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CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION
When we put ourselves in an educational context and observe what happens in the
learning process of students, especially in English class, we will observe that everyone can
have some trouble; could be a little mistake in the pronunciation, or a huge problem in the
grammar structure, but with help from the teacher they can over it. In the case of children
with special educational needs, this obstacle becomes more complex and more difficult to
solve, therefore, the role of the teacher and his or her methodology should be according to
their necessity. Even though we know that methodology teaching has an important place in
Acquisition of a Second Language, we should also know that motivation may be the main
role in this process because everyone is affected by an internal or external factor. But what
do we understand by motivation?
Motivation could be understood as an internal drive which pushes someone to do
things in order to achieve something (Harmer, 2007). If we separate motivation in parts, we
can find two main factors: those that comes from inside (intrinsic) and those that comes
from outside (extrinsic). These two forms of motivations are closely related with the
educational context and the methodology of learning used in the classroom.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The motivation for learning English of children with cognitive and social problems
is affected by the methodology of the teacher of English in the classroom in 4th grade
students.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS


In order to support the statement of the problem, this study will work with three
research questions, these are three questions:
-

Research Question 1: Is motivation for learning English in children with


cognitive and social problems affected by methodology?

Research Question 2: Do the cognitive and social problems affect motivation for
learning English?

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1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM


The relevance of studying this problem is that nowadays Chile is trying to
incorporate inclusive programs in order to increase the acceptation and tolerance among
students and teacher. It is true that in every school you may find some students with
special educational needs and unfortunately they are not inserted in a special school and
they must be embedded in an environment which provides them the facilities and tools
to achieve a good students performance expected for children at each age. Therefore,
what this study is trying to do is show how the panorama of this reality can affect the
motivation on those who present cognitive and social problems and if the methodology
that the teacher uses inside the classroom may affect this process of learning a second
language through motivation.
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to have a better understanding of some of the terms that are part of this
research paper, below you may find the definitions of each word:
1. Motivation is the effort learners put into learning an L2 as a result of their
desire or need to learn it. (Ellis, 1997)
2. Intrinsic motivation is the degree of effort a learner makes to learn an L2 as a
result of the interest generated by a particular learning activity. (Ellis, 1997)
3. Extrinsic motivation is a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in
order to attain some separable outcome. (Deci and Ryan, 2000)
4. Methodology: It is defined as the study of the practices and procedures in
teaching, and the principles and belief that underlie them. It is the development
of teaching routines. (Richards et al. 1985: 177)
5. SEN Special Educational Need: This term refers to children who have needs
or disabilities that affect their ability to learn. For example: behavioral/social (eg
difficulty making friends), reading and writing (eg dyslexia) understanding
things, concentrating (eg Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), physical
needs or impairments. (GOV.UK, 2013)
6. School Integration Program (SIP) or in Spanish Programa de Integracin
Escolar (PIE) is a school system strategy, which aims is to contribute to the

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continuous improvement of the quality of education provided in the school,


favoring the presence, participation and achievement of expected learning
"every and one of the students ", especially those with special educational needs
(SEN), whether permanent or temporary. (MINEDUC, 2013)
7. Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neuro-developmental difference that falls within
the autistic spectrum. (Winter, 2011)
8. Dyslexia difficulty with decoding single words, making reading, writing and
spelling difficult. (Winter, 2011)
9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a brain disorder that includes
difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior,
and hyperactivity (over-activity). (NIH, 2013)
1.5 SUMARY OF THE CHAPTER
So far we have mentioned the problem and the questions that will guide our
research in which we have considered the importance of investigating how important is the
motivation and the methodologies used by the teacher when teaching children with special
needs. For the next chapter we will revise the literature related to our investigation in order
to clarify and define the main concepts of the study.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
This literature review explores the main topic of this research paper which is
motivation. Motivation has two different classifications: intrinsic and extrinsic.
It is true that one of the main factors in order to learn any subject at school is
motivation. The question is what motivation is, and why it is so important in the learning
process of students. According to Cambridge Dictionary, motivation is defined as the
enthusiasm for doing something. Therefore, we can say that it is a kind of power unit which
drives us to want to do or learn something in life. This review of literature has as a purpose
to show how motivation has been defined by many researches in order to clarify the
concept and therefore make a consensus about the best way to define motivation according
to the context in which its involved; finally to conclude why motivation is so important in
the classroom.

2.2 DEFINITIONS OF MOTIVATION


As it was said before, motivation works as a motor that moves us to do or learn
something. Some researchers as Richard M. Cash (2011), divided this word in two parts:
motive and action, in which action means doing and motive refers to something that
causes a person to act in a certain way or do a certain thing (p:37). In that way motivation
may be seen as a desire and also the attribute that drives people to get something. Also
motivation can be distinguished between two basic distinctions that give us the reasons or
goals that drive us to go forward, these are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation
(see table 1). As Deci et al. (2000) explained, intrinsic motivation is dened as the doing of
an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. This
means that whenever we do something just because it seems fun or we like to do it, we are
in front of intrinsic motivation, therefore we could say that intrinsic motivation comes from
curiosity. In education, intrinsic motivation is the ultimate goal and purpose at every level,
because according to the Asia E University studies in ideal classroom, students pay

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attention, ask questions and want to learn. They do their assignments without complaint and
study without being coaxed and cajoled. (p:200)
Although, teachers prefer to use extrinsic motivation in order to stimulate learning
or make students to do the activities, in this way teachers reinforce or reward the positive
attitude that the student has to face and do the activity. In other words, extrinsic motivation
as Morris & Maisto (2002) said, refers to rewards that are obtained not from the activity,
but as a consequence of the activity. Deci et al, defined what extrinsic motivation is, saying
that this kind of motivation come from external factors, such as rewards and outcomes. For
example, children who do the activities in class just because they know that they will have
extra points or a positive reinforcement.

Intrinsic Motivation

External Motivation

Arousal of curiosity.

Parents, teachers, peers.

Feelings of competence.

The nature and amount appropriate praise


and feedback.

Personal relevance.

Rewards.

Realistic awareness of personal strengths

The learning environment.

and weaknesses in skills required.


Table 1. Some examples of both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
(Williams and Burden's, 1997)

In the educational context, it is important for teachers to be aware about these kinds
of motivation in order to know how to improve the class and the students motivation. A
lack of motivation can affect how students approach the school in general. For this reason is
necessary that teachers find out techniques or method in which they can generate an
appropriate atmosphere where the students feel comfortable to study and get motivated to
the schools subjects. This process is so far from easy, because teachers have to deal with a
lot of students each one with different likes, competences, and multiples intelligences as
well. However, this challenge of keeping the student motivated to learn another language

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than the mother tongue becomes more complicated since learning second language (L2) is
not easy as this implies more effort and learning new grammar structures that for students
may be interesting or boring. Hence, teachers should keep in mind some keys in which they
can get the students involve in the English class (Drnyei, 2001):

Point out challenging, exotic or satisfying aspects of L2 learning;

Connect L2 learning with activities that students already and interesting or hold in
esteem (e.g. computer-assisted learning);

Highlight the variety of activities that L2 learning may involve; and

Provide a demonstration of some particularly enjoyable tasks.


According to Banduras socio-cognitive theory (1997), students motivation is a

construct that is built out of individual learning activities and experiences, and it varies
from one situation or context to another. Regarding this, we can say that is the educational
context that provides the motivation that children need, since we are social human beings,
communication and connection among others play a fundamental role in the process of
acquisition of motivation. On the other hand, Krashen (1981, 1982) postulated that
students motivation goes beyond the educational context, but motivation comes from the
affective filter and how this affective filter intervenes in the process of the acquisition of a
second language. He postulated through his Affective Filter Hypothesis (1981, 1982), that
motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety all play a prominent role in language acquisition.

2.3 SUMMARY
To sum up, the concept of motivation and the impact of this feeling in the normal
development of classes has been studied and analyzed by many specialized authors and
professionals. It is an important topic in education that many people, especially teachers,
have tried to understand in a better way in order to make more dynamic, attractive and
meaningful classes.

In our research, motivation is an important part of the learning

processes of students with social and cognitive problems, because they need to be part of
the class in order to learn the contents and teachers can motivate them using many
techniques and procedures. In the next chapter is going to explain the method used to for
our investigation, showing the instruments and the procedures that was carried out.

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CHAPTER 3
METHODS
The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of motivation in
the learning process of English as a second language in a school which has students with
cognitive and social problems. This school, called Irarrzabal School, has a project that
integrates students with social and cognitive problems to its normal classes, so teachers
must use many kinds of teaching methods, combined with proper teaching aids, to prepare
and make classes to all their students. We used different kinds of instruments to gather data
from teachers and students of the school, so we could analyze that information and compare
it with educational and psychological theories to answer our research question with
accuracy and objectivity. For this we used interviews, questionnaires and voice records that
allowed us to gather data directly from their direct source: the participants, who have many
different backgrounds.
3.1 PARTICIPANTS (SUBJECTS)
In this part or the research we are going to define the population that is part of our
work. For this purpose, we selected children with cognitive and social problems; 2 girls and
6 boys between 10 and 11 years old. Those students are in 4th grade and are from
Irarrazabal School which is a private school for mid-upper class. The students were not
selected in a specific way. They are all part of that grade and have different learning
problems such as Asperger, Dyslexia, Depression, and Attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder. In terms of their level of English, they all have between basic and medium level of
English. The teacher has 32 years old and has been teaching for 8 years and she studied
English teaching at Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacin (UMCE).
3.2 INSTRUMENTS
For this study, we used materials as interviews and voice records to gather data and
information of the schools we are researching about. We chose these materials because they
can be used to get relevant information related to our research problem. Using interviews,
we can ask teachers about their teaching methods, especially those methods that are

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specially focused to students with cognitive and social problems, and we can ask students
about their level of interest on the learning process of English. Voice records are mainly
used as a support of the interviews, so we can write in our research the specific information
that we got from the interviewees using their voice records. These materials will help us to
make an objective and accurate research.

3.2 PROCEDURES
The uses that we gave to the instruments were followed step by step in order to have
accurate information.
The most important use of the instruments was to gather data and information about
what motivates students with social and cognitive problems. For this purpose, the study had
one main instrument: questionnaire.
First of all, we asked for permission to the teacher if we could make a questionnaire
to each children inside the classroom, in this case there were only eight students and this
took between ten and fifteen minutes. The goal of this instrument was to collect general
information about what they like or dislike about the class or how they will increase their
motivation if they had the chance to change the methodology inside the classroom. The
questions had the purpose to know whether their motivation is extrinsic or intrinsic. It was
important to know that we cannot give them so many questions because that may change
their answers (probably they could feel tired if they read two pages).
Second and thanks to the previously questionnaire, we did interviews (which lasted
4 minutes each) to the children base on the answers that were given before. The objective
of the interviews was to know each reality individually; this means that we were able to
know why some children have more motivation than others despite of their social or
cognitive problems. The importance of this instrument in the clinical aspect was that
interviews provided us a truly comprehension of the childs psychology and how his or her
mental process affects his or her motivation (whether is extrinsic or intrinsic). In this part it
was important to take notes during the interview because the child may not be answered
with verbal language, but with his or her body language.

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Finally we used voice records to register all the answers provided for the children
during the interview. This instrument gave us support in our investigation because proved
that the results are based on their answers. The voice records were transcript in order to be
annexed at the end of the investigation paper.

3.4 SUMMARY
To sum up, this chapter provides the basic information about the school, the
students that are part of the investigation and also the procedures of this research. For the
next chapter we will present and discuss the results of the data collected.

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CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
According to what was mentioned before, this research paper and collection of data
is going to be carried out though questionnaire which was applied in a 4th grade primary at
Irarrzabal School. The population involved in this instruments were 6 students who had to
answer a questionnaire of 8 yes/no questions and in additionally they were asked the reason
of their yes/answer in order to know what kind of preferences the students have.
4.2 PRESENTATION OF DATA
Detailed below are the results of each question which are presented though pie
charts. It is important to say that the questionnaire was applied in Spanish because the idea
was to know what the students think about the English class, not to know if they know
English or not.
Figure 1. Results of question n1

Te gusta la clase de ingls?

17%
S

83%

No

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Figure 2. Results of question n2

Qu te gusta de la clase de ingls?


14%

Libros de clases

29%
Actividad que da la
profesora

14%

Actividades grupales
Escuchar canciones

14%
29%

Otros

Figure 3. Results of question n3

Cmo te gustara que fuesen las clases de ingls?

33%

Entretenido
Fines educativos

50%

Sin respuesta

17%

Figure 4. Results of question n4

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Te gusta el horario de ingls en tu colegio?

17%
S

No

83%

Figure 5. Results of question n5

Estudias ingls en tu casa?

33%
S

67%

Figure 6. Results of question n6

No

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Te ayudan tus padres a estudiar ingls?

50%

No

50%

Figure 7. Results of question n7

Cuando tienes buenas notas en las pruebas te gusta


ms el idioma?

33%
S

67%

Figure 8. Results of question n8

No

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Crees que estudiar ingls es importante?

17%
S

No

83%

4.3 ANALYSIS OF DATA


The objective of this analysis is to determine whether the motivation that the
students present come from intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation and explain why
this happens. The questionnaire was done by six students since two missed the class that
day. The conditions where this questionnaire was done were suitable because was during
the morning hence the classroom had good ventilation and natural light.

Question 1: This first question had the objective to determine if the students enjoy
the English class or not. Since here we could be able to see some patrons that will
help us to understand what factors affect their motivation; if it is the teacher, the
resources, the hour of the class, etc.

Question 2: The answers provided for the students indicated that the common
methodology, such as activities that the teacher gives, or the activities from the
textbook affect their motivation for learning English, so we could say the research
question 1 is already answered as well: Children are affected by the teachers
methodology. However, we can infer that students think it is more important the
textbook than what the teacher does in the class, because 29% of the students like

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the textbook instead of the activities that the teacher provides, thus the textbook has
to be interesting and meaningful for them.

Question 3: In this question the students had to give a focus of how should be the
English class in order to improve their enthusiasm on the subject, but as you can
see, the half of the students do not answer it. This can have an explanation; they are
so use to have the same routine of classes in which the teacher enters to the class,
say hi and ask to pull the textbook out from the backpack, so they cannot imagine
a different way to do the classes. This question is closely related to the question 2
since the alternative that had the highest result was the one that they are more
familiar with it. The rest of the answer was related of how they imagine an English
class: entertaining and that is helpful to learn; as any English class should be.

Question 4: This question explains that external factors, such as the schedule of the
English class does not affect the students motivation, therefore it does not matter if
they have class in the morning; this factor will not affect their performance.

Question 5: This question was formulated in order to know if children study


English at home. We can observe that more than the 50% of the children asked
answered that they do study English at home, and we can explain using our main
concept: motivation. If children study at home a specific subject, they are putting
effort to improve their skills in that subject, and that improvement can help children
to motivate themselves to learn more of that subject. If a subject is not interesting to
the students, they probably will not focus their attention on that subject in classes,
and less at home. By asking children if they study English at home, we can observe
their level of interest towards the subject.

Question 6: This question was formulated in order to know the real participation of
parents in the process of learning. This question is related to the fifth question,
because the work level of students is highly determined by the encouragement of
the parents and other members of the family. Although the positive answers were
lesser than the previous questions positive answers, we can still observe that
parents have a great role to help the half of the students that answered positively.

Question 7: Intrinsic motivation plays a huge role in the answers of this question.
Obtaining high grades in a subject can be a determinant factor of the motivation of

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the students. Generally, if students obtain low grades in a specific subject, their
level of interest towards that subject will decrease, because they would feel so
annoyed by their calcifications that they probably will focus on those subjects that
they think that are easier to understand. In this question, the 67% of the students
answered that they feel good when they get high scores in English and these
answers reflect what we have said before.

Question 8: The personal opinion of each student that were asked by us to answer
this questionnaire about English is as important as the other questions, so this final
question had the objective to know if children believed that English is important.
The answers were mostly positive, with a percentage of 17% of disapproval, which
demonstrate the level of importance of the language on these children. If this subject
really matters to them, this means that they are going to be motivated to learn
English as a second language.

4.4 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion on the analysis of the surveys that were applied to the students, we
can say that the motivation that drives these children is more extrinsic than intrinsic,
because there is a motivational factor as a result, like to please parents with good marks. In
addition, we can also say that students with learning problems have the same kind of
motivations and likes as any other student. They do not show any difference and bad
predisposition for the English class, so this mean that they can be able to learn a second
language no matter their cognitive problems.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS REMARKS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter is going to be exposed the final conclusions that were drawn from
this research, giving the answers to the research questions that guided this investigation and
also showing and explaining the limitations that were implied at the time to develop the
research procedures and data collection. In addition, we will present suggestions in order to
improve future researches related to this topic and also a summary to point the most
relevant ideas that were concluded in this paper.
5.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS INTRODUCTION
The research question that were carried out in this paper were focused on motivation
in students with learning problems in order to discover whether motivation is affected by
cognitive and social problems or teachers methodology. The two specific research
questions related to the topic motivation are:
1. Is motivation for learning English in children with cognitive and social problems
affected by methodology?
2. Do the cognitive and social problems affect motivation for learning English?
Their respective answers and significance on this paper are presented below in order
to give a better understanding of the results and analyses that this paper developed.
5.2.1 RESEACH QUESTION 1
According to what we had analyzed from the data collected and the results of the
instrument we applied on students from 4th grade, we can say that the answer for the first
research question of this research paper which is Is motivation for learning English in
children with cognitive and social problems affected by methodology? is a resounding yes.
The methodologies that the English teacher uses are extremely important when teaching
English in order to get students attention, moreover when those students have learning
problems and it is difficult for them to understand the contents because of concentration or
lack of motivation. As it was possible to see in chapter 4, the question that was related to

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the materials that the teacher uses to teach English, such as the textbook, songs, flash cards,
etc., showed variable preferences as it is shown in figure n2. We can say that a mix of
those material would be suitable for the English class in order to make the English subject
friendly for students and make it motivated for them as well. Students with learning
problems in particular feel that learning a second language should be taught in a
comfortable environment, in other words, learning and teaching in a funny way as this is an
effective way to make the students feel confidence and moreover giving them positive
feedback, showing them they are able to learn as any other student.
5.2.2 RESEARCH QUESTION 2
The last research question that guides this research paper gave us an unexpected
answer. The question was if cognitive and social problems affect motivation for learning
English, and we concluded that those elements do not affect motivation for learning this
second language. It is true that this investigation was applied in a grade that has no more
than 8 students, but it still being a curious finding. The students answers showed that no
matter what kind of cognitive or social problems they have, what really affects their
motivation is the teachers methodology. This proves what it was pointed in chapter 4, that
children with learning problems may be capable to learn and do things despite their
limitations.
5.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During this whole experience, the research has suffered some limitations that
became a little bit more complicated to obtain accurate results. Next, it will be presented
the limitations that we had to affront over this process.
1. Since the children have social and cognitive problems, the real reason of their
motivation was complicate to define. While we observed their behavior inside the
classroom, we could noticed that sometimes they have good reactions to activities
related with the textbook, but also observed that they improve their motivation with
group activities and they rejected the textbook. This does not mean that this affect
their learning process in second language since it was proved that even though they

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have social and cognitive problems, they do not present a lack of motivation
because of it.
2. The questionnaire did not provide accurate results. The problem was that when the
questionnaire was made, in the classroom there were only six students, and not the
eight that they are. For this reason, we could not have the exact results.
3. The children were not motivated when they answered the questionnaire. We
observed that while they were answering the questionnaire, no one did with
enthusiasm; therefore the answers may not be completely honest.
In general, the limitations that we found were related with their motivation, whether
it is honest or it is according with their mood.
5.4 SUGGESTIONS OF THE RESEARCH
Throughout this research, we could perceive that motivation on students is not only
affected of things that happen in school: motivation can be altered by the influence of
students parents, relatives or friends that surround them in their common environments,
such as their homes and school, and also the level of stress can highly affect students
motivation. While perceiving this reality, we can state that many factors, besides social and
cognitive problems in students and methodologies used by teachers, may influence
motivation, by improving, decreasing or starting it. So that future researchers would
investigate those factors that were mentioned before in order to know exactly the reasons of
why levels of motivation vary in each student in a determined context, and how this may
affect their performance at school.
5.5 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
In this chapter, we showed and explained the final conclusions that we as
investigators made from this research. We explained the answers to our main research
questions that guided us during our research. We also showed the limitations that were
found in our data collection processes when we used some research tools and procedures to
obtain that information. Moreover, we presented some suggestions in order to realize other
researches related to motivation, which was our main topic. To sum up, this chapter was the

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final procedure of all our work and the main ideas of this chapter were the result of our
research.

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CHAPTER 6
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
6.1 INTRODUCTION
The goal of this chapter is to introduce and invite the reader and future researchers
to investigate a new branch of the topic that this research has already talked in this paper in
order to deepen in motivation in educative contexts.
6.2 REASEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to provide an propose ideas of a new investigation related to this paper,
below you may find some proposals of research questions connected to how levels of
motivation vary in each student in a determined context, and how this may affect their
performance at school.
-

Research Question 1: Does the educational context affect students performance


at school?

Research Question 2: Which are the reasons of why levels of motivation vary in
each student in a determined context?

6.3 INSTRUMENTS
For your research, you can use the same materials that we have used for our
research, which was a questionnaire, but also you can use interviews and voice records to
gather data and information of the objective participants that you want to investigate about.
In addition, you can use observation journals to increase the quantity of your gathered data.
The main idea is to use those instruments correctly and obtain the clearest information that
you will need to do your research.
6.4 PROCEDURES
The procedures of your research must be determined by the instruments that you
will use and also by the participants reactions to the process. For example, you must ask
the teacher for permission if you want to do a questionnaire to his or her students. Then,
you must record those answers by using notes or a voice recorder, in order to not miss

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essential information. Finally, you have to analyze your gathered data and compare the
results

with

theories

of

education

to

answer

your

research

questions.

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REFERENCES
Asia E University Chapter 8 Motivation in the classroom (p. 200). Retrieved from
http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/beduc/chapter_8.pdf
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Nueva York: Freeman.
Drnyei Z., (2001). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. (p.53) New York:
Cambridge

University

Press.

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