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AE 301: Aerodynamics I

Lecture 2:Anatomy of an Airplane, Fluid


Statics, & the Atmosphere
01/10/2014
Dr. Mark Ricklick, Assistant Professor

Homework #1
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Course Content> Homework
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The Anatomy of an Airplane


Many types of aircraft

Source: NASA GRC: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/turbine.html

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Common components
Similar functions, although designs may vary

Wing Tip Device/

Nacelle/Pylon &

Source: NASA GRC: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/airplane.html

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Common components
Similar functions, although designs may vary

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Exploded view

Source: Virginia Tech (http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~cdhall/courses/aoe2104/ACAnatomy.pdf)

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Exploded view

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane (on Blackboard Course Content)

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Detailed view

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane (on Blackboard Course Content)

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Closer Look at Control Surfaces

Source: Virginia Tech (http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~cdhall/courses/aoe2104/ACAnatomy.pdf)

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Flaps & Slats

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Tail & Wing Configurations

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Tail & Wing Configurations

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane

Aerospace News
Raphal Dinelli plans to fly across the Atlantic in 2015.
Plane powered only by solar & algae-oil.
Goal: Repeat Charles Lindberghs 1927 flight across the Atlantic w/
Zero Carbon footprint (Paris to NY)
25%/75% energy share

What do you think are some of the required design


characteristics?

http://www.france24.com/en/20140107french-daredevil-plans-green-new-york-toparis-flight-dinelli-aviation/

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Wing Planform Terminology

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Airfoil Nomenclature

The Anatomy of an Airplane


We will often see Airfoil geometries designated
as NACA XXX, or RAE XXX.
NACA: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(Predecessor to NASA)
RAE: Royal Aircraft Establishment (Eventually became
part of the British Defense Research Agency)
Standardized set of airfoil geometries with
documented performance

We will revisit these designations when we begin


to calculate Lift & Drag on their geometries

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Basic Aircraft Performance

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Basic Aircraft Performance

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Basic Aircraft Performance

The Anatomy of an Airplane


Historical Aircraft Characteristics

Source: Anatomy of the Airplane

The Atmosphere
Aircraft operate within the mass of air that
surrounds the surface of the earth and
permeates the region above that surface.
The atmosphere
Detailed knowledge of physical properties of air
within the atmosphere are critical to our study of
aircraft behavior.

Atmospheric Properties
Atmospheric Science History:
We began to understand the property variations in the atmosphere utilizing
instrumented kites hydrogen balloons in the late 1700s and 1800s
Early balloon flights were manned, and dangerous
1862, two nearly died at 11 km over Great Britain from the extreme cold and lack of air.
In 1875, two French "aeronauts" died as a result of inadequate breathing equipment
over Europe.

Lon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort & Richard Assmann both discovered the
presence of the Stratosphere, recording the presence of the region where the
Lapse Rate goes to zero
de Bort is credited with the naming of the Troposphere & Stratosphere
Assmann is credited with developing the psychrometer, accurately providing
humidity and temperature readings
As instrumentation, aircraft, and our understanding improved, the study of
the atmosphere took off.

Additional resource: http://www.ua.nws.noaa.gov/reqdahdr.htm

Atmospheric Properties

Calculated Property Variations (Troposphere)


We will derive the Density & Pressure variations shortly

Source: McCormick, B.W., Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics Wiley 1995

Tabulated Atmospheric Properties

The Atmosphere
Properties of air gradually transition from sea
level to the exosphere.
Broken up into 5 layers:
Troposphere: Temperature falls steadily with rising altitude.
Ceases to fall at Tropopause, ~11km & 216.7K
Stratosphere: Temperature is constant in lower part, then
begins to rise to from 23km & 216.7K to 270K @50km
Mesophere: Temperature decreases to about 180K
Thermosphere: Temperatures again increase due to ultraviolet absorption
Exosphere: Ionized gasses

The Atmosphere

The Stratosphere
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7f-K-XnHi9I

Atmospheric Temperature Variation


Luckily for us, the
profile is linear in the
Troposphere
Commercial flights
<15km;
High altitude flights
<22km
The remainder of the
atmosphere can be
broken up into linear
sections
Source: Windows to the Universe, at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

Atmospheric Temperature
The atmospheric temperature is governed by:
T(h) = To - h where h is the altitude and
= the Lapse Rate (will vary with elevation)
To=Temperature at sea level
For low elevations (Troposphere)
= approximately 6.5 oK/km
= .0065 oK/m
= .00357 oR/ft
The relative temperature = T/To,
or directly: = 1-.02256h

Atmospheric Temperature
T(h) = To - h
Layer (Height
(km))

Height (km)

Lapse Rate
(K/m)

T(K)

Troposphere
(0-11)

0-11

0.0065

288-217

Stratosphere
(11-51)

11-20

217

20-32

-0.001

217-229

32-47

-0.0028

229-271

47-51

271

Mesosphere
(51-86)

51-71

0.0028

271-215

71-86

0.002

215-187

Thermosphere
(86-600)

86-91

187

Exosphere
(600+)

Atmospheric Temperature Variation


Knowing the variation of temperature in the atmosphere, lets
derive the variations in Pressure and Density with elevation
Will focus on the Troposphere

Assumptions:
Stagnant air w/ constant composition
Gravity (g) is assumed constant (small elevations)
Ideal gas: P=RT
R=287 Jkg-1K-1

Temperature decreases linearly (as previously defined)

Well consider a fluid element at height z from the ground


P=P0 on the ground (z=0)

Atmospheric Temperature Variation


Well consider a fluid element at height z from the ground
P=P0 on the ground (z=0)