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Low Costs and High Efficiency Asynchronous

Machine with Stator Cage Winding

Gurakuq Dajaku
D-85577 Neubiberg, Germany
AbstractThis paper presents a new multi-phase stator cage
winding suitable for different synchronous and asynchronous
machine types. The new winding construction is characterized
with high quality MMF distribution, simple construction, and
extremely short end winding length. The stator consists of a stack
of iron lamination, but with massive conductors in each slot, being
short-circuited at one axial end, and with each slot conductor
supplied separately at the second end of the machine. To show the
capability and the efficiency of the new machine concept, an
asynchronous motor (ASM) for traction application in electric
vehicles (EV) is designed and investigated. The simulation results
show high power density, high efficiency, and thermally robust
for the new ASM design.
Keywords Stator cage winding, ISCAD, multi-phase supply,
variable pole-pairs, low voltage, asynchromous machine.

For the past several years permanent magnet (PM)
synchronous machines have found wide applications in electric
vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEVs) [1 to 5]. To
fulfil the targets regarding the high torque density, operation
speed, and efficiency, low rotor losses, thermal aspects, and
noise and vibrations problems, many manufacturers select
complex distributed winding with high number of coils per
pole for their machine designs such as in Toyota Prius-2010, or
BMW-i3 [6, 7]. The main merit on this winding type is the
high quality of the magneto motive force (MMF) and the
resulting air-gap flux density generated by it. Generally, for the
distributed windings, increasing the number of coils per pole
improves the winding MMF waveform quality, and this results
in solving many problems concerning the rotor losses, rotor
heating, and noise and vibrations, however, on the other side
the winding complexity and manufacturing process also
increases simultaneously. Further, this winding type is
characterized also with several other disadvantages such as
overlapping coils, large end-winding length, low slot filling
factor and so one [8].
A typical machine example for HEV application is
presented in Fig. 1a). The outer diameter of the machine is
260mm, active length is 50mm, and the total length is 160mm
[6]. Fig. 1b) illustrates the axial cross-section view of the
machine. It can be seen here that, the core axial length
represents about 1/3 of the total machine length, while for the

978-1-4799-6075-0/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

Dieter Gerling
Institute of Electrical Drives
Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen
D-85577 Neubiberg, Germany
end-winding it is required about 2/3 of the total machine
length. Since, only the machine active length is responsible for
the effective torque and power, the end-winding components in
the end regions generate only Ohmic losses and other parasitic
effects. Of course, if the available axial space is even shorter,
then the active length of the machine becomes shorter and the
power density of the machine decreases significantly. An
alternative solution is to use tooth concentrated winding which
have short end-winding length, however, as results of high
MMF harmonics this winding type generate high rotor losses,
noise and vibrations, and also rotor heating problems [8, 9],
and, up to now this winding type is excluded for such
application as main traction drive machine. Therefore, to
overcome the drawbacks and problems with the distributed
windings concerning to the Ohmic losses, manufacturing
complexity, and packaging, however, simultaneously to use the
merits of this winding type concerning the MMF waveform
quality, in this paper we present a novel stator cage winding
for the electric machines that is proposed in [11]. The new
winding type is characterized with a simple construction and
manufacturing, extremely short end winding length, high
quality MMF waveform, high winding factor for the
fundamental wave, and greater fault tolerance. Thanks the
high quality of the MMF distribution this winding type is
suitable for different machine types. Considering the main
drawbacks of PM machines such as, cost of the permanent
magnets, risk of demagnetization, additional control effort, and
so on, the main objective of this work was to present a new
asynchronous machine (ASM) with stator cage winding as an



Fig. 1. a). PM machine with distributed winding, b). Axial cross-section view

alternative, simple, and cheaper solution. In this paper the

ASM used in the Tesla model-S is taken as benchmark for the
new machine design. The both machines are investigated and
compared concerning the electromagnetic and thermal aspects.
Finite elements methods (FEM) are used for the analysis of the
considered machines.
Fig. 3. The m-phase stator winding supplied with multiphase inverter


A. Construction
A new and simple multi-phase stator winding that can be
manufactured analogous as the ASM cage rotor is proposed in
[11]. Fig. 2 shows the construction for the new stator cage
winding. The stator consists of a stack of iron lamination and
massive conductors (bars) in each slot, being short-circuited at
one axial end of the machine using an end-connection ring. In
the opposite stator side the conductor terminals are connected
to the supply source devices. Each conductor (stator slot) is a
phase winding itself and is supplied with its own supply
device. The supply voltage in each phase (slot-conductor) can
be described as (e.g. phase-k)

uk = U cos t p (k 1)
+ u , k


where, k is the number of the corresponding slot (bar), QS is

the number of stator slots, and p is the number of pole-pairs.
In eq. (1), the p parameter is a variable that defines the number
of pole-pairs. Thus, different from the conventional windings
where the number of pole-pairs is fixed and is defined from the
winding type, winding distribution, and the coil-pitch ratio, for
the new winding construction the number of pole pairs is
determined from the bar supply signals and is changeable also
during operation of the machine. Further, the number of
winding phases for the new winding isnt always constant, but
it depends on the ratio of number of stator slots and pole-pairs,



Fig. 3 illustrates the new winding supplied with a

multiphase power sources device. In the presented example the
number of stator slots (bars) is taken to be 18. Each slot
conductor is connected to the center tap of a half bridge, so
that the current in each slot can be determined individually.
The multiphase supplying can be realized using modern power
electronic switching devices such as MOSFETs or IGBTs.

Stator core


From the Fig. 2 it can be seen that, the production of the

stator with the new winding is very cheap and simple
compared with the conventional winding. The cage winding
with the all massive conductors connected to one end-ring can
be prepared separately, and then it can be shifted in the stator
slots as is illustrated in Figs. 2 and 4a). Or, another possible
solution is to use the die casting method for producing the
stator cage winding, analogous with the ASM rotor, Fig. 4b).
For the both winding manufacturing cases a high slot fill factor
up to 100% can be realized that is about 2.5 times higher than
for the conventional distributed windings. This results to low
resistance and low Ohmic losses for the new winding
construction. Thus, as results of the high slot fill factor, it is
possible to use Aluminium material instead of Copper. This
leads further to weight and costs reduction for the new
machine concept.
B. MMF Characteristics
Fig. 5 compares the MMF distribution and their
corresponding space harmonics for a conventional distributed
winding with q=3 and the new multiphase stator cage winding.
The simulations are performed under the same geometrical and
electrical constrains. For the both considered windings the
number of stator slots, pole pairs, and turns per slot is taken to
be Qs=18, p=1, and Nw=1, respectively. From the MMF
analysis it can be seen that, the stator cage winding shows
better characteristics, and also higher power density. The
winding factor for the new winding is equal to one, however,
for the conventional winding is 0.96. This means that the
power density of the new winding is for 4% higher than of the
conventional winding. Moreover, the new winding design is
characterized also with low harmonic contents compared with
the analogous distributed one.





Fig. 2. a). New stator core with the winding, b). Stator cage winding


Fig. 4. New stator construction; a). Massive conductors inserted in the stator
slots, b). Die casting of the stator winding


Conv. Winding
New Winding


MMF [ p.u. ]




Fig. 6. Heat flux path; a). Conventional stator, b). New stator

theta [rad. degree]

Conv. Winding
New Winding

MMF [ p.u. ]



Space Harmonics
Fig. 5. Comparison of MMF characteristics; a). MMF distribution, b). MMF
space harmonics

C. Thermal Cooling Capability

Usually, the motor operation at high torque is associated
with large heat dissipation in the stator windings and the stator
core as a consequence of losses. Heat transfer in electrical
machines is a combination of conduction within solid and
laminated components, and convection from surfaces which
are in contact with air or other cooling fluids. Generally,
electric machines for traction applications are fluid cooled
using a cooling jacked on the stator frame. Thus, the heat
generated in the stator windings flows from the coil sides,
radially and circumferentially across the slot insulation, into
the stator core and further out to the stator frame. A large
portion of total machine losses is transferred throughout this
path. Fig. 6 illustrates the heat transfer flow path for a
conventional stator and also the new stator cage winding.
Considering firstly the conventional design, the thermal
resistance between copper winding up to cooling medium
consists of resistances in slot region (air, insolation sheet,
different contacts), stator teeth and frame, and the convection
between cooling surface and coolant. In total, this resistance is
very high as results of the high resistance in the slot region. On
the other side, the thermal resistance for the stator cage
winding is clearly lower since in the slot region it includes
only the contact resistance between the massive conductor and
the stator core (the thermal resistance inside the conductor is
low as results of high thermal conductivity for the
Alumminium or Copper material). Therefore, concerning the
thermal aspects, the new stator design offers better cooling
potential for the stator winding.

D. Direct Cooling of the Stator Winding

Different form the conventional cooling presented in the
previous section, the new stator cage winding construction
offers a possibility to make a direct cooling of the stator
winding conductors by cooling the end-ring with an integrated
cooling channel inside the end-ring section, or mounting it on
the end-ring lateral and/or radial faces. Fig. 7 illustrates the
new cooling technique with a cooling channel mounted
directly on the end-ring lateral side. Therefore, the Ohmic
losses generated on the end-ring region can be cooled directly.
On the other side, also the Ohmic losses generated on the
winding bars inside the machine are cooled efficiently. The
heat generated on the winding conductors flows axially
through the winding bars up to the end-ring region, and then to
the cooling region. It is important to point out that, the thermal
conductivity for the winding bar materials, such as Copper or
Alumminium, is relatively high (for about 5 to 8 times higher
compared with the iron), thus the axial thermal resistance for
the heat transfer through the winding bars is low, that makes
the stator winding cooling efficiently. Further, concerning the
stator iron losses, the new cooling method is efficient also for
cooling the stator core region. This is as result of low thermal
resistance between the stator core region and the winding bar
conductors, since no slot insulation sheet exists between the
winding bars and stator teeth/yoke regions. Therefore, the total
thermal resistance for the heat transfer from the stator core to
the end-ring cooling channel is low.
As with the new stator cage machine there is the possibility
to energize each conductor (slot) separately, this feature gives
a great variety of possible modes of operations:

Fig. 7. New cooling method with cooling channel mounted on the end-ring
lateral side

A. Changing the Number of Pole-pairs

For many applications where the wide operation speed
range is required, changing the number of pole-pairs of the
machine during the operation offers the opportunity to utilize
the best efficiency of the torque-speed map. Of course, for the
synchronous machines where the number of pole-pairs is
defined from the rotor poles, this opportunity cant be used.
However, for the asynchronous machines where the number of
pole-pairs is defined (induced) from the stator side (winding
MMF poles), it is possible to change the number of pole-pairs
also during the operation, thus to utilize the maximal possible
machine efficiency at any operation speed. Eq. (3) describes
the current in each stator slot. As is mentioned before, the p
parameter is taken to be a variable that defines the number of

iS , k = I cos t p (k 1)


B. Generating Several Number of Pole-Pairs

Another advantage of the new winding is the possibility to
generate and to control at the same time several pole pairs in
the machine. Eq. (4) gives the expression for the phase current
in the k-th stator slot for the multi pole-pairs operation mode,
where the amplitude C , frequency , and the number of
pole-pairs p are denoted as variable parameters. Thus,
depending on the operation modes, or the machine type, these
parameters can be controlled separately. This can be useful for
different machine types and also for different operation modes,
such as,
Self-exciting synchronous machine according to [14],
where the working wave is used for torque production and
a harmonic wave is used to transfer energy to the rotor.
For this machine type, the working wave and the rotor
excitation wave can be controlled independently.


theta [rad. degree]




theta [rad. degree]

Fig. 8. MMF distribution for; a). pole-pairs = 2, b). pole-pairs = 1


Fig. 8 demonstrates the changing the pole-pairs according to

eq. (3) and for QS=36, p=2, and p=1. E.g. at low operation
speed where a high torque is required the ASM machine can be
designed to operate with high number of pole-pairs (p=2),
however, at high speed where the iron losses and also the skin
and proximity losses are dominant, the number of pole-pairs
can be switched to one (p=1) that results to a significant loss

MMF [ p.u. ]


Changing the number of pole-pairs (even during

operation) for the asynchronous machines,
Generating several pole-pairs simultaneously,
Controlling the amplitude and frequency of
corresponding pole-pairs separately,
Changing the number of active phases (even during
Active phases being distributed symmetrically or nonsymmetrically along the machine circumference,
Changing the mode of operation to ensure an
optimum efficiency (depending on the operation
Changing the mode of operation to ensure an
optimum system life-time.

MMF [ p.u. ]

Multi pole-pairs ASM; the ASM can operate with several

pole-pairs simultaneously if the rotation speed of the all
excited poles is the same. This condition can be fulfilled
with the new winding by varying the supply frequencies of
corresponding poles. Of course, varying the phase current
or the slip parameter, it is possible also to control and to
define the amount of each pole-pair on the machine torque
Hybrid machines; another applications can be found also
on the hybrid rotor machines such as, a combined
asynchronous and PM rotor, asynchronous and reluctance
rotor, PM and reluctance rotor, multi-pole pairs PM or
reluctance rotor, and so on.

iS , k = I C cos t p ( k 1)


Fig. 9 shows the case where two different pole-pairs are

generated at the same time. The simulations are performed for
p1=1, and p2=3. Other parameters in the phase current function
are taken to be the same.
As reference machine for traction application is considered
the Tesla model-S asynchronous machine [10]. Table-I
resumes the main specifications for the investigated machine
compared with the reference machine. In following, the new
machine design is called as ISCAD-ASM [12, 13]. To perform
a correct comparison, the main geometry specifications of both
machines, such as, the outer diameter, number of pole-pairs,
and air-gap length are held the same. The main difference is
only on the DC voltage supply, materials for the stator and
rotor winding, and also on the active axial length of the

MMF [ p.u. ]


MMF [ p.u. ]

theta [rad. degree]

Material, stator winding



Material, rotor winding




375 V

24 V

Maximal torque

600 Nm

600 Nm

Maximal speed

13000 rpm

13000 rpm




Space Harmonics


Fig. 9. MMF characteristics for multi pole-pairs excitation

machine. As results of low phase (bar) inductance, the new

ISCAD-ASM is designed for low voltage application (24VDC).
Additionally, the problem with low inductances is solved by
increasing the active length, but holding the total machine
length constant with the reference machine. Finally, another
important difference is also on the used winding materials for
the both stator and rotor components. Aluminium material is
used in the ISCAD-ASM instead of Copper material already
used in the Tesla machine.

Tesla ASM


speed [rpm]



Torque [Nm]



Stator Ohmic Losses [kW]



Rotor Ohmic Losses [kW]


Iron Losses [kW]



efficiency [%]



A. Electromagnetic Analysis
The maximal load operation point (600Nm&5300rpm) is
selected for comparison of both machine types. The following
analysis is performed using 2D finite elements methods
(FEM). During determination of Ohmic losses for the
ISCAD-ASM, the skin and proximity effect in the stator bars is
considered in the FE model. Table-II compares the machine
losses and efficiency under the maximal operation load
condition. Considering the Ohmic losses which represent the
dominant losses for the both machines, it can be seen here that
with the new ISCAD-ASM design these losses are reduced for
about 50% even Alumminium material is used for the stator
and rotor cage. It is important to point out that, the main factor
for loss reduction in the new machine design is the efficient
use of the total machine length and also the high fill factor
(100%) for the stator winding. Further simulation results for
the considered load condition are given in following Figs. 10
and 11.



Fig. 10. Flux density distribution und the maximal load; a). ISCAD-ASM,
b). Tesla model-S ASM


Tesla ASM


Outer diameter


253 mm

253 mm

Total axial length

270 mm

270 mm

Active length

154 mm

250 mm

Air-gap length

0,5 mm

0,5 mm

Number of poles

Number of stator slots



Number of rotor slots



Fig. 11. Torque response for the maximal load for the ISCAD-ASM

It has to be pointed out, that the benchmark calculation for

the Tesla model-S ASM is done using a self-developed FEM
model based on published or estimated machine data.

B. Thermal Analysis
During the thermal analysis, the both machines are
assumed to be mounted inside a water cooled jacked with the

coolant temperature of 80C (conventional stator frame

cooling), and also with 2000 W/(Km) coolant convection
coefficient. For the considered load operation point, Fig. 12
gives the temperature rise with the time in the stator and rotor
conductors, however, the temperature distribution after 240s
simulation time is presented in Fig. 13. The temperature
results presented here are illustrated for the same temperature
scale. From these results it can be concluded that, in addition
to electromagnetic advantages, the new machine design shows
also high thermal capability compared with the reference
machine. It is important to note here that the main advantage of
the new machine design from the thermal point of view is the
low thermal resistance between the stator bars and core, and
also the low loss density.


Fig. 13. Temperature distribution under the maximal load at 250s




A new stator cage winding is presented and discussed, and

its capability for applications in asynchronous machines is
investigated. The new winding type is characterized with a
simple construction and manufacturing, extremely short end
winding length, high quality MMF waveform, high winding
factor for the fundamental wave, and greater fault tolerance.
The stator consists of a stack of iron lamination and massive
conductors in each slot, being short-circuited at one axial end
of the machine using an end-connection ring. In the opposite
stator side the conductor terminals are connected to the supply
source devices. The possibility to energize each conductor
(slot) separately gives a great variety of possible modes of
operations such as, changing the number of pole-pairs (even
simultaneously, controlling the amplitude and frequency of
corresponding pole-pairs separately, changing the number of
active phases, and so on. Further, the new winding
construction offers a high thermal capability and simple
To demonstrate the performance ability of the presented
winding, a new stator cage ASM for traction application is
designed considering the Tesla model-S asynchronous machine
as reference model. For the both machines, a detailed
electromagnetic and thermal analysis is performed and the
obtained results for the maximal load condition are compared.
It is clearly shown from this analysis that, concerning the
machine losses, efficiency, and also thermal behaviors, the
new stator cage ASM outperform by far the reference machine.














Fig. 12. Temperature rise in the stator and rotor winding for the maximal load

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