1 MOTIVATION
______________________________________________________
The electronics industry has been occurrence an unique issue in growth from the past few
decades with the help of incorporated circuits in computing, telecommunications and user
electronics. In 1958 to the present day ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) systems with
more than 50 million transistors in a single chip from the single transistor era that come
in a long way[1].
The evergrowing number of transistors incorporated on a chip and that will growing
transistor switching speed in present decades has facilitate great performance
development in computer systems by number of orders with magnitude. Unluckily , such
phenomenal performance development have been go along with the power increasing and
energy rearrange of the systems. Higher power and energy rearrange in high performance
systems necessitate more exclusive packaging and cooling technologies, increase cost
and decrease system dependability. However, the level of onchip incorporation and
clock frequency will maintain to develop with growing occurrence demands that the
power and energy rearrange of highperformance systems will be a significant design
limitation.
There are different explanations of the Moores Law that calculates the growth rate of
integrated circuits. One estimation places the rate at 2X for every eighteen months.
Others claim that the device density increases tenfold every seven years. In spite of the
exact numbers, everybody agrees that the increase rate is fast with no signs of slowing
down. New productions of processing technology are being developed even as present
generation devices are at very safe distance from the original physical limits. A need for
low power VLSI chips arises from such development forces of included circuits. The
Intel 4004 microprocessor, developed in 1971, had 2300 transistors, degenerated
concerning 1 watts of power and clocked at 1 MHz. Then comes the Pentium in 2001,
with 42 million transistors, rearrange around 65 watts of power and clocked at 2.40 GHz
[1].
While the power rearrange increases linearly as the years go by, the power density
increases exponentially, because of the evershrinking size of the integrated circuits. If
this exponential rise in the power density were to increase constantly, a microprocessor
designed a few years later, would have the same power as that of the nuclear reactor.
Such high power density introduces dependability affect such as, electro migration,
thermal stresses and hot carrier stimulated device degradation, ensuing in the loss of
performance.
One more factor that fuels the need for low power chips is the enlarged market demand
for moveable consumer electronics powered by batteries. The passion for smaller, lighter
and more tough electronic products not directly interprets to low power obligations.
Battery life is flattering a product differentiator in many portable systems. Being the
heaviest and major constituent in many portable systems, batteries have not
knowledgeable the comparable rapid density growth evaluate to the electronic circuits.
The main source of power rearrangeing in these high performance batteryportable digital
systems consecutively on batteries such as notebook computers, cellular phones and
personal digital assistants are gaining importance. For these systems, low power
expenditure is a prime affect because it straightly involving the presentation by having
result on battery durability. In this condition, low power VLSI design has unspecified
great substance as an active and quickly increasing field.
An additional main demand for low power chips and systems that comes from the
ecological affect. Modern offices are now provide with office mechanization equipments
that expand huge amount of power. A study by American Council for an EnergyEfficient
Economy predictable that office equipment account for 5% for the total US commercial
energy usage in 1997 and could rise to 10% by the year 2004 if no actions are taken to
avoid the trend [3].
1.3 THESIS ORGANIZATION
The main goal of this thesis is to exhibit a circuit level design move toward for use in
designs which demand intense low power disband.
This thesis is organized as follows:
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION. This chapter introduces power consumption issues in
the area of VLSI. This chapter also summarizes the need of low power design in the
todays era of scaling down of technologies and nanotechnology. At last, this thesis
chapter give explanation on organization of the thesis.
CHAPTER 2: SOURCES OF POWER REARRANGE AND REDUCTION OF
ENERGY IN CMOS DIGITAL CIRCUITS. This chapter briefly introduces the different
sources of power rearrange that occur in CMOS digital circuits and also the unusual
techniques of dropping power rearrange in CMOS digital circuits and also the tools that
have been used in this work.
CHAPTER 3: ADIABATIC SWITCHING A CIRCUIT LEVEL APPROACH TO
LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN. This chapter explains the principle of adiabatic
switching that emerges as a new advance to low power VLSI design. The different
mathematical relations of achieving low power rearrange are measured by followed up by
a simple circuit configuration of an adiabatic logic gate, noting the differences in the
circuit topology of a complementary CMOS logic gate style and an adiabatic logic gate
style. Also, considered are the power supplies that are to be used in an adiabatic circuit
topology.
CHAPTER 4: OPERATIONAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF PRACTICAL
ADIABATIC CIRCUITS. This chapter focuses on the operational and structural details
of the many practical adiabatic circuits. It presents a detailed account of the steps
concerned in the completion of many designs based on adiabatic logic principle.
CHAPTER
5:
DESIGN
AND
ANALYSIS
LOW
POWER
CMOS
CELL
STRUCTURES. This chapter gives a complete explanation of the many design and
methodology used in the development of lowpower cell structures at the VLSI Design
and CAD Laboratory in Thapar University. The analysis and characterization of many
combinational logic cells based on fully complementary CMOS logic style and adiabatic
switching principle logic style are presented. The power rearrange analysis is done with
the differences of both the power clock frequencies and the load capacitance.
CHAPTER 6: PHYSICAL LAYOUT DESIGN AND POSTLAYOUT SIMULATIONS.
This chapter discusses the designs of different layouts for all the planned structures,
which are designed in Mentor Graphics IC Station TSMC 0.35 micron Technology and
the Layout versus Schematic (LVS) program was implement to execute a assessment of
the representation to the physical layout.
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH. This chapter summarizes
the major achievement of this thesis and presents the scope for future and additional
research.
____________________________________
CHAPTER
&
REDUCTION OF ENERGY IN CMOS
DIGITAL CIRCUITS
____________________________________
Power consumption is one of the basic parameters of any kind of incorporated circuit (IC).
Power and presentation are always traded off to meet the system requirements. Power has a
direct contact on the system cost. If an IC is unbearable with additional power, then a better
cooling mechanism would be requisite to keep the circuit in usual situation. If not performance is
tainted and on uninterrupted by using that may be eternally damaged.
2.1 POWER AND ENERGY DEFINITIONS
It is important at this point, to differentiate among energy and power. The power
consumed by a device is, by definition, the energy consumed per unit time. In other words, the
energy (E) required for a given operation is the integral of the power (P) consumed over the
operation
time
(Top),
hence,
op
E = P(t)dt
(2.1)
0
Here, the power of digital CMOS circuit is given by
P = C VDD VS f
(2.2)
where, C is the capacitance being rejuvenated during a transition. VDD is the provide voltage, Vs
is the voltage swing of the signal, and f is the clock frequency. If it is unspecified that an
operation requires n clock cycles, Top can be expressed as n / f. Hence, Equation (2.1) can be
rewritten as
E = n C VDD VS
(2.3)
It is important to note that the energy per operation is self supporting of the clock frequency.
Rising the frequency will lower the power consumption but will not change the energy necessary
to perform a given operation [1]. Since the energy consumption is what conclude the battery life,
it is very important to decrease the energy somewhat than just the power. Though, it is essential
to note that the power is serious for heat put back deliberation.
2.2 OVERVIEW OF POWER REARRANGE
It is more suitable to talk about power postpone of digital circuits at this point. Even though
power depends very much on the circuit style, it can be separated in general into static and
dynamic power. The static power is create due to the DC bias current, as is the case in transistortransistorlogic (TTL), emittercoupled logic (ECL), and Ntype MOS (NMOS) logic families, or
due to leakage currents. In all of the logic families except for the pushpull types such as CMOS,
the static power tends to control. That is the reason why CMOS is the most appropriate circuit
style for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).
CMOS is the logic family preferred in many designs due to following reasons:(a) Impeccable noise margins.
(b) Perfect logic levels.
(c) Negligible static power rearrange.
(d) Gives good performance in most cases.
(e) Easy to get a functional circuits.
(f) Lot of tools available to automate the design process.
The power consumed when the CMOS circuit is in use can be decaying into two basic classes:
static and dynamic.
2.2.1 STATIC POWER
The static or steady state power rearrange of a circuit is expressed by the following relation [1]
Pstat = IstatVDD
(2.4)
where, Istat is the current that flows from side to side the circuit when there is no switching
activity. If possibly , CMOS circuits dissolve no static (DC) power since in the stable state there
is no direct path from VDD to ground as PMOS and NMOS transistors are never on concurrently.
Of course, this situation can never be understand in practice since in truth the MOS transistor is
not a exact switch. Thus, there will forever be leakage currents and substrate injection currents,
which will give to a static component of CMOS power rearrange. For a submicron NMOS
device W/ L = 10/ 0.5, the substrate injection current is of the order of 1 100 A for a VDD of 5
V [2].
Another form of static power rearrange occurs for the socalled Rationed logic. PseudoNMOS is
an example of a Rationed CMOS logic family. In this, the PMOS pullup is always on and acts
as a load device for the NMOS pulldown network. Consequently, when the gate output is in
lowstate, there is a direct path from VDD to ground and the static currents flow. In this state, the
exact value of the output voltage depends on the ratio of the strength of PMOS and NMOS
networks hence the name. The static power consumed by these logic families can be
substantial. For this
reason, logic families such as this, which occurrence static power consumption, should be
avoided for lowpower design. With that in mind, the static component of power consumption in
lowpower CMOS circuits must be insignificant and the concentrate shifts chiefly to dynamic
power consumption.
charging load capacitance C up to VDD. This charging process draws energy equal to CVDD2 from
the power provide. Half of this is degenerated directly in the PMOS transistors, Even as the other
half is stored on the load capacitance. Then, when the input returns to VDD, the process is
reversed and the capacitance is discharged, its energy being in the NMOS network. In summary,
every time a capacitive node switches from ground to VDD (and back to ground), energy of CVDD2
is consumed.
This leads to the conclusion that CMOS power consumption depends on the switching activity of
the signals involved. We can define activity, as the expected number of zero to one transition
per data cycle. If this is coupled with the average data rate, f, which may be the clock frequency
in a synchronous system, then the effective frequency of nodal charging is given the product of
the activity and the data rate: f. This leads to the following formulation for the average CMOS
power consumption:
Pdyn = CVDD2f
(2.5)
This classical result illustrates that the dynamic power is comparative to the switching activity,
capacitive loading and the square of the provide voltage. In CMOS circuits, this constituent of
power swing is by far the most significant accounting for at least 90% of the total power swing
[2].
So, to decrease the power rearrange, the circuit designer can reduce the switching occasion and
diminish the node capacitance by decreasing the voltage swing or apply a combination of these
methods. Yet, in all these cases, the energy drawn from the power provide is used only once
before being degenerated. To augment the energy competence of the logic circuits, other
measures can be introduced for recycling the energy drawn from the power provide. A novel
class of logic circuits called ADIABATIC LOGIC offers the opportunity of additional dropping
the energy degenerate through the switching events and the opportunity of recycling or reclaim
various of the energy drawn from the power provide [3]. To complete this goal, the circuit
topology and the operating principle have to be modified, from time to time radically. The
amount of energy recycling attainable using adiabatic techniques is also strong by the production
technology, switching speed and the voltage swing.
Fig. 2.2. Normalized delay, energy and energydelay product vs. provide voltage.
Delay is normalized to delay value at largest provide voltage (3.0 V), and
Energy is normalized to energy value at smallest provide voltage (0.6 V).
The product of the energy and the delay, which is also shown in the same figure, exhibit
the tradeoff among the delay and the energy. For low provide voltages, the energy is minimum
but the delay is not. Growing the provide voltage may get better the speed but at the amount of
the energy. The EDP is a metric that description for both and can be used to evaluate different
development. The closer the minimum of the energydelay curve to the 1V provide, the better
the process is. The most favorable provide voltage can also be resolute from the EDP.
Now, so far we have discussed the energy conservation in digital CMOS circuits. In this section,
we would look at the means of dropping the energy/ power in digital CMOS circuits and
systems.
CHAPTER 2. SOURCES OF POWER REARRANGE AND REDUCTION OF ENERGY IN
CMOS DIGITAL CIRCUITS
2.4 REDUCTION OF POWER PROVIDE
The energy and power consumed by the CMOS digital circuits are sensitive to the power provide
voltage as given by:
E = CVDD2
(2.6)
P = CVDD2f
(2.7)
Dropping the power provide voltage is an proficient come near to lower the energy and power.
The power provide voltage is really the most critical factor in dropping energy/ power. This will,
though, be at the outlay of the delay of the circuits. By means of the EDP as a metric, one can
derive the most favorable provide voltage that would yield minimum EDP.
To make simpler the analysis, it will be unspecified that the diffusion current of deep sub
micrometer MOSFETs is comparative to (VGSVT) [5]. Assuming VGS = VDD (for maximum
current) and using the delay appearance, it can be shown that the delay develop into KVDD/ (VDDVT) , where K is a constant independent of VDD. The EDP can hence be expressed as
V3
DD
(2.8)
E t d = const
(V V )
D
D
T
The optimum provide voltage (for minimum EDP) can be found from Equation (2.7) and is
given by
V
)=
(2.9)
(3 )
The above appearance is valid for longchannel and deep sub micrometer devices. For longchannel transistors ( = 2), the optimum provide voltage is equal to 3VT, which agrees with the
result of the analysis presented in [6]. For deep sub micrometer devices with closer to unity the
CHAPTER 3
ADIABATIC SWITCHING A CIRCUIT LEVEL APPROACH TO LOW POWER
VLSI DESIGN
The popularity of complementary MOS technology can be mainly accredited to innately
lower power swing and high levels of incorporation. Though, the current trend towards
ultra lowpower has made examiner search for techniques to recover/ recycle energy from
the circuits. In the early days, researchers mostly inattentive on the opportunity of having
physical machines that put away exactly zero energy while computing and tried to find
the lower bound of energy consumption.
In conservation levelrestoring CMOS logic circuits with railtorail output voltage
swing, every switching occasion causes an energy move from the power provide to the
output node or from the output node to the ground. Through a 0toVDD transition of the
output, the total output charge Q = Cload VDD is drawn from the power provide at a stable
voltage. Thus, an energy of Eprovide = Cload VDD2 is drawn from the power provide ghrouh
this evolution. Charging the output node capacitance to the voltage level VDD means that
at the end of the evolution, the amount of stored energy in the output node is Estored =
Cload VDD 2 / 2. Thus, half of the injected energy from the power provide is degenerate in
the PMOS network even as only one half is delivered to the output node. During a
consequent VDD to 0 transition of the output node, no charge is drawn from the power
provide and the energy stored in the load capacitance is degenerate in the NMOS
network.
To reduce the defer , the circuit designer can diminish the switching events, reduce the
node capacitance, decrease the voltage swing, or relate a combination of these methods.
Yet in all these cases, the energy drawn from the power provide is used only once earlier
being dissolute. To increase the energy competence of the logic circuits, other measures
can be introduced for recycling the energy drawn from the power provide. A novel class
of logic circuits called adiabatic logic offers the opportunity of additional dropping the
energy degenerated through the switching events, and the opportunity of recycling, or
reusing, some of the energy drawn from the power provide. To complete this goal, the
circuit topology and the operation principles have to be adapted, sometimes radically.
The amount of energy reprocessing attainable by using adiabatic techniques is also
indomitable by the fabrication technology, switching speed, and the voltage swing.
It should be noted that the fully adiabatic operation of the circuit is an ideal
situation which may only be move toward asymptotically as the switching method is
slowed down. In most sensible cases, the energy swing connected with a charge transfer
event is frequently collected of an adiabatic component and a nonadiabatic component.
Consequently, dropping all the energy loss to zero may not probable, despite of the
switching speed. With the adiabatic switching move toward, the circuit energies are
preserved quite than degenerate as heat. Depending on the application and the system
necessities, this move toward can from time to time be used to decrease the power defer
of the digital systems.
Here, the load capacitance is emotional by a stable current source (instead of the Constantvoltage
source as in the conventional CMOS circuits).
Here, R is the resistance of the PMOS network. A constant charging current corresponds to a linear
voltage ramp. Assume, the capacitor voltage VC is zero initially [12].
The voltage across the switch = IR P(t) in
the switch = I2R
(3.1)
Also, I = CV
(3.2)
T = CV
T
CV
E = ( I R)T =
RT
C2 V 2 R
=
T
RC
Hence, E = E diss = CV
T
T
2
2 RC 1
2
CV
(3.3)
T2
 21

(i) The degenerate energy is slighter than for the conservative case, if the
charging time T is larger than 2RC. That is, the degenerate energy can be
made randomly small by growing the charging time,
(ii) Also, the degenerate energy is relative to R, as contrasting to the conservative
case, where the swing depends on the capacitance and the voltage swing.
Thus, dropping the onresistance of the PMOS network will decrease the
energy swing .
0
where
DD
(3.4)
t<0
T
0 t <T
VDD
t T
 22

t<0
0
t
RC
RC
V
VC =
DD (1 e
0 t <T
)
t T
T
T
RC
RC
VDD (1 e
( t T
) RC
)e
(3.5)
 23

The energy rearrange in the above charging process can be calculated as follows [23]:
lin e a r
T
iV R d t + iV R d t
0
T
= iV R d t =
0
(3.7)
T ( V C )2
=
dt
0
R
T
iVRdt
0
(V
DD
/ T ) R C (1 e t / R C ) 2
Rdt
R C 2
C V DD
RC
2
CV
DD
t/R
C
2
T / R
C
(1 e
) d
RC
3 RC
1
RC
e
+2
2
T/
RC
1
2T
RC
RC
/
RC 2
CV
T
iV R d t =
T
( V C )2
dt
T
R
( t T )/ R
2 C
RC
= T2 C V D D
2
T
(1 e
RC
)2e
dt
(3.9)
(3.8)
 24

Finally we have
E
=
line
ar
RC
2 1 RC + RC eT RC
CV
(3.10)
D
D
T
RC
RC
(3.11)
lin e
ar
=
C V DD
T
and when T
linea
RC
=
CV
2
T
DD
RC
(3.12)
+
RC
(3.13)
CV
DD
2
It is clear from Equation (3.3) that the energy rearrange through the dissipative medium
can be made arbitrarily small by making the transition time T arbitrarily large. This
observation also points to the fact that for lowpower rearrange, a MOS device (or
switch) should not be turned on unless the potential across it is zero or a switch should
not be disabled if current is flowing through it. The response voltage VC over time is
shown in Figure 3.4 (a) and the dissipated energy versus RC / T is shown in Figure 3.4
(c).
 25

The above analysis ignores the entrance voltage drop of a transistor. Let us
believe Figure 3.2 (c). When the voltage drop at the power terminal swings from 0 to
VDD (as shown in the figure) to charge the node capacitance, the PMOS transistor does
not turn on until exceeds the threshold voltage Vth. There is voltage drop VDS Vth
among the drain and source ends when the transistor jumps from the cutoff region to the
linear region, which results in the energy hang. Since an amount of CVth charge is
necessary the voltage to the Vth level, the energy loss due to the entrance voltage can be
approximated by
1
Eth
CVth2
(3.14)
2
Due to the channel confrontation , there is still a small voltage drop (and hence energy
rearrange) in the channel when the transistor works in the linear region. We use Elinear to
communicate to this extent of energy loss.
Let us use the model shown in Figure 3.2 (c) to calculate the energy postpone. Let us
reflect on charging C from 0 to VDD in time T with the linear power provide voltage of
Figure 3.2 (c) (note that the power provide voltage shown in the figure think about the
consequence of transistor entrance voltage drop). We have
dVC
+V =
C
RC
(3.15)
dt
where is shown in Figure 3.2 (c). The solution of the above equation is given by
 26

t < t0
0
(tt
(t
) RC
t ) RC
V
) +Vthe 0
DD (1 e 0
RC
C=
t T
T
RC
V
DD (1
()
( t T
(t t )
T t RC ) RC
RC
0
0
Vth
e
)e
e
T
where,
t0 = (Vth / VDD) T.
The energy rearrange in the above charging process can be calculated [23] as follows:
E
d is s ip
a te d
= iV R d t = T iV R d t + iV R d t
0
0
T
(3.17)
2 RC
RC
T R
C
RC
d issip a
ted
=
C V th +
C V DD
RC
CV
thV D D
RC
=
2
CVD
D
T
E
lin e a
1
+
2
T R
C
RC
e
T
2
CV t
h
T
T
RC
T
RC
RC
+O
T
+ E
n o n lin
ear
(3.18)
 27

Voltage
Figure 3.4 Linear and Nonlinear Power Rearrange with the RC model [24].
Figure 3.4 (b) and 3.4 (d) show the exact solutions of this RC model with the threshold
voltage.
Assume V = 1.2 V and V D = 5 V; then we have 1 2
th
D
CVth
2
 28

1 2
CVDD
2
.
= 0.0576
Discharge expand the same amount of energy, and Consequently, 11.50 % of energy is
consumed due to the nonlinear mechanism (i.e., the threshold voltage). Since this nonlinear hang is independent of the changeover time, it control the power consumption
when the operating frequency is low, while linear defer is more significant in the higher
frequency region.
3.2 A SIMPLE ADIABATIC LOGIC GATE
______________________________________________________
In the following, we will examine simple circuit configurations which can be used for
adiabatic switching. Figure 3.2 shows a general circuit topology for the conventional
CMOS gates and adiabatic counterparts. To change a conventional CMOS logic gate into
an adiabatic gate, the pullup and the pulldown networks must be substitute with
matching transmissiongate (Tgate) networks. The Tgate network execute the pullup
function is used to drive the true output of the adiabatic gate, while the Tgate network
execute the pulldown purpose drives the complementary output node. Note that all the
inputs should also be obtainable in complementary form. Both the networks in the
adiabatic logic circuit are used to chargeup as well as chargedown the output
capacitance, which make certain that the energy stored at the output node can be regain
by the power provide, at the end of each cycle. To allow adiabatic operation, the DC
voltage source of the original circuit must be substitute by a pulsedpower provide with
the ramped voltage output.
 29

Figure 3.5. (a) The general circuit topology of a conventional CMOS Logic Gate.
(b) The topology of an Adiabatic Logic Gate implementing the same function.
Note the difference in chargeup and chargedown paths for the output
capacitance.
 30 
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