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First Aid at Work

Day One

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Who am I and who is MG Training?

• Introduction to your trainer…

• MG Training is a provider of a variety of


Health and Safety courses throughout the
UK – visit www.mgtraining.org.uk for
more details.

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Health and Safety

•Toilets
•Fire Exits
•Assembly Point
•Smoking Areas
•Food/Drink areas

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SUMMARY OF
DAY ONE
Course is 24 hours usually over 4 days

HSE Approved Course

Written and Practical Assessments on Day Four

You Will be Able to Administer Basic First Aid

Please Sign the Register Every Morning

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WHAT IS FIRST AID?

Definition of First Aid:

The immediate assistance or treatment given to


someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the
arrival of an ambulance, Doctor or other
appropriately qualified person

WE ARE NOT DOCTORS!!

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WHAT IS FIRST AID?
Aims of First Aid:

Preserve Life:
Not just the casualty but you too

Prevent Deterioration:
Learn skills to prevent a situation getting worse

Promote Recovery:
Use correct techniques to promote recovery

Obtain further medically qualified assistance if required

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ACTS AND REGULATIONS
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Requires employers to protect the health, safety and welfare of their
employees and non-employees who use their facilities

Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981


Duty upon the employers to provide adequate equipment, facilities and
personnel to render FIRST AID to their employees if they are injured or
become ill at work

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence


Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
Any serious work–related or public accident is reported within 7 days to
nearest HSE Office

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FIRST AID KITS
Guidance Cards
20 Adhesive Dressings
6 Medium Sterile Dressings
2 Large Sterile Dressings
2 Extra Sterile Dressings
2 Sterile Eye Pads
6 Triangular Bandages
6 Safety Pins
Disposable Gloves
Plastic Face Shield
Cleansing Wipes

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ASSESSMENT OF
FIRST AID NEEDS
Factors affecting provision:

•Workplace hazards and risks


•The size of the organisation
•The organisations history of accidents
•The nature and distribution of the workforce
•The remoteness of the site from emergency services
•Remote and lone workers
•Employees working on shared or multi-occupied sites
•Annual leave and other absences of first Aiders

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ACCIDENT DETAILS

• Name Of Casualty
• Home Address Accident Book
A/B06/01

• Name Of Person Writing The Report


Name Date

Address

• When The Accident Happened


• Where The Accident Happened
• What Happened
• Treatment Given
• Method Of Disposal e.g Hospital, Home or Return To
Work

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE
FIRST AIDER

AS A FIRST AIDER YOUR ULTIMATE


RESPONSIBILITY IS FOR YOURSELF,
FOLLOWED CLOSELY BY THE CASUALTY
AND OTHER BYSTANDERS

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TRIAGE OR PRIORITIES

Breathing

Bleeding

Burns

Bones
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FIRST AIDER
RESPONSIBILITIES
Arriving at the scene
Assess the Situation, Make the area safe, Deal with bystanders, Any other trained
personnel, Get History, Send for help, Send for first aid box, Is there anybody with the
casualty
Dealing with the Casualties
Put gloves on, Follow ABC, Make diagnosis, Treat injuries, Give care, Act Calmly, Get
Help

The Clearing Up Process


Make area safe, dispose of dressings, complete reports, contact families, be aware of
your feelings, replenish first aid box
What are the processes of each stage?

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SUMMONING HELP

L Location
I Incident
O Other Services Required
N Number Of Casualties
E Extent Of Injuries
L Repeat Location

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Keep Eye Contact
Tell The Truth
Be Aware Of Body Language
Speak Clearly and Slowly
Use Their Name
Allow Time For The Casualty To Answer
Act In A Calm and Confident Manner

CASUALTY
COMMUNICATION

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“SET UP”
Stop Take a Breath
Think Assessment

Environment Consider The Limitations

Traffic Safe Approach


Remain Alert

Unknown Hazard Gas, Electrical, Fire ?

Protect Self and Casualty Use Barriers

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THE “AVPU” SCALE

A Alert
V Responds To Voice

P Responds To Pain

U Unresponsive

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DR SAB

D Danger
R Response
S HOUT FOR HELP
A Airway
B Breathing

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PRIMARY ASSESSMENT

D Danger
Is it safe for you to help? Can you remove the danger or move the casualty away from danger? Try
to find out the history, Are there too many casualties, can you cope?

R Response
Signs of consciousness, gently shake the shoulders, TALK to the casualty ALL THE TIME

S HOUT
You never know who will here you, so make it loud

A Airway
Open the airway, check for any obstructions, ALWAYS consider the possibility of a spinal injury

B Breathing
Rise and fall of the chest, listen for sound of breathing, feel for breath on your cheek

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B – BREATHING

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SECONDARY ASSESSMENT
Once you are sure the patient is breathing effectively, you can then
start the secondary survey
Top to Toe (remember triage)
Look for bleeding, bruising, swelling, deformity, spinal injury,
fractures, medi-alert bracelets, needle marks, pockets. DO NOT
MOVE if you suspect a spinal injury, check the neck area.
GLOVES
Recovery Position
Keep warm (treat for shock)

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RECOVERY POSITION

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BREATHING

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BREATHING AND
CIRCULATION

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BREATHING AND
CIRCULATION
What does the heart do?

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BREATHING AND
CIRCULATION

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New Resuscitation for 2006

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DISORDERS OF
RESPIRATION
Hypoxia
What is hypoxia?
Hypoxia is a term describing low levels of oxygen in the blood
What can cause hypoxia?
•Insufficient oxygen in inspired air
•Airway obstruction
•Conditions affecting the chest wall
•Impaired lung function
•Damage to brain or nerves
•Impaired oxygen uptake by the tissues

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EXERCISE
What can cause low levels of oxygen in the blood?
Condition Causes
Insufficient Oxygen in inspired
Fume Inhalation
air
Airway obstruction Choking, Drowning
Conditions affecting the chest
Crushing, Broken Ribs
wall
Asthma, Hyperventilation,
Impaired lung function
punctured lung
Damage to Brain or Nerves Trauma, poison
Impaired O2 uptake by the
Fume Inhalation, Bleeding
tissues

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B – BREATHING

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DISORDERS OF
RESPIRATION
Choking
Drowning
Fume Inhalation
Asthma
Hyperventilation

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CHOKING

What is Choking?
Choking is either a full or partial blockage of the airway

What are Some of the Causes of Choking?


•Food
•Toys
•Pen Tops
•General Objects.

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CHOKING

Blueness (Cyanosis), Usually clutching the throat, difficulty or unable to


breath

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CHOKING ADULT

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CHOKING CHILD & BABY

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DROWNING
What is Drowning?
When a persons face is
immersed in liquid
What different types are
there?
Wet / Dry / Secondary
What are the recognition
features?
Possibly face down in liquid
Coughing & spluttering
Blueness of the face and lips.

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DROWNING

WHAT IS THE TREATMENT?


•Check for danger (don’t put yourself at risk)
•Either remove from water or lift head above water
•Check ABC and act accordingly
•Beware of water in the lungs and call 999 if unsure
•Beware of the onset of hypothermia.

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FUME, GAS &
SMOKE INHALATION

When treating anyone for the above


condition we must ensure our own safety
and make sure we have identified all
casualties as it is possible to have to deal
with more than one

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TYPES OF GASSES, FUMES
& RECOGNITION
Smoke – possible spasm of air passages, swelling & burning

Carbon monoxide – Headaches, confusion, nausea, breathing


difficulties, cherry red colour

CO2 – breathlessness, headaches, dizziness, rapid unconsciousness

Solvents – headaches, vomiting, possible unconsciousness, can


stop the heart

Lighter Fuels – can possibly stop the heart.

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TREATMENT?

•Call 999 [ambulance, fire etc]


•Remove casualty from danger, ensuring
not to endanger yourself

•Check ABC
•Treat any burns found

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ASTHMA
WHAT IS ASTHMA?

This is a condition where the air passages


go into spasm and the lining of the airway
becomes inflamed and starts to swell.
There can also be a secretion of thick
sticky mucus which further reduces the air
passages.

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ASTHMA

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ASTHMA
What are the Cause of Asthma?
•Animal fur or dust
•Nervous Tension
•Exercise
•Colds and viral infections
•Smoking
•Pollen
•Work
•Weather
•Food
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RECOGNITION FEATURES?
• Difficulty in breathing with wheezy phases
• Distress & anxiety
• Unable to talk
• Can become exhausted
• May have blueness of lips and skin
TREATMENT?
9 Remain calm & position the casualty comfortably
9 Assist them to take their own inhaler
9 If the condition does not ease within 3 minutes,
get them to take the same inhaler again
9 If the attack is still present after 5 minutes call
999
9 If the symptoms disappear recommend they see
their GP

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HYPERVENTILATION

This is a condition which is a lack of


carbon dioxide caused by excessive or
over breathing, which will eventually
lead to unconsciousness and possibly
death.

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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?
• Anxiety
• Panic
• Underwater Swimming
RECOGNITION FEATURES?
• Flushed skin
• Panicky / Anxious
• Shallow Breathing
• Can become weak
TREATMENT?
9 Sit casualty down in a comfortable position
9 Calm them down
9 Get them to breath into a paper bag or their cupped hands
9 If in doubt call 999.

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HYPERVENTILATION

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BEFORE YOU GO…

Workbook paper!!

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SUMMARY OF
DAY TWO
Everyone OK with Resus?
Today we will cover:
Circulation Disorders
Disorders of Consciousness
Wounds and Bleeding
Incident Management
CPR for baby and child
Bites and Stings
Please sign the register

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But First….
Recap paper!!!

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DISORDERS OF
CIRCULATION
THERE ARE VARIOUS DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
WHICH WE AS FIRST AIDERS CAN HAVE AN IMPACT ON.
WE WILL BE LOOKING AT THE FOLLOWING;

•Shock
•Fainting
•Anaphylactic Shock
•Angina
•Heart Attack

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SHOCK

Shock is an insufficient supply of


oxygenated blood to the vital organs
of the body, thus causing these
organs not to function properly

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SHOCK
What are Some of the Causes?
•Some heart conditions
•Severe Bleeding
•Loss of Bodily Fluids
•Bad News / Fright
What are the Recognition Features
•Pale, cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse
•Nausea
•Thirst
•Weakness
•Cyanosis
•Shallow Breathing

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TREATMENT OF SHOCK
9 Treat the Cause of
Shock
9 Lie the Casualty
Down and Raise the
Legs if Possible
9 Keep Them Warm
9 Contact 999 if
Needed
9 Do Not Give
Anything to Eat or
Drink

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DISORDERS OF
CIRCULATION

Fainting
Anaphylactic Shock
Angina
Heart Attack

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FAINTING

This is a condition caused by a


temporary reduction in the supply
of oxygenated blood to the brain

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FAINTING
What Can Cause a Faint?
•Fear
•Bad News
•Hot Atmosphere
•Standing For a Long
Period of Time
•Tiredness
•Hunger
Recognition Features
•Pale Face, Possibly Sweating
•Possibly Yawning
•Slow Pulse
•Brief Unconsciousness

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TREATMENT

9 Lie Them Down


9 Loosen Any Tight Clothing
9 Raise Their Legs if Possible
9 Once They Have Returned
to Normal They can Sit up
and Sip Cold Water
9 Reassure Them and Try to
Get Them Into a Supply of
Fresh Air

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ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

This is a condition where there


is a severe allergic reaction
within the body which causes
the blood vessels to dilate and
can cause the air passages to
constrict
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WHAT ARE SOME
OF THE CAUSES?

•Bee Stings
•Nuts
•Medicine
•Seafood
•Dairy Products
•Wheat

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RECOGNITION FEATURES?
• Blotchy Red Skin
• Swelling Around The Face And Neck
• Possible Difficulty in Breathing [Wheezy]
• Tight Chest
• Rapid Pulse
• Anxiety.
TREATMENT?
9 999 Straight Away
9 Reassure Them and Position Them Comfortably
9 Ask if They Have Their Medication, If They Have Assist Them
To Administer It [DO NOT GIVE IT]
9 Be Prepared to Resuscitate.

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ANGINA

This is a condition which is brought about


by a narrowing of the arteries which supply
the heart with blood

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WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES?
•Poor Diet
•Diabetes
•Smoking
•Hereditary
•Stress.
RECOGNITION FEATURES?
•Chest Pain, Spreading to the Arms, Jaw, Back and Stomach
•Pain or Tingling in the Hand
•Shortness of Breath
•Signs and Symptoms of Shock.

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TREATMENT ?
9 Reassure the Casualty and Make Them as
Comfortable as Possible
9 If They Have Their Medication Assist Them To
Take It [DO NOT GIVE IT]
9 IF The Pain Subsides Allow Them to Carry on
9 If the Pain Continues For 15 Mins Call 999
9 Be Prepared to Resuscitate.

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ANGINA

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HEART ATTACK

This is where one of


the coronary arteries
becomes blocked,
causing possible
damage due to part
of the heart being
starved of oxygen

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HEART ATTACK
What are Some of The Causes?
• Blockage of the Arteries
• Bad Diet
• Smoking
• Hereditary
Recognition Features
• Severe Chest Pain, Radiating Down Arm
• Shortness of Breath
• Pale Skin, Possible Cyanosis
• Irregular Weak Pulse
• Signs and Symptoms of Shock
• Possible Sense of Impending Doom
• could have been Complaining of Indigestion

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TREATMENT

9 Put casualty in
Comfortable position
9 Calm them down and
reassure
9 Keep them warm
9 Call 999
9 Be Prepared to
Resuscitate.

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

What is it?

A network of impulses that control the functions


of the body

Made up primarily of the brain and the spinal


cord

The spine protects the spinal cord which is the


message sender

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DISORDERS OF
CONSCIOUSNESS
F fainting
I injury to brain or spinal cord
S shock
H heart attack
S stroke
H head injury
A asphyxia
P poisoning
E epilepsy
D diabetic

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DISORDERS OF
CONSCIOUSNESS

Concussion
Skull Fractures and Compression
Stroke
Epilepsy
Diabetes

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CONCUSSION
This is a condition when there has been a blow to
the head severe enough to shake the brain

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• Brief or Partial Loss of Consciousness
• Signs and Symptoms of Shock
• Dizziness
• Loss of Memory
• Feeling Sick
• Headache
• Shallow Breathing
TREATMENT
9 Call 999 if Needed
9 If Not Necessary Advise to See Their GP
9 Keep Them Comfortable With Their Head, Neck and Torso in Line
9 If No Spinal is Suspected Raise Their Head and Shoulders
9 Monitor Casualty Constantly

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SKULL FRACTURE &
CEREBRAL COMPRESSION

This is where via a direct blow the


skull has broken, this can either
lead to a build up of fluid or part
of the broken bone putting
pressure on the brain

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SKULL FRACTURE

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COMPRESSION

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• History of a blow to the head
• Hot flushed face
• Slow strong pulse
• Noisy slow breathing
• Unequal pupils in severe cases
• Intense headache
• Watery fluid possibly coming out of the ear & nose
• Confusion and Possible change in personality
TREATMENT
9 Call for an ambulance
9 Place in a comfortable position, if no spinal injury suspected,
head and shoulders raised
9 If fluid coming from the ear place a sterile dressing over it and
keep a sample for hospital
9 If unconscious check ABC and place in the recovery position
9 Be prepared to resuscitate

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STROKE
This is a condition where the blood supply to part
of the brain is suddenly and seriously impaired by
a blood clot or a ruptured artery

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
•Sudden severe headache
•Confused and emotional state
•Sudden or gradual loss of consciousness
•Signs of paralysis or loss of power
•Dribbling
•Slurred speech

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TREATMENT
9 Lay casualty down and raise head and shoulders
9 Reassure casualty
9 Support any paralyzed limb
9 Do not give anything to eat or drink
9 If unconscious check ABC and place in recovery position

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EPILEPSY

This is a condition where there is an


abnormal amount of electrical activity
in the brain, causing the muscles of
the body going into spasm which the
person cannot control

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TYPES OF EPILEPSY
Petit Mal - Minor Epilepsy
Grand Mal - Major Epilepsy

RECOGNITION OF PETIT MAL


•Repetitive twitching movements
•Strange behaviour, lip smacking, plucking at
clothing
•Possibly followed by a major seizure

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MINOR EPILEPSY

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TREATMENT OF PETIT MAL

9 If possible sit them down


9 Remove any sources of danger
9 Talk to and reassure the casualty until
they fully recover
9 Advise the casualty of what has
happened, if this is the first time
advise them to see their GP

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
OF GRAND MAL
•There could be a warning period [AURA]
•Suddenly fall into unconsciousness, often letting
out a cry
•Become rigid, arching their back
•Breathing could cease
•Signs of cyanosis
•Convulsive movements begin
•Frothing at the mouth
•Possible loss of bladder control
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MAJOR EPILEPSY

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TREATMENT
• If possible support or eases the casualties
fall
• Make space around them
• Ask bystanders to move away
• Protect the casualties head
• Record how long the fit lasts
Dial 999 If
9 Unconscious for longer than 10 minutes
9 Convulsing for longer than 5 minutes
9 Repeated convulsions
9 First convulsion

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DIABETES

This is a condition brought about


by the bodies inability to regulate
its own blood sugar levels

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TYPES OF DIABETES
(TYPE 1) HYPERGLYCAEMIA
not enough insulin secreted resulting in high
blood sugar levels (IDD Insulin Dependant
Diabetes)

(TYPE 2) HYPOGLYCAEMIA
too much insulin secreted resulting in low blood
sugar levels (NIDD Non-Insulin Dependant
Diabetes)

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• Pale, cold skin with profuse sweating
• Deteriorating levels of consciousness
• Can be aggressive
• Confusion
• Weakness and palpitations
• Look for evidence such as bracelet,
necklace, warning card
TREATMENT OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA
9 Make the casualty as comfortable as
possible
9 Give something sugary [sugary not
sweet]
9 If they start to improve give more
sugar until full recovered
9 Advise them to eat a meal a soon as
possible

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TYPES OF WOUND
P – uncture = Nail
C – ontusion = Blunt blow / Bruise

G – unshot = Bullet
A – brasion = Scrape / Graze
I – ncision = Neat cut
L – aceration = Rough tear

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TYPES OF BLEEDING
We have 8 – 12 pints in our bodies!!
ARTERIAL
Bright Red blood, spurting in time with heart
VENOUS
Same volume as arterial but blood will ooze
CAPILLARY
Blood loss is usually slight and is easily controlled

Always use GLOVES

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ARTERIAL BLEED
Close your eyes if you’re squeamish!!

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TREATMENT FOR
WOUNDS AND BLEEDING
9 Put gloves on
9 Expose and examine the wound
9 Raise and support injured limbs
9 If ok apply direct pressure
9 Use up to two dressings and change if blood coming
through
9 Once the bleeding stops bandage firmly
9 Support injured area if necessary
9 Treat for shock
9 Dial 999 if necessary

USE GLOVES

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EXTERNAL BLEEDING

R - est
Place them in an appropriate position for the location of their injury

E - levate
Elevate the wound, Ensure it is above the level of the heart, Gravity
will reduce the blood flow

D – irect Pressure
Apply direct or indirect pressure to stem the flow of blood

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R E D

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Penetrating Chest Wound

Abdominal Wound

Nose Bleeds

Amputations

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PENETRATING
CHEST WOUND

This is a condition where something has


penetrated the skin and the chest
cavity, including the ribs at the back.
Because of where the lungs are situated
this can include them as well

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RECOGNITION
• Signs of shock
• Coughing up frothy red blood
• Crackling feeling around the site of wound
• Blood bubbling out of/around wound
• Sound of air being sucked into chest as casualty breaths in
TREATMENT
9 Main aim is to stop air entering chest cavity
9 Ensure ambulance is on its way
9 Expose the wound and cover initially
9 Assist casualty into comfy position usually [w]
9 Incline casualty to injured side
9 Cover wound with sterile dressing, then plastic
9 Seal the plastic on three sides with tape
9 Monitor constantly and be ready to resuscitate

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ABDOMINAL WOUND

This type of wound is classified as anything


from the diaphragm down to the hips.
This has the potential to be dangerous
because of the amount of vital organs in
that area.

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RECOGNITION
• Possibly see something protruding from the wound [usually the
intestines]
• Signs and symptoms of shock
• Complaining of pain in that area
• Bystanders may be able to give you a history of what happened
TREATMENT
9 Main aim is to reduce the risk of infection
9 Lay casualty down, supporting there knees
9 If nothing protruding cover with a sterile dressing and secure in place
9 If something is protruding cover it with a plastic bag/cling film if this
isn't available use a damp sterile dressing
9 Drape a dressing over the top
9 Call for an ambulance
9 Treat for shock

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NOSEBLEEDS
Generally these are more of a nuisance, however if the casualty
looses a lot of blood they can be dangerous

TREATMENT
9 Sit the casualty down leaning slightly forward
9 Assist them to pinch there nose for approximately 10 minutes
9 Repeat this if required, if the bleed lasts longer than 30
minutes send them to hospital

9 Once under control advise them not to sniff, cough or blow


their nose for a couple of hours

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AMPUTATION
Amputation is where part of the body has been partly or completely
severed from the body
TREATMENT
9 Treat any general bleeding
9 Treat for shock, with plenty of reassurance
9 Place severed section into a clean plastic bag or cling film
9 Wrap this in fabric or gauze
9 Place this in/on ice
9 Ensure casualties details are on the bag
9 Hand this over personally to emergency services
9 DO NOT wash the amputated part
9 DO NOT allow direct contact with ice
9 DO NOT allow raw surfaces to come into contact with cotton
wool

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INDIRECT PRESSURE

If direct pressure is not effective or possible you must


apply indirect pressure

Apply for a maximum of 10 minutes at a time


The two arteries where we can effectively apply direct
pressure, are:

•BRACHIAL
•FEMORAL
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INTERNAL BLEEDING
Bleeding from inside the body is just as important as external
bleeding.
Unfortunately as First Aiders it is out of our scope to stop it, we can
however reduce its effect until medical help arrives
RECOGNITION
•Signs and symptoms of shock
•Could vomit blood
•Could cough up blood
•Could bleed from the ear or nose
•Marble patterning around the affected area
•Area will be hard to touch

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INTERNAL BLEEDING
TREATMENT

9 Treat the casualty for shock


9 Call an ambulance
9 If possible retain a sample of
blood/fluid
9 Be prepared to resuscitate

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EFFECTS OF BLOOD LOSS

Blood Loss 10% 20% 30% 40%

May feel dizzy Restless,


Consciousness Normal Unresponsive
when stood up Anxious

Skin Normal Pale Cyanosis Blue/Cold

Rapid, Hard
Pulse Normal Slightly raised Undetectable
to detect

Breathing Normal Slightly Raised Rapid Air Hunger

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BLEEDING FROM ORIFICIES
Bleeding
Appearance Possible causes
from:
Perforated ear drum/fractured
Bright Red/Clots
skull
Ear
Blood which appears watered Fractured skull (leaking
down cerebral fluid)
Bright Red/Clots Nose Bleed
Nose Blood which appears watered Fractured skull (leaking
down cerebral fluid)
Bright red and frothy Bleeding in the lungs
Mouth
Vomited or coffee brown colour Bleeding in stomach
Vagina Fresh Blood Menstruation
Anus Bright Red Fresh Blood Bleeding from lower bowel
Anus Dark brown Blood Large intestines/bowel

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CRUSH INJURY

IF LESS THAN 15 MINUTES


•Remove object, control bleeding, Monitor ABC, Call 999
IF MORE THAN 15 MINUTES
•DO NOT move the casualty, Call 999, monitor ABC’s

CRUSH SYNDROME

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Incident Management Scenarios

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Junior and Baby CPR

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Bites and Stings

Bee Stings

Wasp Stings

Dog Bites

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Before you go…
Workbook paper!!

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SUMMARY OF
DAY THREE
Please Sign The Register
• Burns and Scalds
• Bones, Joints and Muscle Injuries
• Poisoning
• Incident Management
• Foreign Bodies
• Effect of Heat and Cold
• Resus Recap

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But first….

Recap paper!!!

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HOW ARE
BURNS CAUSED?
DRY HEAT BURNS
Direct contact with dry heat or friction, Flames, Hot Objects
SCALDS
Steam, Hot Liquid
CHEMICAL BURNS
Acid, Chlorine, Bleach
RADIATION BURNS
Not just Plutonium!! Sun Burn, Sun Beds
COLD INJURY
Frostbite, Freezing Metal, Liquid Gas
ELECTRICAL BURNS
Mains Power

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TYPES OF BURN
SUPERFICIAL
Only the outermost layer of skin is effected
Redness swelling & tenderness
If larger than 5% take/send to hospital

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PARTIAL THICKNESS

Rawness and blisters


1% must be seen by a doctor
9% will cause shock and must go to
hospital

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FULL THICKNESS
All layers are burned and there may
possibly be some nerve, fat tissue and
muscle damage
Requires urgent hospital treatment

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HOW BURNS ARE CLASSIFIED

THE PALM OF
YOUR OWN
HAND IS
ROUGHLY 1%
OF YOUR OWN
BODY

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TREATMENT OF BURNS
9 Our main aim is to protect from
infection
9 Flood the area with cold water for
at least 10 mins
9 Gently remove watches and
jewellery if possible
9 Cover with a sterile dressing
9 Elevate if possible & treat for
shock
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TREATMENT DO NOT’S

X Break blisters
X Apply adhesive dressings
X Apply lotions, ointments or fats
X Remove anything sticking to the
burn

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TREATMENT OF BURNS

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BURNS TO THE FACE AND NECK

These can be very dangerous


especially if the airway is affected.
Our main aim here is to get medical
help as soon as possible

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TREATMENT

9 Dial for an ambulance stating burns


to the airway
9 Loosen any tight clothing, get
casualty into a supply of fresh air if
possible
9 Administer oxygen if you have been
trained to do so

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CHEMICAL BURNS

The effect of a chemical burn can


be a lot slower than normal
burns, the first aider should be
aware of this and the chemicals
available in their workplace

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TREATMENT
9 Ensure your safety whilst you treat the
casualty [wear PPE]
9 Flood the affected area for at least 20
mins
9 Remove contaminated clothing whilst
flooding the area
9 Follow guidelines laid down on the
relevant COSHH sheets
9 Take or send the casualty to hospital with
a copy of the COSHH sheet

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ELECTRICAL BURNS

Electricity is very dangerous not least


because we cannot see it, but also
because it can very easily stop the heart.
There are two types of electricity we are
likely to come into contact with, these are:

Alternating Current [AC]


Direct Current [DC]

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TYPES OF ELECTRICITY

Alternating Current
This is the electricity which generally comes from
a plug socket at home or work, once you turn
the socket off the electricity stops

Direct Current
This is like the electricity stored in a battery or on
railway lines, it is a constant source of power
until it is turned off from its source

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• May be an electrical cable/appliance


nearby
• Casualty will have an entry burn
usually on the hand [but not always]
• Casualty will also have an exit burn,
which will be where the casualty was
earthed

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TREATMENT

9 Ensure your safety


9 Switch off the power supply if it is
safe to do so
9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 Call for an ambulance
9 Treat any burns found, remember
entry and exit

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BURNS TO THE EYE

These can be caused by either


chemicals or a naked flame the
treatment for both is very similar

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TREATMENT

9 Run the eye under cold water for at


least 10 mins [20 mins with chemicals]
9 Be prepared to use a gentle but firm
approach as the eye may close tight
9 Cover the eye with an eye pad, and
arrange for the casualty to go to
hospital

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BRIGHT LIGHT INJURY

Because our eyes are susceptible


to bright light we can get this
condition from the sun, a
welders flash or even a sun bed.

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RECOGNITION

• Feeling of pain or grit in the eye


• Red, watery eyes which are
sensitive to light

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TREATMENT

9 Constantly reassure the casualty


9 Leave any contact lenses in place
9 Cover the eyes using a sterile eye
pad
9 Arrange for them to go to hospital

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MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL
CONDITIONS

This section we are going to look at the


conditions which can effect the muscles of
the body or the skeleton, these will include:

Fractures
Spinal Injuries
Strains & Sprains

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FRACTURES

A bone is referred to as fracture


when it is chipped, broken, split,
hairline fractured.
Any of the bones in our body have
the potential to fracture

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TYPES OF FRACTURES

Closed Fractures
This is a clean break in the bone
Open Fractures
The skin has been broken by the bone. This injury has a
high risk of infection
Complicated Fractures
Complications have arisen I.e Trapped blood vessel,
impinging on an organ (lung/brain)
Greenstick Fractures
Common in children, Their bones have split rather than
snapped

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GENERAL CAUSES OF FRACTURES
• Direct Force – this can be caused by a fall, or a
blow from a fist or object

• Indirect Force – this can be caused away from


the point of impact, such as when you put your
hand out as you fall and break your collarbone

• Muscular Contraction – this can happen such as


when a player goes to kick a ball and misses,
resulting in a fractured kneecap

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• Pain at the site and tender to touch
• Swelling
• Discoloration
• Lack of movement
• Abnormal looking compared to other
side
• Signs and symptoms of shock
• You may hear bones grating together
• A crack may have been heard as it
happened
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RECOGNITION FEATURES

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GENERAL TREATMENT
9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 Position the casualty as comfortably as
possible
9 Pad the area to stop any unnecessary
movement
9 Sling the area if possible
9 Treat as best possible for shock
9 Arrange for transportation to hospital

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GENERAL TREATMENT

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FRACTURED COLARBONE

Recognition Features

• Pain and tenderness at the site


• Casualties head may be slightly
inclined to the injured side
• Casualty may be supporting their
own elbow on the injured side

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TREATMENT

9 Position the casualty comfortably


9 Support their elbow in a sling if possible
9 Secure their arm to their side using a
broad fold bandage
9 Treat them for shock
9 Arrange for transportation to hospital

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APPLYING SLINGS

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FRACTURED PELVIS

Recognition Features

• Unable to walk or even stand


• Severe pain and tenderness in the
area
• Desire to urinate
• Signs and symptoms of shock

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TREATMENT

9 Assist the casualty to lie down


on their back
9 Send or call for an ambulance
9 Bend their knees if possible, if
not bandage their feet
together to help relieve the
pain
9 Treat them for shock

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SIMPLE RIB FRACTURE

Recognition Features

• History of a blow to the area


• Severe pain especially when
breathing in
• Movement of the arm on the
injured side causes pain
• Possible discoloration

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TREATMENT

9 Sit the casualty down in a


comfortable position
9 Ask if they have coughed up any
blood
9 Secure the arm on the injured side
with a broad fold bandage
9 Arrange for transportation to
hospital

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FLAIL CHEST

This is where there have been


multiple rib fractures and the
chest cage has become
ineffective

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COMPLICATED RIB FRACTURE
& FLAIL CHEST
Recognition Features

• History of a blow to the area


• Severe pain especially when breathing in
• Breathing could be shallow
• May have coughed up blood
• Movement of the arm on the injured side causes
pain
• Possible discoloration
• An open wound may be visible, making a sucking
noise

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TREATMENT

9 Treat any open chest wound


9 Put the casualty into the “W” position
9 Incline them to the injured side
9 Support arm on the injured side with a
sling if possible
9 Call 999
9 Treat for shock

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DISLOCATION
This is a condition where the head of a bone has
become displaced at the joint

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• Severe pain at the site


• Abnormal to look at compared with
other side
• Possible bruising
• Possible swelling
• Tender to touch

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TREATMENT

9 Make the casualty as comfortable as


possible
9 Pad the hollow between the injured
arm and the chest if possible
9 Apply a support sling if possible
9 Arrange for transportation to hospital
9 Gently apply ice pack if possible

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SPINAL INJURIES

The spine is made up of thirty three irregular


shaped bones known as vertebrae, these are
divided into five sections, they are as follows:
•Cervical 7
•Thoracic 12
•Lumber 5
•Sacrum 5
•Coccyx 4
Their job is to protect the spinal cord from being
damaged

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
If Just The Vertebrae Are Damaged
• Pain in the neck or at the level of the injury
• Step or twist in normal curvature of the
spine
• Tenderness to touch

If Spinal Cord Is Damaged As Well


• Loss of control of one or more limbs
• Burning or tingling sensation
• Disorientation or bewilderment
• Difficulty in breathing

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TREATMENT
9 Stabilise the head, neck and shoulders in
neutral alignment
9 To open airway use jaw thrust method
9 If airway still not open, extend airway very
slowly until airway achieved
9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 If breathing maintain in neutral alignment
until help arrives
9 Call 999
9 Remain calm and confident at all times

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BREATHING DIFFICULTIES AND
ACTION FOR VOMIT
• Support the casualties head as before
• Straighten the legs of the casualty
• Space helpers evenly on either side of casualty
• On leaders command pull casualty on to their side
ensuring neutral alignment all the way
• Once on their side maintain neutral alignment
• If the casualty is to be put onto their back again,
this should happen slowly again ensuring neutral
alignment

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LAND BASED LOG ROLL

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STRAINS
What Causes a Strain?
Over stretching or tearing
What Do Strains Effect?
Tendons
Muscles
What Do Tendons and Muscles Do?
Tendons – attach the muscle to the bone
Muscles - span joints and generate movement

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• Sudden sharp pain


• Swelling
• Possible cramp in the area
• Discoloration
• Tenderness
• Possible lack of movement

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SPRAINS

What Causes a Sprain?


Wrenching or taking a joint beyond its
normal range of movement
What Does a Sprain Effect?
Ligaments
What do Ligaments Do?
Ligaments attach bone to bone always
over a joint.

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RECOGNITION FEATURES

• Pain at the site of injury, normally a joint


• Possible swelling
• Possible discoloration
• Lack of movement
• Tender to touch

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GENERAL TREATMENT OF STRAINS AND
SPRAINS

• R-est the injured area

• I-ce should be applied

• C-ompress the injury with a bandage

• E-levate the injured area if possible

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TREATMENT OF STRAINS AND SPRAINS

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POISON
What Is Poison?
Any substance (liquid, solid or gas) that causes
damage when entering the body in sufficient
quantity
How Can It Enter The Body?
•Inhaled
•Injected
•Swallowed
•Absorbed
•Instilled
•Food poisoning

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GENERAL RECOGNITION FEATURES

• Possible vomiting
• Raised temperature
• Possible burns
• Change of facial colour
• Irregular pulse
• Possible cyanosis
• Possible headache

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TREATMENT

Inhaled
9 Ensure your own safety
9 Remove casualty danger if possible
9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 If resuscitation is necessary ensure
you do not inhale their fumes
9 Keep casualty still

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SWALLOWED
9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 Keep casualty as still as possible
9 If breathing place in recovery position
9 Try and find out what was swallowed
9 If corrosive give sips of cold milk or water
9 Do not encourage vomiting
9 Keep samples of substances if possible
9 Monitor and record responsiveness
regularly
9 Be prepared to resuscitate

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ABSORBED

9 Ensure your own safety


9 Wash away any residue on the skin
[20 min]
9 Arrange for transportation to hospital
9 If in doubt dial 999
9 Keep casualty as still as possible

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INJECTED

9 Keep casualty as still as possible


9 Check ABC and act accordingly
9 Apply a cold compress
9 Arrange for transportation to
hospital

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FOOD POISONING RECOGNITION

• Recurrent vomiting and diarrhoea


• Possible raised temperature
• Headache
• Paleface
• Possible history of suspect food
consumption

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TREATMENT

9 Assist the casualty into a


comfortable position
9 Give sips of water to help replace
lost fluids
9 Arrange for them to see a doctor
9 If condition worsens drastically call
999

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Incident Management Recap

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Foreign Object Treatments

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EFFECTS OF HEAT
AND COLD

The body has its own thermostat


Which regulates the normal temperature
at around 37oC

If it varies just 2oC either way there will


be an adverse reaction by the body

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HYPOTHERMIA

This is a condition in which the core


body temperature falls below 35oC
This can be caused by either a gradual
onset over a period of time or very
quickly such as falling into freezing
water

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RECOGNITION FEATURES
• Uncontrollable shivering,
which will stop when the
core temp drops even
further
• Cold, pale and dry skin
• Slow shallow breathing
• Slow weak pulse
• Strange or unusual
behaviour
• Possible unconsciousness
or even death

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TREATMENT
• Remove or protect from
the cause
• Asses the age, health and
fitness of the casualty
• Warm them up according
to the onset
• Give a warm drink if
possible
• Refer to a doctor or
hospital depending on
severity

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HEAT EXHAUSTION

This is a condition caused by the loss


of water and salts from the body
through excessive sweating.

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RECOGNITION

• Pale and clammy


skin with a rapid
pulse
• Cramps in the
limbs
• Possible
headache
• Nausea

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TREATMENT

9 Assist the casualty to a cool place or cool


down the environment
9 Give some fluids to drink [one tsp salt per
ltr of water]
9 If possible lay them down and raise their
legs
9 If recovery is rapid encourage to see their
own doctor
9 Be prepared for them to go unconscious

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HEAT EXHAUSTION

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HEAT STROKE
• This condition is caused by a failure
of the thermostat in the brain to
regulate the bodies core
temperature.
• As the body continues to heat up
damage can be caused to the brain.
• This condition can occur due to
prolonged exposure to very hot
conditions or illnesses
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RECOGNITION

• Hot flushed and dry skin


• Possible headache,
restlessness, dizziness
and confusion
• Strong bounding pulse
• Body temperature will
be above 40 degrees
• Levels of response will
be deteriorating

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TREATMENT
9 Assist the casualty to a cool environment
and remove all outer clothing
9 Telephone their doctor
9 Wrap casualty in a cool wet sheet and
keep it wet, create a wind chill factor
9 Keep cooling until under tongue
temperature drops to 38 degrees
9 Once cooled replace wet sheet with dry
one
9 Be prepared for casualty to go
unconscious

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HEAT STROKE

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CPR and Unconscious Casualty
Recap

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Before you go…

Workbook paper!!

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