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Embedded Innovation Lab

#4,2nd floor,10 th main 100 feet road


In this modern era, property crimes are more predominant. This necessitates our
need to develop an advanced security system which is the INVISIBLE EYE. It is
basically a single camera based security system that can be used to
protectValuables kept in a room of a house or property. Most existing camera
based security systems involve the use of multiple cameras placed around the room
to be monitored. These cameras continuously record video footage of the room and
save it on a central monitoring station.


In this modern era, property crimes are more predominant. This necessitates our
need to develop an advanced security system which is the INVISIBLE EYE. It is
basically a single camera based security system that can be used to protect
valuables kept in a room of a house or property. Most existing camera based
security systems involve the use of multiple cameras placed around the room to be
monitored. These cameras continuously record video footage of the room and save
it on a central monitoring station. Instead of this, we may use a different system in
which a single camera is used, that can slew around the room and record only
when it is alerted by the presence of any intrusion. Such a system would consist of
three components - sensors that detect intrusion; the camera that slews to the point
of intrusion and takes pictures; and the keypad that is used to interface with the
system which allows any person to disable the system by entering the right
password. To design advanced security with an affordable and less complex
system referred as Invisible Eye

3. Literature survey
Todays indoor security systems built with various sensors such as ultrasonic
detectors, microwave detectors, photoelectric detectors, infrared detectors etc. Each
of these systems has its own limitations. As an example, photo-electric beam
systems detect the presence of an intruder by transmitting visible or infrared light
beams across an area, where these beams maybe obstructed. But the drawback lies
within it if the intruder is aware of the presence of this system. Despite of having
strong dependence on surrounding environmental status, pyro electricity has
become a widely used detection parameter because of simplicity and privilege of
interfacing to the digital systems. Now, it is extensively used for intruder detection,

smart environment sensing, and power management applications. Several works

have been conducted in various applications. Intelligent fireproof and theft-proof
alarm system [ 1], GSM (Global System for Mobile) network based home
safeguard system [2], human tracking system [3] and intruder detection systems [4]
are some notable works done previously based on pyro electricity sensing
technique. Our work introduces a low-cost security system solution. Utilization of
existing cellular network to alert and inform the system owner about the security
breach is made to cope up with ever increasing demand for cheap but reliable
security system
4. Details of the work done


In the narrator's description of what makes an invisible man, he points out that
the fault lies in the beholder and is a problem with the construction of the
beholder's inner eye. It is important to note that he is referring to the characters,
such karthik and himself, who will appear throughout the novel in connection to
blindness, real or imagined, and how this will be a commentary on their inner eye
more than a physical illustration. The other characters' perception of the narrator is
skewed because they create a world in which the narrator is meant to fulfill their
destinies and choices; they never ask him for input or recognize his individuality.
He plays the part of the tool or the puppet so many times that he is driven to bump
strangers on the street, as in the case of the blond man, simply in order to recognize
his own existence in their eyes. Yet, in the case of the blond man he fails as well
and runs away in the dark as he will do time and time again during the novel.
Symbolically he runs from to boxing ring, beginning with the battle royal (in the

first chapter) and continuing through to his fight with the blond man. His memory
of the prizefighter against the yokel is an important allegory he provides. The
narrator is the yokel in the narrative who is beaten round after round until he
recognizes his ability to exist outside of the scientifically categorized world he
lives within, most recognizably represented by the Brotherhood. The power
structure then becomes more fluid and the yokel escapes his traditional role.
The narrator thus avoids classification because he exists between it and outside of
it, similar to his heightened ability to experience the time and space inside of
music. He comments that he neither is dead or suspended. Instead he fulfills more
of a "dead-in-living" stage which Brother Jack will advise him against in the story.
Overcoming the definitions enforced upon him, he lives through the light he steals,
the knowledge, which he has begun to realize is found only in himself. While
smoking the reefer, he imagines a old woman who loved her slave master although
he had impregnated her. The narrator finds it amazing that she has found freedom
through that love and hopes to understand her definition. But her definition will not
work for him and his questioning upsets her. By the epilogue, he turns those
questions inward and though he does not find a definitive answer, he looks in the
right place. Until that time, he will still fear the tread of Ras and Rinehart behind
him, characters who he is forced to face in his narrative and who haunt him in the
role he takes on afterwards. In order to conquer all of these fears, he understands
the need to weave together his words and his life into a whole. His response though
is based more in power, relating that the threats do him no harm as no one would
believe the narrator against him. By telling the narrator that he does not exist, he is
trying to emphasis his size and power over the boy's. He tells him that "his arms
are too short to box" with him. The battle royal comes to mind again and the reader

can begin to recognize Bledsoe as a different form of the bully than who was also
giant in size. Notice to the blood reference in his name, like that of Trueblood's.
Except his has a more negative connotation, he has sacrificed much of himself in
order to be inflated to the high status where he must maintain his size in order to
rule. When the narrator leaves the school the next morning, Bledsoe offers him his
hand. The narrator notices that it is "large and strangely limp", a perfect
representation for the whole which is Bledsoe.

ii Design:

iii. Project plan

In this project modern technology using for invisible eye. Our team last week
bought the all components and next week completed hardware connections.

Our project mostly next month completed. So that most existing camera based
security systems involve the use of multiple cameras placed around the room to be
monitored. These cameras continuously record video footage of the room and save
it on a central monitoring station.

5. Details of the proposed work

This system consists of the following components:

Stepper motor
Personal Computer

PIR Motion Detector Module:-

Motion detector module uses a motion detector IC and PCB mounted Fresnel

General:PIR is a pyroelectric sensor module which developed for human body detection.
A PIR detector combined with a fresnel lens are mounted on a compact size PCB
together with an analog IC, SB0081, and limited components to form the module.
High level output of variable width is provided

Due to the high sensitivity of PIR sensor device, it is not recommended to use the
module in the following or similar condition.
A) in rapid environmental changes
B) in strong shock or vibration
C) in a place where there are obstructing material (eg. glass) through which IR
cannot pass within detection area.
D) exposed to direct sun light
E) exposed to direct wind from a heater or air condition.


1. Description:-

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller

with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is
manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the indus-try-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The onchip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammer. By combining a versatile 8-bit
CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides
the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O
lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector
two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and

clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation
down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.
The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the
RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until
the next interrupt or hardware reset.

2. Pin Configurations:-

40-lead PDIP
3.1.VCC Supply voltage.
3.2 GND Ground.
3.3 Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port,
each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can
be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the
multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and
data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code

bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes dur-ing program
verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
3.4 Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port
1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1
pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As
inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. In addition
Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2
output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins,
they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the internal pull-ups
Special Function Registers:-

A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR)
space is shown in Table 5-1. Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and
unoccupied addresses may not be imple-mented on the chip. Read accesses to these
addresses will in general return random data, and write accesses will have an
indeterminate effect. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations,
since they may be used in future products to invoke new features. In that case, the
reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0. Timer 2 Registers:
Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON (shown in Table 5- 2) and
T2MOD (shown in Table 10-2) for Timer 2
3.5. Memory Organization:MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory.
Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.

Program Memory If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are
directed to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC,
program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internal
memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external memory.
Data Memory The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper
128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. This
means that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are
physically separate from SFR space
3.5 Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out)
The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be
subjected to software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the
Watchdog Timer Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from
exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence
to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, it will
increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running.
UART:The UART in the AT89S52 operates the same way as the UART in the
AT89C51 and AT89C52.

9.Timer 0 and 1Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89S52 operate the same way as
Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C51 and AT89C52.

10. Timer 2:-

Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event

counter. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON.

Capture ModeIn the capture mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in
T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow
sets bit TF2 in T2CON
Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter) Timer 2 can be programmed to count up
or down when configured in its 16-bit auto-reload mode. This feature is invoked by
the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR T2MOD (see Table 102).
Baud Rate Generator
Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in
T2CON (Table 5-2). Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be
different if Timer 2 is used for the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for
the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate
generator mode.
The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0
and INT1), three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt.
These interrupts are all shown in Figure 13-1. Each of these interrupt sources can
be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function
Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all interrupts
at once.

Oscillator Characteristics
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting
amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in

Figure 16-1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the
device from an external clock source
Idle Mode In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip
peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software.
Power-down Mode In the Power-down mode, the oscillator is stopped, and the
instruction that invokes Power-down is the last instruction executed.
Programming the Flash Parallel Mode
The AT89S52 is shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array ready to be
programmed. The programming interface needs a high-voltage (12-volt) program
enable signal and is compatible with conventional third-party Flash or EPROM
programmers. The AT89S52 code memory array is programmed byte-by-byte.
Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89S52, the address, data,
and control signals should be set up according to the Flash Programming Modes.
Data Polling: The AT89S52 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a byte
write cycle. Dur-ing a write cycle.
Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the
RDY/BSY output signal. P3.0 is pulled low after ALE goes high during
programming to indicate BUSY. P3.0 is pulled high again when programming is
done to indicate READY.
Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the
programmed code data can be read back via the address and data lines for


This section of tutorial will explain you everything that you need to know about
stepper motors. Stepper motors can be used in various areas of your
microcontroller projects such as making robots, robotic arm, automatic door lock
system etc. This tutorial will explain you construction of stepper motors (unipolar
and bipolar stepper motors ), basic pricipal, different controlling types (Half step
and Full step), Interfacing Techniques (using L293D or ULN2003) and
programming your microcontroller in C and assembly to control stepper motor.


Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

The MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive regulators

are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output
voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs
internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection,
making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can
deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable
voltages and currents



Figure 1. Block diagram of the Invisible Eye system

6. Bibliography

Web site URLs

[1] BISSOOOI Datasheet. [Online]. Available: I

10038/9582/fi1es/BISSOOO I. pdf.
[2] Schneider Electric. PDL PIR Sensor Technical Guide. [Online].

[3] www.pir sensor Wikipedia .com
[4] Renewable Energy UK. (2010, Aug.). Find out how to integrate PIR (passive
infra red) sensors into renewable energy applications. [Online]. Available:

ii. Research papers

[I] Z. Zhi - hui, L. Hui, L. Yin, C. Jia - jia, "Design of the intelligent firep roof
and theft - proof alann system for home", JOURNAL OF HENAN
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY, vol. 28,no. I, pp. 207-210, Feb. 2009.
[2] Q. Qu, Z. Guohao, W. Baohua, "Design of Home Safeguard System Based on
GSM Technique", Electronic Engineer, vol. 32, no. I I, pp. 76- 78, Nov. 2006.
[3] M. Shankar, 1. Burchett, Q. Hao, B. Guenther, "Human-tracking systems
using pyroelectric infrared detectors", Optical Engineering, vol. 10, no. 45, pp.
106401 (01-10), Oct. 2006.
[4] M. Moghavvemi and C.S. Lu, "Pyroelectric infrared sensor for intruder
detection," in Proc. TENCON 2004 Conf., pp. 656-659.

Embedded Innovation Lab
#4,2nd floor,10 th main ,100 feet road,