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Report on

Optimal Allocation of FACTS


Controllers for Critical Loading Margin
Enhancement

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S No.

Topic

INTRODUCTION

FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS(FACTS)

OBJECTIVE OF THESIS

METHODOLOGY

LITERATURE SURVEY

WORK DONE

FUTURE WORK PLAN

REFERENCES

I INTRODUCTION
Todays Power system is a complex network, made of thousands of buses and
hundreds of generators. Available power generation usually is not situated near
growing load centers. In order to meet the growing power demand, utilities have an
interest in better utilization of available capacities of existing generation and power
transmission network instead of building new transmission lines and expanding
substations. Some overloading transmission lines have as an overall effect of
deteriorating voltage profiles and decreasing system stability and security. In
addition, existing traditional transmission facilities, in most cases, are not designed
to handle the control requirements of complex and highly interconnected power
systems. This overall situation requires the review of traditional transmission
methods and practices, and the creation of new concepts, which would allow the
use of existing transmission lines up to their full capabilities without reduction in
system stability and security. The line impedance, the receiving and sending ends
voltages, and phase angle between the voltages determine the transmitted electrical
power over a line. Therefore, by controlling, one or more of the transmitted power
factors; it is possible to control the active as well as the reactive power flow over a
line.
In the past, power systems could not be controlled fast enough to handle dynamic
system condition. This problem was solved by over-design; transmission systems
were designed with generous stability margins to recover from anticipated
operating contingencies caused by faults, line and generator outages, and
equipment failures. Series capacitor, shunt capacitor, and phase shifter are different
approaches to increase the power system transmission lines loadability. In past

days, all these devices were controlled and switched mechanically and were,
therefore, relatively slow. They are very useful for steady state operation of power
systems but from a dynamic point of view, their time response is too slow to
effectively damp transient oscillations. If mechanically controlled systems were
made to respond faster, power system security would be significantly improved,
allowing the full utilization of system capability while maintaining adequate levels
of stability. This concept and advances in the field of power electronics led to a
new approach introduced by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in late
1980, called Flexible AC Transmission System or simply FACTS. . The voltage
instability is mainly dependent on lack of reactive power support. Since all FACTS
devices are passive in nature, they can inject required reactive power in to the
system rapidly. FACTS devices can enhance critical loading margin. Critical
loading margin of a line is its maximum power transfer capability without voltage
instability.

II FLEXIBLE AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS(FACTS)


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are defined as Alternating current
transmission systems incorporating power-electronic based and other static
controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability. The
power flow over a transmission line depends mainly on three important
parameters, namely voltage magnitude of the buses (V ), impedance of the
transmission line ( Z ) and phase angle between buses ( ). The FACTS devices
control one or more of the parameters to improve system performance by using
placement and coordination of multiple FACTS controllers in large-scale emerging
power system networks to also show that the achieve significant improvements in
operating parameters of the power systems such as small signal stability, transient
stability, damping of power system oscillations, security of the power system, less
active power loss, voltage profile, congestion management, quality of the power
system, efficiency of power system operations, power transfer capability through
the lines, dynamic performances of power systems, and the loadability of the
power system network also increased. As FACTS devices are fabricated using
solid state controllers, their response is fast and accurate. Thus these devices can be
utilized to improve the voltage profile of the system by using coordinated control
of FACTS controllers. FACTS is offered, to enhance the real capacity of
transmission lines without having to construct any new transmission lines. The
major drawback in using thyristor switches is that the control for turn-off
capability is not possible. Hence in a cycle, switching more than once is not
possible. After the invention of IGBT and GTO which are semiconductor devices
with controlled turn-off capability the transmission system was revolutionised.
This development resulted inthe use of VSCs in the field of energy transmission.
The advantage of this is the generation and absorption of reactive power without

the use of devices like capacitor or reactor. All FACTS equipment designed by
Voltage Source Converters are known as FACTS new generation devices.

FACTS are utilized for accomplishing the following objectives:


Increase / control of power transmission capacity in a line and for preventing
loop flows
Improvement of system transient stability limit
Enhancement of system damping
Mitigation of subsynchronous resonance
Alleviation of voltage instability
Limiting short circuit currents
Improvement of HVDC converter terminal performance
Grid Integration of Wind Power Generation Systems

The use of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt


compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work
electrically as fast current, voltage or impedance controllers. The reaction time
allowed by power electronic is very short and goes down to far below one
second.

III OBJECTIVE OF THESIS


With increasing power demand , the existing power systems are subjected to
heavy loading and are forced to operate near voltage stability limit.
It is difficult to raise new transmission systems due to economical and
environmental reasons.Therefore it is necessary to increase laodability of the
existing transmission system.
The objective of this thesis is to find optimal location of FACTS devices to
increase critical loading margin of the transmission lines.

IV METHODOLOGY
The IEEE 14Bus test system is used to represent the transmission network.
Standard data for IEEE 14-bus system is used.

The steps for conducting thesis are:1. Modelling the IEEE14-bus system on simulink. Power flow solution
of the system using Newton-Raphson method. Active and Reactive power flowing
in the lines will be calculated
2. Contingency analysis of the system to find weak buses
3. Allocation of FACTS devices using Genetic Algorithm

V LITERATURE SURVEY
[1] Rajiv K. Varma has discussed literature on different Flexible AC Transmission
System (FACTS) Controllers. This paper has described the operating principles of
the major FACTS Controllers. Importance of FACTS devices in stability problems
has been highlighted.
[2]Arun Kumar discussed different FACTS controllers such as TCSC, SVC, SSSC,
STATCOM, UPFC which are used to enhance power system stability such as rotor
angle stability, frequency stability, and voltage stability. The essential features of
FACTS controllers and their potential to enhance system stability was addressed.
Performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been reviewed.
[3]Csar Rodrguez discussed genetic algorithm to find the optimal location and
sizing of shunt FACTS devices is used to optimize a multiobjective problem
which includes voltage stability and swing stability problem. The voltage stability
margin or loading margin is calculated using continuous power flow. These
objective functions are solved for critical contingencies in the system.
[4] Scott G. Ghiocel discussed a new method to reformulate the power flow
problem by introducing a bus in which the bus angle and the reactive power
consumption of a load bus are specified. This new method provides many
advantages in the computation of steady-state voltage stability margins
[5] Shishir Dixit has applied Genetic Algorithm to find the optimal location of
Static Var Compensator (SVC) to minimize real power loss, voltage deviation and
rating of SVC. Most critical contingencies have been considered. It is found that
optimal placement of SVC can enhance voltage security significantly in a power
system. Proposed method is capable to provide optimal location and sizing of
FACTS devices.
[6]Zakir Hussain has discussed a fast and precise method of contingency ranking
for effective power system security analysis.Two techniques are used namely,
Exact ranking technique and Precise ranking technique. Drawbacks of previously
reported techniques are also shown.
[7] R. Benabid has used a Non-dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization
(NSPSO) to find optimal location and size of Static Var Compensators (SVC) and

Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) in order to maximize Static


Voltage Stability Margin (SVSM) and reduce power losses (PL).
[8] A. Kazemi has determined optimal location of UPFC in power systems by
using Genetic Algorithm. UPFC is considered as a powerful FACTS device in this
paper. Unlike other FACTS devices, UPFC has a great flexibility that can control
the active and reactive powers and voltage, simultaneously. It is shown that UPFC
can be used to enhance loadability at the power system even with one, two or more
lines are in overloading boundaries
[9] Bindeshwar Singh has discussed the implication of adding various FACTS
controllers in multi-machine power system environment for enhancement of
voltage stability. The DAE (Differential Algebraic Equation) methodology for
multi-machine system has been used. It is shown that with the proposed approach
it is possible to connect any number and any type (series and shunt) of FACTS
controllers
[10] Chanan Singh has compared conventonal methods of total transfer capability
(TTC) determination. A new method, transfer-based security constrained OPF
(TSCOPF) method is also proposed. Available Transfer Capability(ATC) is
calculated by using TTC and two margins, TRM and CBM. two methods of
incorporating CBM into ATC are presented and compared in this paper
[11] Roman Vykuka has used Fast-Decoupled(FD) numerical method for
contingency analysis. Fast-Decoupled method is derived from the NewtonRaphson method by some simplification. This method is compared with NewtonRaphson(NR) method and it is found that FD is faster than NR.
[12] Maryam Hashemi Namin has verified the current injection model of the
UPFC. The UPFC is installed in a sample network. Then a fault study apply to this
network by monitoring active power flow in the faulted line for the system with
and without the UPFC. The general form of the UPFC control system has been
proposed.
[13] Y. Pavan Kumar has compared the performance of shunt capacitor, SVC and
STATCOM in the improvement of static voltage stability. Issues related to shunt
compensation, namely rating of the compensating device and its location are also
considered. SVC and STACOM provide better behavior in terms of loss reduction
and voltage profile compared to shunt capacitor.

VI WORK DONE
1. Modeling of IEEE 14 bus system in simulink
2. Load Flow analysis using Newton Raphson method
3. Contingency analysis using Performance Index method

Simulink model of IEEE 14 Bus System

Newton Raphson Load Flow Analysis

Contingency Analysis
Performance index(PI) method is used for contingency analysis/ranking. PI value
is determined by using following equation
PI = l(fl /fmaxl)^2n
where l is the number of transmission lines, fl is the absolute flow of line l and
fmaxl is its MVA rating.
The higher value of PI for any operating state of the system indicates overloading
of one or more transmission lines in the network. The contingencies which are
having less PI values are considered as normal or minor contingencies.
Matlab is used for writing code for PI method.
Following line data is used in contingency ranking

Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Line Rate(MVA)
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

Line flow(f)
165.3
75.5
100
52.3
37.8
58.2
28.6
16.5
61.6
48.2
6.4
7.0
16.6
0
27.9
5.2
9.3
3.8
1.7
5.5

Contingency Ranking Based on PI value

Line No.
1

PI Value
0.6831

Ranking
2

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

0.5700
1.0000
0.2735
0.1429
0.3387
0.0818
0.0272

3
1
7
9
5
11
13

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0.3795
0.2323
0.0164
0.0196
0.1102
0.0000
0.3114
0.0108
0.0346
0.0058
0.0012
0.0121

4
8
15
14
10
20
6
17
12
18
19
16

VII FUTURE WORK PLAN


1. Modeling of FACTS device(SVC)
2. Finding optimal location of FACTS device by using
optimization technique(Genetic Algorithm)

VIII REFERENCES
[1] Rajiv K. Varma, Introduction to FACTS Controllers, Power Systems
Conference and Exposition, pp 1-6, March 2009
[2] Arun Kumar and G. Priya, Power System Stability Enhancement using
FACTS Controllers, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical
Engineering and Energy Management, pp 84-87, Dec 2012
[3] Csar Rodrguez and Mario A. Rios, Sizing and Location of Shunt FACTS
Devices in Power System using Genetic Algorithms, IEEE PowerTech, pp 1-6,
June 2013
[4]Scott G. Ghiocel and Joe H. Chow, A Power Flow Method Using a New Bus
Type for Computing Steady-State Voltage Stability Margins, IEEE Trans On
Power Systems, Vol. 29, No. 2, March 2014
[5] Shishir Dixit, Laxmi Srivastava and Ganga Agnihotri, Optimal Placement of
SVC for Minimizing Power Loss and Improving Voltage Profile using GA,
International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Intelligent Computing
Techniques, pp 123-129, Feb 2014
[6] Zakir Hussain, Zhe Chen and Paul Thgersen, Fast and Precise Method of
Contingency Ranking in Modern Power System, Conference on Applied
Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies, pp 1-7, Dec. 2011

[7] R. Benabid1 and M. Boudour, Optimal Location and Size of SVC and TCSC
for Multi-objective Static Voltage Stability Enhancement,
[8] A. Kazemi, D. Arabkhabori, M.Yari, J. Aghaei, Optimal Location Of UPFC in
Power Systems For Increasing Loadability By Genetic Algorithm,International
Universities Power Engineering Conference, pp 774-779, Sept. 2006
[9]Bindeshwar Singh,N. K. Sharma,A. N. Tiwari,K. S. Verma and Deependra
Singh, Enhancement of Voltage Stability by Coordinated Control of Multiple
FACTS Controllers in Multi-Machine Power System Environments, International
Conference on Sustainable Energy and Intelligent System, International
Conference on Sustainable Energy and Intelligent Systems, pp 18-25, July 2011
[10] Yan Ou and Chanan Singh, Assessment of Available Transfer Capability and
Margins, IEEE Transactions On Power Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2, May 2002
[11] Roman Vykuka, Lucie Nohov, Fast-Decoupled Method for Contingency
Analysis, International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering
(EPE), pp 35 38, May 2014
[12] Maryam Hashemi Namin, Using UPFC in order to Power flow control,
International Conference on Industrial Technology, pp 1486 1491,Dec 2006
[13] Y. Pavan Kumar and H.B. Phani Raju, Static voltage stability margin
enhancement using shunt compensating devices, , National Conference on
Challenges in Research & Technology in the Coming Decades, pp 1 7, Sept.
2013
[14] Manish Patel and Adly A. Girgis, Review of Available Transmission
Capability (ATC) Calculation Methods, Power Systems Conference , pp 1-9,
March 2009
[15] Hsiao-Dong Chiang, Licheng Jin, Matthew Varghese, Soumen Ghosh, and
Hua Li, Linear and Nonlinear Methods for Contingency Analysis in On-Line
Voltage Security Assessments, Power & Energy Society General Meeting, pp 1-6,
July 2009
[16] Roman Vykuka, Lucie Nohacova, Fast-Decoupled Method for Contingency
Analysis, International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering
(EPE), pp 35-38, May 2014