c. 6^6 TT}? r)iJLpds late in the day. TTW?
So 77? in what state of opinion are you? PL Rep. 456
of

ill

life

%?

PI.

d.

NOTE.
The partitive genitive with adverbs is by some authors used
very freely; as ^p^/xarooi/ tv TyKoi/re? being well off in money Hdt. 5,
'A #771/0.101 GJS TroSaJv tlxov ra.\Lara. IfiorfQeov the Athenians, with all
62.
possible speed offoot, went to assist Hdt. 6, 116.

B.

THE ABLATIVE GENITIVE

The

genitive performs also the duties of the'


which it has absorbed (see
ablative
323).
original
361.

GENITIVE OF SEPARATION
362. The ablative genitive is used with
or implying separation
thus
:

words denoting

THE GENITIVE CASE

198
1.

With Verbs.

aTrel^ov

r^? 'EXAaSo?, they were

dis-

from Greece Xn. A. 3, 1, 2. 77 vijaos ov TTO\V Ste'^et


T?;? rjTreipov the island is not far distant from the mainland Th. 3, 51.
volv aBe\(f>oiv eareprjOrj/jiev Svo of two
tant

we two

brothers were

bereft S.

p%^9 I shall

Ant. 13.

TOVTOVS

ov

from office Xn.


Cy* 8, 6, 3. ovSev Siotcreis Xatpe^xw^ro? you will not
differ at all from Chaerephon Ar. Nub. 503.
2. With Adjectives.
<$>l\a)v ayaO&v ep^poi destitute of
good friends Xn. Mem. 4, 4, 24. opfyavos avbp&v bereft
of men Lys. 2. 60. erepov TO rj$v TOV ayaOov the pleasant
Travaa) TTJS

is

different from the


3.

good

With Adverbs.

PL

J?eW.

4,

the rest

Siafapovrcos

Xn. Hier.

NOTE.

T^? 80^779 apart from the


a^eu TT^OLCOV without boats Xn.

r^5 TroXeo)?

TToppco

5, 14.

Go. 500 d.

%<0/ot9

reputation PI. ^t?. 35 b.


^4. 2, 2, 3.

not depose these

jfar off

rwv

from

the city

a\\cov differently

Xn.

from

7, 4.

Verbs of depriving sometimes take a genitive of separation

instead of the accusative of

TWV aXXwv

340: thus

away property from the


of hotv much have you been

taking

rest

Xn. Mem.

Dem.

bereft!

1,

8,

acfxupoviJLCvoi

5, 3.

TTOO-WV

63.

363. Genitive with Comparatives.


Adjectives and adverbs of the comparative degree may be followed by a genitive (of separation) of the thing compared (see
426, 2)
:

^jot'cro?
Kpeicrcrwv fwpitov \6ya)v gold is more potent
than unnumbered words E. Med. 965.
varepw ^povw
TOVTCOV at a time later than these (events) Hdt. 4, 166.

thus

[TTovrjpla]

death

Oavdrov

Oarrov

PL Ap.

39

del baseness

runs swifter than

a.

362 a. In Homer (and sometimes in other poets) the genitive of


separation (or source) is occasionally found (without a preposition) with
Ktiire\\ov from her son
simple verbs of motion thus TraiSds ^S^aro
:

she took the cup

A 596.

padpwv

iVrao-fle

arise

from

the steps S. 0. T. 142.

THE ABLATIVE GENITIVE

199

Genitive with Verbs of Inferiority and Superiority.


Verbs denoting Inferiority or Superiority (or Com363) may be followed by a genitive of separaparison,
tion thus rd%6i
Trepieyevov avrov you surpassed him
TOVTOV
in quickness Xn. Oy. 3, 1, 19.
ov% rjTTTjcro^eda ev TToiovvres we do not mean to be outdone by him in
rivals TOVTCOV eTrXeovetcreiTe
kindly deeds Xn. A. 2, 3, 23.
in honors you had the advantage of these men Xn. A. 3, 1, 37.
'Aftpo/cdfjids Be vcTTeprjcre TT}? fjud^rj^ but Abrocomas was too
late for the fight Xn. A. 1, 7, 12.
TJTTWVTO TOV v&aros
the
Xn.
water
Hell. 5, 2, 5.
were
they
vanquished by
364.

NOTE.
differs

Observe that the genitive (of separation) with these verbs


from the (partitive) genitive of 356 in that the accusative can

never be substituted for

it (

356, note 1).

GENITIVE OF SOURCE
365.

The

ablative genitive is sometimes used to denote


/jidOe Se JJLOV KOI rdSe but learn of me this
C/JLOV aKovaecrBe Trdcrav rrjv d\tfCy. 1, 6, 44.

the source
also

Xn.

deiav

thus

from me you

shall hear the whole truth PI.

Ap. 17

b.

Adpelov
Hapvo-anSos yiyvovrat, vratSe? Bvo of Darius
and Pary satis were born two children Xn. A. 1, 1, 1.
teal

GENITIVE OF CAUSE
366.

The

ablative genitive

is

sometimes used to express

thus ^wo^evo^ yvvaifcds angry because of a


429.
eOavfJLaaa rr}? roX/Ltr?? rwv \ey6vrwv

cause

wondered

at the effrontery of those


.

rl/jiwpijcro/jiai

their

T^? evOdSe
Hdt.

coming hither

an it; ios I
3,

145.

who say Lys.

TOVTOVS
olfcrfpco T??? aydv ^a\7rrj<; vd&ov
for their very serious infirmity Xn. Sym. 4, 37.
.

I have
12, 41.

I pity

them

teal cr^ea?

punish them for


genitive with eve/co,

shall

The

woman

THE ABLATIVE GENITIVE

200

concerning, on account of, and ^dpivfor the sake of, is probably a true genitive ( 347): as e\ev6epia^ Iveica for the
sake of freedom Dem. 18, 100.

The genitive of cause is also


NOTE.
Genitive of Exclamation.
used alone in exclamations: thus dX\a r^s e/x^s KCIKT/S but (to think
</>ev rov avSpos alas for the man!
of) my cowardice! E. Med. 1051.
Xn. Cy.

3, 1, 39.

367. Genitive of the Charge or Penalty.


The genitive,
with words of judicial action, is used to denote the Charge
or Penalty: thus Stwfo^a/ ae SeiXlds I'll prosecute you

for coivardice Ar. Eq. 368.


been convicted of bribery

(lit.

aSi/crj/judrcov

he

rjvOvvQt)

Swpcov eKpiOr^crav they have


rwv
gifts) Lys. 27, 3.
.

was acquitted of wrong-doing

Th. 1, 95.
So with adjectives of similar meaning: eW^o? \i7roragiov liable for desertion Lys. 14, 5. TJJS

ap^

liable

to

give

account of his

office

Dem.

18, 117.

irporepas o\iyap-^id^ alriwraro^ eyevero he was most


to Uamefor the earlier oligarchy Lys. 12, 65 (cf.
351).
NOTE.
The origin of the Genitive of the Charge or Penalty cannot be surely explained, but most instances can be referred to the
genitive of cause ( 366): as SIWKOO TOVTOV K\07rrj<s I am prosecuting
this

man for

(i.e.

like 6a.va.rov in

because of)

Oavdrov

by extension, 9a.va.rov Kpivtw

On

theft.

rt/xto/xat
to

try

certainly in origin a genitive of value

hand a genitive
penalty at death (and so

the other

set the

for a capital crime)


(

is

almost

35o).

PARTICULAR USES OF THE GENITIVE


368. Two or More Genitives with One Word.
It may
happen that more than one genitive limits the same word
thus TWV la)v(t)v TTJV rjyefiovtrjv rov Trpo? Adpeiov 7ro\e/Jiov
the leadership of the lonians in the war against Darius
:

Hdt.

6, 2.

PARTICULAR USES OF THE GENITIVE

201

A substantive and modiThe Genitive Absolute.


no
grammatical connection with
fying participle having
369.

the rest of a sentence stand in the Genitive Absolute (see

657).

Xo

NOTE.

doubt the Genitive Absolute

(like the Accusative

Abso-

343) arose from the gradual loosening of the grammatical


connection of a limiting genitive and participle, until such a genitive
came to be felt as an independent construction. Thus, in sentences
lute,

like ovSe TL

f*-rJX

0<*

pe^^evro? KCLKOV

ICTT' OLKOS evpe'/xev

there to devise a cure for evil done (objective genitive,

and no way
350)

I 250,

is

or

ok 8' or /caTTi/os twi/ ets ovpavov tvpvv tK-^rai acrreos cu^o/xe'voto as


when smoke rises and reaches to the broad heavens
(the smoke) of a
burning city (descriptive genitive,
352) <3> 523, the genitives came to
be felt as independent constructions, and to mean " evil having been

done" "a

city being

on fire"

Compound Verbs.
Many verbs comwith
which
can
be
used with the
pounded
prepositions
are
thus
enabled
to
take
a
genitive,
genitive which,
could
not
command
unaided, they
( 324, 2): thus exftaiv
370.

Genitive with

aTrijvr)*;

the

(=

67r\lTwv
Xn. A. 5,

(=

ftalv ef

398, note 1) step forth from

a-Tr^i/?;?,

rwv
Ag.
irpoBpa/jLovres
in
advance of the hoplites ( 398, note 1)
running

chariot

$r]vai

Aesch.

2,

eV

4.

906.

r^ireipov

rjTrelpov,

KaTaty7]<f>ie(T0ai

409,

-v/r^/fecr^afc

vote cowardice against this

cowardice) Lys. 14,11.


cried out against (i.e.

So KarrjjopM^-eoy)

7ri/3r)va.L

to

408, 1) e 399.

in the sense of against (cf.


(

man

accuse,

foot on land
Especially Kara

set

1^): TOVTOU

SeiXidv

8ei\idv Kara rovrov) to


(i.e. to condemn him for

/care/Sdwv

decried}

the

rwv 'AOrjvalcov
Athenians Th.

and similar words

(cf.

1,

they
67.

409,

NOTE.
Observe that the genitive with compound verbs may be
True Genitive ( 348 if.), or an Ablative Genitive ( 361).

either a

THE DATIVE CASE

202

371. Prepositions with the Genitive.


The use of the
Partitive Genitive (of Place or Time,
358, 359) and
the Genitive of Separation ( 362) or Source ( 365) is
often made more clear and definite by the help of prepo-

sitions
CLTTO

398).

(see

from, ef out

The

prepositions avrL instead


and almost all "

of,

"

improper

of, Trpd before,

418) are used with the genitive only.


Other prepositions used sometimes with the genitive are
Sid through, Kara down, fierd with, vTrep above,
a/ji<f>i about,

prepositions (

GTri

upon, irapd beside, nrepi around, Trpo? by,


details of their use see
400-417.

at, VTTO

under.

For the

The Agent with passive


372. The Genitive of Agent.
verbs ( 516) is regularly expressed by the genitive with
VTTO under, by, sometimes with vr/ao? or Trapd at the hands
of, less often by eV or UTTO from.

THE DATIVE
373.

The

dative in Greek inherits most of the functions

323) the True Dative


and
the Instrumental
383),

of three earlier distinct cases (see


(

374),

Locative

the

386).

A.
374.

THE TRUE DATIVE

The True Dative (which belongs properly

Avith

verbs or expressions equivalent to a verb) in general denotes that to or for which anything is or is done.
(Hence

words denoting persons are more

likely to stand in the

Some words and


dative than those denoting things.)
to
phrases require a dative to complete their meaning
;

others a dative

may

be added at pleasure.

THE TRUE DATIVE

203

DATIVE OF THE INDIRECT OBJECT


The

375.

Indirect Object stands in the dative

case

thus Xi>eWe<7t? eSw/ce Ku/ow %pTJ/j,aTa vroXXa Syennesis gave


eiceivw
(to) Cyrus a great deal of money Xn. A. 1, 2, 27.
avrrj

Xn.

xwpd

r;

owe a cock

1, 6.

to

him

eSoBij to
'

Hell. 3,

TOO

AaK\

to the

country had been given

gods they

a\KTpvbva we
%e-

6(j)ei\ofjLev

Phaed. 118

Asclepius PI.

pas aveo-)(ov and

rj

this

TT i o3

lifted

Oeoio-i 8e

a.

up

their

hands

318.

Manj" verbs, and circumlocutions equivalent to a


(cf.
330), normally require a dative (of the indirect
to
object)
complete their meaning: thus rot? VOJJLOIS
376.

verb

Xn. Mem.

Treidovrai they are obedient to the laws

&dvfid%eov dvrjKovaT)jaavT6s rolai


fought,

in

Hdt.

14.

7TL(TTvov

confidence in

him Xn. A.

6,

disobedience

ewv being confident in


la~)(ypws ru)

to

orders

(the

avTa) dl

the

of)

the

7ro\L<s

they

generals

cities

had

rw ^p^cn^

1, 9, 8.

the

4, 4, 15.

err parr) yolai

oracle

Hdt.

1,

73.

KXea/j^co they were mightily angry at CleA. 1, 5, 11.


67ro\^i TO Z? Spa^i he waged

ar chus Xn.
war with the Thracians Xn. A. 2, 6, 5. f3acri\el
ov firj
elvau to befriends to the king Xn. A. 2, 1, 20.

<^tXoi? surely you will not be hostile to your friends


E. Med. 1151.
el rot? TrXeocrt apeaKovres eV/zei^, TOterS'

vrjs earj

av

OVK opOws a-rrapeo-KOi^ev if we are in favor with


pleasing to) the majority, we could not by any right be

IJLOVOIS

(lit.

in disfavor with these alone

now

Th.

1, 38.

lohat is suitable for a

poor

TI

ovv

man ?

dvSpl
Ap. 36 d.

irpeiret

PI.

In general, verbs (and verbal expressions) meaning please, profit,


and their opposites (many of which are rendered
beji,t, obey,

trust, aid,

in

English by transitive verbs), require a dative to complete their


but the exact usage with each word must be learned from

meaning

the lexicons.

THE DATIVE CASE

204
NOTE.

Only predicate adjectives regularly take a dative of the


an attributive adjective commonly has the

indirect object (since

351); rarely such a dative is arrogated by an attributive


<tAos
393) thus AioAos
adjective (or even by a substantive,
aOavdro ivt Otolviv Aeolus, dear to the immortal gods K 2.

genitive,

THE DATIVE OF INTEREST

377.

to almost

NOTE

dative of the Person Interested

may

be added

any sentence.

Observe that the dative often adds the idea of personal


(Advantage or Disadvantage) to what might otherwise be
expressed by a genitive. Thus, compare the following: Adpeiov
Kat IIapu(raTiSos yi'yi/oi/rcu TratSes Suo of Darius and Pary satis two
1.

interest

365) Xn. A. 1, 1,
(
Croesus was blessed with two children (

children were born

euro

456.

NOTE

It is

2.

a/uwov

Aotyoi/

So Searo ot

Su'o TratSes

Aavaaiv
379) Hdt. 1, 34.
destruction
keep
away from the Danaans II 75.

to

Xoiyov d/xwat

Aavaoiai

5 aav Kpoto-w

1.

relieve the

Danaans of

his
(TKYJTTTPOV he received the scepter at

the pestilence

hands

186.

convenient to subdivide the dative of Interest into


"

"

"

"

"

Advantage or Disadvantage ( 378), Possession ( 379), Agent


(
380), "Reference" ( 382), and the "Ethical" dative ( 381), but
it must be remembered that no hard and fast lines can be drawn
between these various uses ( 324, 3). Thus, in Sta/xeVet In KCU vvv
rots y8acrtXe{)(ri ^ TroAvSwptd the custom of giving cox//// gifts lasts
even

may

to this day for the kings; the dative of Interest


(/&unAe{)<n)
be explained as dative of Advantage, Possession, or Reference.

378.

Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage.

of interest
7ra<?

avrjp

1366.

O'L

The

dative

may imply Advantage or Disadvantage thus


avrto Travel every man labors for himself S. Aj.
TO Trdyxpuaov Sepos HeX/a fjLerr}\6ov who went
:

fetch the golden fleece for Pelias E. Med. 6.


a-re^avovaOai Trdvras TM #ecG all to be crowned in honor of the god
Xn. Hell. 4, 3, 21.
kavaolcn, aeiKea \oiyov afjivvov ward
to

off vile pestilence

from

alone: ry Tro'Aet

the
.

Danaans

A 456.

(So with a^vvw

api'veiv KOL Oeols to defend the State

THE TRUE DATIVE


and gods Ar.

577. )

JEq.

TOU$

205

0/93,/ca?

rovs ray

6evei varepricravTas the Thracians who came too late for


Demosthenes Th. 7, 29.
(i.e. to the disadvantage of)
Dative

379.

The

of Possession.

dative of interest (or

used with verbs like eifii am, or yiyvo^ai,


advantage)
become, to denote possession (cf. in Latin est mihi filius)
is

thus

rja-av

Hdt.

1, 34.

Kpotay

elalv e/juol

there PI. Crit.

name

8vo vratSe? Croesus had two children

45

e/cel

Otm?

c.

%evoi

I (luckily)
y ovoy^a

efiol

have friends

Noman

is

my

366.

380.

The

Dative of Agent.

dative of interest with the

perfect or pluperfect passive, or with the verbal in -reo<?


(
666), comes even to denote regularly the Agent: thus
iravff ri^ilv TreTTOLrjTai, everything has been done by us Xn.

A.

1, 8, 12.

said by
e'crrt)

roaavrd

me Lys.

(JLOL

elprjaQo) let this

4.

24,
rj^lv
everything must be done by us

381.

The Ethical

much have

been

irdvra iroirjrea (sc.

Xn. A.

3, 1,

(or Emotional) Dative.

35.

The

dative

of a personal pronoun is often used to denote a lively or


emotional interest which a person may have in something
:

thus Kai [AOL

/J,rj

Oopvft/jaere

and do

not,

beg

you, make

any uproar PI. Ap. 20 e. 'Apra^epvys v plv "TVrao-Treo?


6crrt Trat? now
Artaphernes, you must know, is the son of
KOI o avrjp aoi 6 veavias e/cetyo?
Hystaspes Hdt. 5, 30.
7rpo6\@(t)v rov \o%ayov Trporepos eTropevero and, would you
believe it, that young fell oiv stepped out in front, and marched
in advance of the captain! Xn. Cy. 2, 2, 7.
382.

interest

Dative of Reference.

Datives expressing a remote

(or merely a point of view) are conveniently


classed as datives of Reference: thus acfxvv IJLGV evro\r)

THE LOCATIVE DATIVE

206
e^et reXo?
has
twain,
you

S>;

its

the command of Zeus


end Aesch. Pr. 12.

far as touches

so

^.w/cpdrr)?

e'8o/m

Tlprjs agios dvai ry TroXe* Socrates seemed to be deserving


of honor from (lit. in reference to) the State Xn. Mem. 1,

eiboaiv he's dead


as
So in
for those who know E. I. T. 575.
the idiomatic expressions like el KOI eiceivw ^ov\o^evw
ravr eari if this is agreeable to him also (lit. to him
2,

62.

dead

o\a)\ev

co?

o\a)\ev rolcriv

be

may

TTO'TU? eV
wishing) Xn. Hell. 4, 1, 11.
'ETr/Sa/^o? eV
e%ia e(77r\ovTL rov 'loviov KoXnrov Epidamnus is a city
on the right as one sails (lit. to, or with reference to, one

Th.

sailing) into the Ionian Grulf


elTrelv to

1, 24.

So

&>?

speak
speak from
of one who has condensed the matter) Xn. A.

No

NOTE.

of Reference

hard and fast


and the dative

be drawn between the dative


Advantage or Disadvantage, for a
class.

THE LOCATIVE DATIVE

B.

As

3, 1, 38.

line can

of

good many datives can be referred to either

383.

<rvve\ovTi

the point of view

briefly (lit. to

the heir to most of the functions of an earlier

locative case ( 323) the dative


place and time.

is

used in expressions of

The dative (in prose regularly


384. Dative of Place.
with the help of a preposition) is used to denote the place
where (cf.
384 a) thus eV rfj 7ro\ei in the city.
:

384 a. In Homer (and sometimes in other poets) the dative of place


without a preposition is freely used thus r6 W/JLOIO-IV fx uv with the bow
on his shoulder A 45. e?5e /JLVX v K\i(rir}s he slept in a corner of the tent
:

he fell in the plain E 82. d\X' oik 'Arpeidr) 'Aya/j.^fj.vovi


pleased not Agamemnon in his heart A 24. 6'o /cpdros
(TKC fjityio-rov Tracri Kv/cXwTretro-i whose power was the greatest among all
the Cyclopes a 71.
otTidavoiai avd<r<reu you are lord among nobodies
A 231. valeiv 8pe<ri to dwell in the mountains S. OT. 1451.
I

663.

TT

ed

tf Tr^o-e

r/vdave dvjj.^ but

it

THE INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE


385.

The

Dative of Time.

207

dative (often with the help

when (cf.
383)
on
the
following (day), rerdprw erei tlie
rfj vo-repaia
fourth year, /jua vv/cri on one night, ev ru> avrw

of a preposition) is used to denote time

thus
the

same winter Th.

2, 34.

THE INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE

0.

The

dative performs also the duties (in expressing means, manner, cause, accompaniment) of the earlier
instrumental case which it has absorbed ( 323).
386.

387.

Means

Dative of Means.
or Instrument:

The

dative

may

denote the

thus Xttfoi? e@a\\ov they pelted

Xn. A. 5, 4, 23. Irja-t, rfj a^ivrj he


with
the axe) Xn. A. 1, 5, 12.
<yva>crdev(lit.
known by the make of their
rcov
ojrX&v
a/cevf}

(them) with

stones

threw the axe


Te?

rfi

weapons Th.

1, 8.

The verb XP^P*11 use 0- e serve one's self with) regularly


NOTE.
takes the dative of Means: thus Aoyo> xP^rat they use reason Xn.
-

Mem.

11.

3, 3,

388.

Dative of Degree of Difference.

The

dative of

means with comparatives and expressions implying comparison (sometimes also with superlatives) denotes the
Degree of Difference: thus rfj Ke(f>a\fj />te/o> taller by a
(lit.

the)

head PI. Phaed. 100

varepov not

many days

ov TroXXcu?

e.

later (lit. later by not

///Lie'/oou?

many days)

E\Xa? yeyove acrOeveone


Greece
has
become
weaker
famous city Hdt.
by
arepr]
Xll. Hell. 1, 1, 1.

6,

106.

TroA-t \oyijjiw

Setca erecri Trpo

years before

the

sea

T/;<?

at

rj

eV ^.a\afiivi vav/jLa%La<;

fight
TrXeZcrrot by far the most

Salamis

Hdt.

PL

Leg.

5, 92, 5.

698

ten
c.

THE DATIVE CASE

208

The
389. Dative of Manner.
Manner (sometimes with the help of

dative

denote

may

a preposition)

thus

TOVTW

rut rpoTTO) e7ropev67)(Tav in this manner they proXn.


A. 3, 4, 23. Spo/jiw fevro e? rot"? /3ap/3dpov$
ceeded

on the run they rushed against the barbarians Hdt. 6, 112.


So in several adverbial expressions like ftla with violence,
o-iyfj

in silence,

d\r)0ia in truth,

rfj

\6yo) in word, epyw in deed, ry e^fj


ravrrj (sc. o&>) in this way.
390.

Means
is

Dative of Respect.

The

ra>

yvw/jir)

ovn
in

dative of

in reality,

my

opinion,

Manner

or

sometimes used to show in what respect a thing


so (but this usage has been greatly encroached on by
is

the accusative of specification,


&ILOKTI broader in shoulders F 194.
in voice

Xn. A.

2, 6, 9.

thus evpvrepos
ry (frwvy rpaxys harsh
lo-^yeiv rot? aw^acri to be strong

337)

in their bodies (i.e. with their bodies) Xn. Mem. 2, 7, 7.


yco ovre Troalv el/JLi ra^u? ovre ^epalv la^vpo^ I am
neither swift of foot nor strong of arm Xn. Cy. 2, 3, 6.
391. Dative of Cause.
The dative may be used to
denote Cause: thus piyei cnr(o\\v/ji0a we were dying of

cold

Xn. A.

5,

2.

8,

ovBevl

ovra>

dyaOols you delight in nothing so

GO? <f)t\ois
as in good friends

%aipei<$

much

Xn. Mem.

I am

2, 6, 35.
^aXeTrco? (^epw rot? Trapovai TT pay pa at,
distressed at the present circumstances Xn. A. 1, 3, 3.

NOTE.
The dative usually denotes a more active or immediate
cause than the genitive of cause (

The
Accompaniment or Association.
a
be
used
(often helped by
preposition) may
with words denoting (or implying) accompaniment, asso392.

Dative of

dative

ciation, or likeness

thus

THE INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE


With Verbs.

1.

evQdS* ifcaveis vrjl re KOI

209

erdpotai

are

you come hither ivith your ship and crew? X 161. crvv vrji
T IjJirj KOI e'/iot9 erdpoicriv e\0a)v going with my ship and
crew

173.

IJJMV efyeiTrovro ol iroKefjuoi KOLI ITTTTLKU) KOI

TreXracTTifcq) the enemy followed us with cavalry and peltasts Xn. A. 7, 6, 29.
crvv rfj a\\rj a r
a et9 'AO/jvds
with
the
remainder
his
Kare7r\eu(7
of
army he sailed to

pan

Athens Xn. Hell.

1, 4, 10.

Xn. Mem.

with him

u>iM\eirr)v

we dispute with each other PL


.

Xn. A. 1, 3, 17. a\\r)made a truce with each other

eTreadaL to follow the leader

avrqy they associated

a^Lo-^TovfJiev aXX 77X0^9


Phaedr. 263 a. T&> fjye/jio vi

1, 2, 39.

Xot?

er7roi>Sa9 iiToir\(javTo

they
e/navrfj Bia \oywv d^l/cojjLrjv I have
been reasoning with myself E. Med. 872.
fyiXoo-ofyw
The
eoi/ca? you seem like a philosopher Xn. A. 2, 1, 13.

Xn.

last

Hell. 3, 2, 20.

example may also be explained as a true dative,


With words meaning

NOTE.

with

fight against; the dative


i/cu'ois

/jLa.\f.crOa.L

to fight

IM.Xf.a9ai to fight on the side

With

2.

to

fight the simple dative means to


on the side of: thus 'AOrj-

crvv to fight

opotos

'A^XXet

like Achilles

Xn.

Aa/ceBai/jiovtcov a land con-

4, 6.

Sym.

crvv

against the Athenians;


of the Athenians.

Adjectives.

376.

^ojpav ofjuopov rfj


with that of the Lacedaemonians Dem. 15, 22.
^Kaplrecrcriv oyLolai hair like (that of) the Crraces
TroXXot? elfjn, Sid<f>opos with many
717, 6) P 51.

tiguous
ted/Adi

(cf.

I'm

at variance E.

TO avro
ness

rw

Xn. A.

Med. 579.

r)\i6i(i) the
2, 6, 22.

3.

law
the

(cf.

717, 6)

Leg. 844
women Hdt.

e.

6,

ivith the

Xn. Cy.

With Adverbs.

PL

same thing as

auro? the same

(lit.

GOTrX/cryUeVcH rfo-av rofc

oVXoj? they were armed

Cyrus

So with

a-v/j./j,iya

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

a^a
14

with) foolishaurot? KL-^W

same weapons as (those of)

7, 1, 2.

eTro^eVa)? TO> VO/JLO)

58.

to

together with

yvvai^i
i^epa at daybreak

rfjcn
rfj

co) formally

(lit.

THE DATIVE CASE

210

along with the day).


next in order.

NOTE.

As

So with

ofiov together with,

dative of accompaniment

is

the idiomatic use of the dative and avros

probably to be explained
as veas
475, 3, note 2)
:

avroicrt rots dvS/oacrt etAov they took four ships men and
with the men themselves} Hdt. 6, 93.

reo-crepas
(lit.

PARTICULAR USES OF THE DATIVE


The verbal

Dative with Substantives.

393.

verbal substantive sometimes makes


a dative with it: thus
'

gift

of

to

rr)v

it

idea in a

possible to construe

rov Oeov Soaiv

V/JLLV

the indirect object,

you (dative
d.
ire^Oevra ravpcov

Ap. 30

all

Heaven's

375) PI.

evirvpTrvotov eTrto-rdr^v
to master (lit. as master of) with the
sent
j\ai(7L
yoke
387) the fiery lulls E. Med. 478.
(dative of means,
Koivcovtd ro?9 dv&pdo-i association with the men (dative

of association,

392) PI. Hep. 466

c.

Dative with Compound Verbs.


Many verbs comwith
other
or
with
eV, crvv,
prepositions which
pounded
the
are
thus assisted in
with
dative
be
used
( 395),
may
394.

taking a dative which the verb of


mand thus rcu9 opfcois e/iy/.ez'et o
:

op/<:of9,

itself

could not com-

9/109 (= pzvei eV rot?


398, note 1) the people abides by its oaths Xn.
4, 43.
o-vveTroXe/mei Kvpw he joined with Cyrus

see

Hell. 2,

0)9 e7ri(3ov\evoi avru>


making war Xn. A. 1, 4, 2.
that he was plotting against him Xn. A. 1, 1, 3.
eVeiS?) TTpoafiaXoiev a\\r)\ois when they attacked each
So likewise denominative verbs ( 298,
other Th. 1, 49.

in
.

note) containing these prepositions


Xoi9 to lay hands on each other Th.

as eTTL^eiprjcrai, aXX?;1, 49.

Such compound verbs as take the dative ( 394) are


NOTE.
enabled to do so usually by virtue of the meaning of the preposition
alone, but sometimes apparently from the general meaning of the

compound (compare

the

first

two examples above with the fourth).

PLACE AND TIME


395.

Prepositions with

211

The

the Dative.

use of the

Locative Dative (of Place or Time,


384, 385), and the
Instrumental Dative (of Accompaniment,
392), and
rarely the True Dative ( 374), is often made more definite

The prepositions ev in,


of prepositions.
from their meaning, used with the

by the help

and

<rvv

with,

are,

Other prepositions used sometimes with the


eVt upon, Trapd beside, irepi about, 7r/?o9 at, VTTO
400-417.
For the details of their use see

dative only.

dative are

under.

PLACE AND TIME (SUMMARY)


396.

Place at which

1.

is

expressed by the locative

( 76, note) or locative dative ( 384), the latter usually with


a preposition 'AQijvrjcn at Athens, ev TTJ TroXei in the city.
:

within which

expressed by the partitive


358)
genitive (usually with a preposition or adverb,
r% Sef icis on the right, Sta TreBiov through the plain.
Place

2.

is

Place from which

3.

is

expressed by the genitive of


362) e'f aWeo)?

separation (usually with a preposition,


from town.
of

limit

preposition,

of

339)

Time

et?

rrjv ir6\i,v into

which

the city.

expressed by the locative dative


on
the third day.
385) rfj rpirr) f)^epa
2.
Time within which is expressed by the partitive
397.

1.

at

is

genitive (
the day).

338)
395

ivith

359)

rj^epa^ by

Time during which

3.

to which is expressed by the accumotion (in prose regularly with a

Place towards or

4.

sative

a.

is

rr)V Tj^epdv ravrrjv

In poetry dvd np(ori),

day

some time within

expressed by the accusative


during (the whole of) this day.

dufil

are also found with the dative.

(i.e. at

about (also in Herodotus), and

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE CASES

212

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE CASES


The Prepositions were originally adverbs modifythe
verb, and serving to define more clearly and
ing
398 a).
the
adverbial uses of the cas.es (see
exactly
398.

early came to be united with the verb (Composition,


298), or to be used regularly with such cases as their
meaning would allow then by a sort of crystallization
of their usage certain phrases were formed which came to

They

have special or idiomatic meanings.


"
For the so-called " Improper Prepositions see

NOTE

The

1.

where

to the verb

418.

preposition in Greek has sometimes become attached


in English it would be rendered with the accom-

panying substantive: as d TT eo-rparoTreSevoi/ro 01 (3dpfiapoL rov 'EXXrjVLKOV the barbarians encamped away from the Greek army Xn. A. 3, 4, 34.
NOTE 2. Not infrequently the preposition is used both with the
verb and with the substantive as TT/JO? TT)V KCO/^V Trpoo-ioWes coming
:

forward

Xn. A. 3, 4, 33. etcr/Sds cis TrAoiov embarking in


15.
Thus the Greek could say J3aiv> eis TJJV Tro'Ati/,

to the village

a ship Xn. A.

5, 7,

or ei<T/?ouV<o eis rrjv iroXw go into the city, but


the tendency was, wherever possible, to join the preposition with the
verb.
or

i<r/3aiVo) rrjv TroAii/,

NOTE 3. Greek (like Latin) sometimes differs from English in


the point of view from which it uses the cases and the accompanying
preposition especially words suggesting motion (although denoting
;

often used with a case and preposition appropriate to motion


(to or from), although not so rendered in English: thus KareoTr/ ets
rr/v (3a<n\.iav 'Apra^'p^s Artaxerxes was established in power Xn. A.

rest) are

1,

rr)v TroAiv e^e'AiTTOv

1, 3.

city

(and went)

AcaraAtTrovrts TO.

eis ^wptov o^ypov they abandoned the

into a stronghold

Xn. A.

1, 2,

wvia e<j>vyov the people in the

24.

market) abandoned their wares, and fled Xn. A.

The adverbial use

01

market
1,

2,

e* r^s dyopas
(lit.

18.

from

the

So with

of the prepositions can be seen very clearly


298 a), and in some phrases such as -rrpbs 8t and besides
(see
(found even in Attic prose), ev dt and amonc/ the number, /ierd dt and
afterwards ; so irtyi exceedingly in Homer is often an adverb.

398

in

a.

Homer

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

213

corresponding adverbs: ov yap ei^oi/ oiKoOtv for I had none (that I


could bring) from home' Ar. Pax 5'2'2.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE PREPOSITIONS


399.

Summary

In Attic prose the preposi-

of Usage.

tions are used as follows

With
With
With
With

the Accusative only


avd, etV
the Genitive only
aim, CLTTO, e',

With

the Accusative, Genitive, or Dative

the Dative only


lv and a-vv.
the Accusative or Genitive

Trpo.

Sid,

/card,

eW,

?rapa,

a^(f>i,

7TpL, TTpO?, U7TO.

For the special functions


the aid of prepositions see

of

the

cases

which admit

346, 371, 395.

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS


[In the following pages only the general facts about
the meanings and uses of the prepositions (besides a few
special phrases)

are

recorded

the exact details about

each preposition are to be found in a lexicon.]


400.
1.

OLJI<|>I

about (properly on both sides

WITH THE GENITIVE

of,

Xn. A.

cJv

et^oi/

see

400

a.

(in origin a Partitive Genitive of Place,

358) about, concerning (rare in prose,


instead) d/x<i

Latin amb-)

Trept

being generally used


had

Sca^epo/xevoi quarreling about what they

4, 5, 17.

399 a. In poetry, dvd, d/x0t, and /j-erd are also used with the dative
and d/j.<f>l is so used by Herodotus.
400 a. In Ionic and in poetry d/j.<j>t is used also with the (locative,
384) dative, meaning about, and so concerning, because of: d/j.<j>'
&jj.oi.<rii>
%ei ffdKos he has his shield about his shoulders A 527.
d/x^i
;

Simts about the eddies E.

about

me?

S. El. 1180.

/.

T. 6.

d/x0'

^/uoi

o-Tems

are you lamenting

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

214

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

2.

(of Extent,

338) about.

Place: rtov d/x^>t MtXr/rov crrparevo/xevwv of those engaged in military operations about Miletus Xn. A. 1, 2, 3.

Time: d/x<i /meow i^aepas OOM noon Xn. ^4. 4, 4, 1.


Derived Meanings: d/u.<i ra TrevT^/covra about jifty Xn.
IN COMPOSITION

.4. 2, 6, 15.

about, on both sides of

401. <*va up (opposed to Kara down)

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

see

401

a.

A. (of Extent,

338) MJO, along.


rov Trora/xov up the river Hdt. 2, 96.
dva
throughout Greece Hdt. 6, 131.
Derived Meanings: dva vvVra a/om; (in) the night
Place:

dva

i//A6paV ever?/ e?a#

5.

(of

Xn. Cy.

Limit of Motion,

TT)V

'EAA.d8a

80.

dva

1, 2, 8.

339) upon.

them up on a tamarisk bush K 466.


Derived Meanings: dva KpaYos up to (his) strength (i.e. at full
dva exa-rov up to a hundred (i.e. by hunspeed) Xn. A. 1, 10, 15.
Place

OTJKCV

dreds) Xn. A.

dva

fivpucqv he put

5, 4, 12.

IN COMPOSITION

402. avrC instead


in this use
1.

it

up, back, again.

of,

for, originally over against

was supplanted by

WITH THE GENITIVE

cvavrt'ov)

(Latin ante} (but

(in origin a Partitive Genitive of Place,

358).

Derived Meanings only:

A.

1, 7,

Xn. A.
Hdt.

lot

ivith

Trap'

e/xoi

eAeV$ai dvrt raiv OIKOI

to

7, 37.

IN COMPOSITION

401

a.

15.

against, instead, in return.

In Epic and Lyric poetry avd is sometimes found with the


as xpwty a. v ( 43, note 3) vK-fiirTpv upon a golden

(locative) dative
staff

TO,

me

instead of (i.e. rather than) that at home Xn.


4.
dv0' (oj/ ev ITTO.OOV in return for the favors I have received
dvrt ly/xep^? vu lytvf.ro instead of day it became night
1, 3, 4.

choose the

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS


403.

a-tro

from, away from (Latin a&).

WITH THE GENITIVE

(of Separation or Source,

Place:

p.dXXov

OLTTO OaXdvo-rjs

the sea

a distance) away from


they stripped the

he used

A.

armor from

Th.

XVOVTO Se rcv^e

1, 7.

from a

(lit.

362, 365) only

they were, settled rather (at

<*>Kiv6rjcra.v

their shoulders

hunt on horseback

to

215

318.

horse,

O.TT

to/x<ov

and

OLTTO LTTTTOV

iOripwev

398, note 3)

Xn.

1, 2, 7.

Time:

d-rro

TOVTOV TOV %p6vov from

Derived Meanings:
to get rich

TroAews

Tfjs

Thucydides

air

of (remote)

from

this time

agency

Dem.

the state

avruv by them Th.

1,

Xn. A.

7, 5, 8.

TrAouo-iov yiyveo-$ai

24, 124.

OLTTO

So, sometimes, in

17.

IN COMPOSITION: from, away from.


404.

810-

through (cf. Latin dis-).

WITH THE GENITIVE

1.

(originally the

358) through (some part of)

Place,

Partitive

Genitive of

Place: eeAawei Sia KctTTTraSo/a'as Ae marched through Cappadocia

Xn. 4.

1, 2,

Time

20.

Sia w/cro's through the night Xn. J. 4, 6, 22.


Derived Meanings: 81' ereW eiKocri through (i.e. at the end of)
8t' ep/ATjve'oos 7ie spoke through an
twenty years Hdt. 6, 118.
eXeye
Si a 7roA./xou avrois teVat ^o #0 through war
interpreter Xn. ^4. 2, 3, 17.
:

way towards them) so 8ta <iAids


Xn. ^4. 3, 2, 8. Si a xetpos x etv
^and (i.e. in one's power) Th. 2, 13. TOV

with them (i.e. to act in a hostile


lerai ^o ac/

through (the grasp of) one's

Kpov

m friendly fashion

^^

Si a (TTO/xaros eT^ov ^e^/ ^af/ (the name of) Cyrus on (lit. passtheir lips Xn. C^. 1, 4, 25.
Sia ra^ovs through speed

ing through)
(i.e.

speedily) Th.

2, 18.

2. WITH THE ACCUSATIVE (of Extent,


338) through,
more often through in the sense of because of.
Place and Time (3dv p' i/xev
S i a vwra /xe'Aaii/av
.

throughout,

S i a T*

^ey ?re;?^ on ^6/r way through the dark night and


through the iveapons and the black blood K 297.
Cause: 810, Kav/j^a through (i.e. on account of) heat Xn. A. 1, 7, 6.

Ivrea Kai /xeAav at/xa

KO.KOL SOKOV/XCV eivai

of) this

Sia TOVTOV we appear

man Xn. A.

IN COMPOSITION

6, 6,
:

to be

base through

23.

through, also apart (cf. Latin dis-).

(i.e.

because

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

216

405 a)

405. els (or e<j, see


with the accusative).

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

into, to

(for *ev

47 and Latin

cf.

(of Limit of Motion,

339) only:

Place: Sie/fytrav es ^ixeAidv they crossed over into Sicily Th. 6, 2.


So also with persons e i s v/xas eicrie'vai to come into the midst of you
:

PI.

17

^4j0.

eXOdv ets 'A^iA^a

c.

to

come

into the

presence of Achilles

P709.

Time
setting

Trpoirav

es

rj/Jiap

sun they feasted

/caraSwra SatVuvr'

^e'Aiov

601.

es

e/xe to ?n_y

fr'???e

Hdt.

Ae didn't come the following day (


Derived Meanings: ets rerpaKoo-tov? wp to the

vorepaiav

ofy( jj/cev

hundred Xn.

Xn. ^.

yl.

es

IN COMPOSITION
v in

406.

01

ev

reXos

/na%

/on<7 ^7/

eis TT)V

298, note 3).


number of four

298, note 3).

in, into, to.

(Latin en-do,

WITH THE

efoi/

92.

eis ^wvr/i/ SeSoyaevat ^z'yen /or girdle-money

3, 3, 6.

1, 4, 9.

//

1,

in).

(Locative,

384)

DATIVE

only:

Place: ev ^Traprrj in Sparta Th. 1, 128. ev TroAArf 8^ aTropt'a ^crav


"EAAvyves ^Ae Greeks were naturally in much perplexity Xn. A. 3, 1, 2.
ffjLOL

me

in

(i.e.

my

in

their friends

among)

arms Xn. ^4.4,

Time: ev

^/xe'pais

time of)

IN COMPOSITION

in five

the truce

(before consonants

Place:

e/c

Time

e*

18, 193.

ev TOIS <t'Aois in

ev rots oTrAots in

(i.e.

under)

(i.e.

days Xn.

Xn. A.

Mem.

3, 13, 5.

ev rats

3, 1, 1.

in, on.

WITH THE GENITIVE


:

yl. 5, 4, 32.

3, 7.

Trevre

(TTrovSais in (the

407.

power) Dem.

Xn.

e/c,

47) out

of,

from.

(of Separation or Source,

362, 365) only

IIuAov eA0wv going out from Pylos


TrcuSos from a child (i.e. since childhood) Xn. Cy.

ex rov apto-rov from breakfast

(i.e.

269.

directly after breakfast)

5, 1, 2.

Xn. A.

4,

6, 21.

405

a.

In the earlier Attic prose ts is more common than


the poets use either form at pleasure.
es

regularly uses

406
l,

a.

Homeric and

poetical forms are

414 a), and (possibly)

clvt.

et's

Herodotus

(the older form of

(^, cf .

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

217

Of Source: kat yap T ovap K Atos e<rriv for a dream, too, is from
Zeus A 63. So sometimes of the (remote) agent ( 372) IK /foo-iAeco?
Xn. A. 1, 1, 6.
SeSo/xeVcu yicen from (i.e. by) the King
:

K Sepias on (lit./rom,
398, note 3) t/ie right, e/c TroAAov
taov on an equality.
398, note 3) a great distance, t

Phrases:
a

(lit.

from,

IN COMPOSITION:
408.

*irt

out of, from, out.

w/>on.

WITH THE GENITIVE

1.

Time,

(Partitive Genitive of Place,

359) upon (some part of)

358, or

Place: TrapeAawwv e<' appuxros riding by (seated) on a chariot


7Tt rou CVOWV/AOV (sc. Kepcos) on ^e Ze/f wing Xn.
1, 2, 16.
^4. 1, 8, 9.
With words denoting motion, toward (some part of), in the
CTTI 'Ian/ids to oe going away toward Ionia
direction of: ciTrievai

Xn. A.

Xn. .4. 2,
Time:

of peace B 797.
of our forefathers Xn. Q/. 1,

f/?7ie

Derived Meanings

WITH THE

2.

stay here
.

CTT'

CTTI
6,

rail/

^/xereptov Trpo-

31.

oAtywv Teray/meVoi drawn up a few deep Xn.

4, 8, 11.

upon

palace

the

at

OaXa.Try

l<m
408, 1) Z 431.
Tr^yats TOT) Mapcrvov Trora/xov there is a
source of the Marsyas river Xn. A. 1, 2, 8.
CTTI rrj
.

evrt rat?

at the sea-shore

Derived Meanings:
^4.

1,

4.

1,

following)
oath

the tower (i.e. at this place, cf.

ySacrtXeia

upon

TO
this

these

384) DATIVE upon, at (rarely perhaps


374) toward, against), O.VTOV /AI/XV' CTTI irvpyw

(Locative,

with the True Dative

CTT' etp^vrys in //me

zn ^Ae
yoi/a)i/

4.

1, 3.

7Tt

Xn.

-4. 1, 4, 1.

CTTI TO> dSeA^wo

rovVo)

f/*e

^e power of

his brother

Xn.

immediately
PI. yip. 27 b.
CTTI rourot?
op.oVas having given an
terms Xn. A. 3, 2, 4.
(So often e<' <J, e<' wre on con/Am^r

(next)
.

M/?O/I

(i.e.

dition that,

596), eAa/^ov r^? ^tovrys roi/ 'Opoj/rdv e?rt ^avarco ^e?/


Orontas by the girdle upon (determination of) his r/e/A (i.e. as a
sign of condemnation) Xn. A. 1, 6, 10. CTTI rtn /xe'ya ^>poms; on

sei'zec?

Xn. S^m. 3, 8.
rfo you /;rzV/e yourself?
In expressions like wpcrev CTT* 'Apyeioio-t ^e roused him against the
293, the dative seems to be in origin a True Dative ( 374).
Argives

w^a

3.

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

of Motion,

(of Extent,

339) toward, 6paon>

338) upon (or of Limit

CTT' aTrec'pora TTOVTOV

gazing over the

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

218

boundless deep

12.

7rt

TOV

7rt /3ao-iAed

3, 1.

350.

^7

C'#. 1, 2, 11.

IN COMPOSITION:

409. Kara
1.

A.

cfoz^n

vr)a<s

he came to the swift ships

CTTI TroAu to

a great extent Th.

(of Separation,

362) down from.

down (from) the cliffs Xn. ^4.


down (i.e. completely) N 772.
B.

1, 6.

(opposed to avd up).

Place: W^OVTO KO.TO. TUJV Trerpoiv <epo/u,evoi ^e#

down

4, 7, 14.

Kara

we?'e ^rone

4, 33.

some part

yrjs

opyutas yeveV&xi

Xn. 4.

Derived Meanings:
.

/car'

370)

PL

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE


Kara

epav

e/xavrov
^jo.

along (or of Limit of Motion,

Place:

(buried) fathoms beneath (a part of)

7, 1, 30.

against myself (cf


2.

to 6e

of,

Kara
ground T 217.
370).

xOovos o/x/xara Trr^ds fixing his eyes upon (a part of) the

Kara

headlong

So KO,T' aKprjs from the top


vwrov in (lit. c/own from) the

(Partitive Genitive of Place) down underneath


over some part of, (down) against a person (cf.

the earth

1, 8, 3.

t/pan (after), over, against.

WITH THE GENITIVE

rear Th.

Xn. A.

going toward (i.e. against) the king Xn. A. 1,


rty Orjpav aw ^ ^ e # <7^ forth to (i.e. for) ^e

levat to be

eepx ovTat

hunt Xn.

rjXOc Ooas CTTI

dva/3as mounting upon his horse

LTTTTOV

&e

to

intending

to

speak

37 b.
(of Extent,

339),

down

poov down stream. Hdt.

2,

338) down over, down

to.

Kara

96.

iracrav TYJV yrjv

(down) along over the entire land Hdt. 3, 109. Kara y^v
OaXaTTov along over (i.e. by) land and sea Xn. A. 3, 2, 13.

/cat

TO

Kara
K.a.0*

CLVTOVS the part along by (i.e. opposite) themselves.

Time: Kar'

e/ceTvoi/

TOV x/odvov along

(i.e.

at) that time

Th.

1,

139

KaO* T^/Acts those along (at) owr f/me (i.e. our contemporaries).
Kara <iAtav
Derived Meanings: Kara 7rpf)w on business y 72.
Kara TOV avrov TpOTrov according to the
/or friendship Th. 1, 60.
same fashion Xn. C^. 8, 2, 5. Kara Kpdros doirn to (the limit of)
strength (i.e. at full speed: cf. dva /cpdVos,
401) Xn. A. 1, 8, 19.
ot

KaTa

TOV vo/xov according

to

law Xn.

IN COMPOSITION: down, against

/7e^/. 1, 7, 5.

(cf.

370).

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS


410.

[WTO.

amid, among (and so often close

to,

219

close upon).

1. WITH THE (Partitive,


354) GENITIVE (probably originally of
Place) among, in company with: /A era Boiwraiv e/aa^ovro they fought
700.
among the Boeotians
KOWYJ /xera aov in common along with you
PL Crit. 46 d. /xera TroAAwv Sa/cpvW am/ (i.e. with) many tears PI.

34

X/>.

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

2.

midst
/A

and

of,

era

the

c.

Tpaias

Achaeans

the

264.

after, in pursuit of)

others

292.

beautiful next (after) Peleus' son


a/ter

339) into

close upon, close after, after: LKOVTO

'A^atou? they came into the midst of the Trojans and


8e p. ex' aAAovs and he went among (i.e. close
(3fj

/cat

(of Limit of Motion,

more frequently,

so,

/caAAicrros /ACT

a IlrjAeiWa most

So often /ACT a ravra (close)

674.

this.

IN 'COMPOSITION

with (of sharing), among, after (in quest of).


denotes change (of state or position) as /u,eTa/3atV<o go to a
new place, /xeravooi (-e'w) change one's mind, repent.

Often

411.
1.

it

irapd beside.

WITH THE GENITIVE

362, or Source,

(of Separation,

365)

from the side of: Trap a 8e /Jao-tAcco? TroAAot Trpos Kvpov


aTT^A^ov /row beside the king many came away to Cyrus Xn. .4.1,9, 29.
ffxicryavov ou epvcro-a/xevos Trap a fjirjpov drawing his sharp siuord from

from

beside,

beside his thigh

from

190.

Trap a Travrcov 6/xoAoyetrat


2.

WITH THE

2,

zV is

(Locative,

/xe/xa^r/Kei/at to

^ave learned

So of the remote agent ( 372)


agreed on the part of all Xn. ^4. 1, 9, 1.

104.

384)

DATIVE

at the side of, at, with.

^/xeVr;
Trap a Trarpt yepovri sitting beside her aged father
ra Trap a OaXdrrrj ^wpta /7<e places beside the sea Xn. ^4. 7,

Place:

AiyvrmW

Tra/o'

Egyptians Hdt.

the

358.

2,25.

Derived Meanings:
under) Cyrus Xn.

(i.e.

410

a.

a Kvpa> Ae was general beside

In Epic (and rarely in other) poetry

(Locative,

men a

co-rparT/yet Trap
yl. 1, 4, 3.

258.

384) dative

as 0e6s

eo-/cc

found with the


was a god among

/xerd is

/xer' avdpd<ri he

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

220
3.

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

A. (of Limit of Motion,


339) to the side of (usually of persons)
he sent the peltasts to (the
Tre/ATret Trap a Hevcx^uWa TOUS 7reA.TcurTas
side of) Xenophon Xn. A. 4, 3, 27.
:

B. (of Extent,
Place:

Trap a

rrjv

ftfj

6Sov

338) along beside, alongside


.

of.

went along beside the shore A 34. fy


there was a spring alongside the road Xn. A. 1,

Trap a

Kptjvr)

Olva. Tie

2, 13.

Time: Trap a
the time he

used

Travra

to

come

TOV \povov Trpocr^et along


me PI. Phaed. 116 d.

(i.e.

during)

all

So in phrases like trap" ovbsv (lit. alongside of


of no account, Trap a /xt/cpov (lit. alongside of little, i.e.)

Derived Meanings
nothing,

/xot

in to see

i.e.)

nearly, almost, slightly.

Often the idea of passing alongside suggests passing beyond ; so -n-apd


means beyond, contrary to: as often Trap a TOV vopov contrary to

often

law, Trap a rrjv

8oav

IN COMPOSITION

contrary
beside,

to

expectation, etc.

along by, beyond.

412. rapt about, round about (properly on


1.

WITH

all sides of, cf.

400).

a/jL<f>i,

THE. GENITIVE:

A. (Partitive Genitive of Place, 358) about (some part of)


round about (a part of) the cave e 68.

Trept

o-Tre'eos

More often in the derived meaning of about, concerning: -jrf.pl rwv


v/xerepwv ayaOwv /xa^ov/xe^a we shall Jight about your goodly possessions
Xn. A. 2, 1, 12. a TIS Trept TWV TOIOVTCOV erodes eo-ri if anybody is
wise about such matters PL Ap. 19 c.
B.

(of Separation,

TrdvTwv

e/x/xevat

all about, surpassing,


&e superior to all others

362)

aAAwv

/o

more than: Trept


So often
287.

in prose in phrases like Trept TTO\\OV TroLticrOaL to regard as of great


importance (lit. more than much), Trept ovSevos Trotefo-#at to regard as

of no importance, Trept Travros


importance (as Xn. Cy.
2.

WITH THE

Attic prose)

412

a.

For

(Locative,

e^ovre?

71-^/34

Troteur0ai to

regard as of

all possible

1, 4, 1).

384)

DATIVE

crrpeTrrovs Trept rots

exceedingly as an adverb, see

about (not frequent in


^vV/j necklaces

rpa^Aots
398

a.

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS


Xn. A.

about their necks

about the place Th.


3.

1, 5, 8.

SeStoYes irf.pl rco

X WP V
1

alarmed

feint/

60.

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

Place
the

1,

221

hundred ships around

the

338) round aoow^, about.

(of Extent,

aTreo-reiXav ras eKarov

raw

Trepi neA-OTroW^ow

Peloponnesus Th.

2,

23.

TT

ep i

/Je?/

sent off

'EAA/^o-Trovroi/

a>v oein<7 aoou (i.e. in the neighborhood of) the


Hellespont Dem.
rous Trepc avroF Ilepo-ds ^e Persians about him Xn. yl. 1, 5, 8.
Time: Trepi TOVTOVS TOVS xpoVous oow /^ese times Th. 3, 89.

Derived Meanings

8, 3.

cuei Trepi KetVov oive oe ever troubled about him


Trepc 0eoi>s pv) o-axfrpovtiv not to be sober-minded about the gods

408.

Xn. Mem.

1, 1,

20.

IN COMPOSITION
413.

"""po

around, surpassing (sometimes

Latin per-).

before (Latin pro-).

WITH THE GENITIVE


Place

?rpo ru>v

(of Separation,

TnAwv ow

in

front of

362) only
the gates

Xn.

//e/Z. 2, 4, 34.

Time: Trpo r^s fJ-o-X^ oefore the battle Xn. ^4. 1, 7, 13.
Derived Meanings: Trpo VJJLUV dypvTrv^o-avra watching

in

your

be-

half (i.e. in front of you as a protection), TOV Se Trpo Se'/ca /uvcov eAot)x^v
av another I would choose rather than ten minae Xn. Mem. 2, 5, 3.

IN COMPOSITION
414. Tpds a,

Z,y,

before (so

sometimes

in defense of),

forward, forth.

toward (properly in front of).

WITH THE GENITIVE

(the Partitive Genitive of Place,


358)
of (some part of), toward, over against: TO Trpos eo-Trepds
ret^os //ze wa// in front of (i.e. toward) ^e wes< Xn. Hell. 4, 4, 18.
TO, VTro^vyia t^ovre? Trpo? ro{! Trorafjiov with the pack animals on the side
toward the river Xn. A. 2, 2, 4. Trpos TCOJ/ KapSou^wv te'rai /o ^o in
1.

in front

the direction

of

the

Carduchi Xn. A.

So by extension Trpos

4, 3, 26.

OVK ^v Trpos rot) K^pov rpoTrot;


Trarpds on ^e father's side Hdt. 7, 99.
i^ was no< in
keeping with Cyrus' character Xn. ^4. 1, 2, 11. Trpos $ewi>

^e si^A/ o/ ^e ^od.s, with words of swearing. So sometimes of the


remote agent ( 272) o^oXoydraL Trpos Travrcov he .is acknowledged on
the part of all people Xn. A. 1, 9, 20.
(Some of these genitives may
in

be explained as Genitives of Separation,


414

a.

Homer has

also irporL (another

362.)

form

of Trp6s)

and

TTOT*

7/7)6?.

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

222
2.

WITH THE

3.

DATIVE

384)

(Locative,

2x<ov Trpos TW Ev<pdr?7 Trora/xa)


the Euphrates river Xn. A. 1, 8, 4.
this (as Xn. Cy. 1, 2, 8).

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

at:

with the right

ra Seia rov Keparos

of the wing (resting) on

So, figuratively, Trpos TOUTOIS besides

(of

(properly to a position in front of)

Limit of Motion,

339)

to,

toward

Place: vTre^wp^o-ai/ Trpos TOV X6<f>ov they retreated toward the hill
So often of
4, 44.
Trpos /Soppav toward the north Th. 6, 2.

Th.

persons: ep^ovrat Trpos iy/>tas tfiey come to us Xn. ^4. 5, 7, 20.


Trpos TOUS TToAe/uovs to #0 toward (i.e. against) *Ae enemy Xn.
6, 10.
8ia/2aAAei Kvpoi/ Trpos rov dSeA(6V 7*e slandered Cyrus

to/at
^4. 2,
to his

Xn. 4. 1, 1, 3. So often of feeling toward: a.0vp,ov<ri Trpos


!oSov they feel discouraged in regard to the expedition Xn. A. 7, 1, 9.

brother
T7)v

Often Trpos TO.VTO. in view of


Derived Meanings
offavor (i.e. with a view to please), Trpos ftidv
:

in view

this,

Trpos X"-P LV

ivith

(a view to)

violence, etc.

IN COMPOSITION
o~vv (also

415.

toward, in addition.

to,

vv, cf.

WITH THE DATIVE

Lat. cum) unfA, in

(of

Accompaniment,

o-vi> (TTpaTtvfjiaTL TroAAo) Trpoo-ep^erat

army Xn.
4, 19.

TW

416.
1.

Aw

hill

Aearf (cf

392) only: /3curiAeus


advancing with a great

(Latin super).

of), above:

Xn.

'-?

(Partitive Genitive of Place,


&ore
Kw/xrys yr;Ao<os ^r

VTrep r^s

-4. 1, 10, 12.

358

a.

with, together.

WITH THE GENITIVE

(some part
tvas

oi-er

vire'p

Tft'm/

415

$eots M?VA (the help of) the gods Xn. Cy. 6,


(in accordance) -?tVA iAe law Xn. Cy. 1, 3, 17.

i/d/ao)

IN COMPOSITION

///e

see

avv

J.. 1, 8, 1.

o-vv

company with;

a,

3d

or?} 8' ap' vTrep Kec^aA^s


20.
example)

n(/

358) over

Me

village

s/oo^ oyer

Derived Meanings From fighting over comes the derived meaning


in behalf of, on account of.
TroveTv VTrep o-ov to toil in behalf of you
Xn. A. 7, 3, 31. vTrep riys eAev^epids v/xas et>Sai/Aon<o I congratulate
you on account of your freedom Xn. A. 1,7, 3. (Later, sometimes, the
meaning m behalf of comes to mean little more than afowf, concerning.)
:

415
either

a.

The form ^v occurs

form

elsewhere atv

is

in the older Attic writers

regularly found.

the poets use

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS


2.

223

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

338) over, beyond:


(of Extent,
he stepped over the threshold rj 135.
roTs VTrep
TTOVTOV OLKOVCTI with those who dwell beyond the Hellespont Xn. A. 1,
ouSov

efirjcrtro

VTTtp Swa/xiv beyond one's

IN COMPOSITION
viro

417.
1.

over, beyond, in behalf of.

under (Latin sub).

WITH THE GENITIVE

A.

362) from under: VTT


(of Separation,
they loosed the mules from under the wagon 77 5.
B.

1, 9.

ability.

(Partitive Genitive of Place,

aTnjv^s

^loVous IXvov

358) under.

Place: under some part of, TOL VTTO yr)s things under the earth PI.
i<i'8ia VTTO /xaAr/? t^ovras with daggers under their ar?ns
Ap. 18 b.
Xn. Hell. 2, 3, 23. vv/x^>a?
SaiSaJv VTTO Aa/XTro/xevatov fjyweov dva
.

a<TTv under (the light of) torches they were leading the brides through
the city 2 492.

from such examples as the last came the regular usage of


with the genitive to denote the Agent ( 372), i.e. the person (or
thing) under whose influence an action takes place Trte^o/xevos VTTO TWV

Agent

VTTO

OIKOI

dvTKTTcunamov being hard pressed by

Xn. A.
A. 1, 3,
Xot/xe^a
2.

ev e-rraOov VTT

1, 1, 10.

tKeivov

WITH THE

384)

(Locative,

A.

DATIVE

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE


(of Limit of Motion,

ot

?/iey Artf/

^e*

8, 1, 6.

VTTO J3a<n\el ovre? those


e/u-w VTTO Sovpl Sa/xtvra

339) to a position under.


hit

him

just before) night (cf. Latin

sub

avrov O.KOVTL&L ns TraAroJ VTTO rov 6^>9a.X^6v somebody


with a javelin under the eye Xn. A. 1, 8, 27.
Place

Time: VTTO
noclem).

VVKTO.

toward

scythes

VTTO rrj aKpoTroAei a^ the foot

1, 8, 10.

under the power of the King Xn. Cy.


subdued beneath my spear E 653.

\lfj.ov O.TTO-

under, beneath.

VTTO rots 8t^>pots

of the acropolis Xn. ^4. 1, 2, 8.


Derived Meanings (chiefly poetic)

A.

well treated by

So not infrequently of things TravreXais av VTTO


we should utterly perish by starvation Xn. A. 2, 2, 11.

et^ov 8e TO, 8/oe7rara


beneath the chariot boxes Xn.

3.

I was

4.

Place

home
him Xn.

his political opponents at

(i.e.

USE AND MEANINGS OF THE PREPOSITIONS

224
B.

338) along under.

(of Extent,

<' rjv f] Kara/Maoris ^v eis TO TreoYov a


a.K.pu>v\)\idv opovs, v
spur
mountain, along under ivhich was the descent into the plain Xn.
ei/ rats VTTO TO
4, 37.
0/305 KW/ACUS in the villages along at the foot

Place

of

the

A.

3,

of the mountain Xn. A.

Time

7, 4, 5.

VTTO rrjv Trapoi^o/xevryv VVKTOL along under

(i.e.

during)

the past

night Hdt. 9, 58.

IN

COMPOSITION:

Latin

under,

underhandedly, gradually,

slightly

(cf.

sub-).

IMPROPER PREPOSITIONS
418, Properly the term preposition is applied only to those (earlier)
adverbs which can be compounded with a verb into a single word
298), but there are also other adverbs (of varying origin) which,
(
for one reason or another, are regularly found in company with certain
cases (mostly the genitive)

Improper Prepositions
are

to these, as a class,

(cf.

is

given the

The most important

362, 3).

avev without, avriov and ei/avnW opposite, e/cros and

and

name

of

of these

^o> outside,

eyyv? and TrX-qviov near, a^pt and fte^pt until,


/xera^v between, Trepav across, irXrjv except, ZVCKO. on account of, l/XTrpoa^ev
in front of, O7rio~0ev behind, ^aptv for the sake of, SIK^I/ in the manner of,
ei/ro?

like,

(cf.

eto-<o

inside,

XdOpa ivithout
418 a).

the

knowledge

of, a/aa

along with, ws

and others

to,

Of these, all except a/xa and o>s are used with the genitive, ajoa is
used with the dative (of Accompaniment,
392) and o>s with the
accusative (of Limit of Motion,
339) of names of persons only as
:

to the

NOTE.

The

various sorts.
tion

King.
genitives used with the improper prepositions are of
is used with the Genitive of Separa-

For example, avev

362), eyyv's with the Partitive Genitive of Place

with the Descriptive Genitive


418
poetry

a.
:

The following improper

prepositions are seldom used except in

tryxoO near, &rep without, dfyas in the

418), St'xa apart from,

beneath,

v6<r(f)i(v)

/miySa or

<ry/j.fj.tya

with the dative

e/cds

away from,
(in

(cf.

far from,
-n-dpos

all

form

ZKTITI

before, rrj\e

Herodotus) along
392, 3)

358), and

352).

icith.

of,

like

on account
far

The

off

(cf.

of,

from, and

last three are

the rest with the genitive.

used

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES

225

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES
419. Adjectives are used to modify substantives (including words used substantively) and substantive pronouns.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES
420.

Adjectives (including participles, adjective pro443 if.) agree in gender,


nouns, and the definite article,
and
with
the
substantives
which they
case,
number,

modify thus avrjp croc^o? a wise man, avbpos crofyov of a


wise man, avSpdcri <7o<ot? to wise men, 6 Trapwv Kaipds the
present occasion, oi/ro? o avr^p this man, 6 auro? avrfp the
same man.
:

NOTE.
Since an adjective may be equivalent to the genitive case
of a substantive, it sometimes happens that an adjective is followed by
a genitive case in apposition ( 317) with the substantive implied in
it:

as 'AOrjva tos

city the greatest PI.

wv TrdXeco? T^S
Ap. 29 d.

/AeyioTiy? being a

man of Athens, a

421.
predicate adjective belonging to two or more
substantives is usually plural (or dual), or it may agree
with one (usually the nearer) and be understood with the

rest: as alel yap roi epis re


re for always strife,

177.

<f)i\r),

and wars, and

For examples

TroXe/^ot' re

battles, are

of the plural see

dear

pa^ai
to

you

422 below.

422.
predicate adjective belonging to substantives of
different gender is commonly masculine if the substantives
are felt to denote persons, and neuter if they are felt to

denote things
?

KOI

thus w?
rrjv

elBe

rrarepa re

fcal

fJL^repa KOI

eavrov ryvvalica at'^ftaXooroL'? yeyevij-

when he saw that both his father and mother and


brother and his own wife had been made captives Xn. Oy. 3,
BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

15

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES

226

1, 7.
TV%rj KOI <&i\i7T7ro<; rjaav TWV epywv /cvpcoi
Fortune and Philip were masters of the deeds Aeschin. 2,
avrwv /cal retcva KOI yv valicas
118.
(frpovpove'^ft)
'Y]

fjieva

I have

chattels)

their wives

Xn. A.

and children

safely

(i.e. as

guarded

1, 4, 8.

may be used substantively


then
neuter, although the subject may be
(
thus repTrvbv
masculine or feminine (cf.
422)
rpdjre^a 7r\rjprj$ a thing of joy is a well-filled board E. Hipp.
423.

predicate adjective

424), and

is

109.

ryvvi)

Se

/cajrl

6r)\v

nine thing and prone

Sa/cpvoi?

e(f)v

but

woman

a femi-

is

Med. 928. So often the


neuter TI: as rt rjv ra Xe^#eWa what was the conversation?
PI. Phaed. 58 c.
(lit. the things said were what?)
NOTE.
(

to

tears E.

when a woman speaks

In tragedy

495, note) she regularly uses the masculine

thus apKov/jiev
cestis)

T^/ACIS ot

who am dying

TrpoOvycrKovTes

in

of herself in the plural

form of the

<rtOcv sufficient

am

participle

(i.e.

Al-

your stead E. Ale. 383.

424. Adjectives Used Substantively.


The substantive
which an adjective modifies is often omitted when it is a
common word like man, woman, child, thing, land, road,
The
day, hand, etc., which can be readily understood.

adjective alone then acquires the force of a substantive


thus o cro^o? the wise man (sc. avdpwiros}, f) /ca\r) the beautiful woman (sc. 7^77), ayaOov a good thing (sc. TrpayjjLa),
:

ol TroXXot the

many

son of

(sc. avOpwTroi), o Aa/oetbu the

Darius (sc. ufe), rj 'Ayape/jivovos the daughter of Agamemnon (sc. Owydrrfp), ra rr}? TroXeo)? the affairs of /State (sc.
TT

pay para),

rj

e/mavrov

M.yapa

the

road

shortest

way

(sc.

to

6SoV),

(sc. fjjjiepa), rrj Se^ia

my own
TTJ

land

(sc.

<yfj ),

rrjv

CTTL

6SoV), rqv Ta%icrTr)V the


vcrrepaia on the following day

Megara

(sc.

with the right hand (sc. %ipf).

THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE

many

adjectives have come thus to be used regularly


thus Trarpts fatherland (sc. yfj), Tpirjprjs trireme (sc.
music (sc. TC^VT;), etTTrepa evening time (sc. wpa), and

Numerous

NOTE.

as substantives
vavs),

227

fjLovcTLKrj

others.

Adjectives with Adverbial Force.

425.

Greek

Sometimes in

so frequent in Latin) an adjective modifying


a substantive in a sentence may have the effect of modifythus %#?o? eftrj he went yesterday
ing the predicate

(as

is

424, evSov Travvv^iQi they slept all night


(i.e. %0e?)
B
2,
long
Tpiraloi acfrttcovro they arrived on the third day
atcoTalot they came down in
Th. 1. 60, tcarefiaivov
.

darkness Xn. A.

4, 1, 10.

THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE


The Comparative Degree denotes more than the
The comparaas <ro</>&)Te/>o? more wise or wiser.
positive
426.

tive

may be used

absolutely, or the person or thing with

made may be expressed.


The comparative used absolutely means

which comparison
1.

is

rather, some-

what, and sometimes (by implication) too much : thus


yeXoidrepov rather amusing PI. Ap. 30 e.
%eipov<$ rather
3.
OCLTTOV
too
bad (i.e. rascals), Lys. 16,
quickly.
2.
When the word with which comparison is made is
expressed it stands either with rj than, or else in the genitive case (
363):
v wiser than I.

NOTE

When

thus o-o^airepos

rj

eya> or croc^eorepo?

used after a comparative, the two objects


same case, unless the second is the subthen it is in the nominative
ject of a verb (expressed or understood)
thus <f>LXovaa avrov /xoAAov >} rov /3aai\evovTa 'Apra^ep^rjv loviir
ing him more than (she did) the king Artaxerxes Xn. A. 1, 1, 4.
1.

is

-tj

compared regularly stand

in the

^KvOd<s to march against men


rj
much braver than Scythians ("than against Scythians") Hdt. 7, 10.
Rarely a feeling that the second word is the subject of a verb

a v Spa 5 <TTpaTvecr@ai TTO\V d/xavovas

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES

228

(expressed or understood) causes it to be put in the nominative


thus dvSpos TroAv Swarwrepou 77 ey to vlov the son of a man much more
:

powerful than I (am) Xn. Cy.

NOTE

5, 2,

28.

The

genitive after a comparative is commonly equivalent to the nominative or accusative with 77 than; less often can it be
2.

said to represent some other case thus TOVS <opous ouSev TJTTOV ravSpos aTreSi'Sou she used to pay in the taxes no less than (did) her husband
Xn. Hell. 3, 1, 12. <rev d/xetVovi <am /xa (e(i.e. 77 6 avrjp aTreSi'Sov)
:

o-0ai to

foi'M

/^fa

6etfer

AJoi/ vfjLvrj<ra.L /xeAos to si'm/

A/erf.

543

NOTE

3.

E.

77

NOTE

4.

717, 4).

(cf.

When two

always used,
fjiaXXov

adjectives or adverbs are compared, 77 is


in the comparative degree thus TT/OO^/AOS

and both stand

(7o<a)Tpd more willing than wise E. Med. 485.


The neuter comparative TrXeov more, eXdrrov

when used purely

/ess,

man than you (are) H. 111. 'Op<eu)s /coA.a strain more beautiful than (that of) Orpheus

as adverbs,

struction of the sentence:

thus aTTOKreiVowi ran/

7TvraKO(7tbv5 they killed at least

Xn. A.

5.

instead of (.
than so that

ing

(lit.

(or /ACIOV)

affect the con-

dvSpaii/

not less than) five

ov /xetov

hundred men

6, 4, 24.

NOTE

to (

sometimes do not

Comparatives
402), or

77

645, note), or

may

and the

sometimes by OLVTL
with or without cStrre, lit.

also be followed

infinitive,

Kara (w ith the accusative) than accordr

77

409, 2).

NOTE 6. A thing may be compared with itself under other circumstances; such a comparison is expressed by the genitive of the
reflexive pronoun ( 470), often helped by avro? in agreement with
the subject

473)

thus lyivovro

CWVTOJV they far surpassed themselves Hdt.


times found also with the superlative.

/xaKpw
8, 86.

a/xeivoves avrol
This usage is some-

THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE


427. The superlative degree means most
most wise or wisest.
1.

or

it

as o-o^toraro?

The

superlative may be used absolutely meaning very,


may be followed by a partitive genitive ( 355, 1)

thus avrjp cro(ft>TaT09 a very wise man, or cro^foraro? a


wisest (one) of men.

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS
NOTE.
those

among

In place of the partitive genitive the words eV rots (lit.


who) are also found with the superlative (they do not

affect the construction)

KariOwro

the

wearing of
bear

43

the

thus ev rots Trpwrot Se 'AOrjvaioi rov

sword Th. 1,6.

among

those

(TiBrjpov

who put aside the


ev rots ySapvrar' av evey/<cu/u I should
(who would bear it heavily) PL Crit.

Athenians were the

most heavily

it

229

first

among

those

c.

The superlative may


428. Strengthened Superlative.
be strengthened by o>? or em (less often by 77, olo?, or
thus o>? rd^icrra as quickly as posother relative words)
:

OTL

sible,

7r\elcrTOi

as

many men

%a\7r(i)TaTov an extremely

as possible, %o)piov olov

difficult spot

Xn. A.

4, 8,

2 (cf.

485, note 2).

NOTE.
Probably a word meaning "possible" has come to be
omitted in these expressions, since sometimes such a word is found
:

el<re(f>6pr)(Ta.v ws eSwai/ro TrXelcrra


they could Xn. A. 4, 6, 1.

as

they carried in the most (things)

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS
429.

Adverbs modify

verbs, adjectives,

and other ad-

verbs.
1.
An adverb in the attributive position (
sometimes used with the force of an adjective
rore avOpcoTTOL the men of that time.

NOTE.
as ei?

dei"

430.
eral

An adverb may
for

451)

is

thus

ol

be modified by a preposition (see

398)

erer.

In genComparative and Superlative of Adverbs.


said about the comparative and su-

what has been

perlative of adjectives (

426428)

applies also to the

comparative and superlative of adverbs thus o-o^wrepov


more wisely or rather wisely, cro^corara most wisely or very
:

wisely, o-o(f)a)Tara jravrcov (

355, 1) most wisely of

all.

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS

230

THE NEGATIVE ADVEBBS

AND

ov

Greek possesses two adverbs, ov


meaning not ; of these, ov

431.

an(l M">

tive expressions of fact;


//,?;

is

rf

(OVK, ofy,
46,
used in nega-

is

in other negative expressions

used.

Hence

follows that in expressions of negative command, wish, purpose, condition (including adjectives and
653, 6), in relative
participles which imply a condition,
1.

it

clauses with indefinite antecedent ( 620 ff.), and with


the infinitive used as a substantive (
is
633, 635)
regularly used.

2.

But when the

infinitive or participle is

used in indi-

671), it retains the negative which


would have had in the direct discourse.
rect discourse (

3.

word

particular

modified by

in a sentence

may by

itself

it

be

even when the sentence as a whole would

ov,

so often OVK eo> not allow = forbid, ov TroXXot


require fir)
not many = few, ov (^TJ/JLL deny, etc. : as eav ov (^rjre if you
:

deny
4.

their

PL Ap.
The

25

b.

(Of.

distinction

compounds

600, note.)

between ov and

as ouSetV,

fjirj&efc

/ZTJ

nobody

applies also to
ovSe, fjLrj&e not

even, etc.

NOTE.

Irregularities in the use of ov

and

p.rfj.

Occasionally

/AT? is

used where we should expect ov, or vice versa ov where we should expect iiy. Thus, a participle or adjective depending on a word which
has (or might have) JJLIJ may take /x.?7 by attraction ( 316) as /ceAevei
:

8ia/5avra? lie bade ihem stay rigid


there at the river without crossing (here ov would be proper ( 431, 3),
but the influence of the infinitive, /mvai ( 431, 1), is too strong) Xn.
O.VTOV /xeii/cu

4, 3, 28.

Ctrl

TOV Trora/xov

/J.YJ

eav TI rotovrov cuaOr) atavrov /* r) eiSo'ra if you perceive yourany such matter (here eiSo'ra, being in indirect

self not to be informed on

discourse

431, 2),

conditional clause (

would naturally take


431, 1) permits

fjaj

ov,

but the influence of the

to be used)

Xn. Mem.

3, 5, 23.

THE NEGATIVE ADVERBS

ov

AND

231

JJLIJ

The infinitive used as a substantive ( 635 if.) sometimes appears to


have ov instead of [MJ ( 431, 1), but in such case the negative probably
did not originally belong with the infinitive, but with the word on
which the

infinitive

depends: as

xp>) 8' ov-rroO'

dren taught

to

TTCU&XS Tre/ouro-to?
to have his chil-

one ought never (or never ought)


be too wise E. Me'd. 295.

/<SiSao-Keo-0(H <ro<l>ov<s

A few
and py

rare examples in Classical Greek of the actual misuse of ov


are probably to be explained simply as grammatical mistakes.

When

one simple negative stands next to another


is never found, but always
simple negative, ov ov or prj
432.

fJLT)

OV Or OV

fJLlJ.

In Greek (unlike EngStrengthened Negation.


do
not
two
negatives
always make an affirmative.
lish)
The simple negatives (ou and ^77) usually retain everywhere their separate negative force, but compound nega433.

tives following another negative serve only to strengthen


the negation
thus /cal ovSev fJLevrot, ovSe TOVTOV iraOeiv
:

ovBev however,
they say that not even this man suffered any harm, nor did
anybody else suffer any harm whatever Xn. A. 1, 8, 20.
(f>ao~av,

434.

ovB' a\\o<$ 8e

ejraOev ovBels

Sympathetic (or Redundant) Negative.

tive

(more
on a word

An infini-

rarely a participle or a finite mood) depending


which is modified by a negative, or which in

contains a negative idea (like hinder, forbid, deny,


often
takes an extra negative (^77 or ov) to confirm
etc.)
the idea of negation
as vra? jap aovco? Svo avSpas e^ei rov
itself

fir)

KaraSvvai for each skin will keep two men from sinking
alone might have been used) Xn. A. 3, 5, 11.
vfjL(0v e%co

e\7Ti8a

/jirj

ov Swcretv

t'/Ltea? SL/CTJV

I have

no expectation that you will not pay the penalty (yiir) Swcreiv
might have been used) Hdt. 6, 11. So also coo-re TTCLO-LV

alo-%vvr)V

elvai

/JLTJ

ov ava-TrovSa^eiv

so

that

all

were

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS

232

ashamed not to take hold earnestly (/^ avo-TrovSdfetv alone


"
might have been used, but alo-^vvrj suggests thought it
not right," and so prepares the way for the extra negative)
Xn. A. 2, 3, 11. elvdrrj Be OVK e^ekevaeaOau efyaaav f^rj
ov TrX^eo? e'oWo? rov KVK\OV and they said they would not
march out on the ninth if the circle of the moon were not full
eoWo? alone might have been used) Hdt. 6, 106.
(pr)
.

negative may also be implied in a question, as in the


second example below.)

(A

So also an infiniDouble Sympathetic Negative.


on
a
word
which
a negative idea
contains
depending
and
at
the
same
is
modified by a
which,
time,
( 434),
two
extra
negatives (/A?) ou), one in
negative, may take
435.

tive

sympathy with the negative idea in the verb, the other


sympathy with the negative adverb thus aXX' ovSev
auTOU? eTTiXverai r) rj\LKLa TO /JLTJ ov%l dyava/creiv but
their age does not prevent them from being distressed PI.
cnroOavelv ; what
TI fj,7ro8tbv fjbr) ov%l
Orit. 43 c.

in

there

is to

put

prevent (i.e.
death? Xn. A.

to

is

3, 1,

nothing to prevent) our being


13.

Observe that the double sympathetic negative (/x>) ov,


NOTE.
which is not to be rendered at all in English) is found only with an
elsewhere (see
infinitive dependent on a doubly negative expression
the last three examples under
434) one of the negatives (p.ifj) always
;

retains its negative force.

THE ADVERB

dv

The adverb dv generally

serves to give a tinge of


It has no
indefiniteiiess to the clause in which it stands.
436.

equivalent in English, and often cannot be translated.


(For the sake of completeness a summary of its uses is

here given.)
436

a.

In epic poetry KC (enclitic), an equivalent of &v,

is

also found.

THE ADVERB av
437.
tial

In independent clauses av

is

optative (

dependent clauses av

Iii

conditional (

in

subjunctive

used with the poten-

563) and the potential indicative

For the quasi independent use


NOTE.
and participle not in indirect discourse see

438.

233

is

565).

of av with the infinitive

647 and 662.

used regularly with the


609) and relative

604,

623, 625) clauses.

NOTE.
form edv

With
(iyv,

ore, OTTOTC, eTret, or

ei,

av), orav, OTrorav,

k.irt]v

7retS?;,

the adverb av unites to

or eTrav (Hdt.

evreai/),

or CTrciSav

439, note 1).

(cf.

In indirect discourse av

is retained (even
though
it
where
changed)
originally stood in the
direct form, except when a dependent subjunctive with av
is changed to the optative after a secondary tense
then

439.

the

mode

is

See

av disappears.

XOTE

670, 2

673.

The adverb av never stands

Position of av.

1.

at the

beginning of its clause. It may stand next to the verb it modifies, or


it may stand immediately after some other prominent word in the
sentence (as regularly in relative and conditional clauses,
438).
Thus it may stand with the negative (owe av) or with any emphatic

word

or even with the principal verb instead of


(TTOJS av, /xaAio-r' av)
the subordinate one with which it really belongs: as avv vfuv /u,ev av
I think that I should be honored (i.e. olfwa av
ol/zat efvai n/xtos with you
ctvat)

Xn. A.

NOTE

1, 3, 6.

av Repeated.

2.

In

long sentence av

is

sometimes

v/otei?
Kpou<ravres av /xe
and
av aTTOKTetVare but you perhaps might be vexed
strike me
and easily kill me PL Ap. 31 a.
Sometimes the verb with which av
NOTE 3. Verb Supplied.
belongs is to be supplied from the context as Si/Wws /xcv e'v oAtyapx"*
SiKat'tos 8' av fv Sry/AOKparta justly did he suffer punishoY/oyv SOI/TO?

repeated: as
.

8* to-w?

rax'

av a\66^voi

paoYoos
.

ment

at the time

of an oligarchy, and justly would


of a democracy Lys. 12, 78.

SO'VTOS) at the time

lie

have suffered

(sc.

CONJUNCTIONS

234

CONJUNCTIONS
440. Conjunctions may be divided into two classes
"
"
Coordinate and Subordinate.
cf
Postpositives
(For

452, note.)

Coordinate conjunctions connect words, phrases,

441.

or clauses which stand in the same construction.

The

principal coordinate

conjunctions are

and

ical

(Latin ef), re and (Latin -que), a\\d, arap but (Latin Bed),
e but (Latin autem), ov&e (/AiySe) nor, not even, rj or, than,
apa, accordingly, so then, yap for, ovv therefore, accordingly

(including ov/covv therefore and ovtcovv therefore not}, ware


so that (

both

/cal

595),
and,

el're

ovre (/^re) neither


or,

fjiev

NOTE

whether

nor

...

Kai, or re

etre

431, 4),

hand

Be on the one

T)

or re ... icai

re,

or,

ovre (fjHjre)

rj

either

on the other.

The expression
/ecu often has the meaning also or even.
means especially (literally in other ways, and also
.).
The expression re ... KCU Sr] KOL means and particularly ; thus 8C
re TOTTCDV
aXXwv Kai Sr; KCU VTTO yrjv through other desert
epr)/jt,<t)V
1.

aAAcos re KCU

places and, in particular, beneath the earth

NOTE

(=ye +

PL Phaed.

112

e.

often used (e.g. in wishes and in


and
to
show a close relation or sequence
questions
answers) merely
between clauses it is then often best rendered by why, why then, then,
2.

ya/o

a/o) is

etc.
'

yes,

The

expression Kat yap

for' and dXAa yap

may

often be conveniently translated


1

441 a. In Epic poetiy re


sentences and clauses where

'no, for" or 'but

enough,

for.'

freely used to indicate the connection of


cannot be rendered in English (it usually
marks the sentence as general or indefinite) thus 3s /ce 0eo?s eirnreidTiTcu,
/j.d\a T eK\vov avrov whosoever obeys the gods, him they most do hear
is

it

218.
The words oUs re able (lit. of such kind as to}, ucrre so that, e<f>'
$re on condition that, are inasmuch as, are the survivals in Attic Greek

of the Epic usage.


b. Homer has also -fj^ev
-f)d
(= 7j + ptv or 5f) now
now, and sometimes 175^ without a preceding r)/j.tv (cf. 5^,
441).
C. Homer has also avrap (= #ra/o) but ; and &p and pa (encl.)
.

and

= &pa.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE


Subordinate

442.

6,

connect

conjunctions

235

TO

77,

subordinate

clauses with the clauses on

which they depend.


The following are the more important subordinate conjunctions (most of them are really relative adverbs) on
:

how, as, that,

that, because, cb?

el,

eav (

el

-f-

av)

if, OTTO)?

how,

as,

in order that, ware so that, iva where, in order that,

ore, oTTore
eirei,

when,

=
(

eVetSrj

since, f}viica, oTnyviica at

eirei

long as, until (

NOTE.

618, note),

say that

ovx

/>te%/w, a^pi,

lest.

.).

Originally

meaning

as

that point,

not only (literally, perhaps, not to

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE,


443.

up

to

expressions of fear)

on means

OTL or pr)

eW

ivhen, since, eare until,

&rf)

until, TTpiv before, pr) (after

which time, when,

this,

and

o,

in

was a demonstrative pronoun,


other early poets ( 443 a)
meaning. In Attic Greek it has come
77,

TO,

Homer and

commonly has this


to mean the, but in Attic
it

0,^x0'

in the following phrases

its

use as a pronoun has survived

In epic poetry are found a few conjunctions which do not occur


The most common are evre when, as, y/jios when (with indicative only), 6<j>pa as long as, until, in order that ( 590 a).
442

a.

in Attic.

Homer

b.

often has at (af /ce) for Attic el (fav), and yos (often
et'ws) for Attic 2ws.
(The latter is formed by interchange

wrongly written
of quantity

443

17)

from the Epic form.)

Homer

6, 17, r6, is generally used as a demonstrative or anaphoric pronoun (substantive or adjective) thus o yap y\de for he (lit.
that man) came A 12. rrj v 5' ^70; otf Aurw ami her I shall not set free A 29.

a.

In

TOV

5e K\6e 4>o?j3os 'A7r6\Xwj'

e/j.01

\v<raL re

this

(f)L\n]v,

ransom A

20.

and him Phoebus Apollo heard A

TrcuSa

43.

5'

ra

T airoiva 5^%e(T0ai but free my dear child, and accept


ws e0ar', eSeurev 5' 6 yepuv thus he spoke, and that

(before mentioned) feared A 33. Yet in Homer 6, ^/, r6, is somethus ^


times used in a way that closely approaches the Attic usage
rbv Se&bv 'iwirov the (or that)
TrXTjfli-s the (or
this) multitude B 278.
old

man

right-hand horse

&

336.

rb

<rbv

yepas that prize of yours (or your prize)

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

236
1.

o p.V

other, this

01

TO

77,

o 8c (in all the cases) the one


that: as

&

fjiev ejropevovTo, 01

and

o,

eiTTOvro the one

Xn

A.

the

party proceeded,

16.
row? pev
some
he
killed
and
others
TOU?
egefiaXev
ra
he banished Xn. A. 1, 1, 7.
pev TI
eTropevOyo-av
Be Kal avaTravd/jLevoi they proceeded,
ra
pa%dftev6t
sometimes fighting a bit, sometimes resting Xn. A. 4,
the other followed

3,

4,

'

cnreKTeive,

1,14.

Very often

6 Se

preceding
of

subject

but he,

and

found without a

he, is

regularly shows a change in the


the sentence
thus Kpo? SiSwcriv aura)

6 //.eV;

it

8e \a/3cov TO ^pvalov aTpaTev/jLa


fjivpiovs
crvve\e%ev Cyrus gave him ten thousand darics ; and he
o

SdpeiKOVs

took the money,


2.

TO,

TOV

and

Kai

TO,

TOV

Kal TCL

Kal a^LKVovfjiai

and

that

man

and

this one
:

an army Xn. A.

collected

and

1, 1, 9.

that one ; neuter also TO Kal

as

o>?

TOV Kal TOV and

Lys.

came

to

this

man

1, 23.

Kal TOV and he, Kal TTJV and she with an infinitive
Kal TOV euTrelv and he said (cf. also the phrase Kal
and he said, 144 a).
ecfrrj
3.

4.

as
6?

irpo TOO) before this.

Often in Homer and Herodotus, and sometimes in Attic


tragedy, 6, 97, TO, is used as a relative pronoun (see
149 a-b).
A 185. rb irpiv the (or that} former time,
those} noblest of the Argives.
443, 1-3 a. Herodotus has also o 701/0
.

other cases than the accusative.

'kpyeluv of &PHTTOI the (or

for he

.,

and

/cat

r6v in

o,

6",

77,

77,

TO

AS AN ARTICLE (THE)

TO

AS

237

AN ARTICLE

As the definite article o, 77, TO, ^e usually marks


substantive as evidently known, or before mentioned
thus 77 f^dx 1! the battle, ot "EXX?;^ the Greeks, ra Betca errj
444.

its

the ten years (of the

Trojan war) Th.

1,

11.

So a substantive modified by an attributive (such


an adjective, adjective pronoun, or a limiting genitive)
may take the article if the speaker feels that the substantive, because of this limitation, is made well known to
445.

as

his hearers

el/JLappevrj

thus at Trp&rai rdgeis the foremost ranks,


rj/Jiepd

the

fated day,

77

T&V TroXXwy

opinion of the multitude, OVTOS 6 avr^p this man, o


(but </Xo9 e/zo? a friend of mine).

77

Sdga the

$1X09

e'/Ao?

my friend

So proper names (if


previously mentioned) often take the
article
thus 6 ITXaTco^ Plato (the famous philosopher), ol
e\66v'AOyvaioi the Athenians ; ie(3r]<jav et? ^uce\iav
446.

well

Article

known

with Proper Names.

or

Te? &e e? rr/v liucekiav, K.T.\. they crossed to Sicily

when they had come


Th.

to

And

(the) Sicily (above mentioned)

6, 2.

NOTE.
Bao-iAeu's (the) King (of Persia) was probably felt by the
Greeks to be a sort of proper name, and so it is often found without
the article.

447.

Article

with the Force

of

a Possessive.

The

arti-

modifying a substantive ( 444) may acquire the force


of a possessive pronoun
thus TKTo-cKfrepvrjs Sia/3d\\ei rov
cle

Kvpov 7r/oo9 rov aSeX^ov Tissaphernes slandered Cyrus to


his (lit. the) brother Xn. A. 1, 1, 3.
e%ei
KXeap^o9
rrjv Si/crjv Clearchus has his (lit. the) deserts Xn. A. 2, 5, 38.
.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

238
448.

The

Generic Article.

6,

77,

TO

used to mark

article is often

a substantive as belonging to a well-known class


thus o
ICTTIV
man
is
ol
the
mortal,
OvrfTos
old,
avOpwTTos
yepovres
:

rj

a\ij0eia truth.

(The

fact that the article is generic is

determined by the context.)


449.

The

Article with Predicate Substantive.

predi-

(unless previously mentioned or well


have
cannot
the article
thus KXeap^o? Aa/ce$aiknown)
Clear
chus
ivas
a
ftoVto? (frvyas fy
Spartan exile Xn. A. \,
Odvards eanv
1, 9.
fy/jiid the penalty is death Xn. Mem.
cate

substantive

YJ

62 (but ra<? veas TO %v\ivov ret^o? elvai that the ships


were the wooden wall (mentioned in the oracle) Hdt. 7,
1, 2,

142).

Thus ( 449) subject and predicate are clearly distinNOTE.


guished in such sentences as vv 17 ^^pr} eyei/ero the day became night
Hdt. 1, 103.

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE


450.

The

451.

Attributive Position.

between the

article

always precedes the word

article

after the article, if

it

modifies.

Words or phrases standing


substantive (or immediately
the substajitive precedes or is not

and

its

thus
expressed) are said to have Attributive Position
o ay a bs avrjp the good man (cf.
302).
1.
Attributive adjectives (
302), and adverbs with
:

adjective force ( 429, 1), and, in general, most attributive phrases, have attributive position: thus 97 'EXXrjvi/crj
SvvafjLis the Greek force, ol rore av6pwiroi the men of that
time, ra (riyf) /3ov\evd/jieva the things planned in silence,
TOV

e/c

rwv'EiXXrfVcov et? Tou? fiapfldpov?

inspired by the GrreeJcs in the barbarians

<f)d{3ov

Xn. A.

the fear

1, 2, 18.

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE

When

452.

article

239

and attributive together are used

with a substantive, three different arrangements are possible

thus,

avijp the

good man.

(1)

(2)

o avrjp 6

(3)

avrjp 6

Of

these three arrangements the

ayaObs

ayaOos

man (namely) the good (one).


man (namely) the good (one).

the

ayaOos (a)

first is

ofteuest found,

by no means uncommon, as eV TTJ avaKvpov on the march inland with Cyrus


Xn. A. 5, 1, 1 the third arrangement is found when the
thus
substantive alone would stand without the article

but the second


fidcrei rrj per a

is

ffvveifju pew 0eot5, (rvveifJM Be

av@po)7rois rot? ayaOols

associate with gods and with


Xn. Mem. 2, 1, 32.

men

NOTE.

Postpositives.

The words

(that is) the

ju,ev,

good (men)

Se, ye, re, rot,

yap,

8>/,

and

"
being
postpositive," cannot stand at the beginning of a sentence; hence they are often found in the attributive position ( 451),
but without being attributives: as 6 /u,v ovv Trptcrfivrcpos Trapwv
ovv,

eru'yxave

poetry

8>J

now

then the elder happened to be present

sometimes

is

Xn. A.

1, 1, 2.

(In

not postpositive.)

453. Predicate Position of Adjectives.


predicate
adjective ( 302) cannot stand in the attributive position,
but either precedes or follows the article and its substantive

thus

ayaObs

6 avr^p

or 6 avrjp ay'aOos the

man

is

good.
1.
By using adjectives in the predicate position, the
Greeks were able to express frequent subordinate predicathus
tions which are difficult to render into English
his
head
with
(which was) bare
tylXrjv %cov rrjv /ce(j)a\r)V
Xn. A. 1, 8, 6. ISpovvri rw tTTTro) with his horse (which
was) in a sweat Xn. A. 1, 8, 1.
:

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

240

6,

TO

77,

PECULIARITIES OF POSITION WITH. THE ARTICLE

With

454.

middle,
half,

[Xox>s,
lit.

a/c/oo?

when used

dicpos,

The

etc.

adjectives

pointed, sharp, e'cr^aro? farthest,

in the predicate position (

mean middle

also without the article)

of, tip

IJ/JLICTVS

453) (often
of or top

of,

of, half of (cf. Latin summus mons)-. thus /ne'er?; 77


Tro'Xt? or 77 Tro'Xt? /xecr j] the middle of the city (but 77 pear)

end

middle

TroXt? the

city),

e?r'

dicpa) TO)

o/oet

on the top of the

mountain.

The adjectives TW (a??,


irds and oXos.
and 0X09 whole, when used with the article,
commonly have predicate position ( 453) thus Tracra
Tro'Xt? the whole city, iravres ol TroXmu all the citizens, eV
With

455.

o-u/zTra?)

a?/

rj

0X77 rrj TroXet in the whole city.


1. Bat when Tra? and 0X0? are real attributives,

mean-

ing the whole collectively, they have the attributive position :


thus 77 Trao- a St/ceXia entire Sicily, ol 7raz>Te? avOpo)7rot

Xn. A.
Xn.
A.
6, 2,
army

the whole tvorld


entire

456.

5, 6, 7.

TO

o\ov

With Demonstrative Pronouns,

tive modified

o-rpdrev/jia the

10.

etc.

by a demonstrative pronoun

substan-

(ouro?, oSe,

e\;et-

each (of two),


a/JL<f)Q), a/i^oVe/oo? both, e/cdrepos
each (of several) commonly has the article (cf.
445), and the pronoun has the predicate position ( 453)
thus OUTO? o avrjp this man,
&e 77 JVO^/JLTJ this opinion, TO>
or

by

77'

TratSe afji(f)OTepa) both the children.

XOTE.

But proper names, and substantives modified by numerals

or a relative clause, seldom need the article with a demonstrative

TOVTW

Autolycus (here) Xn. Sym. 3,


OVTOI ous opare (3dp/3apoi these barbarians ivJiom you behold. Xn. A.
5,16.

thus:

AuroX^Ko)

for

this

8.
1,

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

241

>

Genitives of the perWith Limiting Genitives.


sonal pronouns (including avros used for the pronoun of
the third person, 475, 3), when used to limit a substantive
457.

1.

with the
6

avrov

have the predicate position ( 453) thus


or e/noO o trarrfp my father, ol o-Tpariwrai

article,
/JLOV

rrarrip

his soldiers.

Limiting genitives of other (than personal) pronouns


commonly stand in attributive position thus o e^avrov
2.

my own

trarrip

'

father, TO e/ceivcov TrXoiov their boat

Xn. A.

1,4,8.
3.

The

Partitive Genitive modifying a substantive with

the article nearly always has predicate position (


458.

attributive

word follows the

article,

and the substantive


narrow way Xn. A. 4, 2, 6.

attributive
this

Most words which

Predicate Position Modified.

regularly have predicate position

454-457) may, if an
stand between the

thus

453).

r)

arevrj

avrrj 6So?

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS
459. Pronouns (like nouns,
73, 2) may be either substantive or adjective, and some pronouns (like rls and
auro?) are used both substantively and adjectively.
460.
refers

mally

The substantive to which a pronoun


Antecedent (from antecedo), since northus at K&pai ev al?
precedes the pronoun
the villages in which they were encamped Xn. A. 1,

Antecedent.
is

it

(TKrfl>ow

called its

4,9.

An antecedent may be imAntecedent Implied.


plied, instead of being expressed, by some preceding word
thus e\6a)v et? AatceBa I/JLOVCL eireiOev avrovs crrpaTevcra461.

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

16

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

242
went

crOai he

to

the Spartans)
TraXcurdrr) $>v

Sparta, and tried

to

take

to

up arms Lys.

persuade them
12, 58.

(i.e.

vav^a^ia

a sea fight the most ancient of the sea


which we know Th. 1, 13.

la/jLev

fights (i.e. TCOV vavpayitov) of

Agreement of Pronouns (general).


pronoun agrees in gender, number, and

An

462.

it

agrees with

its

adjective
with the

420); a substantive pronoun

modifies (cf.

substantive

case,

antecedent in gender, number, and person

as these are distinguished in its inflection, cf.


314 note), but its case depends on the construction of

far

(so

the clause in which


but

it

/(Antigone, nom.

ace. sing,

masc.)

S.

stands

thus icelvov

sing, fern.) will

&

eya) Od^ca

bury him (Polynices,

Ant. 71.

463.
pronoun referring to two or more antecedents
follows the same principles of agreement as the predicate

421423): as rrj 4>a>vf} re /cal rw rpoTrw


ereOpd^^v in the manner of speech and behavior
had been brought up PI. Ap. 18 a.
I
which

adjective (

ev ola-Trep

in

A pronoun some464. Construction according to Sense.


times agrees with the real, rather than with the grammatical, gender of its antecedent (see
315) as fify 'HpatcXeirj
:

mighty Heracles (lit. might of Heracles} who


Hm. TO 'Ap/caSi/cbv 67r\iTiKov, wv r)p% KXeavcop
force of Arcadian hoplites whom Cleanor commanded

oa-Trep
.

the

Xn. A.
1.

4, 8, 18.

So a word in the singular

or vice versa a

word

may suggest a plural,


may suggest a correpronoun may agree with the

in the plural

sponding singular, and the


461)
implied antecedent (cf.

thus

rj

fjid\a

rt?

#eo?

ovpavov evpvv e^ovcriv surely a god is within (one


of the gods) who hold the broad heavens r 40 (cf. rt?

evSov, o

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

243

of mortals, who Z 142).


r/9 K ejriopKov ofjiocro-rj you punish mankind
(every single one) whoever swears falsely F 279.

Pporcov o? one
rivvcrOov,

465.

thus

(TfcoTrelv

avrr)

A pronoun may be attracted ( 316)


and number of its predicate substantive

Attraction.

to the gender
.

el

8i/caia \eya)

(i.e. for TOVTO*) aperrj to see

rj

pr)

BiKaarov

whether

/aev

yap

I speak fairly

for this is the merit of a judge PI. Ap. 18


opus, hie labor est Verg. Aen. 6, 129.)

not,

a.

(Cf.

or

hoc

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

A personal pronoun agrees with its


466. Agreement.
antecedent in person and number it has no distinction of
gender, and its case depends on the construction of the
;

clause in which

it

stands (

462): thus

crv

S'

etVe /iot

but do you (Antigone, 2d pers. nom. sing, fern.)


(Creon, 1st pers. dat. sing, masc.) S. Ant. 446.

tell

me

467. The personal pronouns in the nominative case are


not expressed unless emphatic (see
305).
468.

In Attic the pronoun of the third person

ou, ot,

139, 2) is always reflexive (see


472); to supply
its place as a personal pronoun of reference the corre140, 1 and 475, 3).
sponding forms of auro? are used (
etc. (

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
469. Agreement.
A reflexive pronoun agrees with its
antecedent in gender, number, and person
its case
depends on its construction in the clause in which it
;

stands,

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

244

A reflexive pronoun regularly


most important word in the sentence
usually
the subject thus yvwOi o-avrov know thyself; KXeap^o?
Direct Reflexive.

470.

refers to the

own

eVt ra?

own

tent

Xn. A.

eavT&v

cities

Xn.

eavrov

ejrl rrjv

afajnrevei

to his

Clear chus rode back

TOU? Tre/otot/eof? acfrfjicev


the perioeci he dismissed to their

Tro'Aet?

Hell.

(r/crjvijv

12.

1, 5,

21.

6, 5,

In dependent clauses a reflexsometimes refer back to the subject of

471. Indirect Reflexive.

ive

pronoun may

the principal verb (cf.


TO

ajrav

Latin): thus efiovXero &e KOI

se in

arpdrev/jLa

TT/JO?

eavrov

moreover, Clear chus wished the entire


its

mind to him(self) Xn. A. 2, 5, 29.


1.
But auroO, ai/rw, etc., ( 475, 3)

e%eiv

TTJV

to

give

army

is also

frequently

found in dependent clauses referring to the subject of the


thus T&V Trap eavrw
principal verb (cf. eius in Latin)
evvolicw
a>?
eVeyLteXetro
e%oiev avrw he was
/3ap/3dpa)v
;

careful of the barbarians with him(self^) that they should be


well disposed toward him^self) Xn. A. 1, 1, 5.

NOTE 1. Sometimes the reflexive pronoun of the third person is


used in referring to the first or second person (cf. 143 a) thus evprj(TT (r<as avrovs Ty/AaprryKOTas you will find that you have made a
:

mistake Xn. Hell.

NOTE

1, 7, 19.

The

plurals of the reflexive pronouns sometimes have


a reciprocal (
142) pronoun: thus fj/jilv avrots
8iaAeo/x0a we shall converse with one another (lit. with ourselves)
2.

the force of

[Dem.]

470

48, 6.

a.

In

Homer

the personal pronouns alone are sometimes used

reflexively ; more often the reflexive meaning is made clearer by the addition of aur6s in agreement with the pronoun: thus ty&v /*
Xvcro/j-ai I
will

ransom myself K
to battle T 171.

himself

378.

5'

avrbv

tirorpvvei /ix&racr0cu

he rouses

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN


The personal pronoun

472.

of the third person (01), ot,


an indirect reflexive

in Attic always used as

is

etc.)

245

ai/ro?

471); rarely the personal pronouns of the first and


second persons are so used thus Xe-yerat 'A7rd\\(ov etcSel(

pai M.ap(rvdv vl/crjads epi&vrd ol irepl ffO<f>tafi Apollo is said


to have flayed Marsyas when he had outdone him in a con-

with himself in skill

test

I seem
473.

to

The use

Xn. A.

1, 2, 8.

So in the phrase

myself.

of the reflexive

pronouns may be made

more emphatic by adding ai/ro'? ( 475, 2) in agreement


with the subject thus avrol ev avrols a-racrid^ovTes being
at variance among themselves Xn. Hell. 1, 5, 9 (cf. the
:

similar use of ipse

se in

Latin).

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN


474.

The pronoun

Agreement.

auro?

ai/ro?
is

used both sub-

When used as an adjective it


stantively and adjectively.
follows the rules of agreement for adjectives (
420) ;
when used
475, 3)

pronouns
475.

as a personal
it

462).

1.

As an

adjective in the attributive (

means same : thus

43) the same things


472

it

There are three different uses of

Uses of O/UTOS.

auro? as follows

auro?

a.

pronoun of the third person

follows the rules for agreement of such

Homer

uses

e'o,

o?,

avrbs

avrip the

451) position
same man, ravrd

(sc.

etc., also as

a direct reflexive

regularly has written accent ( 139, 2).


475, 1 a. In Homer aur6s without the article

thus avrrjv 6S6v the same road

263.

when

may mean

the

so used

same

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

246
2.

As an

without the
self,

etc.)

adjective in the predicate position (


article, ai/ro?

thus avrbs

self (myself, yourself, him6 avijp or o avrjp auro? the man

himself, av avros you yourself,

NOTE.

etc.

the nominative case (less often in the

in

Frequently

453), or

means

other cases) the substantive is to be supplied from the context, so


that avros appears to stand alone meaning self, avros re /cat ot <rot

and your ancestors PI.


from the context) pity me myself

yovoi (you) yourself


(sc. C/AC

es Eu^Sotav Sta/^aVre?

avrot

Ktcravres

Euboea and

from

TTJV

(j>7)

503.

e.

avrov

eAe

KOL 'A&rjvaux 7raA.iv


'Eorrtaia? 8e eoi-

KaTCcrrpe'^avro Tracrav
Ae Athenians again crossed over into
.

yfjv Icr^ov

entirely subdued

it

their homes, took possession

avros

50

Crit.

he himself

(i.e.

of

and, after driving the Histiaeans


land themselves Th. 1, 114. So

their

the master) said

it.

3.
In cases other than the nominative, avrfa may be
used substantively as a personal pronoun of the third perIn Attic this is the reguson ( 468) him, her, it, them.
lar usage
thus avrov a-arpaTrrjv CTTOLrjae he made him
ovSev rj^Oero avr&v TroKepovvrtov
satrap Xn. A. 1, 1, 2.
he was not at all disturbed because they were fighting.
Xn.
A. 1, 1, 8.
:

IDIOMATIC USES OF
NOTE

With an

ordinal numeral avros is best translated with


Scicaro? avros he ivas
(n
1) others: thus ypfOrj 7rpeo-/?evr>)s
chosen ambassador with nine others (lit. he himself the tenth} Xn. Hell. 2,
1.

2,17.

NOTE

Combined with a substantive in the dative case ( 392,


best translated and all: thus rerrapas vavs t\.a(3ov avrots
they took four ships, crews and all (lit. with the men themselves)

2.

note) O.VTOS

avopdai
Xen. Hell.

is

1, 2, 12.

475, 3 a. In Homer avr6s seldom does duty as a personal pronoun, but


usually intensive (sometimes only by contrast) thus a v r o s 5 eXwpta
reuxe Kvvevnv and made themselves (i.e. their bodies, in contrast with
is

their souls) a prey for dogs

4.

i>

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

247

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
476.

Agreement.

modifies, but its

it

pronoun is an adjecand
number,
case, with the word
stem conforms to the person and numpossessive

agreeing in gender,

tive,

ber of

antecedent.

Thus, in 6 e/>to9 Trarr^p my father,


with
e/Lwfe agrees
Trarrfp in gender, number, and case, but
its stem e/xo- corresponds with that of the
pronoun of the
first

its

person singular.

477.

found
97/*ft>z>,

An

equivalent of the possessive pronoun often


the genitive of the personal pronouns pov, crov,
V/JLCOV (and for the third person avrov, aim}?, avrcov,
is

468), always in the predicate position (


6 Trarrfp

pov my father,

457, 1): thus


6 aSe\-

aSeX$o? avrov his brother,

0o? avTfjs her brother.


NOTE.
Since a possessive pronoun is equivalent to a genitive case,
a word in the genitive may stand in apposition ( 317) to a possessive
pronoun: thus 8a>)p avr e/xos covce KvvwTriSos my brother by marriage
of shameless me

ivashealso

oXovrofor by

their

180.

avrwv yap a<f>Tpr)<Tiv aracrOa420, note).


they perished a 7 (cf.

own perversity

478. The possessive pronouns (except o? and


which are always reflexive) may or may not refer to the
of the sentence
usually in referring to the
subject the genitive of the reflexive pronouns (e/iafToO,
o-eavrov, eavrov, etc.), in the attributive ( 457, 2) posi-

subject

This is the regular prose usage with the


tion, is used.
third person singular, since o? is poetic only
thus K.\eap:

477
,

478

In Ionic

eu

a.

In

Homer

and a-^^v may be used where Attic would use


468).
5s (e6s)

usually refers to the subject, hut sometimes

more prominent word in the sentence (cf. 470) as y6ov"EKTopa y


otKi}} they mourned for Hector in his own house Z 500.

to a
tvl

a.

or afiruv (cf.

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

248
^o? rou?
force his

avrov o-r/)cma>Ta? e/3taero levai Clear chus


own soldiers to proceed Xn. A. 1, 3, 1.

tried to

possessive pronoun is sometimes made clearly


reflexive by the addition of auro? in the genitive case
477 note); in the singular this usage is poetic only,
(cf.
479.

but in the plural it is very common: thus epbv avrov


my own need B 45. kov avrov %/oeto? his own need

%/oeto?

a 409.
416.

Th.

avrov to your own (friends) S. 0. R.


/-teredo a? avr&v far from our own (land)

rot? aolcriv

curb TT)?

77

6, 21.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
480.

Agreement.
used both adjectively

and substantively,

420),

as ouro? this

rdSe these (things) (cf.


481.

The demonstrative pronouns


as ot>ro? o

(maw),

avjp

Ifcehny that

this

are

man,

(woman),

459).

Of the demonstrative pronouns

the most general in meaning, and

ouro? this, that,

is

most frequently used.


v
OSe this (here) refers to something near the speaker
thus
eVe^o? that (over there) refers to something remote
OUTO? 7* 'Ar/oetS?;? this man (of whom you ask) is Atreus"
is

son
wife
that

r/

178.

(woman here) is Hector's


ISoiaro if they should see
is now far away) a 163.

E/cro/3o? r)8e yvvrj this

Z 460. el icelvov
man (i.e. Odysseus, who
.

For the predicate position of demonstrative pronouns


see

456.

482. Generally in referring backward (to something


previously mentioned) ouro? (less often e/celvos) is used,
while in referring forward (to something about to be

mentioned)

oSe

(sometimes ouro?)

is

employed

as

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
TOVTOV

249

ro'8e a

proof of that (which I have said)


going to state) Xn. A. 1,9, 29.
So also TOioOro?, TOCTOUTO?, usually refer back, while
rotocrSe and roa-dcr&e usually refer forward.

piov Be

is also this

/cal

(which

am now

The demonstrative

NOTE.

oSe

or even a personal, pronoun of the

common

thus

in tragedy:

is

often equivalent to a possessive,


person this use is especially

first

cr/o/TTTpo) TVTTCIS

e/c

r^crSe ^eipos struck by

w^

hand (of mine) S. 0. R. 811.


evOelaa Se Trap
wedded with this man (i.e. with me) E. Med. 1337.
Here am /, Sir Hdt. 1, 115.

the staff held in this

avSpl

oSe

ruSe

but

roc Trapeijiu

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

A relative pronoun agrees with its


483. Agreement.
antecedent ( 460) in gender and number, but its case
depends on the construction of the clause in which it
stands
a

as avrjp o ? rfkdev a

man whom we
484.

man who

came, avrjp o v eiSofiev

relative

pronoun

saw.

Attraction.

1.

is

often at-

tracted ( 316) into the case of its antecedent, especially


from the accusative into the genitive or dative
thus
:

a^ioi

r%

A. 1, 7, 3.
we intend

worthy of the freedom


not attracted, would be jjv) Xn.
fjye/JLovi TTMTTevaofjiev co av KO/oo? SiSq) if

e\ev9ep(a$

which you possess


el T<p

to

r/?

/ceKTrjo-Qe

(77?, if

trust the guide that

Cyrus gives

(<w,

if

not

would be 6V) Xn. A. 1, 3, 16.


2.
Much more rarely the antecedent is attracted into
the case of the relative: as Trdvrcov wv Seovrai, Treirpaattracted,

70T69 having accomplished everything that

they need (for

Trdvra wv) Xn. Hell. 1, 4, 2 (cf. in Latin


statuo vestra est Verg. Aen. 1, 573).
485. " Incorporation. n
The antecedent

urbem quam
is

often

made

a part of the relative clause (usually only when the antecedent is indefinite). Both relative and antecedent then

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

250
stand

the same case:

in

thus

afti/cel

ovs

^cotcpdrr)?

#eot>? ov vofjLifav Socrates commits an offense


in not believing in the gods which (or what gods) the State
fj

Tro'Xt? vo/jLi^ei

believes in

Xn. Mem.

1,

1, 1.

ew

Be

yv

afyticovTO /ccbfjirjv

jjLeydXr) rjv the village at which they arrived was large (i.e.
el Se nva opwr]
Karaet? TIV) Xn. A. 4, 4, 2.
j] KCD/JLTJ
.

X^pas if he saw anyone improving the


he
484, 2) Xn. A. 1,
governed (i.e. rrjv x^P av fa
country
ejroiei
/cal
/carear
19.
TOUTOU?
77?
9,
apxovras
pefaro ^o/?a?

cricevd^ovTa 77? apX OL

made

these he

rulers of the territory he subdued (i.e.


484, 1) Xn. A. 1, 9, 14.
eVopeuero crvv y

r\v,

Svvdpei,

he proceeded with what force he


484, 1) Xn. Hell. 4, 1, 23.

had

(i.e.

r?}?
elp^e

<rw

rfj

fa

Observe that attraction into the genitive or into the


484) usually takes place if either antecedent or
Cf. in English
relative would stand in one of those cases.
" he
to
he
could."
what
gave
persons
dative (

NOTE
who

1.

Here belongs the phrase ovSets o<ms ov (lit. nobody


every one, in which ouSei's is regularly attracted to

not=)

the case of the relative (ovSevos orov ov, ouSevt 6Va> ov, etc.) thus
KAatan/ Kat dyavaKrwv ovSeva. OVTIVO, ov KaT/cAao" by his weeping
and wailing he broke down the fortitude of everybody PL Phaed. 117 d.
:

So similarly
etc.

$aiyx,ao-To?

(adverbially

6Vos

lit.

OavfjLaa-Td<s cos)

wonderful how much, Oav/Jiaarov oaov,


as /xera tSpwros Oav/jutarov oaov with

a wonderful amount of sweat ( = 0avyu,ao~r6V ecrrt //.e^' ocrou) PL Hep. 350 d.


This attraction is sometimes (rarely) found with other adjectives.
A peculiar attraction and condensation commonly takes
NOTE 2.
place with otos, oo-os, ocmo-ovv, and a few other relatives, by which
both the relative and a following nominative are attracted to the case
of the antecedent: thus x P L ^lJLevov
L

man

like

^<

"

ot

dv8pt doing favor to a


el) Xn. Mem. 2,

you (the full form would be roiouYo) olos av

and his wife they


9, 3.
rrjv Se ywatKa evpov ocrrjv T' opeo? Kopvcfrrjv
found as huge as a mountain peak K 113. Sometimes even with the
So often
article
rots otots rj/juv to such as we are Xn. Hell. 2, 3, 25.
:

with superlatives (see

428).

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

251

An antecedent denotAntecedent not Expressed.


of
idea
or
the
persons
things is seldom exing
general
and
its
since
case are usually
gender, number,
pressed,
486.

made

KOI wv eyco
by the context thus eya) Be
but
I
and
those
(nom. plur. masc.) whom
Kparco iJLevovfjiev
I command will remain Xn. Cy. 5, 1, 26. cnwy&v i^ev ij
eri/crev hating her (ace. sing, fern.) ivho lore me E. Ale.
el&evai rrjv Svva/jLiv efi ou? av IQHTIV to know the
338.
clear

fj,'

strength of those (gen. plur. masc.) against

going Xn. A.

8.

5, 1,

aov

Beirai

rij/jiepov

whom

they are
TOVTOV e/CTrielv

ot? fjidXia-ra (f)i\ei<; he desires you to drink this up


to-day in company with those (dat. plur. masc.) whom you
most love ( 484, 1) Xn. A. 1, 9, 25.
So with relative
crvv

adverbs

da)

evda

V/JLCIS

TO jrpdyfjLa eyevero

I will

you to the place where the affair occurred Xn. Cy.


Cf. in English "he gave to ivhom he could."
Here belong the phrases
NOTE.
some one who (i.e. somebody), eiVti/ ot
.

<TTLV CHTTIS
.

(or os)

.4.

1,

8,

are those ivho) say Hdt.

20.

3, 45.

there

ols.

guard Xn.

his

is

there are those luho (i.e. some),

but in other cases in the plural regularly co-rtv toy, IOTIV


thus
<TTI 8" OCTTIS KaT\Tr]<f>6i] and one man was

ou's

conduct
5, 4, 21.

etcrt Se ot A.e'yovo-1

and some

KOLI 'Axcttoii/
-rrXrjv 'loiji/an/

ctrrtv

taken off
(lit. there

Kat ecrrtv

wv

and Achaeans and some other nations Th.


3, 92.
Rarely rfv (rjcrav) is found rjv 8e rovrtov TOJI/ trraO^v ows Traw
fjMKpovs rjXavvev some of these days' marches he made very long Xn. A.
So also with relative adverbs CCTTIV ov (or OTTOV)
1, 5, 7.
(lit.

aAAwv iQvwv

except the lonians

there is ivhere) somewhere* ecrriv OTTWS (lit. there is

ore

(lit.

487.

there

is

when) sometimes,

how) somehow,

ecrrtv

etc.

Relative not Repeated.

In a compound

312)

relative sentence the relative

dom

(pronoun or adverb) is sel312, 1) with the succeeding verbs

repeated (cf.
thus 'A/oiato? 8e, 6 v ^et? rfld\OfJtV jSacriKed KaOiardvai, teal
e$a)Ka/JLev teal e\d/3ofjiev TTicrrd but Ariaeus, whom we wished
to make king and to whom we gave and from whom we
:

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS

252

received pledges Xn. A. 3, 2, 5.


eiTrev on ovbev avra
GTreiBrj TroAAou? ^ev 'AOrjvaicov elBeir) rou? ra 6/jiOia
irpciTTOVTas avrw, BOKOVVTO, Be AvcrdvBpq) /cal A-a/ceBai/JLoviois
.

\joi, he said that he didn't care

.,

since he

knew of many

Athenians who were acting in concert with him and since


what he proposed was agreeable to Lysander and the Spartans Lys. 12, 74.
NOTE.

A preposition belonging with

Preposition not Repeated.

both antecedent and following relative

is

seldom repeated with the

relative.

Use

488.

The

of Relatives.

indefinite relatives (ocrrt?

etc.) are regularly used when the anteceindefinite, but the simple relatives (09, 00-09, etc.)

oTTo'o-09, 0770609,

dent

is

not infrequently refer to an indefinite antecedent; as a


fjLrj

olBa ovBe

oio/juai

even think that

NOTE.

elBevai

I know

PI.

whatever)
Ap. 21 d.

Relatives in Exclamations.

I don't

know

Relatives (otos,

oo-os,

don't

ok) are

sometimes used in exclamations as cJ TrctTTTre, o<ra Trpay/xara Xs how


much trouble you have, grandpa ! (lit. so much trouble as you have !
cf.
485) Xn. Cy. 1, 3, 4. cos KaXd? fjioc o vraTTTros how handsome
:

grandpa

is !

Xn. Cy.

1, 3, 2.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
489. Agreement.
The interrogative pronouns are used
both substantively and adjectively (see 462) as ri 9 who?
avrjp what man?
:

490. Use.
The interrogatives (pronouns and adverbs,
151) are used both in direct and in indirect questions, but
in indirect questions the indefinite relatives (
are commonly preferred
as /3ov\eveo-0ai o rt
:

to

consider what must be done

Xn. A.

1, 3,

11.

150-151)

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

253

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

The

indefinite pronoun
and
adjectively (see
stantively
491.

used both sub-

rt?, rt, is

462) as rfkOe rt? some-

(Observe that
body came, avijp rt? rj\0 some man came.
does not stand at the beginning of a sentence.)

it

NOTE

The

1.

indefinite TIS

is

often best rendered

sometimes
erepos TIS Swacr-nys another nobleman;
by "a sort of" or "something like": as TJ ypa(j>rj
.

a,

an'

as

can be rendered

it

roiaSe

by

ns

rjv

the

indictment was something like this Xn. Mem. 1, 1, 1.


TpiaKOj/Ta rives
somewhere about thirty. So TI with adverbs o-^eSov TL pretty nearly.
NOTE 2. Sometimes TIS meaning anybody implies everybody: as
:

(.v

fMtv TL<S

Sopu Orjd(r6a)

but usually this meaning

let
is

every one sharpen well his spear B 382;


Tras TIS or eKcurros TL<S.

expressed by

THE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

AND

aXXo?

ere/30?

492. a\Ao? other (of several), and ere/so? other (of two),
are sometimes loosely used, one of them being employed
when we might properly expect the other.

IDIOMATIC USES OF aXXo5 AND


NOTE

ere/305

By a peculiar idiom in Greek aAAos other, rest, often preas TO. re a A A. a ert/A^o-e KCU
cedes that with which it is contrasted
darics and honored me
thousand
me
ten
he
tScoKe
gave
SapeiKous
fivpiovs
1.

in other

ways Xn.

NOTE
trast

besides: as ou
grass,

A.. 1, 3, 3.

Not infrequently aXAos or crepes expresses merely a conwithout being strictly logical, and so can be best rendered by
2.

and

NOTE

yap

rjv

xP T

v8e

not even a tree besides

3.

aAAos

aAAo

(lit.

o^Sei/

aAAo? (also erepos

SevSpov /or <Aere was no

no grass or other
.

another (but this is usually expressed by


/xei/
another
another
In saying one
one
.

Xn. A. 1,
means one

tree)

erepos

o 8e,

5, 5.

443, 1).
the second half

of the expression, being but a repetition of the first half, is left unsaid,
and aXAo? with itself in a different case (or an adverb from its stem)
thus aAAos aAXa Ae'yet one
is sufficient (cf. Latin nliws
aliud)
.

says one thing, another

(*?/.<? )

another

Xn. A.

2, 1, 15.

SYNTAX OF THE VERB

254

SYNTAX OF THE VERB


A

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.

493.

transitive

verb can take an object in the accusative case ( 329) ; an


intransitive verb cannot.
Thus, fypdcfxt) (eTrto-roX^) I write
letter) is transitive

(a

In Greek

1.

as intransitive

NOTE.

icaOev&a)

I sleep

In

many

of these verbs an object

eXawo) (lirirov) drive (a horse), reXevroi (TOV


die ; but this is not the case with all.

Some

2.

intransitive verbs

preposition become

thus

ftaiva)

is

intransitive.

e%&> hold, also hold one's self, be.

march;

also

transitive verbs are used absolutely


thus XetVo) leave, also fail; e\avvco drive,

many

go (intransitive)

is

easily supplied

iW) finish

thus

(one's life),

i.e.

when compounded with


345 and cf

transitive (see
;

ft

324, 2)

a
:

but Sia-Paiva) cross (transi-

tive), 7rapa-@aiva) transgress (transitive).

In a few verbs
same time ( 162, 1) both the first and
the second aorist (active and middle), or the first and the
second perfect, the first tenses are transitive, and the second intransitive (cf. 207, note 3). The most important
Transitive and Intransitive Tenses

494.

which have

at the

of these are the following (the others are given in the list
of verbs,
729) :

PRESENT

1.

/?cuVa>

IST AORIST

go

Suw enter
cause

to

stand

2d AORIST

c/^o-a caused to go
e&vaa caused to enter

ISuv entered

Itm/tra caused

tcrryv stood

to

stand,

e/fyv went

erected

put

out, ex-

co-/?e<ra

put out

t<rj3r)v

went out

tinguish

<uu) produce

(cf.

212)

Z<f>vo-a

The future

NOTE.
:

as /Srjoxo

produced

tyvv grew

active follows the first aorist in being transitive


shall cause to go, <vo-o> shall produce.

AGREEMENT OF VERBS
2.

PRESENT

3.

perfect

thus

2D PERFECT
oAwAa am ruined

have destroyed
have persuaded

persuade

On

PERFECT

IST

destroy
TTf-iOa)

255

7T7roi0a trust

the same principle, in some transitive verbs the


(usually the second perfect) is intransitive;

PRESENT
ayvu/xi break
TTTJyWfJiL fix

d>aiV(o

show

2o PERFECT

PRESENT

eaya am broken
TreVryya am fixed
7T<f>r)va

cause

IST

PERFECT

e<m)Ka stand

to

stand

have ap-

a)

7re<v/ca

produce

am

by

nature

peared

AGREEMENT OF VERBS
495.

finite

verb

person and number

159) agrees with its subject in


(
thus (^/zefc) rj\9ofjiev we came, K0/oo<?

Cyrus marches,
dead Xn. A. 4, 1, 19.
ei;e\avvei

NOTE.
first

uo avSpe reOvarov two

Plural for Singular.

person plural (modestly)

is

men

are

In Greek, as in other languages, the


sometimes used for the singular

"
(sometimes called in English the editorial we ")

6dvo), Oavov[jL.Oa unjustly shall I die if I


E. Tro. 904.

am

(lit.

as ov SIKCUWS, yjv
to death

we are) put

496. Agreement with Two or More Subjects.


Two or
more subjects taken together, of course, count as a plural
thus
(or dual) and so may take a plural (or dual) verb
a jTo\e\oi jrd(Tiv ?5//.a? Bezua? /cal TIdcrLcov Xenias and
Pasion have abandoned us Xn. A. 1, 4, 8.
r;%t /Soa?
:

Si/^oet? o-v/jL/SaXXerov

r)$e

'ZfcdfjiavSpos where Simois

and Scamander join their streams E 774.


1.
But with two or more subjects the verb often agrees
with
the nearer or more important
thus /Sao-tXeu?
only
/cal ol avv avrw elcnrtTTTei et? TO
(rrparoTreBov the king and
his followers forced their way into the
camp Xn. A. 1, 10, 1.
:

SYNTAX OF THE VERB

256

497. Subjects of Different Persons.


When the subjects
are of different persons the verb is of the first person if
possible, otherwise of the second: i.e.

you and

I (or

we)

he (or they) and I (or we)


you and he (or they) and I
(or

I,

you and he (or they)

you

we)

KOI

as,

70), e<?;, teal o~v

7ro\\a

said he, have said a good deal

Both you and

eijrofjiev

Xn.

Hell.

2, 3, 15.

PECULIARITIES IN AGREEMENT

498. Neuter Plural Subject.


neuter plural subject
thus TOV S' OUTTOTC Kv^ara
regularly has a singular verb
/ca\a fjv TO,
this the waves never leave B 396.
:

the sacrifices were favorable

Xn. A.

4, 3, 19.

A neuter plural

NOTE.

subject denoting persons, or used distributake a plural verb: thus roo-aSe /xev /xera 'AdqvaiW IQvt)
ea-Tpdrevov so many nations were active on the Athenian side Tli. 7, 57

may

tively,

J/crav Tcurra Svo rf.i\r] these were two walls

Xn. A.

1, 4, 4.

499. Dual and Plural.


subject in the dual often
takes a verb in the plural
less often a subject in the
thus
plural, suggesting a dual, takes a verb in the dual
;

TO)

275.

iyyvQev rj\6ov and soon

rax
at

ol

ITTTTOI

steeds ran apart along the

a/-t<l?

way

the tivo

came near

6Bov Spa/Jierrjv
M* 392.

and

his

NOTE.
Not infrequently dual and plural verbs are found in the
same sentence thus iKeo-Orjv, TOV 8' rjvpov they came, and found him
:

1185.
500.

Collectives.

multitude,

77/109

Words

like Tra? everybody, TrXijOo^ a

arparo^ army, etc. (collective


used to denote persons usually take a

people,

321), when
plural verb (cf.
315): thus

nouns,

a>?

(frdaav

77

TrXrjOvs thus

VOICE
spoke the multitude
the rest of the

278.

257

o a'XXo?

army began

to

arparo^ aTreftaivov

disembark Th.

4, 32.

The verb
Agreement with Predicate Substantive.
with
the
substantive
when the
sometimes agrees
predicate
latter is more prominent than the subject (cf.
316)
thus ajrav Se TO pecov rwv Ti%a)v rjcrav ardSioi rpefc the
entire distance between the walls was three stades Xn. A. 1,
501.

4,4.

VOICE
502.

The Greek verb has

three voices (

158): active,

middle, and passive.

THE ACTIVE VOICE


503.

The

or being

NOTE.
means to

active voice represents the subject as acting

thus Xeyo) say,

7rda-%a) experience, eZ/u go, elfit be.

The context may sometimes show


cause a thing to be done (by others)

Aa/x/?avei Kvpov Artaxerxes caused Cyrus

So often
cause

a,7TOKTeiVa> kill

to be built,

or cause

and many

to

to be

that the active voice


:

as

'Apra^ep^s crvAXn. A. 1, 1, 3.

arrested

be put to death, afoo&optt

build or

others.

THE MIDDLE VOICE


504. The middle voice represents the subject as interIt has a variety of meanested in the action of the verb.
off
into
one
shade
which
another, and may indicate
ings
within his own means or
acts
with
or
that the subject

powers, or for himself, or (less often) upon himself

thus

In Homer (and sometimes in other poets) some verbs are used


middle voice (implying an interest on the part of the subject) which
thus dKotero he heard (Attic
in Attic are regularly used only in the active
504 a.

in the

he said (Attic e0??), Idfodau to see (Attic


17
BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

7?/cove), <t>dro

t'5etV).

THE VERB

258

VOICE

\ovofjLai TOW? Tro'Sa? wash (one's own) feet, Tra/oe^o //.at furnish (from one's own resources), Xvo/zat (rti>a) loose for

Ovyarpa he came to
ransom his daughter A 13), TrepiriOefJiaL put on (one's self),
ayopai yvvalfca marry (i.e. lead to one's own house) a wife,
ones

self,

ransom (as

rj\0e XOo-o/^e^o?

make anything of much importance


eyes), Xuo/xat loose one's self (as Trpwros VTT
eraijpou? first I loosed myself
apveiov \v6/jLrjv, vireXvcra
then
and
I freed my companions
beneath
the
ram,
from
Trepl

TToXXoO

(in one's

Troiov/JLai TI

own

'

463),

TpeTrofjLai

turn one's

cease, TreiOopai (lit.

persuade

self, iravo^ai stop one's self,


one's self) believe, obey.

505. The middle voice often means to get a thing done


either to one's self or to another person or thing (cf
503
thus
rov
vlov
BiSdafcofjiaL get taught, St8acr/co//,at
note)
.

get one's son taught,


the ships

aTroypd^opai

ra? vavs have a

list

of

made.

NOTE.

From

this use of the

use of the middle as passive

middle

it is

but a slight step to the

514).

Active and Middle differently Translated.


The
and the middle voices of the following verbs
usually must be differently rendered in English (other
similar verbs may be found, and they are to be explained
506.

active

in similar

manner)

cupoi take
a7ro8i'Sw/ju give

back

cupov/xcu choose (take for one's self)


a7ro8t8o/xat sell (give for value re-

ceived)
)

fasten
vw take counsel

marry (of the man)


write or propose a law

aTrro/jiai

touch

/?ouA.evo/xai consider one's

ya^ovfiai marry (of the


ypd<j>ofjL<u indict (i.e.

have the suit


'

a loan

own plan

woman)

entered in writing)
Savet^o/xat borrow (i.e. have a loan

made

to one's self)

THE PASSIVE VOICE


ao> judge
J

259
to

SiKao/xai go

law

txo/xat (w. gen.) hold


close to

hold

va) sacrifice

to,

and so

Ovofjuu sacrifice (for omens)


hire (i.e. have let

let

fjnaOovfiaL

be

to

one's self)
be a citizen

be

an ambassador

vofjiov establish

Tt'077/xt

TroAtrevo/xat
citizen

a law (for

Trpco-^evo/xat negotiate
Ti'0e/xai vo/xov

enacf a /aw

(i.e.

of the

State, for itself)

others to obey)
(j>v\a.TTa)

perform one's duty as a

(w. ace.) watch, guard

</>vAaTTo/xai (w. ace.) be on

guard

against

507.

On

Middle Form in Future only.

account of the

greater natural interest in future events, many active verbs


regularly use the middle voice in the future tense thus
:

a/covco hear,

future

a^oucro/Ltat, aorist ijtcovo-a, etc.,

miss, future a^apr^a-o^ai, aorist TJfjLaprov, etc.

a^aprdvw
504 a).
(cf.

Deponent Verbs.
Deponent verbs ( 158, 3) show
the various uses of the middle voice, and differ from other
verbs only in having no active forms
thus
508.

(hold one's self under) obligate one's self, promise,


receive (for one's self), alaOdvofMai perceive (with one's

own

senses), etc.

THE PASSIVE VOICE


The passive voice represents the subject as acted
thus e\vOr)v was loosed, or was ransomed.
Observe that the passive voice is the passive of the

509.

upon
1.

middle as well as of the active, and the context must


determine which voice it represents
thus the passive
form e\v0rjv may need to be translated ( 506) was loosed
(Xvco) or was ransomed (Xvo/iat), rjpeOrjv was taken
:

THE VERB

260

VOICE

or was chosen (alpovnai), eypd<f)rjv was written (ypd<f>(o) or


510
was indicted ("/pd^opai), and so in other tenses (see

note).

From the preceding


Passive of Deponent Verbs.
follows that deponent verbs ( 508) may have a
thus rotavra avrols
elp^aarai such things
passive
510.

section

it
:

have been done by them (/oyabfuu do) Lys. 12, 1. etc o-ov
fBid^ovrai rdSe this is done with violence ~by you (/3id%ojjiai
act with violence) S. Ant. 1073.
ecovrjOrj was
bought
buy) Xn. Mem.

2,

7,

12.

The passive meaning usually can be determined only by


NOTE.
the context, since there can be no difference of form except in the
aorist and future of middle deponents ( 158, 3).
511.

The
Object of Active Becomes Subject of Passive.
the verb in the active (or middle) regularly

object of

becomes the subject when the verb is changed to the passive form (but see
515, 3): thus erd^Orjcrav ol E\\r)ve<;
the Greeks were drawn up (active erafe row^EXX?; vas).
tf

512. Cognate Accusative Retained with Passive.


cognate accusative ( 331) or an accusative of the part affected
(

335) used with the active

same case

in the passive

form

is
;

regularly retained in the


340, 1 (cf. in Latin

see

rogatus est sententiam): thus ypafals rov aywva TOVTOV


having been indicted in this suit Dem. 18, 103 (cf. MeX^rd?
/ji

eypd^aro

rrjv

dictment against
TOU?

had

ypa^rjv ravTrjv Meletus


me PI. Ap. 19 a), ot re

SaKTvXovs

brought this inVTTO rov -^rv^ov^

T<OV TToSwv a7ro<7ecn77rdTe9

their toes frozen off by the cold

Xn. A.

and

those

who

4, 5, 12.

NOTE.
Sometimes intransitive verbs (such as can take only a cognate accusative) are used in the passive; when so used the cognate
accusative of the active becomes the subject of the passive as 6 KLV:

THE PASSIVE VOICE


KivSvi/evcTcu

money

is

risked

the

Dem.

risk

261

run, TO. x/ai^uara KivSvi/everai the


Often the passive participles of these

is

34, 28.

verbs are found: as


to

submit

to

eis lAey^ov run/ avrois y3e^taj/x,vwi/ Karatrr^vai


an examination of their past lives Lys. 16, 1.

The passive
the
active
voice
of
a different
supplied by
verb
thus
(intransitive)
513.

of

Active Forms with Passive Force.

some verbs

is

&7roOvrj<TK(i) (die) be killed

a7roKTtVo> kill
ev TTOUO benefit
ev (or KaKcos) A.eya> speak well

(or z7Z) of
K/3aAAa> casf ow
Sico/ceo

pursue, prosecute

cv Traa^w be benefited
ev (or KCIKWS) d/covw (poetic K\VW)
be well (or ^7) spoken of
eKTriTTTO) 6e cas owf or banished

^>evyw

(lit. ./fee)

&e prosecuted (a

escape, be acquitted)
1.

So also intransitive second

494, 1) are often

aorists (

equivalent to the passive of the corresponding (transitive)


eo-<ra\wv having been
first aorists; as avavTavres VTTO

forced

to

migrate by the Thessalians Th.

1, 12.

Greek originally had no


Origin of the Passive.
in
and
most
tenses
the middle voice served
voice,
passive
In the aorist an
also to express the passive meaning.
514.

494, 1,
originally intransitive form (cf
some verbs came to be felt as a passive,
.

and
513, 1) of
and by analogy

The future
passive were formed later.
formed
from the
the
middle
was
passive (with
endings)
suffix
aorist passive by adding the regular future
(-cr:):
other

thus

aorists

<f)aiva)

show,

shown, future

ecfrrjva

showed, e^dvr^v appeared,


appear or be shown.

i.e.

was

c^a^TJo-o/xat shall

514 will serve to explain the


515. The statement of
following facts
1.
The future (rarely the aorist) middle is often used
with a passive meaning thus a^rj you shall be led Aesch.
:

THE VERB

262
Ag. 1632, f)
guarded Xn.

777

...

VOICE
land will be well

ev c^uXaferat the

See

519, note 2.
2.
Many (intransitive) verbs which are regularly followed by the genitive ( 356) or the dative ( 376) may
Oec. 4, 9.

In such case the genitive


be used in the passive voice.
or dative used with the active voice is represented by
the nominative as subject in the corresponding passive
thus OVKCTI a7rei\ovfjLai aXA,' ijBrj aireCkS)
construction
:

aXXot?

I am

no longer threatened, but now

(active a7mX&> TLVL) Xn. Symp.

4, 31.

re Kal

govern and

ap^eadai

they learn

to

threaten others

fjiavOdvovcnv ap%eiv
to be governed

(active

NOTE.

cognate accusative used with the active is retained


512) thus Trpos vov TO. SetV
threatened by you with those dread threats (active eT

in the passive construction (see

rij/t) S.

Ant. 408.

3.
Finally, even an accusative of the direct object is
sometimes retained in the same case in the passive con-

struction, while a genitive or dative denoting a person


becomes the subject of the passive verb thus ol eVn-eintrusted with the guard
rpafJL/jievoi, rrjv <j>v\aKr)V those
:

(active eTriTpeTrco rrjv ^>v\atcijv TLVL) Th. 1, 126. aTrer/JujOrjaav ra? fcecfraXas they were beheaded Xn. Cy. 8, 8, 3

rov a&e\<f>ov a7reVe/xe

(cf.

K(j)a\r)V Xn.

rrjv

A.. 3, 1,

IT).

of course the accusative may become the subject


512), while the genitive or dative remains in the same
case
as aTravrwv 0avaros KarcytyvwcrKero the sentence of death was
passed on all Lys. 13, 38. e^uoi
(TKrjTTTpov KOLL 8 v vaults Tracra

NOTE.

But

(according to
|

17

UoXuKpareos
515, 1 a.

eTrtrerpaTrrat to

me

Polycrates' scepter

In Homer, the future middle

is

and power

entire

(almost) always used also as

passive, and the aorist middle not infrequently has the passive meaning
as Trap' 8,/j.fjLi 0iX ^<reai with us you shall be welcomed a 123.
e/3\7;To was
:

hit

753.

USE OF THE TENSES


has been intrusted Hdt.
to

3,

263

142 (cf in English " the duty was intrusted


.

him" and "he was intrusted with the duty").

The Agent with

passive verbs is reguthe


genitive ( 372) with VTTO under,
larly expressed by
by ( 417, 1), sometimes with Trpo? ( 414, 1) or Trapd
411, 1) at the hands of, more rarely with e'/e ( 407) or
(
516.

aTro

Agent.

(403) /row.

Often with the perfect or pluperfect passive, and


666), the agent is
regularly with the verbal in -reo? (
1.

With the verbal in


380).
expressed by the dative (
found (see
of
sometimes
the
accusative
is
also
-reo9,
agent
666, note).

USE OF THE TENSES


The Primary
517. Primary and Secondary Tenses.
Tenses are the Present, the Perfect, the Future, and the
Future Perfect.
The Secondary Tenses are the Imperfect, the Aorist, and
the Pluperfect.
1.
The Historical Present ( 525) counts as a secondary
tense, and the Gnomic Aorist ( 530) as a primary tense.

The imperfect
time

indicative with

av,

referring to present

565), counts as a primary tense.

The

optative, and imperative modes


554; 557; 560) in their independent uses normally
(
look toward the future and so have in all tenses the value
2.

subjunctive,

of a primary tense.
516 a. In Homer and sometimes in other poets (veiy rarely in prose
with names of persons) the agent may be expressed by the dative with vir6
as'Axcuol
(t>6pr)dev v(f>' "EKTopi the Achaeans were put to flight by
Hector
637.
:

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE

264
518.

Special Meanings of Tenses from the Context.


a special meaning to a
Thus, the present or imperfect may be used to

The context may sometimes add


tense.

describe an action merely attempted (

523 527), the


present may be used in describing an action which is to
be completed in the future ( 524), and the aorist may
;

sometimes express a general truth (Gnomic aorist, 530).


1.
A tense may refer
Imaginative Use of the Tenses.
to a time other than that which it denotes, if the speaker's
so
(or writer's) imagination carries him into that time
the present tense may be used in describing events actually
past ( 525), and the aorist or the perfect may be used in
531
describing events which have not yet taken place (
;

537).

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE


519.

In independent clauses the tenses of the indicative

in dependent clauses they express


express time absolutely
time relatively to that of the verb on which they depend
;

(cf.

551, 1).

The Greeks, unlike the English and, more particularly,


NOTE 1.
the Romans, were not careful to distinguish with exactness the temporal relations of subordinate clauses (as is done in Latin by the
pluperfect and future perfect), but often employed the same or similar
tenses in both subordinate and principal clauses, leaving the exact
relation of time to be inferred
as tr^eSov

8'

from the context

ore ravra rjv KO! ^Atos

going on the sun wan setting


^yeTro 8' aurals Ta/xws

(i.e.

(cf.

also

676 a)

eSuero about the time that this was


at the same time) Xn. A. 1, 10, 15.

at? eTroXto/o/cet
l^wv vavs erepas
MtAryrov Tamos conducted them, with other ships with which he had been
besieging Miletus (i.e. at a prior time) Xn. A. 1, 4, 2.
This fact will help to explain the frequent use of the aorist where
.

we might expect

the pluperfect

528, 1).

THE PRESENT TENSE

265

SUMMARY
NOTE
time,

The tenses of the indicative from the point of view


and the manner of viewing the action, may be grouped

follows

2.

as

PRESENT

PAST

CONTINUED

Present

Imperfect

COMPLETED AND LASTING


SIMPLY BROUGHT TO PASS

Perfect

Pluperfect
Aorist

'

of

FUTURE
Future (active
and middle)
Future Perfect
Future (passive)

Occasionally the future active shows a distinction between action


as e<o shall hold (cf l^w
continued and action brought to pass
'

'

'

hold), cr^T/oxo shall obtain (cf. Itr^ov obtained,

529).

THE PRESENT TENSE


520.

The present

at the present time


1.

tense represents an action as going on


thus ypd^co I write or I am writing.

So the present often expresses a customary action or

thus ved yap fypovrls ovtc a\yelv


a general truth
heart of youth is free from care E. Med. 48.
:

<pi,\e2

the

The present
Present Denoting a Continued State.
a
denote
continued
state
as
well
a
So
as
may
single act.
the present of some verbs may admit two different Eng521.

lish

translations

thus

ffacriXevco

rule or be

ruler,

vl/ca>

conquer or be victorious, favyo) flee or be in exile, aBitcoj


do wrong or be a wrong-doer, alaOdvo^aL perceive or be
cognizant of.
So
NOTE.
:

rjK(a

am

come, arrive,

and

ot^o/xai

am

gone,

may regularly

be translated as perfects.

522.

Present with Adverbs like irdXai.

like 7rd\ai long ago are

When

adverbs

used with the present tense they

519 a (note 2). Homer occasionally forms a future directly from a


second aorist (reduplicated) stem to emphasize the action as merely
'brought to pass' thus ire-mdriirw I will persuade him (i.e. convince his
mind once for all) X 223.
:

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE

266

mean

continued from the past into the


in Latin iam dudum): as ira\ai crTrevSofjiev

that the action

is

present (cf.
we have long been eager Xn. A.

4, 8, 14.

SPECIAL MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT FROM THE CONTEXT


523.

The context

Attempted Action.

may

518)

imply that the present denotes only an attempted action


Thus, MSwfu give may mean also offer,
527).
may mean try to persuade : as aol S' K^a^efivoyv agio,
8(0 a
Agamemnon offers you worthy gifts I 261,

(cf.

!'

TreiOto

77/^0,9

etc

rrjo-Se rr}?

us out of this country Xn. A.

you are trying

%&y>d?

Present with Future Meaning.

524.

to

drive

7, 7, 7.

It

may

be implied

by the context ( 518) that an action expressed by the


thus el
present tense will be completed in the future
:

avrrj

77

TroXt? \ij(f)6r)o-eTai,

e^erai

fcal

77

Trdcra 2t/ceXta if this

city shall be captured, all Sicily as well is (i.e. is going to

be) in their

put

to

power Th.

91

6,

so airoXXv^ai

I am going to

be

death Lys. 12, 14.

The present indicative of ei)u,i am going (and its compounds) regularly has a future meaning. This meaning extends to
other modes when used to represent the indicative in indirect discourse, and sometimes also to the participle when used to express
NOTE.

purpose

525.

653, 5).

for the

may

again,

moment

and so may use the present tense in describing

events already past (

Tr/9

VVKTOS xia>v

524

a.

525 a.

In vivid narration the speaker


feel that he is living the past over

Historical Present.

518, 1):

7ra/jL7r\Tj6r)s

thus

pao-v/3ov\os

Thrasybulus took

(lit.

takes)

Homer el/u has both the present and the future meaning.
In Epic poetry the historical present is never found.
In

THE IMPERFECT

267

There came (lit. comes)


on during the night a great snowstorm Xn. Hell. 2, 4, 23.
Adpeiov /cal Hapvo-driSos yiyvovrai, TratSe? Bvo of Darius

possession of Phyle, a stronghold.

and Parysatis were

(lit.

are) born two sons

Xn. A.

1, 1, 1.

The historical present is freely interchanged with the past


NOTE.
and should be regularly translated by a past tense in English
as /cat 6 Awaos 77 A. a ere re /cat iSan/ aTrayeAAec anJ Lycius rode (away),
and, when he had seen, reported Xn. A. 1, 10, 15.

tenses,

THE IMPERFECT
The Imperfect

represents an action as going on


thus eypafov I was writing.
1.
Rence the imperfect often expresses a customary
thus eVeiS?) e avo^B^i^ eiafj/Jiev but when
action:
past
was
[the prison]
opened, we used to go in PL Phaed. 59 d.
526.

in past time

SPECIAL MEANINGS OF THE IMPERFECT FROM THE

CONTEXT
The context ( 518) may
Attempted Action.
imply that the imperfect denotes only an attempted action
523) or what was likely to happen thus KXeap^o?
(cf.
527.

row avrov

'

(TTpaT(,a)Tds

Clearchus tried

to

e/3tafero

force his

own

pelted him with stones Xn. A.


aXX* e^eK\e^rev
"A/ore/ut?
.

the

sword ; but Artemis

stole

1,

me

levai

ol

CLVTOV e(3a\\ov

soldiers to
3, 1.

was

e/caivd/jLrjv tyfyei-

like

thence E.

move ; but they

to
/.

be

slain with

T. 27.

The Imperfect of a truth just realized, and the "PhiloThe imperfect in some expressions may be best
rendered in English by the present: thus KCU TOVT ap yv aX.r)6es,
is true, as I perceu-e, my friends (lit. was
rjo-tfo/xr/v, <j>i\ai this then
true, but all the time I did not realize it) E. LT. 351.
Sia(#epo/xev
IKZLVO ... o T<3 fJLtv Si/ua> /3e\Tlov eytyvcTo we shall destroy that
which (as we agreed) becomes better by justice PI. Crit. 47 d.
XOTE.

sophical Imperfect."

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE

268

THE AORIST
528.

The

aorist

undefined)

(aopicrros

the

represents

action as one that simply took place in past time


eypa-fra I wrote.

thus

Since the
Aorist instead of Perfect or Pluperfect.
in
Greek
are
used
the
when
and
only
pluperfect
perfect
1.

result of the action

is

534), the aorist

lasting (

is

often

used where English would employ the perfect or pluperfect


(especially in relative and temporal clauses): thus TI>
y

tcar^XiTrev, a\\ airavra TreTrpdicev of his


(has) left not one, but has sold everything

olfcerwv ov&eva

servants

Aeschin

he
1,

99.

Kvpov

Be /jLeraTre/jLTreraL CLTTO rfjs

apxfy 5?
Cyrus from the
made) him satrap

he

avrbv o-arpaTnjv eiroir]o-ev

sent for

government of which he had made (lit.


Xn. A. 1, 1, 2. eVel Se ereXeuT^ere Aa/aeto? but when
Darius (had) died Xn. A. 1, 1, 3.

The aorist of verbs whose


529. Inceptive Aorist.
present can denote a continued state ( 521) may express
thus {3ao-i\evco rule or be
the entrance into that state
:

king, efiacrtXevo-a ruled or

became king ; so ecr^ov held or

got possession of (e%o> hold) eSdicpva-a wept or burst into


tears (Satcpvco weep, be in tears).

NOTE.

Aorist rendered by the Present.

The Greeks sometimes

with an exactness which admits no English equivalent,


and such examples must usually be rendered in English by the present
tense as OVK av Swat'/x^v, TO 8e TrpoOv/Jiov rjv(ra I could not do it, but I

iised the aorist

approve your zeal (lit. approved at the time you showed your zeal)
So often rjo-Orjv am pleased (lit. was pleased, eyeXacra
E. /. T. 1023.

still

laugh(ed), a>/A(oa lament (ed), and similar words.


ov KOL TTJV
in impatient questions: as TL ovv
.

why

don't you

Cy.

2, 1, 4.

tell

me

(lit.

why

didn't

you

tell

So also sometimes
Svva/j.LV

me) about

their

eAeas

/xot

force? Xn.

THE FUTURE

269

SPECIAL MEANINGS OF THE AOUIST FKOM THE CONTEXT


Gnomic

530.

From

Aorist.

the context the

aorist

may often be seen to express a general truth


true
once
("
always true "): thus TraOwv Be re vrjTrios eyva)
even a fool learns by experience Hes. O.D. 218.
3)v Se -m

indicative

TOVTCOV TL TrapafBaivr) fy/jLidv avrols CTreOeaav but if anybody


transgresses any one of these laws they impose a penalty

upon such persons Xn. Cy.

1, 2, 2.

The time of the


as Future.
sometimes vividly imagined as future ( 518):
thus a Trot) \6fjirj v ap et /-te &rj Xe A/ret? I perish if you leave
531.

Aorist Imagined

aorist is

me E.

Ale. 386.

THE FUTURE
The

532.

future denotes that an action will take place


thus ypd-^co I shall write (or shall be

at a future time

writing)

NOTE.
or a mild

For the second person of the future implying a permission

command

see

583, note

1.

Periphrastic Future.
periphrastic future (dea
is
formed
present intention)
noting
by combining the
various forms of //.e'XXo) be about to with the present or
533.

future (rarely the aorist) infinitive ( 549, 1): thus


dyetv I am going to lead you Xn. A. 5,

jap

PL Ap.

21

v/jias

i$d%eiv for

to

going

5.

inform you

b.

So the past tenses of fteXXw are similarly used to

1.

express a past intention:


530
ijpnre

I am

ty-ia?

7,

8'

a.

Homer sometimes

ws 6Ve TIS dpvs

ijpiTrei>

as

Tropevea-Oai

eyu-eXXoi^

uses the (gnomic) aorist in similes

he fell as when an oak falls

(lit.

felT).

they
:

thus

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE

270

were intending to proceed Xn. A. 3, 5, 17.


e/^eXXe /cara\veiv he was about to halt for the night Xn. A. 1, 8, 1.
NOTE.
The simple future appears from the context sometimes to
be used like the periphrastic future to express a present intention as
olpe TrXrJKTpov, ei po-xti ra ^se your spur if you re going to fight Ar. Av.
759.
ci ... 7ri<rTvcro/Aev if we are
going to trust Xn. A. 1, 3, 16.
:

THE PERFECT AND THE PLUPERFECT


534. The perfect, in Greek, represents an action as
completed and lasting at the present time the pluperfect
as completed and lasting at a past time
thus yeypa^a I
;

have written (and the writing now stands), eyeypd^rj I had


written (and the writing stood completed).
ervy-^ave yap
e<' d/zaf?79 Tropevo/jievos SIOTL ererpcoTofor he happened to
be traveling

on a wagon because he had been (and

wounded Xn. A.

2,

still-

was)

2, 14.

In the perfect
Perfect with Present Meaning.
of
the
duration
the
result ( 534)
verbs
many

535.

system of

rather than the completion of the act is the more prominent, so that the perfect is best rendered in English by

the present (and the pluperfect by the English imperfect)


thus
j3f/3r)Ka (/3atvu>) be

gone or stand (have stepped)

SeSotKo, (root Sot-, Set-, St-) be

afraid (have been frightened, cf

494, 3)

(KTw/xat) possess (have acquired)

KCKTrj/Jiai
fjif/jLvrj/JML

remember (have reminded myself)


saw) know (have seen or perceived)

(/u/xynovco))

oTSa (cf. eioW

494, 3)
<TTr)Ka (to-r^/xt) stand (have set myself, cf.
7T7roi0a (Trei'^w) trust (have persuaded myself, cf
494, 2)
.

7T(f)iJKa

(<f>v(i))

and many

am

by nature (have been produced,

cf.

494, 3),

others.

1.
Other forms of the perPeriphrastic Perfect.
226 227 221, 1),
besides those already noted (

536.
fect,

THE FUTURE PERFECT

271

are sometimes found expressed periphrastically


thus TO
TOVTO
the
one
who
has
done
TrpayuL elfj.1
SeBpd/ca)?
:

lam

this

deed

Dem.

21, 104.

The

aorist (rarely the perfect) participle with the


or
imperfect of e^co have is sometimes used as the
present
thus 09 <7(/>e vvv
equivalent of the perfect or pluperfect
2.

who has now dishonored her E. Med. 33.


TroXXa xprj/jLara e%o/jLev avrj pTra/core^ we have plundered
much property (lit. have, having plundered) Xn. A. 1, 3, 14.
arlfjidcrds e^eu

SPECIAL MEANINGS OF THE PERFECT FROM THE CONTEXT

The time of the perPerfect Imagined as Future.


sometimes vividly imagined as future ( 518, 1):
thus KCLV TOVT, 077, vltcw/Jiev, TrdvO* rjjjiiv TreTroirjrai, " if we
537.

fect

is

are victorious in this," he said, " everything has been accomplished (i.e. will have been accomplished) by us" Xn. A.
1, 8,

12.

THE FUTURE PERFECT


The

future perfect denotes that an action will be


as yeypa^oDS
completed (and lasting) at a future time
eo-0/jLai, I shall have written, <yey paterae it will have been
538.

written (and will stand written).


For the periphrastic forms of the future perfect see
230.

NOTE.

The

future perfect (as well as the other portions of the

may emphasize the duration of the result of an action


hence a good many verbs, because of their meaning, regularly

perfect system)

534)

employ the future perfect instead

of the future (see


729) as i/o/xiere
KOLTOLKCKoiJ/ea-OaL you must believe that I shall be cut to pieces
Xn. A. 1, 5, 16. orav 8r) p,r) crOevw, TT ?r aver often, i when I have not
.

I stop S. Ant. 91.


So also commonly with the verbs whose perfect has present meaning
535) /txe/xv^cro/juxt shall remember (/xe/xv^/xat remember), ecrr^co shall

strength, then shall

e/xe

stand (ecTTYjKa stand) etc.

272

TENSES OF OTHER MODES THAN THE INDICATIVE

TENSES OF OTHER MODES THAN THE


INDICATIVE
539. The tenses of the indicative mode only (and of
other modes representing the indicative in indirect disin the other modes,
course,
551) really denote time
;

the tenses (with the very limited exception of the future,


see
548) do not denote time, but only the manner of

viewing the action, whether continued (present), or completed (perfect), or simply brought to pass (aorist).
Time may be implied either by the mode (see
554;
557; 560) or by the context (see
541-547, and cf. 519
note 1) but it is not denoted by the tense.

THE PRESENT
540.

The

present tense in modes other than the indica-

tive represents an action as going on (at any time) ; as


be engaged in writing,
iv to be writing, eav <ypd<f>co if

be writing (in the future,

560),

rypdcfxov writing.

TIME IMPLIED BY THE CONTEXT


541.

Relation of time with the principal verb

539):

whenever he was engaged in

sacrifice he

same time)

to

invite his friends

may

be

as OTTOTC Ovoi etcdXei

indicated by the context (

used

Xn. Mem.

(i.e. at

2, 9, 4.

the

el

Trapa ravra irotolev, ico\deiv but if they act contrary


to
this, to punish them (i.e. afterwards) Xn.
Cy. 1,
6, 33.

THE AORIST
542.

273

Especially with the present

Present Participle.

participle the context usually shows that its time is the


same as that of the principal verb as e^wv orrXmi? aveftri
:

he went

up with

(lit.

Xn. A.
Xn. A.

having) hoplites

ervy^ave he happened to be present

1,

1,

2.

1, 1, 2.

Trapwv
1.
But sometimes the context shows that the present
participle refers to a time prior to that of the principal
verb (the so-called " Participle of the Imperfect ") as
ot Kvpeioi irpdaOev GVV rj/jilv rarro^evoL vvv a$ea-Tr)icacnv
:

Cyrus who were formerly marshaled with us


Xn. A. 3, 2, 17. irapwv epw since I
was present, I will tell S. Ant. 1192.
the troops of

have

now

deserted

THE AORIST
543.

The

aorist tense in

modes other than the indicative

represents the action simply as brought to pass (at any


time) as ypdtyai to write, eav ypd-^ro) if I write, ypdtyov
:

560), ypd^ds having written (or writing):


evreff d/j,evo<; he spoke in prayer Z 475. ovro?

write (impv.,

thus

eZ-Tre 8'

ovre TOW? #eou? Cetera? cure KO/oo^ reOvrjKora al&eo-Oels


rj/Aas

/ea/ew? Troielv Treipdrai this

man, without any fear of

for Cyrus, ivho is now dead, is trying


\a6etv
jSovXoifjLijv 8' av
injure us Xn. A. 3, 2, 5.
avrov a7re\6(i)v I should like to get away without his knowl-

the gods, or respect


to

edge Xn. A.

1, 3,

17.

TIME IMPLIED BY THE CONTEXT


544.

Relation of time with the principal verb may be


context (
539): as T> dvSpl ov av

indicated by the

\rjo-0e Treio-o/jiai I shall obey the


shall have chosen) Xn. A.

(i.e.

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

18

man whom you


1,

3,

15.

choose

274 TENSES OF OTHER MODES


e

fyaiverai

wonderful
the being

THAN THE INDICATIVE

Kal TO Treio-Qfjvai nvas


that some people have been

/-tot

too

seems

it

me

to

persuaded
persuaded of some people) Xn. Mem. 1, 2, 1.

(lit.

Participle.
Especially with the aorist
context
often
shows
that it refers to a time
the
participle
to
that
of
the
verb:
as ravra Se TT 0*770- a?
principal
prior

545.

Aorist

when

Sie/3ai,ve

he

had done

this he

to

proceeded

cross

Xn.

A. 1, 4, 17.
when he had come down (from the mountains) he marched
543, last three
through this plain Xn. A. 1, 2, 23 (but cf.

/cara/3a? Se Sta TOVTOV rov ireSiov TJXaae

examples).

THE PERFECT
The

perfect tense in modes other than the indicative represent an action as completed (at any time)
as
j6ypa(f)vat to finish writing, eav yejpd(f>a) if I shall finish
546.

writing, yeypd^Oco

let

it

stand written,

yeypacjxt)?

written, TO, yeypafji^eva the things written, TT}?

yap

having

einovcrr]?

VVKTOS Trdvra ravra Set ireirpa^OaL to-night all this must


be completed

PL

Grit.

46

a.

TIME IMPLIED BY THE CONTEXT


It usually happens that an action described by the
perfect as completed has taken place at a time preceding
that of the principal verb (cf.
539) thus ovSe /3ov-

547.

en &pd, d\\a (3e{3ov\evo-0ai it is time no


eXeyov
longer to deliberate, but to decide PI. Crit. 46 a.
Trdvra ra yeyevr) fjieva they told all that had happened

\evecr6ai

(i.e.

previously) Xn. A.

6, 3,

11

(cf.

546, last example).

THE FUTURE (AND FUTURE PERFECT)

275

THE FUTURE (AND FUTURE PERFECT)


The modes

548.

of the future

(and future perfect) other

than the indicative are devoted almost wholly to representing the future indicative in indirect discourse ( 551)^
this is the only use of the future optative (which is a
548 a); the future
comparatively late development, see
infinitive is almost

ciple often.

always so used, and the future partito emphasize the idea of futur-

Yet a desire

ity (or present intention) has led to the occasional use of


the future infinitive as a substantive, and, more often,

of the future participle as

an ordinary adjective.

The future
Future Infinitive as a Substantive.
(denoting future time relative to the principal

549.

infinitive

verb)

is

sometimes used as a substantive when

to emphasize the idea of futurity

76 a&itcrjo-eiv
PI.

myself
1.
With

I am

Ap. 37
/LteXXft).

am

certainly

it is

desired

as TroXXoO Seco epavrov

far from intending

to

wrong

b.

So often the future

infinitive is

used

to emphasize the future idea (as


with //.e'XXft)
" I meant to have
in English many people say incorrectly
"
"
"
from a feeling that
I meant to write
for
written
" meant " does not
sufficiently express the past idea)
thus /xe'XXft) yap v^as Si Sdgeiv for I am about to inform

about

to

you PI. Ap. 21 b.


2.
With Verbs of Promising,

etc.

So with verbs (and

verbal expressions) meaning to hope, expect, promise, swear,


and the like, the idea of a future realization of the hope
or promise often leads to the use of the future infinitive.
Both the present and aorist, however, are also found with
these verbs.
548

a.

The negative

is

regularly

In Epic poetry the future optative

is

431, 1)

never found.

thus

TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE

276

7rd(n Sdxreiv he

r]fjLi6\iov

much again Xn. A.

half as

to give to all
rbv IK Troia? 7ro'Xea>?

promised

1, 3, 21.

ravra irpa^eiv from what city


come whom I expect to do this? Xn. A. 3,

is the

o-rparrjybv Trpoa-Sofca)
to

general

rwyvaro

aurou?

fjirj&ev

/cafcbv

1,

14.

TreicreaOai he pledged himself

e'XTrtSa?
that they should suffer no harm Xn. A. 7, 4, 13.
Xn.
will
be
well
all
that
has
he
eaeo-Oai
tfaXa>9
hopes
e'^et

A.

4, 3, 8.

(Cf.

saved Xn. A.

The

NOTE.

fjiid

2, 1,

[e\7rt9]

acoOrjvai, one hope of being

19.)

future infinitive with verbs

of. promising, etc. (


549, 2)
often explained as indirect discourse ( 671), but the fact that it
as its regular negative points to its use here as the ordinary
takes

is

object infinitive.

The

Future Participle.

550.

only when

future participle

is

used

desired to emphasize the idea of future


time (or present intention,
533, note) relatively to the
it is

principal verb

thus ^X#e

Xucro/Lte^o? re dvyarpa he
13.
came to ransom his daughter (lit. about to ransom)
o 777770- o//,ei>o9 ouSet? ecrrai there will be nobody who will
lead us Xn. A. 2, 4, 5.
:

TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE


551. When the optative, infinitive, or participle stands
in indirect discourse ( 670 ff.), each tense represents the

same tense

of the direct discourse, except that the present


may stand for the imperfect indic-

infinitive or participle
ative,

and the perfect

pluperfect
indicative
eyvaxrav

infinitive

indicative, since those

mode
.

cf

also

participle for the


tenses have only the

or

675, note

thus (PRESENT)

on, icevbs 6 c^oySo? 6^77 they learned that their fear

was groundless

(i.e.

ecm) Xn. A.

2, 2,

21.

aTnevai

^TJCTLV

he says he is going away (i.e. aVet/it) Xn. A. 2, 2, 1.


lacrOai auro<? TO rpav^d (frrjcriv he says that he himself treated

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

wound

the

Kvpov

Xn. A.

ecrri)

(i.e.

la^v, impf.) Xn. A.

(i.e.

ev K.i\iKLa ovra he

8,

26.

rj/cova-e

heard that Cyrus was in Oilicia


olSa Se

4, 5.

1,

1,

277

fcaiceiva)

aco^povovvre

I know

that even they two kept within


o-vvrjo-rijv
bounds so long as they associated with Socrates (i.e. ecrcocfrpo-

eare ^coKpdrei

impf.) Xn.

veLrrjv,

Mem.

MeWw

(AoRIST)

Swpa

have sent presents

said actually

to

Xn. A.

17.

1, 4,

1, 2, 18.

Se teal

Menon

'O/JioXoyeis ovv irepl epe

(PERFECT)

(i.e.

a&ifcos

do you admit that you have been a wrong-doer against


A. 1, 6, 8.
KaraXafji^dvovat
(i.e. yeyevrjaai) Xn.

ra

7r\el(7ra SirjpTraa-iJLeva they

been plundered (i.e.

(FUTURE)

e\e^ev

Xn. A.

eVrafc)

(i.e.

avrbv

ei

on

rj

1,

0809 ecrotro

would

4, 11.

that most things


A. 1, 10, 18.
TT/OO?

(3aai\ed

me
.

f
.

had

fjieyav

be against the great king


rjyelro

jap ajrav

iroirjo-eiv

apyvpiov SiSoirj for he thought that \_Theognis~]

Ti?

would do anything,
TTot^cret,

found
Xn.

SirjpTracrTai,)

he said that the advance

was

eXe^yero Tre^-^rai he
to

edv rt?

if
.

anybody offered him money

(i.e.

StSw he will do, if anybody offers Lys.

12, 14.
1.

When

verbs stand in indirect discourse they denote

the same time relatively to the verb on which they depend


as was denoted by the tense (
539) of the direct dis-

course which they represent.

See the preceding examples.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES


In the following pages the various uses of the
are described in detail, but, for the sake of
completeness, a brief summary of the uses of each mode
552.

finite

is

modes

here given.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

278

THE INDICATIVE MODE


553.

thus

The

I am

1.

thus

fact

may

mode

used in statements of fact


king, Aa/oeto? ycrOevei Darius was ill.

indicative

ySacriXeuo)

is

be assumed for purposes of argument

reOvacn (suppose that) they are dead E. Med.


386.
So regularly in conditions elirep fy avrjp a>ya66<s if
(i.e. assuming that) he was a good man, etc. Lys. 12, 48.
teal &r)

For the semi-dependent indicative in object clauses and


clauses of fearing see
593 and 594, 1.
2. The
past tenses of the indicative, probably from their
use in conditions contrary to fact (
606) (although
there was originally no stich idea in the usage, cf. 553, 1),

have come to be used also to express hopeless wishes ( 588)


and unaccomplished purpose ( 590, note 4).
3. Further, av
(or ice) may be added to the past tenses
of the indicative to give

them a potential meaning

565).

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MODE


554. The Subjunctive mode looks always toward the
future (thus having the value of a primary tense, when
it is

used independently,

555.

The

517, 2).

uses of the subjunctive may be grouped under


the Volitive Subjunctive (which

two great divisions

expresses an action as willed), and the Anticipatory Subjunctive (which anticipates an action as an immediate

future possibility), a use in which the subjunctive is closely


related to the future indicative (see
562 a and compare
563 a 576 a 594, 1 note).
;

No hard and
these

two uses

fast line,

however, can be drawn between

of the subjunctive.

THE OPTATIVE MODE

279

In the earlier language (i.e. in Homer) the anticipatory


NOTE.
subjunctive (with or without /ce or av) was not infrequently used in
independent clauses ( 562 a), but in this use it was soon crowded
out by the future indicative, and only a few relics of this use are to
be found in Attic Greek, but in dependent clauses (e.g. conditions
and relative clauses) it continued to be regularly used.

The

556.

as follows

uses of the subjunctive

may

be summarized

INDEPENDENT
In exhortations ( 585) and prohibitions ( 584).
In deliberative questions ( 577).
In cautious future assertions with
and fir) ov ( 569, 1).

In strenuous future denials with ov

569, 2).

DEPENDENT
In purpose clauses ( 590).
After words of fearing ( 592).
In the protasis of a future more vivid
present general condition (

604) or a

609).

In relative clauses of anticipation (future,


or of general possibility (present,

623

526-7)

625).

THE OPTATIVE MODE


The

557.

optative

mode may be

briefly characterized

more remote subjunctive. Hence, in its independent


uses, and in most of its dependent uses, it commonly looks
toward the future, but more remotely than the subjunctive,
and often from the point of view of past time (cf. 517, 2).
as a

556

a.

Homer

For the independent use

see

562

a.

of the (anticipatory) subjunctive in

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

280

The

558.

uses of the optative

may

be grouped under

(l)'the Optative of Wish (corresponding to


volitive subjunctive,
555) which expresses an

three heads
a remote

action as desired, but not actually willed to happen


(2) the Potential Optative (corresponding to a remote
;

anticipatory subjunctive,
555), which expresses what
the speaker regards as a more or less remote possibility
(see note 1)
(3) the Optative in Indirect Discourse,
is a development peculiar to Greek.
;

which

NOTE

1.

In earlier Greek the simple optative could be used

potentially, but very soon the adverb av (epic KC) came to be regularly
used with it, and the use of the potential optative was extended far

beyond

its

NOTE

original

2.

bounds

The name

(cf

optative

563 and the examples).


comes from the use of the mood in

wishes (Latin opto wish).

559.
in Attic

The following
Greek

are the various uses of the optative

INDEPENDENT
In wishes

(
587).
Potential optative with av (or

/ce)

563).

DEPENDENT
In future less vivid conditions ( 605).
In past general conditions ( 610).
In relative clauses of remote possibility (future,
624
or
of
626-7),
general possibility (past,
625).
In indirect discourse (including indirect questions) after
;

a secondary tense ( 673).


In purpose clauses after a secondary tense ( 590).
In clauses of fearing after a secondary tense ( 592).
559

a-

For the potential optative without

/ce

or av in

Homer,

see 563

a,

THE IMPERATIVE MODE

281

THE IMPERATIVE MODE


The imperative mode

560.

to the future.

hibitions (

It is

(in all tenses) refers always

used in commands

583) and pro-

584).

STATEMENTS
561. 1. Statements of fact (what
stand in the indicative mode.

is,

was, or will be)

2.
Statements of opinion (what may be, can be, might be,
could have been, and the like) stand in the optative mode
with av, or in a past tense of the indicative with av.
The details of usage are given in the following sections

562-568).

Two

NOTE.

forms of statement are described in

Statements of Fact.

562.

the indicative

mode; the negative

statement of fact
is

ou

569.

is

Girl ra> a8e\,</>a>

he will be in the

in

thus avaftaivzi

Cyrus goes up, fjedevei Aa/?eo9 Darius was

6 KO/009

(7rat

special

power of

ill,

his brother,

OVK rjo-OdveTo he did not perceive.

statement of a future posPotential Optative.


or
likelihood, as an opinion of the
sibility, propriety,
563.

Homer

the subjunctive is sometimes used like the future


555) in (anticipatory) statements of fact (negative oy)
thus ou ydp TTW rolovs tdov avtpas ovdt Zdw/j-ai for never yet did I see such
men, nor shall I ever see them A 262.

562

a.

In

indicative (cf.

563 a. The epic language


besides the future indicative

is

very rich in forms of future statement, for

and the optative with &v

(or

/ce)

we have

also

the subjunctive alone, the optative alone, the subjunctive with *e (or 5i>),
and even sometimes the future indicative with e (or &v~). By this
variety many shades of meaning are expressed which have no equivalent
in English.

indicative

The subjunctive

in this use comes very close to the future


562 a), but seems rather to anticipate the future possibility

USES OF FINITE MODES

282

speaker, stands in the optative


Optative); the negative is ou:

mode with dv

(Potential
thus TroXXd? av evpois
Wxavas many devices you could find E. And. 85. to-o)? av
ovv Sdgeiev droTrov elvai now perhaps it may seem strange
PL Ap. 31 c. OVK av ovv Oav^d^oL/jLt, now I shouldn't

wonder Xn. A.

OVK av

35.

3, 2,

rov Opovov

/jLeOeifjirjv

couldn't (i.e. won't) give up the throne Ar. Ran. 830.


The apodosis of a future less vivid condition ( 605) is

regularly expressed by the potential optative.


NOTE.

Observe that the potential optative

of opinion,

may express

all

shades

from mere suggestion of

possibility to ideal certainty,


the English rendering should be made to suit the context.

and

But a statement

of a future (or present) possior


can be expressed more
likelihood,
bility, necessity,
a
fact
as
a
( 562) by
present or future tense of
exactly

564.

the indicative of a verb meaning be possible or necessary,


and a dependent infinitive denoting what is possible or

thus ^vvapai crvvetvai


necessary to be or to be done
I
can
associate
with the very richest
rofc ir\ov(nwTdroi^
:

(but as an opinion
TTiarrd \afielv Trap

crvveirjv

av) Lys. 24,

e^eanv

9.

V/JLLV

it is

possible for you to receive


vfias S' av
pledges from us (Xdftoire av) Xn. A. 2, 3, 26.
rj/jilv Serjcrei o/jiocrai it will be necessary for you to swear

to

us

(oyotocratre

rjfjL&v

dv) Xn. A.

than to state the future

fact.

2, 3,

27.

Examples are

(Fut. indie.) &s

thus some one shall say Z 462.


(Fut. indie, with *e) KO.L K
and thus some one may say A 176. (Subjunctive) KO.L irort

Trore?

rts

rts cJ5'

epeei

TIS etTrrjo-iv

and some day some one may say Z 459. (Subjunctive with /ce or &v) KO.I
dt K
TOI etTT-go-c and he will tell to you d 391.
(Optative) ou /j.tv yap n
KaK&repov &\\o Trd6ot.fji,i for nothing else more sad could I endure T 321.
(Optative with *e or &v} fyol 5t r6r' &v TroXu Ktpdiov etr] but for me then
'twould be better far

108.

The

optative without &v in a potential use


other poets besides Homer see S. Ant. 605.

563 b.

is

rarely found in

STATEMENTS
NOTE
18015

283

Observe that the difference between l^eori o-ot iSeti/ and


see is that the former states the possibility as a fact,

1.

av you can

the latter states

NOTE

what the speaker

Observe that

2.

thinks is a possibility.

av

if

is

used with the optative of a verb

denoting possibility, propriety, or the


bility or propriety is stated as

like, it

shows that the

something which,

possi-

in the opinion of the

567 note) as OVK av 8vvcu/xe0a


speaker, might or could exist (cf.
avtv TrAotW Siafifjvai we could not have the power to cross (i.e. could not
:

possibly cross) without boats

Xn. A.

2, 2, 3.

565. Potential Indicative.


statement of a past or
present possibility or necessity, as an opinion of the
speaker, stands in a past tense of the indicative with av

(Potential Indicative)

the negative

is

ov

thus Oarrov

3)

av were quicker than anybody would have thought


Xn: A. 1, 5, 8. VTTO /cev ra\aa-i(^povd Trep &eo? el\ev fear
rt?

<&?

might have seized even a stout-hearted


av

\o/jL7]v

I could

man A

421.

e/3ov-

wish.

The apodosis
regularly

of a condition contrary to fact ( 606) is


expressed by the potential indicative or an

equivalent statement (
566.

But a statement

567).
of a past possibility, necessity, or

likelihood, can be expressed more exactly as a fact ( 562)


by a past tense of the indicative of a verb meaning be pos-

necessary and a dependent infinitive denoting what


was possible or necessary to be or to be done thus eSei
sible or

po(f)ovvTa TTiveiv (ocnrep ftovv it was necessary to drink in


gulps like an ox Xn. A. 4, 5, 32.
xpfjv yap K.av$av\rj
yevecrOai tcafca)? for Candaules was bound to get into trouble
565

a.

In

Homer

the context sometimes shows that the potential opta-

with the help of an adverb, may be used in stating a past


possibility (which in Attic would be expressed by the potential indicative,
as ei/0' OVK d.i> ftpi^ovra fSots Aya/jLt/j-vova Siov then you could not see
565)
tive, usually

'

(i.e.

would not have seen) god-like Agamemnon slumbering A 223.

606

b.)

(Cf.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

284

Hdt.

1, 8.

Lys.

1, 27.

&ia<l>vyeiv

ovtc

e&vvaro he could not escape

But nine times out

of ten the existence of a past


or
is
stated
possibility
necessity
only to show that what
"
"
"
been
or
to
have
have been done " did
ought
might

567.

not actually take place

hence such statements usually

"
"
idea (as, " he might have
contrary to fact
imply a
(Such a statement
gone," but the fact is he did not go).
is

often used as the apodosis of a condition contrary to

606): thus rq> Be 'Eparoo-Qevei, egijv elirelv on


ovtc aTrrjvrrjo-ev it was possible for Eratosthenes to say (i.e.
" Eratosthenes
might have said ") that he had not met him
Lys. 12, 31. ^Xpn v TOV ^^Kpdrrjv //.?) Trporepov ra 7ro\iTi/ca

fact,

SiSdo-/ceiv

roi>9

Gwovras

rj

aco^povelv /Socrates ought not

have taught his associates politics in preference

to

to self-control

Xn. Mem. 1, 2, 17. XP^1 V V^P <*XXo0eV TroOev pporovs


TraZ&a? reKvovaOau mortals ought to beget children from some
other source (but they do not) E. Med. 578.
Observe that in such expressions the aorist infinitive

refers always to a single act (usually in past time), while


the present infinitive refers to continued or repeated action

either present or past (cf.

539).

NOTE.
Observe that the mere statement of a past possibility or
necessity may always suffice to imply that the possible or necessary
event did not occur as eTSes av you might have seen (if you had been
:

present), or erjv iSeTv


If av is

it

was

possible to see (if

you had been present).

used with a past tense of the indicative of a verb denoting

it shows that the possibility or pronot


but
stated
as
a
as
fact,
something which might or could
priety
have existed (cf. 564 note 2) as efjv av iSeiv it would (or might)

possibility, propriety, or the like,


is

have been possible to see.


Compare OVK av trepan/ eSet crot uapTvpw
you would not have any need of other witnesses (but as it is, you do need

them) Lys.

7, 22,

ap^eo/ if he

and
had

av
CITTC/O fjv avrjp dya$6s, t\p-r)v
been a good man, he would have had
.

fjJrj

to

Trapa-

rule with-

STATEMENTS
bad

out transgressing the laws (but a

man

is

285
under no such obligation)

7rpo0i>/uav ZX
Lys. 12, 48, with \prfv 8' avrov
had zeal (but did not have) Lys. 12, 50.
.

1.

The expressions which may be used

LV ^ e

OU 9^

fo

have

to denote a past

possibility or necessity (without av) are very numerous ;


some of the most common of them are the following e'Set,
:

was necessary, etVco? fjv it was likely, TrpoarjK, eV/oeTre it was fitting, egfjv it was possible, epeXXov was
likely to, and many adjectives with rjv, such as &i/caiov rjv
it was just, afyov j]V it ivas proper, ala^pov rjv it was shameful,
olo? r' fjv was possible, and many others (cf. oportebat,
decebat, and the like, in Latin).
Xpfjv or e^prjv it

568.

ment

of

stateStatements of Past Recurrent Action.


an indefinitely recurrent past action, which would

take place only under certain circumstances, stands in a


thus ava\a/jL/3dva)v
past tense of the indicative with av
:

ovv avr&v ra
so,

TroirjfjLaTa

Snypwrcov av avrovs TI \eyoiev

taking up their compositions,

I would ask (if ever

tunity occurred) them what they meant


rt? avTto So/cotrj
ejraicrev

/3\dfceveiv,

av if any one seemed

PL

e/cXeydfjievos

to

.him

an opporAp. 22 b. d
rov eTTiTijBeiov
he would

to be lazy,

pick out the proper man, and strike him Xn. A. 2, 3, 11.
NOTE.
Observe that this form of statement does not necessarily
the
as a fact, but only as what could or would take
occurrence
express
place (and undoubtedly did take place) if circumstances demanded.
Hence it is easily explained as a special use of the potential ( 565)
indicative.

569.

1.

Subjunctive with

JITJ

and

^t\ ov.

in other writers, a cautious suggestion

is

In Plato, and sometimes

occasionally expressed by the

ov,
subjunctive with ^rj (negatively
432)
ravra (T/ce/x/xaTa y rcov paSo? aTTOKTLvvvvTMV

prove

to be the

PI. Crit.

48

c.

thus

may

py w?

not

these

aXrjOus
really

considerations of those who thoughtlessly put men to death f


aAAa /AT; ov TOUT' y xaAeTroV but possibly this may not

be so difficult PI.

Ap. 39

a.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

286

In origin these expressions are doubtless questions ( 576 a), but


they are usually printed without the mark of interrogation.
2. ov
with the Subjunctive (or Future Indicative).
An emphatic
future denial (which sometimes borders on a prohibition,
584) may
jj/tfj

be expressed by the subjunctive (or rarely the future indicative) with


thus ov/ceri fjirj 8vvr)Ta.L /JcwriAevs i^aas Ka.TaAa/3eu> the king
ov p,7j
will no longer be able to overtake us Xn. A. 2, 2, 12.
ov /w,^ Svoyxevr/s
:

I cry <f>L\ois
(jir)

you

shall not be hostile to

your friends E. Med. 1151.

a-Trwo-erai for she will not possibly reject

it

Hdt.

1,

ov yap

199.

QUESTIONS
DIRECT QUESTIONS
Direct Questions

570.

'

No

may

be divided into two classes

'

Questions, in which the question is


(1)
asked by the verb, and (2) Word Questions, in which the
4

Yes

'

or

question is asked by some interrogative pronoun, adjecThe latter class cannot be answered by
tive, or adverb.
'

or

yes

no.'
4

YES' OB

NO' QUESTIONS

no' question may sometimes have


571.
'yes' or
the same form as a statement, and the fact that it is a
thus ecrriv
question is determined wholly by the context
4

o TL

ere rj&iKijo-a

you? Xn. A.

More
by means
1.

is there

1, 6, 7.

often the interrogative meaning is made clearer


of certain adverbs (17, apa): thus 97 /cal irepl

ITTTTOVS ovrco VOL So/eel

case also with

571
tions

%LV ; Do you

horses? PI. Ap. 25

Are they (living}?

eia-i;

In

a.

is

besides ?

I have wronged

any matter in which

Homer

thus ^
229.

Kal xpixrov twtdefaai

word

Do

in

ov/c

elaiv; ap

ap*

Are they not? E. LT.

the regular interrogative

in

really think this is the


a.

'

'

yes

577.

or

'

no ques'

you yet lack for gold

DIRECT QUESTIONS

287

Such questions merely ask for information and do not


imply any previous assumption on the part of the speaker.
572.

Questions with

o\>

and

The negative adverbs

JJLTJ.

and

^77 (
431) either alone or combined with other
are used also in questions.
adverbs
interrogative
1.
introduced
question
by ov (or by ap ov or OVKOVV)

ov

and expects the answer yes':


thus ov% ourft)? e'^et;
(i.e. "I think it is so
pray tell me if it is not so") PL Ap. 27 c. OVK eXo?;
Won't you move on? (i.e. "I think you will") Ar. Nub. 1298.
asks whether a fact

is

not so,

Is

2.

it

not so?

question introduced by

^77,

apa

urj,

or

p&v

/x?)

ow>), implies uncertainty (or even apprehension) on the


part of the speaker: thus apd ye /JLTJ ejnov TrpofjLrjOfj; Are

you not perhaps concerned for me? (i.e "I don't think
you ought to be, but I have a feeling that you possibly
are") PL Grit. 44 e. p&v Trpoo-ijice croi ; Is it not perhaps
possible that he was related to you? E. I. T. 550.
NOTE.
some

fies

When

particular

possible that

573.

ov

you don't

is

used in a question introduced by py it modi431, 3): thus /MOV ov 7T7roi0as; Is it


(

word

believe

Rhetorical

me ? E. Med.

Questions.

732.

The context

often shows

that a question is asked merely for effect, with the knowledge that the answer must be 'no.' Such questions are
often (but not always) introduced by fjnj: as prj avrbv
ofy <f>povT&rai Oavdrov /cal /avSvvov ; Think you that he con-

and danger ? (" Of course you do not ")

sidered death
PI.

Ap. 28

d.

others then bear

aXXot Se apa aura? oiaovai paStax: ; Will


them easily ? ("Far from it ") PL Ap. 37 d.
!

NOTE.
The words aAAo n 77 (or sometimes only aAAo TI, the r;
being omitted), meaning literally (7s if) anything else than, are not
infrequently used to introduce a question which the speaker feels must
be answered by Yes
thus aAAo TI rf ovSev KooAvec Trapievcu ; There's
'

'

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

288

our passing along,

to stop

nothing

</>iA.aTai VTTO

TWV

0ea>i/

Isn't

it

Xn. A.

there?

is

loved by the gods

aAAo
Euthyphro 10

4, 7, 5.

PI.

TI

d.

ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
Direct alternative questions are commonly intro-

574.

duced by

Trorepov (Tro're/oa)

...

whether

ea? ap^eiv

f)

TJ

or separated by

or,

a\\ov tcaBbmfi

an)
(Latin, utrum
alone: thus irorepov
rj
.

Do you

you appoint another? Xn. Oy. 3,


you say yes or no ? PI. Ap. 27 d.

1,

let

him

12.

$779

rule or do
rj

ov

Do

The first part of a double question is sometimes omitted


an
in questions)
Latin
thus eTriorra/xcvos TraAcu a7rKpv7rrov
r)
(cf
" You have been
oKveis, <>;, apat ;
concealing your knowledge this long
NOTE.
.

begin

some hidden reason


Xn. Mem. 2, 3, 14.

(Is there

time.
?

"

said he.

WORD

for this)

or do you hesitate to

QUESTIONS

be expressed by any interrogapronoun, adjective, or adverb: thus r/<? ayopeveiv


{3ov\Tai ; who wishes to speak ? T i elire ; what did he say ?
575.

may

question

tive

what will anybody invite me for?


trvftfJM%&K SeofjieOa ; what kind of alliance do we
want? IT ore rfkOev ; when did he come?
eveica /caXel

/JLG

TLS ;

NOTE 1. In Greek, unlike English, the interrogative word is often


connected with some subordinate word of the sentence instead of with
the principal verb: thus TOV CK Troias TroAews (rrpar-qyov Tr/ocxrSoKui
ravra 7r/oaav ; From what sort of a city must the general be whom 1
expect

do

to

this f

574
1)

(17^)

alone

a.
.

Jj

d 632.

534.

the general
3,

1,

14.

from what sort of a city do I expect


For TI /xa0o>i/ and TL Trajan/, see

in alternative questions (both direct

(^e) (never Trbrepov

thus $ pd

we not?
truth ?

Homer,

(lit.

Xn. A.

do this?)
653, note 4.

will

TI tdpev tvi
i/'ei5<ro

(f>pe<Tiv,

^)

and ^

^e Kai ovxt

ucu ^ ervfjiov eptu

shall

(^e)

and

may

indirect) uses
also be used

Do we know at all, or do
I speak falsely or speak the

MODES
NOTE

DIRECT QUESTIONS

IN

289

Greek sometimes condenses two interrogatives into one


eis avSp&v ; Who are you, and from where
among men do you come? a. 170. Trois CK TI'VOS j/ews
^/cere; In
what way and from what ship have you come? E. Hel. 1543.
2.

sentence: thus TIS troBev

MODES IN DIRECT QUESTIONS


from statements usually
but
some
sometimes only by the
word,
interrogative
by
hence
the
modes
used in statements
context (
571)
576. Questions are distinguished

thus (INDICATIVE) crol So/eel;


are used also in questions
Do you think so? TICTOL Bo/cel; What do you think? ov croi
:

So /eel;

Dont you

think so?

pr) croi

So /eel; Is

it

not per-

haps possible that you think so?


OVK av 6fJLo\oyr)<rei,v

rt?

Mem.
fjiev

Xn.
could

1, 1, 5.

(POTENTIAL INDICATIVE)

7reOvfj,ovv rvpavvelv ;
Hier. 1, 9.
TTW? av

I have

(POTENTIAL OPTATIVE)
Who would not admit? Xn.

How
.

could

TTW?

many

av 7ro\\ol

wish

rule?

to

How

eya) ri cf rjSi/crjcra;

done you any wrong?

Dem.

37, 57.

577.
Deliberative Questions.
Questions expressing
doubt or deliberation stand in the subjunctive mode

The negative is pr). Such


(Deliberative Subjunctive).
questions are often made more explicit by the addition of
/3ov\rj or /3ov\ecr6e do you wish? thus Trot rpaTrco^aL; TTOL
Oco; whither shall
TI

TWV

stock jokes,

turn? whither go? E. Hec. 1099.


.

epco/jLai OTTOO-OV ircoXel;


to

w BedTTOTa ; Shall I make one of


Sir? Ar. Ran. 1. wft edv TI wvw^ai
el(D0oT(t)v,

And,

if

I am

ask the price of anything? Xn.


576

a.

In

Homer

marketing,

Mem.

the anticipatory subjunctive

is

am I

1, 2, 36.

also

the
.

not

j3ov\rj

found in ques-

tions (cf.
562 a) as & /JML ey u>, rl Trd0w; Alas ! what will become of me?
e 465. /XT? TI xoXwo-d/iej'os ptri KdKbv vlas 'AxaicDj'/ may he not, perhaps, in
:

anger,

the sons of the Achaeans? B 195.


BABBITT'S OH. GRAM.
19

harm

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

290

Shall we consider, if you please?

Xn. Mem.

2, 1, 1.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS
Indirect

yes' or 'no' questions are introduced by


thus rjpaJTrjcrev
whether, if (sometimes by apa or ^77)
el 77877 ajroKefcptfjievoL elev he asked if they had already given
578.

el

their

answer Xn. A.

2, 1, 15.

Alternative indirect 'yes' or 'no' questions are

579.

introduced by irorepov

by

eire

fjueveiv

77

or to go back
Tivas

77

(-TroYe/oa)

...

77

or

et

by

...

77

or

as &i7)pa)Ta rbv K.vpov Trorepov (Soiikoiro


{uneven, she asked Cyrus whether he wanted to stay
.

elVe;

Xn. Cy.

1, 3, 15.

e/3ov\evero

el 7re/jL7roiev

jrdvres toiev he considered whether they should send

some, or all should go

Xn. A.

1, 10, 5.

In indirect word-questions ( 575) the interrogaform may be retained (T/?, TTOV, etc.),

580.

tive of the direct

or

it

may

be represented by the corresponding indefinite

relative (6'cm9, OTTOV, etc.,


490): as (Sov\evecr6ai o
%/OT)
Troieiv to consider what must be done (direct ri %/o^ iroielv ;)
Xn. A. 1, 3, 11.

MODES IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS


Indirect questions follow the rules for indirect
discourse (
673 ff.); after a secondary tense their verbs
581.

may

be changed from the indicative or subjunctive to the


may be retained in

optative of the same tense, or they


their original
579

a.

same way

mode.

For examples

see

673.

In Homer, alternative indirect questions are introduced in the


as direct alternative questions (see
574 a).

COMMANDS AND EXHORTATIONS

291

COMMANDS AND EXHORTATIONS


582. The modes used in expressing commands and
In
exhortations are the imperative and the subjunctive.
the first person the subjunctive is used (since there is no

imperative of the
imperative
NOTE.

is

a-yc,

first

person)

in the other persons the

commonly used (but see


Wi,

<j>'p

>

Commands and

etc.

584).
exhortations are often

ei 8' aye, WL, <epe, come now (often with


877 or
and sometimes by 8evpo or Seure (lit. hither}: as aye 817
tiTre' come now, tell us Xn. A. 2, 2, 10.
<e'p' 1800 come, let me see Ar.
Nub. 21. These words are often used without regard to the person
and number of the accompanying imperative or subjunctive (as aye

preceded by aye (ayere),


j/w),

come stay

331).

command is regularly expressed by


583. Commands.
the imperative mode: thus efjiol TreiOov /cal ora>0rjTi take my
Oeol & f)iuv ^dprvpe^
advice, and be saved PL Crit. 44 b.
y

and

ea-Tcov

rocravrd

Lys. 24,

gods be our witnesses Xn. Cy. 4, 6, 10.


elprjaOo) let so much have been said by me

let the

/JLOI

4.

active or middle imperative

(The perfect

is

rare.)

XOTE 1. In Greek, as in English, a


may be implied in a future statement:
at all events

you

will

Ar. Nub. 1352.

do

this (i.e.

"

polite command (or request)


as Travrws 8e TOVTO Spdo-ets

you will be kind enough to do this ")


(i.e. "go within")

^(oporsaveicrco you might go within

S. El. 1491.

A command may be suggested


Commands.
A person addressed
used independently ( 644).
stands in the vocative case, but a predicate word referring to this
NOTE

by the

Infinitive in

2.

infinitive

vocative

is

in the nominative (cf.


629) as TratSa 8'
(

the accusative

8e^eo-^at a6/aevcu AIOS


this

631)
e'/ixot

viov but set

my

ransom, in holy fear of Zeus' son

yetopyovs aTrteVat
part Ar.

Pax

551.

otherwise the subject is in


ra r aVoira
<f>L\7jv,

X vcr at re

dear child free, and take


20.
d/covere Xeoj- TOVS

Oyez, Oyez, Oyez! the husbandmen (are)

to

de-

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

292

NOTE
OTTO>S

A command

3.

431, 1)

/AT7,

is sometimes expressed by OTTWS (negative


and the future indicative, or (less often) a subjunc-

thus OTTWS ovv Zo'ecrOe. av8pes aioi TYJ<; eXtvOepids rj<s KeKTrj&Oe
prove yourselves men worthy of the freedom which you possess Xn. A.I.
OTTO)? /AT) (f>rj(Ty TIS (take care to) let no one say Xn. Symp. 4, 8.
7, 3.

tive

584.

Negative

Commands

negative
expressed regularly by 7-177 ( 431, 1) with the
present imperative or the aorist subjunctive (the present,
as usual, referring to a continued action, while the aorist

command

(Prohibitions).

is

represents a single act,


539): thus (PRES. IMPV.) /JLTJ
ovv o'iov now don't entertain the idea Xn. A. 2, 1, 12.

K reive Kpolaov (stay) don't kill Croesus (i.e. don't


continue what you are now doing) Hdt. 1, 85.
(AoK. SlTBJ.) fjirj TTCU 770-779 ravra don't do this Xn. A.
fjirj

7,

8.

1,

mind

TOVTO 7rapa<TTr)

fjirjSevl

not this occur to the

let

of anybody Lys. 12, 62.

The

NOTE.

third person of the aorist imperative

is

occasionally

found in prohibitions (e.g. /ArjSeis


Trpoa-SoKrja-aTO) let nobody expect
PI. Ap. 17 c)
other exceptions to the rule of
584 are very rare.
.

585.
first

Exhortations are expressed by the

Exhortations.

mode

person of the subjunctive

subjunctive with

to> come,
not delay

let

431, 1)

^77 (

me

see

Xn. A.

thus

Ar. Nub. 21.

3, 1,

negative, by the
icofjiev let us go, $ep
if

(JLIJ

^e\\w^ev

let

us

46.

WISHES
586.

Wishes are either hopeful or hopeless.

587.

Hopeful Wishes.

in the optative mode,


586

a.

In

Homer (and

preceded by ws

T428.

as w

hopeful wish (future) stands

and may be introduced by eWe or

el

less often in other poets) wishes are sometimes


w^eXes avr66' 6XeV0cu would you had perished there

WISHES
yap

thus TOUTOU? ^ev

ol 6eol

293

ajroTeicraiVTo these

may

<t'Ao? fjfuv
gods repay Xn. A. 3, 2, 6. eWe crv
yevoio would that you might become a friend to us Xn.
Hell. 4, 1, 38.
So often O\OLTO curse him (lit. may he
the

perish).

NOTE

A wish

may be expressed in a roundabout way


av I could wish with an infinitive (cf. 588,
note) as /^ovAoi/xryv /xev ovv av TOVTO ouro> yeveo-#ai / could wish
that this might so happen PI. Ap. 19 a.
NOTE 2. A wish (future) may sometimes be implied in a question asked by the potential optative ( 576) as THUS av oXoiarfv how
by

1.

(future)

(e^e'Aoi/xi)

(3ov\oi(Jir)v
:

might I die

'

(i.e.

wish

might die

')

E. Supp. 796.

NOTE 3. The infinitive used independently ( 644) may suggest


a wish (the construction is rare in prose) as Ztv Trarcp, y Klavra
TuSeos viov Father Zeus, may Ajax get the lot, or Tydeus'
Aa^eii/
179.
ai Zev,
son!
e/c-yeveor^at /xot 'A&yvcuous ruvavOai Grant me,
:

-TI

take vengeance on the Athenians Hdt. 5, 105.

to

Zeus,

is

hopeless wish (present or


expressed either (1) by a past tense of the indica-

Hopeless Wishes.

588.

past)

el yap, or (2) by some form of wfaXov


of oc^eiXo) owe) with the present or aorist
indicative
(aorist

tive

with eWe or

infinitive

eWe

(1)

thus
<7<H,

Pericles, that

eW

co

Hepi/c\eis,

I had

r)v 'Opeo-TTjs

rore

avve^evo^riv
Xn. Mem.

been with you then

7r\r]o-iov

wish,

1, 2,

46.

would that Orestes were near!

E. El. 282.
(2)

587

'AAV
a.

ytvoiro

fjioi

(cf.

coc^eAe

^ev Kvpov

%r)v

Would

that

Cyrus were

In poetry, wishes are sometimes introduced by


alone (e.g. e?
I wish I might have E. Hec. 836). In Homer at6e and at yap

600, 1 a) are also found.

a. In Homer a hopeless past wish is expressed only by w0eAo>


(sometimes also the imperfect aJ0e\Xoj>). A hopeless present wish is some606 b) as ft 6' &s -r)pdoi(j.i,
times expressed also by the optative (cf.
piy dt fj.oi e/x7re5os eft) I would that I were young again, and that my strength

588

were sound

157.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

294

Cyrus ought to be alive) Xn. A. 2, 1, 4. Such


may be preceded by eWe or el yap: el
co
w(f>e\ov,
K/HTcoz', OIOL r elvai ol TroXXot TO,
Ka/ca epydeo-0ai would that the common herd, Crito, ivere
capable of doing the greatest harm PL Crit. 44 d.
alive ! (lit.

wishes also

Observe that the aorist in hopeless wishes refers to a


single act (in past time), while the imperfect refers to a
continued act (in present, seldom in past, time). Gf. 606.
The same principle applies to the present or aorist infinitive with w(f>e\ov.

567.

Cf.

sometimes expressed in a roundabout


587 note 1) as
e/SovAo/^v (or 7/0eA.ov) av I could wish (cf.
fftovXoiJLrjv av avrovs a\r)0f) Aeyeu/ / could wish that they spoke the

NOTE.

hopeless wish

is

way by

truth Lys. 12, 22.

Negative Wishes.

589.

negative ^

431, 1).

All negative wishes take the


(This is true even with axf)e\ov,

where we should expect ou; cf. 431 note) thus a)? &)
V'LKCLV would that I had not been victor X 548.
Zeu,
:

'

elr)v

NOTE.

may I no

With

longer

live,

u><eAov the negative

with the infinitive ( 431,


sentence (cf.
431 note).

1),

Zeus E. Hipp. 1191.

probably belonged originally


but later came to precede the whole

FINAL CLAUSES

PURPOSE
590. Purpose Clauses.
Purpose clauses regularly take
the subjunctive after a primary tense and the optative (or

674) after a secondary tense.


introduced by iva <?, or OTTW? that, in order

subjunctive,

590

a.

clauses:

Homer has

also

8<t>pa

(sometimes also

as Karaj/etfao/tai &<ppa Treiroidris

shall not doubt

524.

2ws,

will

They
that,

are

and

if

626 a) in purpose

bow my head

SO you

PUKPOSE

295

thus Et?
( 431, 1)
negative they add the negative
Kaipov rjiceis, e<f>r), OTTO)? rr)? SiKffi a KOVCT 77 9 "you have come
"
in good time" he said, " that you may hear the trial
Xn.
SiavoeiraL avrrjv XOcrat

3, 1, 8.

Cy.

mind to destroy
Xn. A. 2, 4, 17.

he has in

not cross

it

[the bridge]

a)? pr)

BLa/3fjre

so that

you may

Xaftcov vfias eTropevo^v iva


<b(f>e\o irjv avrov I proceeded with you in order to help him Xn. A. 1, 3, 4.
TTJV
Be 'RXkrjvLKrjv Svva/Jiiv rjdpoi^ev a><? /jLaXio-ra eSvvaro eTTi/cpv.

TTTOyLte^o?,

OTTO)? OTL uTTapao-KevoTaTOV

{3acri\ed he col-

\d(3oi

lected the G-reek force as secretly as possible, so as to take the

King
a
he

completely unprepared

...

had burned,

so that

Xn. A.

1, 1, 6.

KO/oo? Si>a/3y which [vessels]


Cyrus should not cross Xn. A. 1,

Iva

tcare/cavaev

fJirj

4, 18.

PECULIARITIES IN PURPOSE CLAUSES

NOTE 1. Optative by Attraction. A purpose clause depending on


an optative (potential or of wishing) commonly stands in the optative by attraction ( 316) thus /3curiA.ei>s ^as aTroAe'o-ai 7Tf.pl Travros av
TTonycrcuTO Iva. KCU rois aAAois "EAAvyo-t <f>6/3os etr; the king would regard
:

our destruction as

afraidXu. A.

NOTE

2.

all important, so that the rest

of

the

Greeks

may

be

2, 4, 3.

The adverb av

av

is

sometimes used with

a>?

or OTTWS

probably a survival from the time when the


purpose clause partook somewhat of the nature of a relative clause of
dvraKovow but in
anticipation ( 623): thus ws 8' av fidOys

and the subjunctive

of the case Xn. A. 2, 5, 16.


NOTE 3. Future Indicative.
The future indicative with OTTWS is
sometimes found in purpose clauses (cf.
593 and 555).
order that you

may

learn, listen to the other side

NOTE 4. Unattained Purpose.


When a purpose clause depends on
an expression which shows that the purpose was not attained, it
takes a past tense of the indicative thus e8ei ra eVe'xvpa T0 re Aa/?etv,
'

ws

/xryS' ei

590
in

e/?ovA.TO

(note 2).

purpose clauses,

eSvvaro
In

Homer

e^aTrarav security ought


6<ppa KC (or &v~) is

to

have been taken

not infrequently found

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

296

at the time so that he

had wished

to

would not have been

do so Xn. A.

7, 6,

able to

play false, even if he

23.

Relative Clause of Purpose.


relative clause with
may be used so as to express purpose (negative ftij): as rjyefjidva alrelv Yivpov OVTLS
a Travel to demand of Cyrus a guide who will lead us back
591.

the future indicative

Xn. A.

1,

3,

14.

ro'S'

Kpvtyco

e'7%0?

o-^rerai I'll hide this sword where none


Aj. 658.

ev0a
shall

fJLij

see it

rt?

S.

592.

Infinitive of Purpose.
Purpose may be expressed
the
infinitive ( 640), but usually only with words
by
which can take an indirect object ( 375) as TO Be TJ/M&V

also

/careXiTre <t>v\a,TTt,v TO arparoTreBov the other half


(of the
army) he left to guard the camp Xn. A. 5, 2, 1. ravrrjv
rrjv

x&pdv

eirerpe-fye

^iapirdaai

rot? "EXXrjaiv this country

plunder Xn. A. 1,
For purpose suggested by the infinitive with
For the participle see 653, 5.
595, note.

he turned over to the Greeks

to

2, 19.

oWe

see

593. Object Clauses.


An object clause differs from a
purpose clause in being in apposition with the object (or
subject) of a verb denoting care, attention, or effort.
Object clauses take the future indicative with OTTO)?

(rarely

after

secondary

tense

the

future

optative,

677) a negative clause adds the negative fjLtj ( 431, 1)


as OTTO) ? Be teal vpels e^e eiraiveo-ere efjLol /jLeXrjaei it shall be
:

my

care that

Xn. A.

1,

(lit.

4,

16.

how

that) you, in turn, shall

commend me

TOVTO Bel nrapao-Kevdcrao-Oai, OTTW?


this

&>?

we must arrange, namely now we

593 a. Homer does not distinguish so closely as Attic between purpose and object clauses, and he often uses the subjunctive with cos or STTCUS
as ^pao-crercu a!y *e j^r/rcu he will
(often with KC also) in object clauses
:

contrive (how) that he shall return a 205.

PURPOSE

297

shall best fight Xn. A. 4, 6, 10.


(Fux. OPT. rare) &eeV
eavrwv
e/caa-roi
OTTOD?
ry
rjyijaoiVTO they
Trpdrrovro
arranged that they should be severally leaders in their own
;

countries
1.

Xn.

The

677)

Hell.

7, 5, 3.

(present

or

sometimes

is

aorist) subjunctive or optative


found in object clauses instead of

the future indicative (cf.

admission contrary

was

what you really think PI.

on avry peXoi

Crit.

49

c.

^X OL ae replied that
care
that
Xn. A. 1, 8, 13.
all
should
well
taking
go

ajretcptvaro

he

to

OTTO)? pr)
555): thus opd
to it that you do not make any
.

Trapa Bo^av 6/10X07779 see

NOTE.

Instead of OTTW?

OTTG)? #aX&)?

/xrj,

junctive after words like opoi and

sometimes

is

/xij

O-KOTTU) see to

found with the sub-

it.

A fear that something may


Clauses of Fearing.
happen (in the future), depending on words of fearing and
the like, is expressed by the subjunctive with fjnj after a
594.

674)
primary tense and the optative (or subjunctive,
with /LI?) after a secondary tense. If negative, ov is added

(432): thus &eSoitca


I fear we may forget
.

7ri\a0(0fJie0a rfc ot/caSe

[JLTJ

homeward way Xn. A. 3, 2, 25.


ov TOVTO SeSot/ca pr) OVK e%a) o TI Sw I am not afraid that
I shall not have anything to give Xn. A. 1, 7, 7.
oSov

eSeurav ol

"EAA^e?

the

fir)

Trpoo-dyoiev

TT/JO?

TO /cepas the

G-reeks were in terror lest they should lead against their

flank Xn. A.

1, 10, 9.

vTrepe^o/Belro

/AT)

ol 6 TraTTTro?

ajroOdvrj he was more than

afraid that his dear grandfather might die


NOTE.

Rarely the future indicative

ing; sometimes also OTTWS /XT; (instead of


or the subjunctive (cf.
593 and 555).

is

/A?/)

Xn. Cy.

1, 4, 2.

found after words of

fear-

with the future indicative

fear concerning the present or past stands in the


as (f>o{3ov/jL0a prj afjL^orepwv
indicative, with [JMJ or /JLTJ ov
1.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

298

we fear-that we have failed of both


once Th. 3, 53.

at

(JLTJ
Srj Trdvra Oea vrjueprea elir ev
I fear that all the goddess said is true e 300.

SetSco

The construction after words of fearing ( 594) is best


NOTE.
in questions (
572, 2) with
explained as derived from the use of
the indicative or the anticipatory subjunctive (
576 a).
Thus,
originally Se'SoiKa
[M] e/ox erat ( or 5^0ev) ; meant / am afraid; may he

not possibly be coming (or have come) f,


/ am afraid ; may he not perhaps come ?

and

SeSotKo,

JJUYJ

e\.0rj

meant

Later the second clause came

to be regarded as dependent on the first.


As fears mostly concern the future rather than the present or past,
the subjunctive is of course much more common than the indicative.

The optative after a secondary tense


principle of indirect discourse ( 677).

is

due to the influence of the

RESULT
Clauses of result are regularly introduced by ware

595.

or an equivalent relative).
If
as
result
its
(without stating
regarded purely
actual attainment), the infinitive mode is used ( 645) ;

so that

(sometimes by

the result

if

<w?

is

the attainment of the result

is

emphasized, the indicative

mode

(or some other form of independent sentence) is


employed thus (INFINITIVE) T& oimw? earl Setz'o? \eyeiv
:

coo-re

o~e

Trelaai

ivho is so clever at speaking as to

persuade
MeVw^o?, wcrr' e/cet'vovs e/c7re7r\f)'%0ai, he advanced against Menoris soldiers so
that they were panic-stricken Xn. A. 1, 5, 13.
evervyxavov

you? Xn. A.

2, 5,

15.

rjXavvev

CTTL roi)?

KOI av\a)cnv uSaro? 7r\rjp(Tiv, <w? /mrj SvvaaQai $iathey came upon ditches and conduits full of water, so
that they were

(lit. so

(INDICATIVE)

as

to

^ /MJrrjp a-vv^n-pdrrev

/3a<7iXei>9 Tr)V fjiev TT/OO?

Xn. A. 2,
avTw ravra'

be) unable to cross

eavrov eTTiffovXrjv

ov/c

3,

10.

coo-re

rjdOdvero

his

mother cooperated with him in this, so that the King was not
aware of the plot against him Xn. A. 1, 1, 8.

CAUSAL CLAUSES

nr\ola

(POTENTIAL OPTATIVE)

299
vfjilv

Trdpecmv

coo-

re

j3ov\r]crOe e%ai$vr]s av eTrnreaoLre you have boats,


so that you could make a sudden descent on any place you
So also the imperative as well as
choose Xn. A. 5, 6, 20.
other forms of statement, wish, question, etc., are occasionally found with iocrre.

av

A result not yet

NOTE.

may sometimes come

tive,

TroAAm

attained, expressed by wore and the infinivery near denoting purpose as yu^xarat
:

coo-re Sia<J>evytiv Oa.va.rov there are


so as to escape (i.e. for escaping) death PI. Ap. 39 a.
eurtv

596.

by
with the

devices

A clause introduced
(and JXTTC).
sometimes
coo-re) on the ground that
(and

<|>'(0T

<|>'(S,

e<'&>,

many

e'0' core

or (less often) the future indicaas alpedevres Se e<' core


tive, regularly implies a proviso
been
but
chosen so that ("with
having
%vyypdtyai VO/JLOVS
infinitive

the proviso that") they should compile


3, 11.

Troiovvrai, Koivfj o/jLoXoyidv

laivs

Xn.

Hell. 2,

coo-re 'AOtjvaioLS

JJLCV

e^eivai povXevaai they made a general agreement, so that


(i.e. "with the proviso that") the Athenians should be
allowed to consider measures Th. 3, 28.
Relative Clause Implying Result.

597.

Result

may

also be implied by a relative clause with the indicative


as rt? ovrco fjiaiverai ocrris ov /3ov\erai CTOL
( 619, note)
:

</Xo?
wish

elvai ;

to be

who

is so

a friend

to

mad

you?

as not to (lit. who does not)


2, 5, 12.

Xn. A.

CAUSAL CLAUSES
598.

Causal clauses are introduced by on

less often

598

a.

by

eTrei

Homer has

STI because.

(eVe^^) or
also 8

and

(Sm)

because;

ore ivhen, since (cf. the Latin

& re (

441 a) in the sense of the Attic

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

300
own),

a)<?

as,

since,

or

by a

relative

pronoun

619,

note).

The mode of the verb in a causal clause is regularly the


indicative (although a potential form of statement is somereal on
times possible) as eVet rjcrOero
rjicove
.

he

since

had learned, and because he heard Xn. A.

1,

2,21.

Cause
ciple (see

NOTE.

may

also be implied

and

653, 4,

by

a circumstantial parti-

656, 1).

After a secondary tense causal clauses are subject to the


and may have the optative ( 677).

principles of indirect discourse,


1.

after

words

of

wondering,

After words ex-

etc.

pressing surprise, joy, sorrow, anger, and the like, a cause


is sometimes more delicately put as a mere supposition
:

'

as ov OavfjLaa-Tov

el Tore ra? fJLOptas

wonderful that

if) at that time they destroyed the sacred

olive trees

Lys.

(lit.

e^eicoTrrov

it's

not

7, 7.

CONDITIONS
599.

1.

In Greek, as in other languages, a simple condi-

tion (in which nothing


stands in the indicative

is

implied as to the fulfillment)

mode

( 602).
condition in which something is implied as to the
fulfillment (i.e. as not likely to take place, not taking
2.

place, or not

having taken place) has in Greek, as in


other languages, a special conditional form.
See Future
Less Vivid (
605) and Contrary to Fact Conditions
(

606).
In addition to the conditional forms

3.

common

to other

languages, Greek has also a special form of future condition ( 604), and in present and past time a special form
for general conditions (

608).

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

801

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

conditional sentence consists regularly of two


the Protasis (or Condition), which states the condition, and the Apodosis (or Conclusion), which states
what happens (or would happen) under that condition.
600.

parts

1.

The

protasis

implying if

(el,

introduced by some word meaning or

is

edv, or a relative,

620)

negative of the protasis is fitf ( 431, 1).


(For el after words of wondering, etc., see

the regular
598, 1.)

If ov is used in the protasis, it usually modifies some parNOTE.


thus ei rot's Oavovras OVK
ticular word of the protasis (cf.
431, 3)
:

eas

6a.TTTf.Lv

if

you don't allow

(i.e.

forbid) the burial of

tJie

dead

S.

Aj.

1131.

601. In classifying conditional sentences, it is convenient to refer them to certain normal forms which repeatedly

Greek did not hesitate to employ that form


protasis or apodosis which should best express his mean-

occur, but the


of

ing (see

612).

NOTE.
Apodotic Sc.
Originally the two parts of a conditional
sentence were coordinate, and could be connected by coordinate conTraces of this earlier usage still appear
junctions (like Sc'and dAAa).
sometimes in the use of Se (rarely dAAa) in the apodosis, as if to connect it with the protasis thus eav T' av Aeyw on /cat rvy^ai/et peyurrw
ravra 8' In YJTTOV 7reib~eo'$e if, on the
dyaOov ov avOpwTrto TOVTO
other hand, I say that this happens to be the greatest good for a man, then
you will even less believe this PL Ap. 38 a.
:

.,

In Greek, as in other lanSimple Conditions.


guages, a simple condition (in which nothing is implied as
to the fulfillment) takes the indicative mode in both prota602.

sis

and apodosis: thus


600,

1 a.

el

Be rt?

Homer sometimes has

oterat eva atperbv

cu for el (cf.

587 a).

elvai

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

302

opOws oierai but if anybody thinks


Eye for the King, he doesn't think
el fJLev Oeov rjv, OVK r]V
2, 11.

ftaai\el, ov/c

that one chosen

man

Xn. Cy.

rightly

is

8,

ala^po/cepS^ if he was a god's son, he was not basely greedy


el rl/jicopija-eis
of gain PI. Rep. 408 c.
HaTpdtc\<p
.

rov <povov tcal^JL/CTOpa aTTOKrevels, auro? aTroOavfj if

you

avenge the murder of Patroclus, and slay Hector, you yourself shall die PI.

Ap. 28

c.

Protasis and apodosis need not be in the same tense


e\ve ra? o-Trovbas, TTJV Sitcrjv e%ei, if he broke
thus el
1.

the truce, he has his deserts

NOTE

1.

Xn. A.

2, 5,

Equivalents of the Indicative in

41.

Simple Conditions.

Equivalents of the indicative may be substituted for it in the apodosis


(and rarely in the protasis). Thus, the optative of wishing (- eA7rio>
I hope,
587), the imperative (= KeAevw / command,
582), the subjunctive of exhortation (= Sa or xprj it is necessary or proper), or
even the potential optative or indicative ( = e/xot SoKet it seems to me)
563, 565) may stand for the indicative as trot 8' et Try aXXrj Se'So(
:

KTat, Ac'ye Kal Si'8a<TKe but if you have


(I beg you) speak and explain PI. Crit.

eo-riv

Oavfjida-Lov /<ep8o?

av

et

rj

come
49

to

any

different conclusion,

KCU etre /x^Se/u'a al<rOr)<rk

e.

0awros and
wondrous

if

it is

unconscious-

Ap. 40 c.
NOTE 2. Future Indicative in Present Conditions. Rarely the
future indicative is used in the protasis with the force of a periphrasness, (it

seems to rne) death would

be a

gam

PI.

future (see 533 note) to express a present intention. Such conditions are better classed as present conditions thus et Br) O/JLOV TroXe/xos re
tic

8a/x,a KCU Aoi/xos 'A^atovs if tear and plague together are to lay the Achaeans low
61. So ei
TTI crrevo-o/Aev if we are going to trust Xn.

A. 1,3,

16.

FUTURE CONDITIONS (MORE VIVID AND LESS VIVID)


603.

In future conditions the Greeks usually preferred


602), but to an-

not to assume the condition as a fact (

it as a more or less remote possibility (cf.


555,
hence
we find two special forms of future condi558)
tions, the Future More Vivid and the Future Less Vivid.

ticipate
;

FUTURE CONDITIONS

303

Future More Vivid ConFuture More Vivid.


an immediate future possibility, has:

604.

dition, anticipating

In the protasis,
the subjunctive with eav

(j)v

or av).

In the apodosis,
the future indicative (or

its

equivalent)

thus
if
4,

rjV yap TOVTO \d/3a)fjiev, ov Swrja-ovrai, peveiv for


we capture this, they will not be able to stay Xn. A. 3,
41.
eav o-co^povrjre, ov TOVTOV aXV V/JL&V avrwv $ei-

you are

crecr#e if

Xn.

selves

Sell.

NOTE.

discreet,

you

will spare not him, but your-

2, 3, 34.

Equivalents of the future indicative, such as the impera-

hortatory subjunctive, subjunctive with ov fiy ( 569, 2), and


the like (cf.
602, note 1) may take the place of the future indicative
tive,,

in the apodosis

them at
fjirj

as KOL

Xn. Cy.

all

XP^

o^roTs eav 807 TL

30.

5, 4,

KOLV <cui/uj/Ae$a

ov 807, KT\. and if we shall appear


etc., PI. Crit.

haps be necessary,

605.

48

Future Less Vivid.

to

do

and use them, if you need


aSiKa avra epyao//,evoi,

this unjustly, will

it

not per-

d.

Future Less Vivid condiis a somewhat remote

tion, implying that the supposition


possibility, has:
604

a.

In Homer, and sometimes in the Attic poets, a future more


is expressed by the subjunctive with d alone (without &v
623 a 609 a) as otf TOI eri drjpbv ye <j>l\i)S dtrb irarpldos CUTJS

vivid condition

or

Ke, cf.

l> e sure that not


for long will
he be absent from his native land, no, not if bonds of iron restrain him
a 204. So net ns rj <ro06s even if one be wise S. Ant. 710.

co-o-erat ou5'

ct irtp e

ffid-^pca S&r/uar' <EX'O ffiV

b. Homer uses in the apodosis also the other forms of future statement
563 a
(such as the subjunctive with or without &v or KC) described in
as et 5^ Ke
Buya-iv, ^70? 5^ xev avrbs Xw/xcu and if he do not give her, then
;

seize her A 324.


Homer sometimes uses

I myself may

et /ce (instead of et) with the optative in


the protasis of a future less vivid condition as et 5e Kev "A/ryos iKoi/j.ed'
.
.
and if ever we should come to Argos I 141.

605

a.

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

304

In the protasis,
the optative with

el.

In the apodosis,
the potential optative

(i.e.

optative with av,

563):

av aurot? ical el avv reOpLTTTrois


would make roads for them even if
they should want to depart with chariot-and-four Xn. A.
3, 2, 24.
e$' bv e\6oire av, el rov 'A.\vv Sia/SalTe to
which [i.e. the Parthenius] you would come, if you should
cross the Halys Xn. A. 5, 6, 9.
thus oSoTTOirjo-eie

7'

airievai

lie

POV\OLVTO

NOTE.

Observe that the

less vivid

condition of future time cor-

responds to the contrary to fact condition of present or past time.

CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT


In a condition contrary to fact the supposition
is contrary to the existing facts.

606.

stated in the protasis


Such conditions have
:

In the protasis,
a past tense of the indicative with

el.

In the apodosis,
the potential indicative ( 565) (i.e. a past tense
of the indicative with av), or its equivalent
(
606

a.

In

566).

Homer

the imperfect in a condition contrary to fact refers

always to past time.


b. In Homer a condition contrary to fact is sometimes thought of
as still possible, and so is expressed as a future less vivid (opt. with ei,
565 a) cf. the similar use of the present subjunctive in
opt. with &v (
earlier Latin).
Usually only the apodosis is expressed in this form: as
;

ov KC 6av6vTi

7re/> dSd' d/cax ol^y v, et /aera ofs erdpottrt ddfj.'r) Tpduv tvi 5r)fjU{)
I should not have been (lit. could not be} so distressed at his death, if he
had perished with his companions amidst the people of the Trojans a 236

(cf. also

588 a).

CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT

305

The aorist in these conditions denotes a single act, and


hence refers regularly to past time the imperfect denotes
a continued action (or state), and refers either to present
or to past time
the pluperfect is used only when the
completion and continuance of the result of the act ( 534)
;

and refers usually to present time. Protand apodosis need not stand in the same tense: thus
Aorist (PAST TIME) ovtc av eTroiwaev 'Ayacrids ravra,
el arj eya) avrov etceXevcra Agasias would not have done this,
KOI taw av &a
if I had not told him to Xn. A. 6, 6, 15.
8ia
Tavr cnredavov, el
f) ap%r)
ra^ecov Kare\v6r) and
are emphasized,
asis

fjirj

perhaps I should have been put to death for this, if the government had not soon been overthrown PL Ap. 32 d.
(An
aorist (Jav
etTre?) of a single act in present time (rare)
.

is

in

PL Rep. 337

b.)
Imperfect (PRESENT TIME) raura e OVK av e&vvavro
TTOielv, el fjir) Kal Stairy perptif e^pa)vro they would not have
the power to do this, if they did not also lead a temperate life

Xu. Cy. 1, 2, 16.


TL Kal
(PAST TIME) OVK av ovv vrjcrwv
efcpdrei, el
vavriKov el%ev now he would not have been master of islands,
.

if he

had not possessed

also

/JLIJ

some naval force Th.

1, 9.

Pluperfect (PRESENT TIME) with aorist (past time) el


rpiaKO-vra udvat {jLerenreaov rwv TJnj^cov, a7re7re(f>vyr) av
if only thirty of the votes had been cast on the other side,

I should (now)

be free PL Ap. 36 a.
vuels
(PAST) and Imperfect (PRESENT) el
7J\0ere, eTropevo/jieOa av enl fiacri\d if you had not come
we should (now) be marching against the King Xn. A. 2, 1, 4.

Aorist

Imperfect
r)7ri(TTdfjLvv,

(PAST) and Aorist (PAST)


ov& av av vrj K o\o vdrj ad voi

stood this before,


T, 7, 11.

I should

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

not

el

pev TrpdaOev

1 had underhave followed with you Xn. A.

20

if

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

306

In place of the potential indicative in the apodosis


of a condition contrary to fact may be substituted a state607.

ment

of fact expressed by the imperfect indicative (without


av) of a verb denoting possibility, propriety, necessity, and
See
567 and note: thus
the like (efr)z>, e'Set,
etc.).

XPW

WITH AORIST
rlfJujaacrOai,, el

INFINITIVE (past time) ef rjv aoi (frvyrjs


e{3ov\ov it was possible for you to propose
you so desired PL Crit. 52 c.
INFINITIVE (present time) XPV V

the penalty of exile, if

WITH PRESENT

Treia-avrd

'

ff

ydjjiov roV8'

pe yapelv

you
my
you were not
this marriage E. Med. 586.
WITH PRESENT INFINITIVE (past time) e^p^v W>
eiirep V/JLCOV cve/ca eTTpdrrov ravra, <t>aiveo-0ai, rr}?
eiTrep rfdda

/AT)

/ca/eo?,

so base, to

ought, if

win

sanction to contract

TroXXa? rj^epa^ IJT<D\OVVTQ$ for, if they were doing


this on your account, they ought to have been observed to sell
fjLrjs

at the

same price for many days Lys. 22, 12.

GENERAL CONDITIONS
608. In present and past time the Greeks had a special
form for a general condition (to state what always happens
(or happened) if the condition is (or was) ever fulfilled).
In a Present General condition
609. Present General.

the usage is
In the protasis,
:

the subjunctive with edv

(jfv

or av).

In the apodosis,
the present indicative (or the equivalent)

a. In Homer, present general conditions usually have in the protathe subjunctive with el alone (without KC or &v, cf.
604 a 625 a): as
ou 5^ TIS rj/juv dak-jrwp'fi, ei irp TLS
<t>rj<riv tXevcreaOai and to us it is no

609

sis

joy if (ever) some one say that he will come a 167.


times found in other poets.

This usage

is

some-

GENERAL CONDITIONS

307

thus

\0rj Odvaros, ovSels /SouXerat


rjv S' 6771)9
comes
Death
near,
if
nobody wants to die E. Ale. 671.
ra? Se amSa?, av rt? Ta^u aviary, ecrrt \a/Ji/3dveiv it
is possible to catch bustards if one starts them up suddenly
Xn. A. 1, 5, 3.

NOTE

In place of the present indicative in the apodosis may


See
530 and the second
(
530).

1.

be substituted the gnomic aorist

example there quoted.


NOTE 2. Observe that the present general condition differs from
the future more vivid ( 604) only in the apodosis, which states what
always takes place (instead of what will take place), in case the anticipation expressed in the protasis

Past General.

610.
is

is

realized.

In a Past General condition the

usage
In the protasis,
:

the optative with

el.

In the apodosis,
the imperfect indicative (or the equivalent)

thus

ei TTOV TL

to

opwr) /SpcoTov, SteStSou if he saw anywhere


et
he distributed it Xn. A. 4, 5, 8.

eatable,

anything

a\\o

TrparreLv /3ou\(uz>TO, icvpioi

do anything

NOTE

1.

else,

rjcrav (f(ever) they wished

they had authority Lys. 12, 44.

As an equivalent

of the imperfect indicative in the

apodosis, the imperfect or aorist indicative with av (


568), or the
aorist modified by " never," "often," and the like may be used
as ei 8e
:

TIVO? TOV K\rjpov 6 TTora/Ao? TL 7ro.peA.oiTO, eA^cuv av Trpo? avrov eVr;jucuve TO yeyevry/xeVoi/ if (ever) the river carried away any portion of a

man's

lot,

he would come before him [the king] and relate what had hapFor an example of the aorist with av as the apodosis
2, 109.

pened Hdt.

of a past general condition, see


see Xn. A. 1, 9, 18.

610

a.

In

Homer

there

is

general condition, namely

fi

any one spoke harshly

For the

568.

aorist with a negative

but one example of the optative in a past

768

ef rts

ivitrroi.,

you restrained (him)

KctrfyuKes if ever

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

308

NOTE

Observe that the past general condition

2.

differs

from the

605) only in the apodosis, which states what regularly took place (instead of what would take place), in case the possibility suggested in the protasis came true.

future less vivid

SUMMARY OF CONDITIONAL FORMS


611.

The normal usage

as follows

TIME

FORM

in conditions

may

be summarized

VARIATIONS FROM NORMAL FORMS

CONDITIONS
av

OTTOI

(f)vyovT<?

ourselves

Xn. A.

"2,

4, 19.

Protasis Less

2.

TOVTO j

602).

awQw^ev for not even if there be


we have anyivhere to escape and save

?7/^efc9

bridges, should

many

309

605) with Apodosis Simple

Vivid (
pot,

Sotcel /ca\bv elvai, et rt9 olds r eirj

me to be a fine
men PI. Ap. 19 e.

TraiBeveiv avdpunrovs this certainly seems to

if anybody should be able

tiling,

TrepiyevrjcreTai el Troirjo-ai/JLev a

TI TO) TrXrjOei

; what advantage
we should do what they insist on

will result

TrpoaTaTTova-iv
if

educate

to

NOTE.

eicelvoi

for the people,

? Lys. 34, 6.

Potential Optative or Indicative in Protasis.

Rarely a po-

tential optative or indicative is used in a protasis, retaining, of course,


its regular force: as e?
ye fjirjSc. 8ov\ov oxparr) Secu/A0' av if we
would not take even a slave who is intemperate Xn. Mem. 1, 5, 3.

613. The protasis sometimes depends remotely on an


idea contained in the apodosis, in which case it is best
"
"
translated " in case that or " on the chance that : as opa Se
Srj TT)? cr/cex/rectf? rrjv ap%rjv, lav croi i/cavw \eyrjrat now

consider the beginning of our investigation, in case


to

your

satisfaction PI. Grit.

614.

Implied Conditions.

48

it

be stated

e.

condition

may

be implied

in a participle ( 653, 6), adverb, or adverbial phrase, or a


621 622) as avv vplv fiev av ol^ai
relative clause (
:

elvai rt/uo?
ol/jiai

you

our' av <pi\ov oD(f)e\f)o-aL ovr

(i.e. el crvv

vfuv

should be honored
el

vfjLwv Be epij/Jios fav OVK av l/cavbs elvai

VJJLWV eprj/jios

av) either
foe Xn.

to

eir^v

if

av e%0pbv a\e%a<jdai with


be with you) I think I

I should

but deprived of you (i.e.


should not be able (i.e. elvv

(i.e. eiwv aV),

e'lijv)

think

help a friend or to defend myself against a

1, 3, 6.

615. Verb not Expressed.


The verb in the protasis or
apodosis sometimes is not expressed if it can be readily

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

310

from the context


as
eVrt
ato?
Oavfid^eadai
KO/oo?

felt

el

be admired, Cyrus,
5, 1, 6.

too, is

should say that

I am

would (I should say)

aXXo?

real

man

other

any

worthy

worthy to
admired Xn. Cy.

be

to

KOI

avrjp,

is

elvai, rovra) civ if

wiser than anybody in any respect,

it

TO) o-o(f>a)Tepds

el Brj

if

rt?

rov

<f>airjv

be in this respect PI.

Ap. 29

b.

From

the regular suppression of the verb of the


have
arisen the following idiomatic expressions
apodosis
1.
cl
if not, i.e. except: as ov yap Brj
opwfiev el
not
we
do
see
TOVTOVS
fir] oX^yovf
avOpMTTovs for
any one
A.
men
Xn.
5.
these
4, 7,
few
except (lit. if not)
616.

fJLTJ

el |ii] 8ici if not on account of, i.e. except for : as aTroXeTrapeaicevd^ovTO rrjv 7ro\iv, el fir] Bi avBpas ayaOov? they
were making ready to destroy the State (and they would
2.

<rai

have destroyed

had not been for some good men

it) if it

Lys. 12, 60.


el 8e

3.

\LT\

but if not,

otherwise (a supposition conas aTr^ret ra

i.e.

what immediately precedes)

trary to

el

Xprj/jiaTa

Be

fir],

TroXe/irjaeiv

e(f>7]

aurofc he

demanded

restoration of the property ; otherwise (lit. but if they should


not restore it) he said he should make war on them Xn.

Hell.

1,

3,

So

3.

fir],

also el Se

fir]

is

used even when the

el Se
as firj Troirjo-ys ravra
negative
alridv e%eis dont do this; otherwise (i.e. if you

preceding clause

is

So
persist in doing it) you will be blamed Xn. A. 7, 1, 8.
also el Be fir) is regularly used where eav Be fir} (owing to
a preceding eav)
4.

oxnrep dv
o re

would be more

el just

logical.

as would be

avrov wajrep av

el rt?

if,

i.e.

like

as:

TrdXai avvTeOpajjLfie'vos

thus
.

him just as one would greet another


he
should
him
if
greet
after being long associated with him
Xn. Cy. 1, 3, 2.
he greeted

CONCESSIVE CLAUSES

311

CONCESSIVE CLAUSES
Concessive clauses are introduced by

617.

el icai

(eav /cat)

43 KCLV) even if;


if even or KOI el (/cat edv, and by crasis
otherwise they do not differ from conditional clauses
as
:

licavoL elcrL

TOU?

/jLi/cpovs

Kdv

ev Seivols wai, aw^eiv evTre-

they (the gods) are able easily to save lowly men, even
if (i.e. although) they are in great straits Xn. A. 3, 2, 10.
Concession may also be implied by the circumstantial
T<w?

653, 7).

participle (

RELATIVE (AND TEMPORAL) CLAUSES


618. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (substantive and adjective) and relative adverbs.

NOTE.

^ws means both "while" "so long as" and "

all the

while

as IwcrTrep e/XTrvew . . . ov/tia) Travcro/oat so long as I live


and breathe, I shall not stop PI. Ap. 29 d.
^XP L Y-P TOVTOV i/o//,i<o

till," i.e.

until

Oavdrov $6rj T<U (frevyovTi dta tlpydcrOai for


far do I think one should continue his impeachment, until it shall appear

^pr}va.L Ka.Tr)yopLV, e<os O.V

so

that acts deserving death

have been committed by

the

defendant Lys. 12, 37.

relative clause that


Negative Relative Clauses.
states a fact, if negative, takes the negative ov ( 431, 1) :
other relative clauses (of anticipation, purpose, etc.) take
1.

the negative pj (

431, 1).

EELATIVE CLAUSES WITH DEFINITE

ANTECEDENT
619.

A relative

antecedent

clause whose relative refers to a definite


have
any of the constructions of an indemay

pendent sentence (statement, question, wish, command,


562-589).
618 a (note). 6(j>pa in Homer (like 2ws in Attic,
both while and until. He has also ets /ce = until.
6'

618 note) means

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

312
NOTE.

Such clauses containing a statement

imply cause

598) or result

597)

if

in the indicative

may

negative, they have ov.

RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH INDEFINITE

ANTECEDENT
620. Relative clauses in which the relative refers to
an indefinite antecedent take the same modes as the

protases of conditional sentences


tive,

they have always

621.

sometimes

602-610).

If

nega-

431, 1).

^77 (

relative clause containing the indicative may


imply the protasis of a simple condition (negative

a pr) olSa ov&e oio/jbai elbevat, what (ever) I don't


fjLij): as
know I dorit even think that I know PI. Ap. 21 d. o'l fj,rj
TV%ov ev rat? Ta^ecnv 6Vre?, e& ra? rafet? eOeov those who
did not happen to be in line ran to their lines Xn. A. 2, 2, 14.
More commonly such clauses are conceived as general in
NOTE.
and so take the subjunctive or the optative according to 625.

nature,

Rarely a relative clause containing a past tense of


is so used as to imply the protasis of a
condition contrary to fact ( 606) as /cal oTrorepa rovrwv
622.

the indicative

'

av TJTTOV A.6r)vai(0v TrXoixnoi, r)crav and


ivhichever of these he did (i.e. assuming that he had done
one of them,
553, 1) they [the children] would have been
as rich as any one of the Athenians Lys. 32, 23.
eVotr/cre^,

ouSei'o?

623.
relative clause which merely anticipates a future
event or a future possibility has the subjunctive with av
av
(cf. the future more vivid condition,
604): thus o

623 a. Often in Homer, and not infrequently in other poets, a relative


clause of anticipation has the subjunctive alone (without /ce or #jO;cf. 555,
604 a 625 a.
note, and
;

RELATIVE CLAUSES
TreiaojjLai

A.

1, 3, 5.

ivhatever

I will

endure whatever

man you

shall elect

SiaTTpd^co/jiaL a Scopa^

plished

my

ea-r

purpose

av

TJ^CO

Xn. A.

as soon as

wait

till

I shall

Xn. A.

shall return

eyco e\6co

be necessary Xn.
will obey
Treio-o/jLai,
15.
Se
eTrei&av
1, 3,

may

avBpl ov av eXqaOe

TO)

313

have accom-

2, 3,

I come Xn.

29.

A.

5, 1, 4.

624.
relative clause which anticipates a more remote
future possibility has the optative (cf. the future less
vivid condition,
605) thus o/cvofyv pev av ek ra TrXola
a
I should hesitate to go on board the
e/jL/Baiveiv
f)/JLtv &OLTJ
vessels which he might gine us Xn. A. 1, 3, 17.
a\\' ov
:

TroXt?

<7T7;c7et,

TovSe %prj /cXveiv but whomsoever the State


him we must obey S. Ant. 666.

set in station o'er us,

might

Relative clauses which suggest a general or repeated


possibility have the subjunctive with av when dependent
on a present (or future) tense, and the optative when
625.

dependent on a past tense


609-610): thus

(cf.

the general conditions

eo>5 pev av Trapy TW, %/oco/>tafc as long


is
I
one
avail myself of his services Xn. A.
any
present,
Oeols eTTiTreLOijTai, poKa r eicXvov ( 530)
09 K
4, 8.

Present G-eneral.
as
1,

avrov whosoever obeys the gods, him they most do hear

218.

Past Greneral.
o-foSpbs [fy Xatpe^xwz'] e<* o
op^a-eLe
Chaerephon was very enthusiastic in ivhatever he undertook PL
eOtjpevev CLTTO ILTTTTOV OTTO re yVftvturcu /3ouXotro
Ap. 21 a.
eavrov re Kal rou? linrovs he hunted on horseback whenever
625

a.

Usually in Homer, and not infrequently in other poets, general


have the subjunctive alone (without Ke or &v}.

relative clauses (present)

Compare

623 a and

whatsoever you desire

609 a

554.

thusrd Qpdfrai

0-<r'ldlXg<r0a you consider

USES OF THE FINITE MODES

314

he wanted to exercise himself and his horses Xn. A. 1, 2, 7.


Trepie/jLevopev ovv e/cdo-rore ecu? avoi^Oeir] TO Bea/jLCDT^piov

'

e Tret ST)

Be avoL^Oeiri,

elo-yfjiev

until the prison should be opened ;


opened we went in PL Phaed. 59 d.

NOTE.

b Ti

elliptically, like

ey tVovro o TL
(lit.

jJiTfj

what was not

and

jjuf|

^rj

oo-ov

ji^

616, 1), in the

6X.LJOL they

so we waited each time


and when (ever) it was

^rj

and oow

meaning

are used

as ov

-n-ap-

were not present, with the exception of a few

few who were present) Th.

the

/xiy

except:

4, 94.

Temporal Clauses with Words Meaning " until." Temporal clauses introduced by words meaning "until"
624
are sometimes used so as to imply purpose (cf.
The suggestion of purpose
625 last example).
and
makes no difference in the mode of the verb, which is
regularly the subjunctive with av in connection with
a primary tense, and the optative in connection with a
626.

secondary tense

624,'

625).

NOTE.
tive is

674) the subjuncRarely, for the sake of vividness (cf.


used in a temporal clause after a secondary tense as eo>s 8' av
:

ravra SiaTrpa^wi/rat (pvXaK-qv

KaTtXnrehe

they [the people] should carry out these measures

left

Xn.

a garrison until

Hell. 5, 3, 25.

The temporal conjunction nrpiv (in origin


627. irpiv.
a comparative adverb from the root of Trpo before) meaning
sooner than, before (until) is used with the indicative (619),
In Homer tfws (fy>s), like 60/oa ( 590 a) is sometimes used in a
where it is better translated "in order that' : as 5&Kev
clause
purpose
\cuov ^os xvrAwa-cuTo [her mother] gave her oil that she might bathe and

626

a.

'

anoint herself f 80.


627 a. In Homer

is used regularly with


irpiv (likewise Trdpos before)
the infinitive after both negative and affirmative sentences. Rarely irpiv
6're (irpiv y or #/), literally before the time when, is found with the indica-

tive (or subjunctive).

(without

Rarely also

irpiv

is

found with the subjunctive

or d?), but only after a negative clause.

THE INFINITIVE

315

623 ; 625), and optative ( 624) in the


as other relative adverbs of time, but usually
only after a negative sentence ; after an affirmative sentence, irpiv is commonly used with the infinitive ( 645)
subjunctive (

same way

thus

(INDICATIVE) oure

ro're

levai rj6e\e Trplv

aurbv eVeto-e and he was not then willing


wife persuaded him

Xn. A.

(SUBJUNCTIVE)
Trplv av
to

avro)

f]

yvvrj

go until his

26.

1, 2,

Selrat avrov

to

/AT)

Trpocrdev Kara\vcrai,

av^^ovXevo-rirai he

him not

desires

to

come

terms before (i.e. until) he shall advise with him Xri. A.

1,1,10.

(OPTATIVE)

e'6Yozm>

//,?)

ajreXOelv Trplv

o-Tpdrevpa they wanted him not


he should lead back the

army

TO

aTraydyoi

to

go away before (i.e. until)


Xn. A. 7, 7, 57.

Trplv TOW a'XXou? aTroKptvaadai


crossed
the
rest
before
they
replied Xn. A. 1, 4, 16.

(INFINITIVE)

Sidffrja-av

The adverbs

NOTE.

Trpoo-Oev or Trporepov are

the principal clause as forerunners of


in

627).

Both

Trplv

TI

and Trportpov

rj

sometimes used

in

(see the second example


sooner than are sometimes used

-irpiv

like ir/xv.

THE INFINITIVE
628. The infinitive is a verbal substantive (originally
a dative or a locative case).
It retains its verbal character, however, in so far that it has voice and tense, is

modified by adverbs (not by adjectives), and takes


object in the same case as a finite verb.

its

SUBJECT OF THE INFINITIVE


629.
if

The subject of the infinitive,


Subject Accusative.
342 and
is always in the accusative case (

expressed,

note).

predicate substantive or adjective belonging to

THE INFINITIVE

316

the subject then agrees with

it

in case

as rou<?

e/ceXev&e avv avrq> crrpareveaOai he bade the exiles take the

him Xn. A.

field with

whom

he thought

yap

vo/JLi^o)

crvfjkpd%ov<ifor

and

ejjLol

oiero

TTKTTOV

ol elvai

Trarpi&a Kal c/u'Xou?

elvai ical

I think

Xn. A.

allies

ov

2.

be faithful to himself Xii. A. 1, 9, 29.

to

v/Lta?

1, 2,

you are

to

me

teal

both country, friends,

1, 3, 6.

So also predicate words referring to an indefinite subject


NOTE.
(not expressed) stand in the accusative case: as a CCOTIV apiOfjLrjeiSerot things which it is possible (for people) to know by
(ravras
.

counting

Xn. Mem.

630.

1, 1, 9.

If the subject of the infini-

Subject not Expressed.

tive is expressed or indicated in connection with the word


(or words) on which the infinitive depends, it is not ex-

pressed again with the infinitive as tyrj eOeXew he said


he was willing (but in Latin dixit SE velle) Xn. A. 4, 1, 27.
;

VO/JLL&I VTT

e'/xof)

me Xn. A.

1, 3, 10.

NOTE.

rjbi/cricrOai

he thinks he has been wronged by

Exceptions to the rule of

630 are comparatively rare, but


it of course stands

the subject is again expressed with the infinitive,


in the accusative ( 629).
if

631.

Agreement

of Predicate

Words.

When

the sub-

ject of the infinitive is expressed or indicated not with


the infinitive, but in connection with the word on which

the infinitive depends ( 630), a predicate substantive or


adjective commonly stands in the same case with the subject as expressed: thus (NOMINATIVE) Hepa-rjs pev e<f>r)
he said that he was a Persian Xn. A. 4, 4, 17.
rovro

IK TOV
severe

Xn. A.

^aXeTro?

elvai he

accomplished this by being

2, 6, 9.

(GENITIVE) rwv

(fraa/cdvTcov

say that they are judges

Sifcao-Twv

PL Ap. 41

a.

elvai of those who


TLvpov e&eovro o><?

USES OF THE INFINITIVE

317

TrpoOvfjiordrov TT/JO? rbv TrdXe/Jiov yeveaOai, they begged


Cyrus to become as zealous as possible toward the war Xn.
Hell. 1, 5, 2.

(DATIVE) eSoge rofc crrpaTrjyols ffovXevo-ao-Oai <rv\\eyeio-iv it seemed best to the generals to meet together and
consider Xn. A. 4, 8, 9.
iravra^ ovrw &art0et9 aTreTre^Trero ware
avTo) fjLa\\ov <j)i\ovs elvai T) ftacriXel he sent them all back,
so disposing them that they were more friendly to himself

(ACCUSATIVE)

than
1.

King Xn. A.

to the

1, 1, 5.

Sometimes, however, the influence of the infinitive

causes a predicate noun referring to a genitive or dative


(rarely a nominative) to stand in the accusative (cf
316)
.

as *A.Or)V&{&v

wanted

aeviq

Athenians

the
.

rjKeiv

instructions to

Xn. A.

eBetfOrjcrav
to

come

to

ftorjdovs

jeveaOat they
their assistance Hdt. 6, 100.

a^io-i

TrapayyeXXei \a(36vra rou? aXXof? he sent


to take the rest of the men, and come

Xenias

1, 2, 1.

USES OF THE INFINITIVE


632.

The

infinitive has

two

distinct uses

stantive (not in indirect discourse),


discourse.

(1) as a sub-

and (2)

in indirect

The use of the infinitive (with subject accusative) was


NOTE.
developed from its substantive use, thus dyye'AAa> Kvpov i/t/cav originally meant / report Cyrus in regard to being victorious, which amounts
to saying 7 report that Cyrus is victorious, and (Kvpov) vlxav is felt to
represent (Kupo?) vt*a, the present indicative

(cf.

342, note).

The infinitive used


Negative with the Infinitive.
its
as a substantive has regularly as
negative ^77 ( 431, 1);
633.

the infinitive in indirect discourse retains the negative of


the direct discourse (usually ou,
431, 2).

318

THE INFINITIVE

Personal and Impersonal Construction.

634.

In Greek,

as in English, both the personal and the impersonal constructions are found with words of saying and the like.

Thus, the Greeks said both K0/>o? \eyerai ava$r\vai Cyrus


said to have gone up, and XeyeTcu Kvpov avaftr]vai it is
said that Cyrus went up, but the tendency was to employ
the personal construction more freely than in English.

is

Hence some

of the

Greek personal constructions (espe-

77X05 evident, Sfaaios just, and the like) have


cially with
thus 77X05 rp
to be rendered in English as impersonal
it
that
he
was
distressed
was
evident
avlcbfjLvo$
(lit. he was
:

evident)

Xn. A.

1, 2, 11.

THE INFINITIVE AS A SUBSTANTIVE


635.

The use

of the infinitive soon

extended far beyond

original bounds (as a dative or locative case) and it


was felt that the infinitive could stand in any case (nominative, genitive, dative, or accusative), but unless it is
its

modified by the article (


say definitely in
636.
fied

what

636)

it

is

often impossible to

case the infinitive stands.

The

Articular Infinitive.

by the neuter of the

infinitive

definite

444); when so modified,


appears even more clearly.
(

its

may be modi-

article,

TO,

substantive

roO,

rq>

character

The infinitive (with or withstand as the subject of a verb (or as

637. Infinitive as Subject.

out the article)

may

a predicate substantive): as KOCT/JLO^ /caX&>? roOro Spdv to


perform this as it should be done is a credit Th. 1, 5. TO
<ydp roi

636

a.

Odvarov SeSievai

Homer never

ovSev aXXo larlv

uses the article with the infinitive.

TJ

&o/ceiv

THE INFINITIVE AS A SUBSTANTIVE


(70(j)bv

seem

eivai pr)

to be

ovra for

to

wise when one

fear death

is

not

is

PL Ap.

319

nothing else than

29

to

a.

If the infinitive is the subject of a finite verb, it is of


course in the nominative case; if it is the subject of an
infinitive, it is of course in the accusative case.
1. Infinitive as
With many im(Apparent) Subject.
personal verbs and similar expressions, such as Bel or ^prj
it is necessary, Sofcel it seems best, e&Ti it is possible, efeo-rt it

is

allowed, Trpeirei or Trpocnj/cei

fine thing, Sitcaiov

it is

right,

it is fitting,

and the

like,

Ka\6v ecrn

it is

the infinitive stands

in the relation of subject or <?mm'-subject (cf


305, note)
as wSe ovv ^prj iroielv thus then we must act Xn. A. 2, 2, 4.
.

TL Sel

avTov

alrelv

e^eariv opav
e'Sof ev ovv auTot?
.

proceed Xn. A.

make demand? Xn. A. 2,


possible to see Xn. A. 3, 4, 39.

ivhy must he

1, 10.

to

it is
.

Trpoievat, so it seemed best to them


Siicaiov yap a7r6\\vcr6ai, TOVS

2, 1, 2.

eTTiopKovvras for it is right for perjurers to perish Xn. A.


For the personal construction, instead of the
2, 5, 41.

634.
impersonal, in examples like the last see
Here belongs also the infinitive in indirect discourse
(

646) with passive verbs of saying and thinking, like

\eyerai, vofjL^erai, etc. (cf.

634).

The
Infinitive as Object or Cognate Accusative.
infinitive with or without the article is used with great
638.

frequency as an object ( 329) or cognate accusative ( 331).


When used as a cognate accusative it is often called the

Complementary Infinitive. Examples are: r)0e\ov avrov


aKoveiv they ivere willing to listen to him Xn. A. 2, 6, 11.
ov Swdfjievoi /cadevSeiv not being able to sleep Xn. A. 3, 1, 3.
ovfc el%ov licavfa
[^^tatjoa?] evpelv they had not (the power)
to find enough
navOdvovaiv
[goats] Xn. A. 3, 2, 12.
re /cal ap^ecrdai they learn to govern and to be

THE INFINITIVE

320
governed Xn. A.

rfv^ovro avrbv evrv^rja-at they


have good luck Xn. A. 1, 4, 17.
row
avrov e/ceXevcre pelvai he bade the hoplites

prayed for him


pev oTrXtra?

1, 9, 4.

to

remain on the spot Xn. A. 1, 5, 13. OUK eVooXue /3ao-iXeu9


TO Kvpov (TTpdrevfjia Siafiaiveiv the King did not hinder
Cyrus' army from crossing Xn. A. 1, 7, 19.
SieTrpagaro
irevre iiev o-Tparrjyovs

go Xn. A.

levai he managed

to

have jive generals

30.

2, 5,

Here belongs

also the infinitive in indirect discourse

after verbs of saying and thinking ( 669).


infinitive with verbs of promising and the like see

For the
549,

(WiTH THE ARTICLE)


ical

2.

a\\a

fyopov^evoi ofy fjpfa HOVQV,


TO KaraTreo-elv in fear not only of ws, but also of fall-

ing off

Xn. A.

3, 2,

19.

(WiTH PREPOSITIONS)
Sev/j,evo<:

trained

to

TT/OO?

TO /-teT/nW SelcrOai

having only moderate wants Xn.

TreTrai-

Mem.

1, 2, 1.

639.

Infinitive

in the

Genitive Case.

The

infinitive

stand in the genitive case

(usually with the article) may


as ol Se fftWe? CUTUH davelv the living are the cause of his
death S. Ant. 1173.

(WiTH THE ARTICLE) TOU

jrtelv eiriQv^La the desire to

ToO av\\e^/eiv TrXota having


Xn.
A. 5, 1, 15. ap^avres rov
to
collect
vessels
neglected
Siafiaiveiv taking the lead in crossing Xn. A. 1, 4, 15.
(WiTH A PREPOSITION) avrlrovrol^TrXeioai ireiOeadai
instead of obeying the majority Xn. Hell. 2, 3, 34.
drink Th.

7, 84.

a/zeX^o-a?

NOTE.
For the infinitive with rov expressing purpose (mostly in
Thucydides) see 352, 1, note.
640.

Infinitive in the Dative Case.

The

infinitive

(with

or without the article) is often found in the dative case


teal a,7re\9elv at vfjes
e a<j</>aXe? /cal /Jievetv
as TO
:

THE INFINITIVE AS A SUBSTANTIVE


-i

321

security both for staying and for going away, our


Th. 6, 18.
Here doubtless are to be

ships will provide

classed the infinitive expressing purpose (see


592) and
the infinitive with most adjectives and substantives (see

641).

(WlTH THE ARTICLE)


&vvao-0ai

Menon

Mevcov ^ydXXero

TW

rejoiced in being able to deceive

egaTrarav

Xn. A.

2,

6,26.

(WlTH PREPOSITIONS)

ev

yap TW /cparelv ecm

teal

TO

ra rwv

\afji{3di>eii>
rjTrdvcov in being victorious is included
also the right to take the property of the vanquished Xn.
A. 5, 6, 32.

641.

Infinitive

with

Adjectives

and

Substantives.

Adjectives (adverbs) and substantives, denoting ability,


fitness, power, sufficiency, and the like, and their opposites,

be followed by the infinitive as SvvaTrjv /cal VTTO&yioi? 7ropeveo-0ai, 6Bdv a road practicable even for pack
animals to travel Xn. A. 4, 1, 24.
OTTOCTOL licavol r^aav ra?

may

aKpoTrdXeis (f)V\a,TTeiv as
the citadels Xn. A. 1, 2, 1.

many

as were sufficient to

guard

Seivbs \eyeiv clever at speakPI.


b.
17
ing
%aXe?ra evpelv hard to find PL Rep.
Ap.
412 b. o lot re eaeaOe r^uv av/jiTrpat; ai you will be able
to

cooperate with us

Xn. A.

(Dpa airievai it's time to go

5, 4, 9.

away PL Ap. 42

a.

avdy/crj

/jid^ecrOaL it is necessary to fight Xn. A. 4, 6, 10.


o/cvos rjv aviaraaO ai there was a disinclination to get up
Xn. A. 4, 4, 11.
Oav^a ISeaQai a wonder to behold
ecrrl

(9366.

NOTE.
As in English, the active infinitive is commonly used with
adjectives and substantives, even though the meaning may be passive
as aios Oav/j.da-(u ivorth admiring, worthy to be admired Th. 1, 138.
Cf.
" a house to let."
in

English

BABBITT'S GR. GRAM.

21

THE INFINITIVE

322

Adverbial Use of the Infinitive.

642.

The

infinitive

(with or without the article) may be used adverbially, like


the dative of Respect ( 390), or the Adverbial Accusaas TO Se [Bid irdXlroyv Spav efyvv apfyavos
tive ( 336)
but as for acting in defiance of the State, I am too weak for
that S. Ant. 79.
ob?
o")^o\7j rj r^fjilv TO Kara TOVTOV
:

elvai that we

may

have freedom so far as this

cerned Xn. A. 1, 6, 9.
1.
With the article

man

TO the adverbial infinitive

is

is

con-

most

frequently found after words denoting hindrance and the


like (
643); without the article it is most frequently

found in certain
or

set phrases (often

eVo?

a)?

preceded by

eb?)

<?

as one might say, (&>?) vvve\6vTi

euTrelv

382, last example) to speak concisely, (<w?) e/zot


seems to me, eicwv elvai willingly (lit. in respect to

Sotcelv as it

being willing), 6\iyov Selv or pi/cpov Selv almost


to

lacking

NOTE.
fMKpov

(lit.

in regard

little).

The infinitive SeTv is often omitted from oAtyou 8e?v and


leaving oXtyov or fUKpov alone to mean almost: as oXtyov
I almost forgot ivlio I ivas PI. Ap. 17 a.
7rt\a06[Jir)v

SeTv,

cfjMVTov

643. Construction after Words of Hindering.


Words
meaning (or suggesting) hinder may be followed by either

(1) the simple infinitive ( 638), or (2) the infinitive with


TOV ( 639), or (3) the simple infinitive with fiij ( 434) or
(4) the infinitive with TOV fjnj ( 434), or (5) the infinitive
with TO pi) ( 642, 1 and 434). Thus, lie hinders me from

speaking

may

be expressed in Greek by (1) icwXvei pe

JJLC TOV \eyeiv,


(3) rco)\vei /-te firj \eyeiv,
TOV /JL7J \<yLV, (5) K(D\VL /* TO fJLTJ \6ylV.
(4) KO)\V6i
If the word of hindering is itself modified by a negative

Xeyeiv,

(2) K(0\vei
fJL

(see

435),

and (7) ov
see

we may have

tccoXvet

434-5.

pe TO

also (6) ov tccoXvei

/JLTJ

ov \eyeiv.

/JLE

^ ov

\eyeiv,

For other examples

THE INFINITIVE

IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE

323

The infinitive may be


644. Infinitive of Suggestion.
used independently to suggest an action, but without stating it as a fact. An infinitive so used may suggest a wish
587 note 3), or

(see

may

command

583 note), or

(see

it

be used as an exclamation (usually with the article)

rb

'

as

to,

VO/JLI^CLV Stupidity!
TT)? fjLcopias
having a belief in Zeus! Ar. Nub. 819.

to

think of

Some of the so-called independent infinitives, it can be


were earlier dependent on words like 86s grant (that) or c8oe

NOTE.
seen,
it

was voted

and the

(that)

like.

OTHER USES OF THE SUBSTANTIVE INFINITIVE


645.
&)?),

e</>'

with

The
<,

Trpiv

NOTE.

infinitive is
core,

(/>'

meaning
The

before (see

infinitive,

times used with

used with &Vre (sometimes with


595 596), and

to denote result (see

627).

with or without axrre or

a>s (

595)

is

some-

after a comparative (
as vocrrj/Jia
426, note 5)
/Atov rj <j>ptiv a disease too great to bear S. O.T. 1293. cXarrco
l^ovra 8wa/xiv 17 wcrre rovs <i'Aous ox^eAeiv having a force too small
to (lit. smaller than so as to) help his friends Xn. Hell. 4, 8, 23.
:

77

THE INFINITIVE IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE


646.

When

the infinitive

is

used in indirect discourse,

each tense represents the same tense (of the indicative


or optative) of the direct discourse (the present including

and the perfect the pluperfect; see


av was used in the direct discourse,
it is retained in the indirect (
439): thus (/>?; ede\eiv
he said he was willing (i.e. e6e\w I am willing) Xn. A. 4,

also the imperfect,

551 and 671).

1, 27.

IdcrOat

self treated the

If

ai/ro? TO

wound

rpav/jid

(i.e. ICO/JMJV

(frr/ai

he says that he himA. 1, 8, 26.

I treated) Xn.

apery %prjcr0ai we think we could make


some use also of our valor (i.e. ^pw/jLeda av we could use)
oiofjLe0a

av KOI

Trj

THE PARTICIPLE

324

Xn. A.

12.

2, 1,

Xeyerat ol/co&o/jirio-ai

built (i.e. (OKoSoprio-e he built)

Infinitive

he* is

1, 2, 9.

said

to

have

For addi-

551 and 671.

tional examples see


647.

Xn. A.

with

civ.

The

infinitive

with av usually

or
represents in indirect discourse a potential optative
the
infinitive
but
discourse
direct
indicative of the
(646),

used as a substantive
a potential

meaning
prj av en

may sometimes
436):

(cf.

take av to give

it

as Travrajracnv cnreo-Te-

cr<a9 aTTOTet^tVat-^o have deprived


prj/cevai
them completely of any possible power of walling them in
.

Th.

7, 6.

THE PARTICIPLE
648. The participle is a verbal adjective ( 159, 1), and
follows the same principles of agreement as other adjectives (
649.

420-423).

The

uses of the participle

may

be classed under

Attributive, Circumstantial, and Supplebut


these
uses shade off into one another, and
mentary,
the same participle may sometimes be referred to two

three heads

Thus, in /Jba^o^evoi SiereXecrav they continued


^a^o^evoi is supplementary to SiereXeo-av, but it

classes.

fighting,

also denotes the circumstances

THE ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE

A.
650.

The

participle

exactly like

1.

The

is

used to modify a substantive


(
419): thus Tro'Xt?

any other adjective

an inhabited

Trapaiv /caipds the present


431, 1) the unflogged man.
substantive which a participle modifies may be

ol/covfjievrj

occasion, 6

under which they continued.

/ZT)

city,

Sapels avOpwrros

omitted, and the participle alone then has the value of a

THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE


substantive (cf.

325

thus ol irapovres the persons

424):

present, TO pe\\ov the future (lit. the thing about to be),


TO Oapaovv courage (lit. the thing not afraid) Th. 1. 36.

T&V epryaa-opevwv evdvTcov since there were in the country


those who would cultivate it Xn. A. 2, 4, 22.
eVXet
.

eVt TroXXa? vavs tce/cTrjfJLevovs he sailed against


sessed of many ships Xn. Hell. 5, 1, 19.

NOTE

1.

men

pos-

any other adjective ( 424), used subsometimes be modified by a genitive, if its verbal

participle, like

stautively, may
force is no longer felt: as /foo-iAeoos Trpoo-r/Kovre's rives some relatives
of the king Th. 1, 128.

NOTE

Greek uses the participle much more freely than Engand the attributive participle must often be rendered in

2.

lish does,

English by a substantive or a relative clause: as ot TrcTreio-fiei/oi


the persuaded persons) those who have been persuaded or the converts,
(lit.
the inhabitants Xn. A. 1, 5, 5.
6 rrjv yvco/xryv ravrrjv

man who advanced

the

this

opinion Th.

8, 68.

TO.

Se'oi/ra the

duties, etc.

The participle,
Participle as a Predicate Adjective.
in
the
like any other adjective, may stand
predicate with
a copula ( 307): as cure yap Opacrvs OVT ovv Tr/ooSetVa?
651.

dpi for I am

neither bold nor timorous S. 0. T. 90.

Many

other examples are to be seen in the mass of periphrastic


forms in the perfect system (
226; 227; 221, 1; 230;

536).

B.
652.

THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE


The

participle

may

serve to define the circum-

stances under which an action takes place


/SacrtXea Tre/jLTrwv rj^iov

Xn. A.

1, 1, 8.

collecting

sending

to

the

as Trpo? 8e

king he demanded

o-f XXe'fa? crTpdrevfjia eTroXidptcei

an army he besieged Miletus Xn. A.


rot?

o-TpaT^yol^

raOra

e'Sofe

TO

MiX^ro^
1,

1,

7.

THE PARTICIPLE

326

avvayayelv when the generals heard this, they decided


marshal their forces Xn. A. 4, 4, 19.

In Greek circumstantial participles are

653.

many

to

times

and very often they cannot be


properly translated by a corresponding English participle;
usually they are best rendered by an English clause or
as frequent as in English,

phrase expressing time, means, manner, cause, purpose,


condition, concession, or merely an attendant circumstance,

Greek context thus


aicovads ravra e'Xefez/ when he had heard this,
en irals wv while still a boy Xn.
he said Xn. A. 1, 7, 6.
as best accords with the
1.

A.

2 (see also

1, 9,
2.

Means.

Xn. Cy.
3.

655).

\r)6fjLevoi

^WCTL

live

they

by plundering

25.

3, 2,

7raptf\avvov reray fievoi they marched by

Manner.

in order
4.

Time.

Xn. A.

Cause.

(Cf. also

1, 2, 16.

vTrrjp^e TO*

MTTJP

j)

655, 1.)

Kvpy

avrov

<f>i\ov(ra
1

TOV /BacnXevovra 'Apra^ep^rjv Cyrus' mother took


f)
his side, because she loved him more than she did the king
fjia\\ov

Artaxerxes Xn. A.

demanded on

the

1,

ground
655, 1

(Cf. also

1, 8.

1,

4.

rj%(ov aSeXc^o?

was

that he

and

wv avrov
Xn. A.

his brother

he
1,

656, 1.)

To

express purpose the future participle


is regularly^used, but the present is sometimes found (cf.
524): thus irep-tyai &e KOI 7rpo/caTa\r)tyoiJievovs ra a/cpa
5.

to

Purpose.

send

men

amo-ravro

to

occupy the heights in advance Xn. A.


Xefo^re? a eyiyvcoafcov, 01 Be

ot /JLCV

Bei/cvvvres old

eirj

f)

Condition.

pr] Xafjifidvcov

ovBe
8'

eTTi-

what they
purpose of) pointing out what

cnropid some arose to

thought, and others (with the


the difficulty was Xn. A. 1, 3, 13.
6.

1, 3, 14.

^p^ara

ov moreover,

JJLGV

I do

(Cf. also

tell

656, 3.)

\afJi(Sdv(DV 8ia\eyo/jLai,
not converse on condition

THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE

327

of receiving money, and refrain from conversation if


none PL Ap. 33 a.

Observe that

I receive

a participle implying a condition

if

is

negatived, fjnj is always used ( 431, 1).


7.
Concession {"although").
fjieaov TWV eavrov e^cov
rov Kvpov eucovv/jLov e^co r}v although he commanded the
center of his

Xn. A.

own

1, 8, 13.

forces, he was beyond Cyrus' left wing


ovSev VTT e/uoO aSucovnevos
/ca#<w?
.

eVotet? TTJV eprjv %a)pdv although

by me, you did damage


also
8.

655, 1

Any

7ro\i6p/cei
to

and

Attendant Circumstance.

NOTE

cruXXefa? a-rpdrev^a

M.L\rjrov having collected an

army
:

apparos rbv Ocopd/ca eveSv he leapt

and put on

he laid siege

Such

participles are often best


a coordinate verb as tcaTaTnjSijo-ds

1, 1, 7.

rendered in Engl ish by


chariot,

my

656, 2.)

Miletus Xn. A.

curb rov

to

you were in nowise wronged


land Xn. A. 1, 6, 7.
(Cf.

his breastplate

Xn. A.

down from

his

1, 8, 3.

important to remember that these relations (of


653, 1-8) are not expressed by the participle,
but only implied by the context. Often the same participle may be
rendered in English in several different ways.
Thus eTroAe/xet IK
It is

1.

time, manner,

etc.,

waged war, using the Chersonese as a base


itself, might be rendered he waged
war while using the Chersonese, eto. (time, 653, 1) or he waged war by
653, 2) or he waged war, thus using,
using the Chersonese, etc. (means,
etc. (manner,
653, 3) or he was enabled to wage war because he used,
etc. (cause,
653, 4), or he waged war with the idea of using, etc.
Xeppovr/crou op/xoj/xevos

of operations Xn. A.

1, 1,

(lie

9),

taken by

653, 5), or he did wage war,

(purpose,

if he used,

etc.

(condition,

653, 7),
653, 6), or he waged war although he used, etc. (concession,
or he waged war with the Chersonese as a base of operations (attendant

but in every case that form .of English


circumstance,
653, 8)
translation should be chosen which best suits the Greek context.
;

NOTE

2.

Some

idiomatic uses of the circumstantial participle are

often best rendered by a different idiom in English. Thus, dp^o/xevo?


in the beginning, reAevroiv
(lit. beginning} is often best rendered at first,

THE PARTICIPLE

328

(lit. ending} finally, l^oov (lit. holding on) persistently, dvwrds (lit. having
completed) quickly, Oappwv boldly, Aa0wv (lit. escaping notice) secretly,

Xaipwv

rejoicing) with impunity, /cAcuW (lit. weeping) to one's sorrow,


anticipating) before.
(Many of these are to be explained

(lit.

<f>6dcrd<> (lit.

as adjectives used with adverbial force,


425)
eyto IXeyov as I said in the beginning PI. Ap. 24

thus o?rep apxop-evos

a.

avoty'

dvvcrds make

and open Ar. Nub. 181.

haste

NOTE

Participles like c^wi/ having, aycoi/ leading, <cpa>v carrymay often be rendered "with": as |X<DV

3.

ing, xpw/zevos using

a thousand

Xn.

hopliies

vl

with what force as allies

NOTE
1

what

The phrases

4.

and

?),

1, 2, 9.

Xn.

TTOLO.

Swa/xei

^4. 2, 5, 13.

traO^v (lit. having experienced


having learned what?), are best trans"
" what
put it in your head
(Trao-^w) or

TL (o TL)

TI (o TL) fjua.6wv (lit.

lated " what possessed you to


"
"
to
why in the world": as TI
(fjavOdvu), or loosely
what has possessed us to forget?
313.
.

7ra06vT

ADVERBS WITH THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE


654.

The

relations of time, manner, cause, etc., often

implied in the circumstantial participle ( 653), may be


made clearer (1) by means of adverbs modifying the principal verb, or (2) they may be definitely stated
of adverbs modifying the participle itself.

by means

655. Adverbs Modifying the Principal Verb.


The adverbs evOvs straightiuay, avri/ca immediately, apa at the

same

time,

rore

GTreira thereupon,

(evravOa) then, rj&rj already, elra then,


and a few others, modifying the princi-

pal verb, often serve to make clearer a temporal relation


Cf.
653, 1.
implied in the participle.
(The first four
are often more closely connected in sense with the participle than with the principal verb) thus TO) Seftoi /cepd rcov
erre/ceiVTO they attacked
'A0r)vaia)i> evOvs aTro^e^Tj/con
:

it was disemwas
disembarked, they
(lit.
right icing
straightway attacked i) Th. 4, 43.
e^d^ovro a pa Tropevo-

the right

barked

wing

of the

when

the

Athenians as soon as

THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE


they fought

and marched

329

same time Xn. A.

at the

6, 3,

eVecr^e \eyovra fjiera^v it often checked


7roXXa^oO
me in the very act of speaking PL Ap. 40 b.
e/ceXevaev
avrov o-vvSiafldvTa e Tret TO. OUTCO? a7ra\\dTTea6ai he advised
5.

Bij

him

fjie

with the

to cross

In like manner

1.

and then withdraw Xn. A.

rest,

7, 1, 4.

nevertheless, otmw? thus, eZra, or

O/AO)?

eVetra, with

the principal verb, may help a participle


implying concession ( 653, 7), o#ro>? may help a participle implying manner ( 653, 3), and ovrcos or Sia ravra
(TOUTO)
as

may

t?

help a participle implying cause (

oire?

cLTreipoi

avrwv

o/Lto)?

eYoX/irjo-are

653, 4)
.

levai

aurou? although you knew nothing about them, yet you

dared

to

VO/JLICOV a/jieivovs
go against them Xn. A. 3, 2, 16.
TroXXwy ftapfBdpwv v^ta? elvai, Sia TOVTO Trpoa-

fcal tcpeiTTOV?

e\afSov because I thought you better and braver than


barbarians (for this reason) I enlisted you Xn. A. 1,

many
7, 3.

The following
656. Adverbs Modifying the Participle.
adverbs modify the participle itself
1. The adverb are
(also olov, ola) inasmuch as ( 441 a)
:

thus o Se Kvpos are


and Cyrus, inasmuch as he was
was pleased with the equipment Xn. Cy. 1, 3, 3.

gives the participle a causal meaning


TTCU?

&)

child,

TjSero TTJ a-ro\y

are

6ea)fjLeva)v r&v eraipwv inasmuch as their companions


were looking on Xn. A. 4, 8, 28.
2.
Kafcep although (sometimes also KCLI or KOI ravra,
312 note) gives the participle a concessive meaning thus
:

656,

1 a.

In Herodotus wVre

(like Attic #re): as


this Hdt. 1, 8.
cts

wore

is

used with participles meaning inasmuch

ravra vo^ifav but inasmuch as he believed

71
656, 2 a. In Homer (and sometimes in tragedy) KO.L and irep (cf.
note) are often separated by the participle or other emphatic word as ot
5/caJ &xv6fjievoi TT e p eir' avr^ i)5ti ye\a<r<rai> but they, though troubled,
:

laughed joyously at him B 270

sometimes

ep although distressed K 174.

Trep

alone means although

as

THE PARTICIPLE

330

rore Trpocrefcvvrjcrav tcaiTrep etSore? on evrt Odvarov dyoiro


even then they did homage to him, although they knew that
he was being led to death Xn. A. 1, 6, 10.
/cal

shows that the participle states the reasons of


somebody else without implicating the speaker or writer.
(The context sometimes shows that the reason is only
3.

'fl?

pretended)

thus Upo^evov

e/ceXevcre

Trapayeve'crOai,,

Ilto-tSa?

et?

/3ov\6fjievos o-TpareveaOai, <w? TT pay fjiara


Trape^ovTtDv TWV YllaiSwv rfj eavrov %ft)/?a he bade JProxenus
join him, on the (pretended) ground that he wished to
ft)?

undertake an expedition against the Pisidians, since the


Pisidians (as he said) were causing trouble for his territory

Xn. A.

1, 1,

11.

ravrrjv TTJV %(i)pav eTrerpe^re StapTrdcrai


ovaav this country he turned over

rot? "E\\r](riv &)? 7ro\6fjiLdv


to the

G-reeks to

plunder since (in his opinion) it tvas hos1, 2, 19.


av\\a/jL/3dvei, Kvpov &)? cnroicTevwv
he arrested Cyrus with the (avowed) intention of putting
him to death Xn. A. 1, 1, 3.

tile

Xn. A.

NOTE.

oxrTrep as, just as,

denotes comparison
inactive as though

it

with the participle (as elsewhere) merely


wcnrep e6v rjorv^av ayetv we lie

as KaraKet/xc^a

were possible

take our ease

to

Xn. A.

3,

1,

14.

wcrTrcp TraAiv Tov OToAov Kvpov 7r o Lov fjiiv ov as if Cyrus were moving
backwards on his expedition Xn. A. 1, 3, 16. Cf. aio-Trep op-yfj eWAewe
he ordered, just as if in anger

Xn. A.

1, 5, 8.

GENITIVE AND ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE


657.

656, 3 a.
ciple with

Genitive Absolute.

noun) and modifying


In

much

Homer
the

substantive (noun or pro-

participle

having no grammatical

and ws e? re are used with the partias wcnrep (or ws) in Attic: thus KipK-rj
vea Ivu v I sprang upon Circe as if I meant to

o>'s

re,

ws

el,

same meaning

tirrjia ws re Kra^evai /m.e


slay her K 322.
6\o(f>vp6[ji.evoi ws et davarbitde Klovra. bewcdling
327.
though he were going to death

him as

GENITIVE AND ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE

331

connection with the rest of the sentence stand in the


Genitive Absolute ( 369): as aveftri errl ra oprj ovSevos

KcoXvovros he went up on the mountains, no one hindering


Xn. A. 1, 2, 22. o-Treia-a^evov Kvpov erria-reve /JirjSev
av Trapa ra? aTrovbas TraOelv when Cyrus made a treaty [an
enemy] was confident that he should experience nothing contrary to its terms Xn. A. 1, 9, 8.
1. The
genitive absolute can seldom be rendered in
English by a corresponding nominative absolute usually
it must be translated like other circumstantial
participles
653, 1-8) by some phrase or clause which best accords
(
with the Greek context: as ave/Brj
ovSevos KCO\Vovros he went up, since no one hindered, or without opposition Xn. A. 1, 2, 22.
/ca/eco? yap TWV rj/jLerepcov
;

ovrot

Trdvres

/3dp/3apoi

7ro\e/jLLO)Tpoi

for if our mutual relations are unpleasant, all these barbarians will be more hostile to us Xn. A. 1, 5, 16.
ovBe

VTWV

7repdv, ovftels

ye<f>vpd<; moreover,

though

there be

many

on the opposite bank, not a single soul will be able to come


their aid if the bridge is destroyed Xn. A. 2, 4, 20.

to

The substantive in the


NOTE 1.
Substantive not Expressed.
genitive absolute sometimes is not expressed when it can be easily
supplied from the context (cf.
305) as IvrevOtv Trpo'Lovrwv e^>at:

wTraiv as they (i.e. the Greeks) were proceeding from that place,
there appeared the tracks of horses Xn. A. 1, 6, 1.
ovrw 8' e^dvrwi/ since
vf.ro ix vr]

(the above-mentioned) things are so Xn. A. 3, 2, 10. rWros while it


was raining (cf.
305) Xn. Hell. 1, 1, 16.
NOTE 2. The genitive absolute is sometimes employed when its

use

is

Bpofjios

faster

not strictly logical: as IK Se TOVTOV Oarrov TrpotovTcov


lyivtro rots (TTpartwrat? thereupon, as the soldiers advanced
.

and faster, they fell

IlepiKAe'ous
crossed over, the

r)8rj

note 4)

to

running Xn. A. 1,2,

rjyytXOr)

avrw

news was brought

to

17.
8iaj8e/?^KOT05
when Pericles had already
him Th. 1, 114 (cf. also
661,
.

THE PARTICIPLE

332

The

Accusative Absolute.

658.

participle of an imper-

sonal verb having no grammatical connection with the


main construction of the sentence stands in the Accusative Absolute ( 343)
as a\\a ri Srj, fyia? ef ov (nroKeaai,
ou/c eVt TOVTO 7J\Oo/jLev but why, when it was in our power to
:

destroy you, did we not proceed to do so? Xn. A. 2, 5, 22.


otrii/e? are ov^l eaa)aa/jiev ouBe crv aavrov, olov re ov /cal
Svvarov for we did not save you, nor did you save yourself
,

it

although
it is

NOTE.
absolute
wets

is

possible

OTL olcrOa,

yap

SrjXov

since

was

and practicable PL

peXov

a matter of interest

Grit.

46

a.

ye aoi for of course you know,


to you PI. Ap. 24 d.

After w? or wo-Trep ( 656, 3, and note) the accusative


sometimes found where we should expect the genitive thus

01 Trare/oes

Trovrjpwv avOp<*)Tr<av eipyovo-w, ob? TYJV


their
ro>v
fjilv
xpr7<TTcov 6/u,iXi'dv acrKrjvw ovcrav rf)<; experts fathers keep
sons away from base men with the idea that association with the good is a
TOV<;

CITTO TCOI/

training in virtue Xn. Mem. 1, 2, 20.


as So^avraSe ravra but
uxTTrep
:

Rarely without a preceding ws or


when this had been decided on Xn.

Hell. 3, 2, 19.

0.

THE SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE

659. The circumstantial participle sometimes forms an


essential part of the predicate, which, without it, would
participle so used is called Suphardly be complete.

plementary. Verbs whose meaning is of a general nature


may take a supplementary participle to define a particular
thing to which their action relates.

The supplementary
subject or the object,
I.

participle may belong either to the


as shown by its agreement ( 648).

THE SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE NOT

IN INDIRECT

DISCOURSE
660.

The supplementary

words meaning

participle

may

be used with

begin, continue, endure, cease, happen, escape

THE SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE


notice, anticipate,

and the

like: ap^erai

333

aTroXetVotxra

it

i^a^o^evoi,
[the soul] begins to leave Xn. Cy. 8, 7, 26.
biereXecrav they continued fighting (i.e. "fought continu-

ously") Xn. A.

I never

4, 3, 2.

ovjrore eTravd/jirjv rjnas fMev ol/crtpwv


Xn. A. 3, 1, 19.

ceased pitying ourselves

NOTE.
With some verbs, especially rvy^avw (poetic Ki>pa>) happen,
\avOdva) escape notice, <J>Odv(D anticipate, the supplementary participle
is often best rendered in English by a finite verb, while the finite
Greek verb is translated as an adverbial modifier: thus Trapcov eYvyXave he was by chance present, or he happened to be present Xn. A. 1, 1, 2.
Tpe<o/xei/ov eA.av0a.vei/ avraJ TO crTpareiym ?Ae army was secretly supported for him (lit. escaped notice being supported) Xn. ^4. 1, 1, 9.
7rt

<f>@dvov(riv

before the

Xn.

TO) a/cpo)

enemy

(lit.

yevo/xevot TOVS

So likewise

!4. 3, 4, 49.

S>;Aos rjv

enemy in reaching

dvtco/xevos

7<e

the height)

w;as evidently dis-

Xn. A. 1,2, 11 (634).

turbed

Verbs expressing emotion

1.

TToXe/Atov? //*e# reached the height

^e?/ anticipated the

(vexation, anger,

trouble,

shame, joy, displeasure, or disgust, and the like) may be


supplemented by a participle implying the cause ( 653, 4)
a/covcov aov (fypovLfuovs \dyovs I am pleased
thus TJSofjLai
:

hearing sensible remarks from you Xn. A. 2, 5, 16.


eXe^^ofievoi fyOovro they were vexed at being exposed Xn.
at

Mem.

1, 2,

47.

oure vvv

[AOL /Ltera/^eXet

oimw? aTroXoyrjcra-

now repent of having made (i.e. " because


fjievw
/cal rovro pev ov/c
I made ") such a defense PL Ap. 38 e.
to say this Xn.
and
I
not
ashamed
am
alcryyvQiLai \eyo)v
and

Cy.

5, 1,

NOTE.

I do

not

21.

With some

participle the infinitive


ference of meaning (cf.

of the verbs which take the supplementary

may

also be used,

but commonly with a

dif-

661 note 3),


the participle implying that
the action takes place, while the infinitive implies that it has not yet
thus aio-^wo/xat (or
taken place (and perhaps never will occur)
:

Xeywv / am ashamed to say (what I am


/ am ashamed to say (and so shall not say).

aiSoti/Aou)

Xc'yetv

saying),

THE PARTICIPLE

334

II.

661.

THE PARTICIPLE IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE


When the participle is used in indirect discourse

words meaning know, perceive, hear, remember, for669, 3) each tense represents
appear, announce, etc.,
the same tense of the indicative or optative of the direct
discourse ( 551), the present representing also the imper-

(after
get,

and the perfect the pluperfect indicative.


av was used in the direct discourse, it is retained also

fect indicative,
If

in the indirect (

(The
object,
jjSecrav

dead

439).

participle
as shown

either to the subject or


648) thus ov yap
agreement,

may belong
by

its

avrbv TeOvrj/cora for they did not know that he was


reOvyicev)

(i.e.

Xn. A.

1,

10, 16.

-rJKovae

Kvpov

ev

KtXt/aa ovra he heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia (i.e. eVrt)


10-61 petrol avorjro^ wv know, however, that
1, 4, 5.
you are a fool (i.e. avdrjros eZ) Xn. A. 2, 1, 13. avrw Kvpov

Xn. A.

eTTLarparevovTa TT^WTO? tfyyeiXa I was the first to announce


to him that Cyrus was marching against him (i.e. eTrio-rpaeTriffovXevwv r^uv (fravepds eanv
reuet) Xn. A. 2, 3, 19.
he is plainly plotting against us

Xn. A.

3, 2, 20.

Xa/3ot? rrjv

e/jirjv

a/cevrjv

pass if you should take


7, 15.

NOTE

634)
&8e av yivdfjieva ravra el
I find that this would thus come to

my garments

(Other examples in
1.

The

(i.e. eTnftov\evei, cf.

Se
evpLo-fcco

(i.e. JLVOITO

551 and

671.)

participle in indirect discourse

is

Thus such a sentence

a circumstantial participle.

edvra/br / knew him

av) Hdt.

plainly, in origin,
as eyvwv yap /xtv

of omen o532
and
a
circumstantial
edvra
parti(in
//.u/
eyi/an/,
ciple agreeing with /xiv), soon came to be felt to mean "I knew the
fact of his being (i.e. that he was) a bird of omen." With this meaning
.

oicovoi/

which

established

is

it is

but a slight step to such expressions as T^CIS dSwaroc


see that we are unable ("being unable, we see that

ovre? we
fact"), where the
opcu/xev

being, as he was, a bird

the object of

participle

may

truly be said to represent

e'oyxeV.

THE PARTICIPLE
Hence

it

IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE

335

cannot always be determined with certainty whether a


is not, in indirect discourse, but the context will

participle is, or
usually decide.

With some verbs

(d/couoo hear, irvvOavofuu, perceive)

the participle in indirect discourse is regularly in the accusative, while


the ordinary participle with these verbs stands in the genitive as ws
:

IIuAov /caretAr;/x/Xvr;s when they heard of the capture of


on TTU&HTO ... TO HXv^vpLov
eaAeoKOs that
Pylus Th. 4, 6.
he had heard that Plemmyrium had been captured Th. 7, 31.
1-rrvOovTO rfjs

NOTE

When

Construction with <rvvoi8a.

2.

or crvyyi-

o-w/otSa

used with a reflexive pronoun the participle may


be either nominative, agreeing with the subject, or dative, agreeing
yvajo-Kco be conscious is

with the reflexive pronoun


u?ot&a e/zavru)

ao^o?

tov

eTTio-Ta/xei/a) for

Ap. 22

NOTE

eyw yap

Sr)

oure /xeya ovre

o-fjiiKpov

am not conscious to nit/self of being wise


PL Ap. 21 b. e/xavra) yap vvrj$r] ouScv

for I

in either great or small degree

PI.

as

I was conscious

to

myself of possessing no knowledge

d."

3.

Some of

Infinitive instead of Participle.

the verbs which

regularly have the participle in indirect discourse ( 661) are used also
with the infinitive with little, if any, difference of meaning (cf. 660, 1
note) as d/couco Se /cat aAAa. eOvrj TroAAa rotaOra etvac / hear that there
are also many other such nations Xn. A. 2, 5, 13.
^acVo/xai appear with
the participle usually means to appear to be (what one is), and with
:

the infinitive to appear

e<aiWro ewv he
he appeared

to

be

(what one perhaps

icas plainly well-disposed

to be

Hdt.

tcr8\6<s
let

is

of course different

I have learned

him remember

not) as ewoos
/cAateiv e^atVero

is

173.

weeping (but really was not) Xn. Sym.

(But when with these verbs an object

meaning

7,

to be

to be

660,

Z 444.
man Xn. A.

brace

a brave

(cf.

infinitive
1,

note) as

15.
is

used, the

fj.dOov e/x/xei/at

p.e(j.vr)aOu> avrjp

3, 2,

1,

638)

dya$os eZVat

39.)

NOTE 4. a>s with the Participle in Indirect Discourse. With the


participle in indirect discourse o>? as may be used with the same meaning as with any circumstantial participle ( 656, 3), but it is often hard
to render in English: thus SfjXos r)v Kvpos ws o-TrevScov Cyrus made
it evident that he was in haste Xn. A. 1, 5, 9 (but 8*7X05 rjv crTreuoW
was evidently in haste). So the genitive absolute with o>s is sometimes

used as a practical equivalent of the participle in indirect discourse


(sometimes even with verbs which could not take such a participle,
as o>s TroXe/zov OVTOS Trap* v/uun/ aTrayyeAoi; shall I
657, note 2)
report from you (on the assumption) that there is war? Xn. A. 2, 1, 21.

cf.

THE VERBAL ADJECTIVES

336
o)S

e/xov

ovv IOVTOS

av

07777

KOLL

OVTO> rrjv yvw/JLrjv

v/xets,

X T

^e

( on

assumption) that I am going wherever you go you can make up your minds
" be sure that I am
going wherever you go ") Xn. A. 1, 3, 6.
(i.e
"

Av

The adverb av may be


with the Participle.
in
indirect discourse, to give
used with the participle, not
it a potential meaning (cf.
436): thus ew Be TO TroXto-aa
662.

av yevduevov OUK eftovXovro arparoTreSeveo-OaL but the


encamp on ground which might
be made a city (i.e. o av yevoiro
563) Xn. A. 6, 4, 7.
av cKfreOels
TT/ooetXero jjLaXXov rot? vo/jiois

soldiers were unwilling to

aTroBavelv although he might easily have been ache


quitted,
preferred to abide by the laws and be put to death
(i.e.

afyeQj) av,

565) Xn. Mem.

fei/ow
he asked
.

a>9

ovrco

4, 4, 4.

alrel avrov

Trepiyevduevos av

ew
TO>V

him for two thousand mercenaries

on the ground that he could thus get the better of his opponents

Xn. A.

1, 1, 10.

THE VERBAL ADJECTIVES


THE VERBAL IN
663.

The verbal

-reo?

adjective in -reo?, -red, -reov

(
235),
passive in meaning, and expresses necessity (like the
Latin gerundive). It is used with a copula, dpi ( 307),

is

in either a personal or

The copula

NOTE.
664.

an impersonal construction.

(ecrrt, eicri) is

Personal Construction.

often omitted

308).

In the personal construc-

tion the verbal agrees with the subject in gender, number,


and case as Trora/xo? 8' el uev rt? /cal a'XAo? apa fjfuv earn,
:

ovtc

olSa ivhether

we must

cross

any other

river

THE VERBAL
do not know Xn. A.

must
665.

be

2, 4, 6.

IN -TO?

ox^eX^rea

Mem.

aided by you Xn.

337
crot

77

Tro'Xt?

3, 6, 3.

In the impersonal con-

Impersonal Construction.

struction (which is the more common) the verbal stands


in the nominative neuter (usually singular, but sometimes
plural), and takes an object (or cognate accusative) in the
same case which would follow any other form of the same

thus rrjv ir6\iv ox^eX^reoz/ the State must be aided


Xn. Mem. 2, 1, 28. TWV /Boater) par cov eTri/neXrjTeov the
flocks and herds must be taken care of Xn. Mem. 2, 1, 28.

verb

Tropevre'ov

8'

fj^lv TOU? TT^COTOU? crraO /xou?

<w?

av Swca/jLeOa

/jLatcporaTovs we must make the first days'' marches as long as


we can Xn. A. 2, 2, 12. ou? ov TrapaSorea rot? *A.6r)vafois
eVrtV who must not be surrendered to the Athenians Th. 1, 86.

NOTE.

Observe that verbals of intransitive verbs can be used in

the impersonal construction only.

The agent (i.e. the


Agent with Verbals in -TGOS.
person on whom the necessity rests) with verbals in -reo?
666.

stands regularly in the dative case ( 380).


NOTE.
The accusative of the agent is sometimes found with the
impersonal construction ( 6G5). It seems to denote rather the person
whom the necessity extends rather than on whom it rests as ovStvl
Koj/Ta? aftiKrjTeov eti/at ; do we say that it in no way
rpOTTcu (frajjitv

to

devolves on us

to

do wrong willingly

PL

Crit.

THE VERBAL IN
667.

The verbal

adjective in

49

a.

-TO?

-TO'?,

-TrJ,

-rov (

235, 2),

denotes both what has been done and (more often) what
m.ay be done : as ap ovv jBiwrov rtfuv eari ; is life endurable
for us? PL Crit. 47 e.

acquired an independent
existence as adjectives, as Oav^aaro^ (admired, admirable)

Many

verbals in -TO? have

wonderful.
BABBITT'S OR. GRAM.

22

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

338

INDIRECT DISCOURSE
{Oratio Obliqua)

668.

speaker
said he;

words

direct quotation repeats the exact


"
Kal

as

ravr,

TI TCQI^CTW^V,

This, too,

e$r], TTOL^O-CD

"

Xeyere

What

shall

of the

I will do"

we do ?

"

you

say.

An indirect quotation

adapts the words of the speaker to


as
the construction of the sentence in which they stand
:

e'^?;

ravra

ical

TroirjcreLv

o TI TroitfcraiTe

he said that he would do this also,

you asked what you should

Indirect discourse

669.

do.

introduced by some word or

is

expression meaning say, know, think, perceive, and the like


(verba sentiendi et declarandi).
1.
Of the three common verbs meaning say,
to introduce indirect discourse

when used

followed by the infinitive,


followed by on or <w? with a finite verb,
\<yo) admits either construction, but in the active voice
it is more often followed by on or o>? and a finite
<j>r)iiC

is

elirov is

verb.

When

NOTE.
command,

he advised them
2.

earov is used with the infinitive

order, advise: thus eiTre


to

choose other generals

o-TpaTrjyovs

Xn. A.

it

fj.lv

regularly

means

1, 3, 14.

Most verbs meaning think or believe (i/o/u^co,


SOKCO seem, and the like) are followed by the

fjyovpai,

infinitive.
3.

Most verbs meaning


afcova), also

669, 1 a.
b.
to

knoiv, perceive, hear (oZSa, alcrddayye\\(o announce, 8fj\ds eljju be evident,

Homer sometimes uses

In poetry ovveKa and odotveKa

mean

that.

6'
(Attic 6'rt) meaning that.
wherefore') are sometimes used

simple
(lit.

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

339

like) are more frequently followed by the parti661), but any of them may take on or o>? with a
finite mode, arid some of them may take the infinitive

and the
ciple (

646) with

little, if any, difference of meaning (cf.


"
" I know
in
English I know of its being good,"
roughly
"
I know it to be good ").
that it is good,"
For the future infinitive after verbs of promising, hoping,

and the

like, see

549, 2.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INDIRECT


DISCOURSE
In changing from direct to indirect discourse, the
MODE may be changed, but not the TENSE.
1.
Verbs may be changed to the optative only after a
670.

Only a principal verb of the


secondary tense ( 517).
direct discourse may be changed to the infinitive or participle ( 671).
2. If the adverb av
(

436-439) was used in the direct

retained also in the indirect, except when


discourse,
a dependent subjunctive with av is changed to the optative after a secondary tense (
439).
it is

3.

The same negative

discourse

is

(ou or ^77) which stood in the direct


retained in the indirect ( 431, 2).

PRINCIPLES OF INDIRECT DISCOURSE (IN


DETAIL)
THE INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE
After a word which takes the infinitive or participle
669, 2-3) the principal verb in indirect discourse is
(
changed to the infinitive or participle of the same tense, the
671.

present including also the imperfect, and the perfect the

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

340

If av was used in the direct dis551).


pluperfect (see
course, it is retained also in the indirect: thus airievai
(frrjcriv

he says he

Xn. A.

is

2, 2, 1.

going away
e<f)7)

(i.e.

a Tret /At

lam going away)

e\6elv

ftovXeaBai

lie

I want

said that he

go Xn. A. 1,
ov fJie^vriaecrOai ae fyaa-iv they say you will not
remember (i.e. ov pe^v^o-p you will not remember) Xn. A.
ou jap rjSea-av avrov reOvij/cdra for they did not
1, 7, 5.
know that he was dead (i.e. reOvrj/cev he is dead) Xn. A.

wanted

to

go (i.e. ySouXo/xat e\6elv

to

3, 20.

1, 10, 16.

(ivv

vfjLiv fjiev

pany I think I should


Xn. A.

1, 3, 6.

be

opco Se

av

ol/jiai

honored

elvai

rt/uo<?

in your com-

av I should be)
Seijcrov and I see

(i.e. eirjv

KOI aol TOVTCOV

that you, too, will have need of these (i.e. Serjcrei there will
be need) Xn. Mem. 2, 6, 29.

NOTE.

Sometimes a

relative or temporal clause is felt to be of

equal importance with the principal clause, and so has the infinitive
where we might expect a finite mode as ... ort TroAAots <f>airj 'AptaTos
:

Ilepous cavrov ySeXriovs, ov<s OVK av avaa-\(rOaL avrov (3a(riAewvro? that Ariaeus said there were many Persians better than himself,
ivaL

who would

not endure his being king

Xn. A.

After a primary tense

672.

2, 2, 1.

517)

all

verbs of indi-

changed to the infinitive or particito


ple (according
671), are retained (with change of
if
person,
necessary) in the mode and tense of the direct
discourse thus Xeyet 5' 0)5 vlSpiarrj^ el/ju he says that I am
rect discourse, unless

an insolent person

(i.e. v/3/oto-r^? el

you are an

insolent per-

OVK olSa o TI av TIS xpijo-airo avrols


son} Lys. 24, 15.
I don't know what use anybody could make of them (i.e. TI

av

rt?

xptfa-airo what use could anybody make?) Xn. A.

/3ov\evofjiai ye OTTCOS ere aTro&pw I am planning


I can run away from you (i.e. TTW? ore aTroSpw how
shall I run away, deliberative subjunctive,
577) Xn. Cy.
3, 1,

40.

how

1, 4, 13.

OPTATIVE

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

341

OPTATIVE
673.

After a secondary tense

517) any indicative not

changed to the infinitive or participle ( 671), or any subjunctive of the direct discourse, may be changed to optative of the same tense, unless the change would cause
thus (OPTATIVE FOR THE INDICATIVE) aTrtjyon a-TrevBoiro he announced that he made a truce
rot? Be
(i.e. crTre'vBofjLai, I make a truce) Xn. A. 2, 3, 9.
a
on
the
others
had
a
/3a<rtXea
fjiev
jot,
rjv
TT/OO?
vTro^Ca
suspi-

ambiguity

ye\\ev

cion that he

was leading them against

leading) Xn. A.

the

on

21.

King

(i.e. ayei, is

6809 e trot TO Trpbs

eXeyev
rj
/3acn\ed peyav he said that the advance would be against
the great King (i.e. ecrrai will be) Xn. A. 1, 4, 11.
elirev

on

1, 3,

pev ov/c eTraivot'rj el ravra TreTrotT/tfw? etrj


did not approve Dexippus if he had done this
OVK eTraivS), el TreTroirjice I do not approve if he has

Ae'ftTTTTOZ'

he said that
(i.e.

lie

done this) Xn. A.

6, 6,

25.

OPTATIVE FOR A DEPENDENT SUBJUNCTIVE

(av disel rt?


670,
avrbv,
aTrav'Troi^o-eiv
^jelro
appearing,
2)
yap
he
that
would
do
SiSoirj
for
thought
apyvpLov
[Theognis~\

anything, if anybody offered him money (i.e. eav rt? SiSa if


w/jLoaev *Ayecn\dq) el aireianybody offers) Lys. 12, 14.
eft)?

e\0oiev

ou? ire^^reie

TT/DO?

ySacrtXea ayye\ovs,

he sivore to Agesilaus that if he would


daL,
a truce until the messengers that he should send to the
/c.r.X.

make

King should

arrive, he

o-Treio-r) ea>9

av

would bring it about, etc.


01)5 av Tre^-^ra) if you

e\0a)cri,v

a truce until the messengers that

(i.e.

will

eav
make

send arrive) Xn. Ages.

1, 10.

673

a.

practically

676

a.

In

Homer

the use of the optative in indirect discourse

unknown, except sometimes

in

indirect

questions.

is

See

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

342

OPTATIVE FOR THE INDICATIVE.

Indirect Questions.
jjpero

el rt? e'/noO

ei-rj

o-ocfxorepos

asked whether there

lie,

was anybody wiser than I (i.e. eVrt -m is there anybody?)


PL Ap. 21 a. rfpayrrjcrev el TjBrj aTTOKe/cpifjievoi, elev he
asked if they had already given their answer (i.e. cnroiceKpLaOe have you given your answer?) Xn. A. 2, 1, 15.
OPTATIVE FOR THE (DELIBERATIVE) SUBJUNCTIVE.
el ire^Troiev nvas rj Trdvres toiev he dee/3ov\evTO
.

liberated 'whether they should send some, or whether all should

go (i.e. Trdrepov ire/jiTrcj/jLev


send or go?) Xn. A. 1, 10, 5.

had we

imfjiev

rj

better

to the optative mode after a secondary


never
(
673)
obligatory, and, for the sake of
indirect
vividness, an
quotation of this sort can always
674.

The change

tense

is

be expressed in the mode employed by the original speaker.


Not infrequently both forms of quotation are found in
the same sentence

as ovroi eXeyov

on Kpo?

/juev

reOvrjicev,

'A/otato? Be Trecfrevycos ev TO) araOfjia) etrj these said that

was dead, and that Ariaeus had


place Xn. A. 2, 1, 3.
675.

fled,

and was

In order to avoid ambiguity (

Cyrus

at the halting

673), the follow-

ing forms of expression are not changed to the optative


after a secondary tense
:

1.

The imperfect and pluperfect

indicative are seldom

changed to the optative in indirect discourse, since if they


were changed to the present and perfect optative respectively, it could not be told that they did not represent
the present or perfect indicative or subjunctive of the
direct discourse: thus el%e <yap \eyeiv teal on /AOVOI rwv

'EXX^o)^

ftacriXei

crvvefJid'^ovTO

ev

TlXaratat?,

vcrrepov ovBeTrcoTrore o-rparevcraLvro ejrl (3acri\ed


able to say that they alone of the

ical

on

for he teas

Greeks had fought on the

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

OPTATIVE

343

King at Plataeae, and that never since then had


made a hostile move against him (observe that the

side of the

they

crvve^d^ovro for avvefia^ojjLeda of the direct


discourse, remains unchanged, while the aorist, o-rparevaaivro for earparevcrdiJieOa, is changed to the optative)

imperfect,

Xn.

Hell.

NOTE.

when no

Rarely,

fect indicative is

on

34.

7, 1,

KartSoiei/ orparev/Aa, KM,

had caught

possible ambiguity could arise, an imper-

to the present optative (

changed

vvKTwp TroXAa

of an army, and

Trvpa.

673)

as eXeyov

<CU'VOITO they said

that

many watchfires had


been visible (i.e. Kari8o/xi/ we caught sight of, aorist, and e</>cuVero were
Still more rare is the use of the
visible, imperfect) Xn. A. 4, 4, 9.

they

sight

that at night

perfect optative to represent the pluperfect indicative.


2,
The potential indicative with av ( 565) cannot
be changed to the optative in indirect discourse, since then
it could not be distinguished from the potential optative

563)

(
.

as aTreXoyovvro

? ov/c

av

TTOTC ovrco

/jicopoi,

r^aav

el y 8 e a a v they said in their defense that they should

never have been so foolish if they had known (i.e. ov/c av


rjfjiev, el rjo-fjiev we should not have been, if we had known,
606 whereas OVK av elev, el el&eiev would represent ov/c
;

av eluev,

el elSel/jiev

605) Xn.
3.

The

changed

we should not

be,

if

we should know,

ffell. 5, 4, 22.

aorist indicative in a subordinate clause is not


in indirect discourse, since

if

it

were changed

to the aorist optative, the optative might be thought to


represent an aorist subjunctive of the direct discourse
:

thus

<w?

co?

...

^evOijv
OI%OITO
they said that Xenophon had
gone to Seuthes to receive what he had promised him (the
optative vTroo-^oLro would mean ivhat he might promise him,
representing a av vTroo-^rjrai, ( 673) of the direct dise\e*yov

vTrea^ero avrw

course) Xn. A.

lEievotywv

\rj^o/jLevo<;

7, 7,

55.

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

344
676.

Inserted Statements of Fact.

nations of fact in the indicative

Statements or expla-

mode may be

inserted by

the writer, even though the rest of the sentence stands in


indirect discourse as e/ceXevae GVV avrw arpareveo-Oai, VTTO:

o-^o'/nez'o?

d earparevero,

avrois, el /caXco? /caraTTpa^eLev e$>

KT\.

TravcrecrOai

he bade them join his

irplv,
TrpoaOev
expedition, promising them that if he should successfully
accomplish the object for which (as I say) he was making the

pi)

expedition, not to stop until, etc.

Xn. A.

1, 2, 2.

ev 7ro\\rj

on

eVt rat?
aTropia rja-av ol "EXX^i^e?, evvoov^evoi pev
/3acrtA,e'a>? Qvpcus rjcrav the Grreeks were naturally in great
&r)

perplexity, reflecting on the fact that they were (as I say) at


the King's gates

Xn. A.

3, 1, 2.

In Greek (as in
Implied Indirect Discourse.
Latin) a clause expressing the thought of another person
may take the construction of indirect discourse (i.e. the
677.

optative after a secondary tense) although not formally


introduced by any words of saying, thinking, or the like
:

d\(D(ToivTO others pitied them if they should


be captured (i.e. el dXaxrovrat, if they are going to be captured)Xn.A. 1, 4, 7. earparever a ^ev Be eV avrov o>9
01 &' w/crlpov el

aTTOKrevovwres,
Svvai/jieOa but we have proceeded against
him with the avowed intention of killing him if we could
el

(i.e.

eav SwcD/jueOa if
,

676

a.

eW

tve

can) Xn. A.

3, 1,

17.

a.7raj<ye\6eir] ra \e-)(devra they

(nrovbas

made a

In Homer, where the use of the optative in indirect discourse

after a secondary tense is practically unknown (except sometimes in indirect questions), facts are regularly stated from the point of view of the

speaker, and it is left to be inferred that they may have been at the same
time the thought of another: as ytyvuo-Kov 6 dij /ca/cot /t^Sero 5al/j.uv 1

knew some power was planning


/u^Sercu)

7 166.

f?5ee

in his heart full well

yap Kara

how

ill

(Attic eytyvua-Kov 6'ri fcava /x^Sotro, or


d5e\0eoj' ws tiro veir o for he knew

OV/JLOV

his brother

was

toiling

-409.

SUMMARY

INDIRECT DISCOURSE
truce

(which they agreed should

said should be reported (i.e.


is

reported) Xn.

last) until

345

what had been

av aTrayyeXdfj until

etw?

it

Hell. 3, 2, 20.

It is on this principle that the optative


clauses dependent on a secondary tense (

is

used in

final

590-594).

SUMMARY OF THE USAGE OF INDIRECT


DISCOURSE
678.

mary

For the sake

of completeness for reference a

of the regular usages of indirect discourse

sum-

is

here

given:

OPTATIVE

(after secondary tenses)

OF DIRECT DISCOURSE

IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE
f

Pres. opt.

may

represent

Pres. indie, (independent or dependent)

Pres. subj. w. Av (dependent)


I Pres.
(interrog.) subj. (independent)

indie, (independent)
Aorist subj. w. &v (dependent)
{Aorist
Aorist (interrog.) subj. (independent)
f Perf. indie,

Perf. opt.

may

represent

-I

Fut. opt. represents

Fut. indie, (independent or dependent)

INFINITIVE

AND PARTICIPLE
OF DIRECT DISCOURSE

IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE
Pres. infin. or partic.

Pres indic
"

j
I

Pres. infin. or partic. w. 4v

Any

which

it

optative with Av

was

(independent or dependent)

Perf. subj. w. Av (dependent)


Perf. (interrog.) subj. (independent)

is

( 5nde P endent )

or

&' w *' (independent) or


Imperf. indie, w. Av (independent)
Pres

{I

"

Imperf. indie, (independent)


"

"

unchanged from the direct discourse

originally independent,

563)

(in

Or DIRECT DISCOURSE

IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE
Aorist

Aorist

SUMMARY

INDIRECT DISCOURSE

346

or partic.

infin. or partic.

infin.

w. to

Aorist indie, (independent)


I

Perf. infin. or partic.

=
=

Fut. infin. or partic.

&v (independent) or

Aorist opt. w. &v


(independent)

PerL indic (^dependent) or


'

Perf. infin. or partic. w. d,

Aorist indic
{

Pluperf. indie, (independent)

Perf
{C

'

^w

'

"

(independent) or

Pluperf. indie, w. &v (independent)

Put. indie, (independent)

NOTE.
The imperative is regularly represented in indirect discourse by the substantive infinitive ( 638) dependent on a word
meaning command, order, or the like: as r//ceiv TrapayyeAAet he bids
him come

come} Xn. A. 1,2, 1.


changed to the infinitive

(i.e. TJKC

imperative

is

Oappeiv he told him not

Xn. A.

to

be

alarmed

1, 3, 8.

Rarely.

Rarely can

it

be said that the

in indirect discourse
(i.e.

Odppei

don't

be

as IXeye

alarmed)

APPENDIX A
VERSIFICATION
679.

Greek verse was

dependent on the quantities


and not, like English, on

(
52-54) of the syllables,
word-accent or on rhyme.

680. Kinds of Poetry.


Greek poetry in general may
be grouped under two heads
(1) that which was recited
and
that
which
was sung (Lyric), but
(Recitative),
(2)
it should
be
that
remembered
recited poetry was
always
:

developed from poetry composed to be sung.


NOTE.
The Doric of the Drama.
The Lyric portions of the
Attic drama, out of regard for its Doric origin, were regularly composed in a conventional Doric dialect, formed by writing a. for 77 in
all

words in which the Attic


K\vov

rj

<<ovaj/,

represents an original d

ZK\VOV Sc

ra? Svaro.vov.

681.

Metre ^erpov measure)

15)

as

/?oai/

E.

Med.

is

131.

the measurement of

verse by feet, lines, strophes, etc.


682. In treating of metre it is customary and convenient to employ certain arbitrary signs as follows
:

1.

indicates a short syllable (also called a mora,

equal to

).

347

assumed

to be

FEET

348
2.