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Myers AP Psychology chapter 7

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Memory

an electronic memory device

informationprocessing
model

a model of memory in which information


must pass through discrete stages via the
processes of attention, encoding, storage,
and retrieval

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retrograde
amnesia

memories created prior to the event are lost

implicit
memory

retention independent of conscious


recollection

explicit
memory

memory of facts and experiences that one


can consciously know and "declare"

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encoding

the processing of information into the


memory system

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retrieval cues

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storage

the retention of encoded information over


time

stimuli that aid the recall or recognition of


information stored in memory

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priming

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retrieval

the process of getting information out of


memory storage

the activation, often unconsciously, of


particular associations in memory

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recall

recall knowledge from memory

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recognition

the process of recognizing something or


someone by remembering

encoding
specificity
principle

Principle stating that recall is better if the


retrieval context is like the encoding
context.

moodcongruent
memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are


consistent with one's current good or bad
mood

tot
phenomenon

the inability to recall a word, while


knowing that it is in memory

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transcience

most common type of forgetfulness due to


the fleeting nature of some memories

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forgetting curve

founded by Hermann Ebbinghaus.


displays retention of information and
forgetting over time. conclusions to this
were that most forgetting happens right
after learning something. this was
modified to that forgetting doesn't occur
that quickly if the subject is memorizing
more meaningful material

absentmindedness

Forgetting caused by lapses in attention

blocking

a failure to retrieve information that is


available in memory even though you are
trying to produce it

proactive
interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the


recall of new information

retroactive
interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the


recall of old information

serial position
effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first


items in a list

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eidetic
imagery

A form of memory, often called photographic


memory, which consists of especially vivid
visual recollections of material.

sensory
memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory


information in the memory system

working
memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory


that involves conscious, active processing of
incoming auditory and visual-spatial
information, and of information retrieved
from long-term memory

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long-term
memory

the relatively permanent and limitless


storehouse of the memory system

maintenance
rehearsal

A system for remembering involving


repeating information to oneself without
attempting to find meaning in it

elaborative
rehearsal

Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the


material to be remembered

acoustic
encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound


of words

levels-ofprocessing
theory

proposes that deeper levels of processing


result in longer-lasting memory codes

procedural
memory

Memory of learned skills that does not require


conscious recollection

declarative
memory

Memory of knowledge that can be called forth


consciously as needed

episodic
memory

memory of personal experiences

semantic
memory

The part of declarative memory that stores


general information such as names and facts.

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engram

a postulated biochemical change (presumably


in neural tissue) that represents a memory

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misattribution

anterograde
amnesia

loss of memory for events immediately


following a trauma

mistakenly attributing a behavior to the


wrong source

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suggestibility

consolidation

A hypothetical process involving the gradual


conversion of information into durable
memory codes stored in long-term memory

susceptibility or responsiveness to
suggestion

misinformation
effect

incorporating misleading information into


one's memory of an event

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expectancy bias

self-consistency
bias

in memory, a tendency to distort


recalled events to make them fit one's
expectations
The commonly held idea that we are
more consistent in our attitudes,
opinions, and beliefs than we actually
are.

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persistence

the intrusive recollection of events that


we wish we could forget

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mnemonics

a method or system for improving the


memory

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method of loci

use of familiar locations as cues to


recall items that have been associated
with them

natural language
mediators

Words associated with new


information to be remembered

language
acquisition device
(LAD)

a collection of processes that facilitate


language learning

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grammar

studies of the formation of basic


linguistic units

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morphemes

The smallest units of meaning in a


language.

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overregularization

a grammatical error, usually appearing


during early language development, in
which rules of the language are applied
too widely, resulting in incorrect
linguistic forms

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computer
metaphor

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algorithms

very specific, step-by-step procedures


for solving certain types of problems

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heuristics

mental shortcuts that help us to


streamline our thinking and make
sense of our world

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mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a


particular way, often a way that has
been successful in the past

functional
fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in


terms of their usual functions; an
impediment to problem solving

64.

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning


an outcome, that one would have
foreseen it

65.

anchoring bias

a tendency to fixate on initial


information, from which one then fails
to adequately adjust for subsequent
information

representativeness
bias

faulty heuristic based on the


presumption that once people or events
are categorized, they share all the
features of other members in that
category

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availability bias

items that are more readily available in


memory are judged as having occurred
more frequently

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creativity

the ability to produce novel and


valuable ideas.

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aptitudes

the natural talents or capacities to do


something

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whole method

The mnemonic strategy of first


approaching the material to be learned
"as a whole," forming an impression of
the overall meaning of the material.
The details are later associated with
this overall impression.

distributed
learning

a technique whereby the learner spaces


learning sessions over time, rather
than trying to learn the material all in
one study period

overlearning

Continued rehearsal of material after


one first appears to have mastered it.

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The idea that the brain is an


information-processing organ that
operates, in some ways, like a
computer.

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concepts

a mental grouping of similar objects,


events, ideas, or people

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natural concepts

mental representations of objects and


events drawn from our direct experience

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prototype

a mental image or best example of a


category

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artificial concepts

concepts defined by rules, such as word


definitions and mathematical formulas

concept
hierarchies

levels of concepts, from most general to


most specific, in which a more general
level includes more specific concepts

event-related
potentials

brain waves shown on the EEG in


response to stimulation

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schemas

conceptual frameworks a person uses to


make sense of the world

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script

a cluster of knowledge about sequences


of events and actions expected to occur
in particular settings

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