Sei sulla pagina 1di 120

Energy Efficiency in Pumping

Note the sections in Red refer to: BS 5316 Part 1 (ISO 2548) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps
BS 5316 Part 2 (ISO 3555) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps
BS 5316 Part 3 (ISO 5198) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps
which have since been superseded by: BS EN ISO 9906 Rotodynamic Pumps Hydraulic Performance Acceoptance Tests Grade
1&2

Energy Efficiency in Pumping


1. Basic Hydraulics

Fluid Density ()
Specific Gravity (SG)
Absolute Viscosity ()
Kinematic Viscosity ()
Pressure (P)
Head (H)
Pressure Gauge Corrections
Saturation Vapour Pressure of Water
Vapour Pressure
Bernoullis Equation
Continuity Equation
Velocity Head (Hv)
Pump Suction Head (Hs)
Pump Discharge Head (Hd)
Total Pump Head (H)
Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (Centrifugal Relift Pumps)
Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (Submersible Pumps)
Types of Fluid Flow (Laminar & Turbulent)
Reynolds Number (Re)

2. Pump Types & Characteristics

Centrifugal Pumps
Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal Pump Curve, Efficiency Curve & Power Curve
Centrifugal Pump Types
Positive Displacement Pumps
Characteristics of Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive Displacement Pump Curve & Power Curve
Positive Displacement Pump Types
The Pump Affinity Laws
Variable Speed Pumping
Work Done in Pumping (Pu)
Pump & Motor Power Consumption (Pp & Pgr)
Specific Speed (n)
Impeller Types
Pump Efficiency
Head Flow Characteristics
Power Characteristics
Efficiency Characteristics
Solo Pumping

Pumps Operating in Parallel


Pumps Operating in Series

3. System Characteristics

Pump Operating Point


Components of a System Curve
Typical Pump System
System Head
System Curve
System Efficiency (sys)
Pipe Friction Losses (DArcy formula)
Estimating Pipe Head Loss
Reynolds Number (Re)
Friction Factor (f) (Poiseuilles formula, Colebrooke & White
formula, Blasiuss formula, etc)
Pipe Roughness Values (k)
Moody Chart
Hazen & Williams Formula for Water
Hazen & Williams Friction Factors
The Importance of Pipe Diameter
Estimating Fitting Losses
Typical Loss Coefficients
Economic Pipe Sizing
Typical Suction Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)
Typical Discharge Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)

4. Cavitation

Cavitation
Bernoullis Equation
Vapour Pressure
Pressure Distribution
Cavitation
Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)
Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)
Cavitation Free Performance
Net Positive Suction Head Margin
Typical NPSH Margins
Cavitation and Pump Performance
Cavitation and Pump Noise
Maximum Lift
Maximum Suction Lift
Maximum elevation of a pump above an open water tank
Suction Specific Speed
Estimating NPSHR
Internal Recirculation
Onset of Suction Recirculation

Avoid Cavitation by Increasing NPSHA


Avoid Cavitation by Decreasing NPSHR
Comparing Single and Double Suction Impellers

5. Cost of Pumping

The Cost of Pumping


Some Facts and Figures
Why Pumps are Expensive to Operate
Power Consumed
The Cost of Pumping
The Whole Life Cost of a Pump
Why Pumps are Expensive
Energy Lost in Pumping
Efficiency Deterioration
Optimising Maintenance
Savings from Pump Refurbishment
The Effect of Oversizing Pumps
Energy Wasted in Throttling Discharge Valves
Energy Wasted in Throttling
Operating Away from the Best Efficiency Point

6. Cost Effective Pumping Systems

The Design Process


The Supply Chain
The Importance of Functional Specification
The Functional Specification
Function of a Typical Pump System
Energy Losses
Efficiency of Motors and Drives
Pump Efficiency
Pipework Losses
An Example
From Wire to Water
Specific Power Consumption
General Overview
Polymer Coatings
Some System Design Issues
Effect of Entrained Air on Pump Performance
Vortex Formation
Pump Sump Design Guides to Avoid Vortex Formation
Some Pump Selection Issues
Pump Load Profiles
Efficiency Characteristics

Some Pump Selection Issues


Pump Specification

7. Pump Performance Testing & Monitoring

Pump Test Standards*


Pump Testing to BS 5316*
Acceptance Tests for Centrifugal Pumps*
Conventional Pump Testing
Centrifugal Pump Characteristic
The Properties of Clean Cold Water
Limits of Overall Errors BS 5316*
Tolerance Zones BS 5316*
Example of the Effect of Tolerance Zones*
The Problems of Measuring Flow On-site
On-site Measurements of Flowmeter Uncertainty
Thermodynamic Pump Testing
The Advantages of the Thermodynamic Technique
Magnitude of Temperature rises in Thermodynamic pump testing
On-site Pump Performance Testing

* Note BS 5316 parts 1, 2 &3 has been superseded by BS EN ISO 9906

8. Pump Control & Scheduling

Throttle Control
Energy Loss in Throttling Fixed Speed Pumps
Bypass Control
Variable Speed Control
The Pump Affinity Laws for Variable Speed Pumping
Variable Speed - No Static Head
Variable Speed 60% Static Head
Variable Speed Pumping
Parallel Pumping
Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps
Operating Variable Speed Pumps in Parallel
Variation in Impeller Forces with Pump Flow
Series Pumping
Operating Pumps in Series
Pump Scheduling
Identifying Cost Savings Opportunities
Controlling Complex Systems

Appendix 1

Formulas

Head
Mean Flow Velocity
Velocity Head
Reynolds Number
Pump Speed
Hydraulic Power
Pump Input Power
Motor Input Power
System Efficiency
Specific Speed
Head Loss in Pipes
Head Loss In Fittings
Friction Factor Laminar Flow
Friction Factor Turbulent Flow
Hazen & Williams Head Loss Formula for Water
Net Positive Suction Head Available
Maximum Suction Lift
Suction Specific Speed
Annual Cost of Pumping
Annual Saving
Specific Power Consumption
Pump Affinity Laws

Appendix 2

Definition of Symbols

1. Basic Hydraulics

Fluid Density ()
= mass / volume

1m

1m
1m

The mass of 1m of water is 1000 kg (1 tonne).


for water = 1000kg/m

Specific Gravity (SG)


Specific Gravity = density of fluid / density of water.
Densities of some typical liquids
Approximate densities at 20C (kg/m)
Fluid

(kg/m)

Petrol
Pure Alcohol
Mineral Oil
Water
Nitric Acid
Mercury

750
790
920
1000
1500
13600

10

Absolute Viscosity ()
Viscosity is the resistance to fluid flow (shear)

moving
surface

y
Fluid
U

stationary surface
F
Forces between
adjacent fluid
layers

U + U

U
F

For a Newtonian fluid the shear stress is proportional to the rate of


shear.
= F/A u / y
= u / y
is the absolute or dynamic viscosity measured in Ns/m2
1 Ns/m2 = 1000cP
1 poise (P) = 100 centipoise (cP)

Absolute Viscosities of some typical liquids


Approximate absolute viscosity at 20C (cP)
Liquid
Petrol
Water
Mercury
Crude Oil

Absolute Viscosity (cP)


0.4
1.0
1.5
60.0

Note: Viscosity is very temperature dependant

11

Kinematic Viscosity ()
Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the viscous force to the inertial
force.
Kinematic Viscosity = /
Kinematic viscosity = Absolute Viscosity / Density
is the kinematic viscosity measured in m2/s
1 m2/s = 106 cSt, 1 mm2/s = 1 cST
(1 stoke (St) = 100 centistokes (cSt)

Kinematic Viscosities of some typical liquids


Approximate kinematic viscosity at 20C (cSt)
Liquid
Mercury
Petrol
Water
Crude Oil

Kinematic Viscosity (cSt)


0.1
0.6
1.0
80.0

Note: Centrifugal pumps become inefficient when pumping very


viscous liquids. Larger pumps suffer less. Positive displacement
pumps are more suitable for pumping very viscous liquids

12

Pressure (P)
Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmospheric
Standard atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 bar abs = 0 bar gauge
1 bar = 105 N/m = 10.2 m H2O = 750mm Hg
Note. Always compare like with like. Dont use a mix of absolute
and gauge pressures. For calculation purposes use absolute
pressure.
Head (H)
Head (H) = P / g
= density of liquid kg/m
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Pressure and Head


Petrol SG=0.75

Mercury SG=1

Water SG=1

20m

20m

20m

1.96 barg

26.65 barg

13

1.47 barg

Pressure Gauge Corrections


P1

Pressure at A = P1 + gh

h
A

B
h
Pressure at B = P2 - gh

P2

Allow for difference in height of a pressure gauge and the point at


which you are measuring the pressure.

14

Saturation Vapour Pressure of Water


Vapour Pressure (N/m2)
615
1230
2340
7400
20000
474000
101500

Temperature (C)
0
10
20
40
60
80
100

Vapour Pressure
Vapour Pressure (bar)
1.0
Boiling Point
Curve for Water
0.5

Liquid

Vapour
0.0
0

Temperature (C)

100

If you decrease pressure enough a liquid will boil (cavitation)


Saturation Vapour Pressures of typical liquids
Approximate vapour pressures at 20C (N/m2)
Vapour Pressure (N/m2)
0.16
2340
3300
5900
10000
12500
30400

Liquid
Mercury
Water
Kerosene
Ethyl Alcohol
Benzene
Methyl Alcohol
Petrol

15

Bernoullis Equation
(P/g) + (V2/2g) + h = constant
Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Constant
P2 , V2
(P1/ g)+(V12/2g)+z1 = (P2/ g)+(V22/2g)+z2+ losses

P1 , V1

z2

z1

Continuity Equation
Mass flow rate = A Vm remains constant
Where:

A = flow area
Vm = mean flow velocity
= density

A2 , Vm2

A1 , Vm1

1 A1 Vm1 = 2 A2 Vm2

16

Incompressible
flow 1 = 2

Velocity Head (Hv)


Vm = Q/A = 4 x Q / x d2
Velocity Head Hv = Vm2/2g
Where:

Hv = velocity head (m)


Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
d = pipe bore (m)

Pump Suction Head (Hs)

Hs = (Ps/g) hs - hs loss

Ps/g

Hs

hs loss

datum

hs

Ps

Pump Discharge Head (Hd)


hd loss
Hd

Vd2/2g

Pd

Pd/g
hd

Hd = (Pd/g) + hd + hd loss + (Vd2/2g)


Total Pump Head Rise (H)
H = H d - Hs
H = (Pd-Ps/g) + (hd + hs) + (hd loss + hs loss) + (Vd2/2g)
17

Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (centrifugal relift pump)


Discharge

Pd , Vd

hd

Ps , Vs
hs

Suction

Total Pump Head Rise (centrifugal relift pump)


Head Rise (H) = ((Pd - Ps) / g) + ((Vd2 - Vs2) / 2g) + (hd hs)
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
g = gravitational constant (9.81m/s)
Vd = mean velocity in discharge pipe (m/s)
Vs = mean velocity in suction pipe (m/s)
Pd = discharge pressure (N/m2)
Ps = suction pressure (N/m2)
hd, hs = height above pump centreline (m)

18

Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (submersible pump)


Pd , Vd
Well
Wet Well

h
Dry Well

Liquid Level

Submersible
Pump

Total Pump Head Rise (submersible pump)


Head Rise (H) = (Pd / g) + (Vd2 / 2g) + h
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
g = gravitational constant (9.81m/s)
Vd = mean velocity in discharge pipe (m/s)
Pd = discharge pressure (N/m2)
h = height above liquid level in wet well (m)

19

Types of Fluid Flow


Laminar Flow - Fluid flow in which adjacent layers do not mix
except on the molecular scale
In laminar flow viscous forces dominate.
Turbulent Flow - Fluid flow in which the particle motion at any
point varies rapidly in magnitude and direction
In Turbulent flow inertia forces dominate
Reynolds Number (Re)
The Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial
forces to viscous forces and, consequently, it quantifies the relative
importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions
Re = V d / = inertia forces / viscous forces
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)
V = mean velocity (m/s)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is "wet"
excluding any free surfaces where the liquid is not in contact with the pipe)
Pipe

Laminar Flow Re < 2100

Dye
Flow
Turbulent Flow Re > 3000

Pipe
Dye
Flow

The transition between laminar and turbulent flow in circular pipes


is generally accepted to be at about Re = 2300. Avoid any pipe
configuration within the range 2000 to 3000 to ensure the flow is
either fully laminar or fully turbulent.

20

2. Pump Types & Characteristics

21

Centrifugal Pumps
The rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump converts the shaft
power of the motor into increased fluid velocity and hence kinetic
energy of the liquid. This kinetic energy is converted into pressure
energy as the liquid passes through the pump casing.
Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps

Relatively cheap, simple and very common.


Capable of handling high flows
Output strongly dependant on resistance to flow
Compact for a given capacity
Not self-priming
Not suitable for high pressure or high viscosity applications

Centrifugal Pump Characteristic


(Pump Curve, Efficiency Curve, Power Curve)
Head
Pump
Curve (m)

Best Efficiency Point (BEP)

Efficiency
Curve (%)

Power
Curve (kW)
Flow

Notes:
Curves are for specific liquids e.g. Water
Power curve is typically pump shaft input power

22

BEP is at maximum efficiency

23

Centrifugal Pump Types

Axial
Flow

Single Stage
Multi Stage

Closed Impeller
Open Impeller
Fixed Pitch
Variable Pitch

Centrifugal
Pumps

Mixed
Flow
Single Suction
Multi Suction
Radial
Flow

Self Priming
Non Priming
Single Stage
Multi Stage
Open Impeller
Semi Open Impeller
Closed Impeller

24

Positive Displacement Pumps


In a positive displacement pump either rotary or linear motion is
used to force pockets of liquid through the pump casing.
Positive displacement pumps will draw upon the available power to
overcome resistance to flow.
Characteristics of Positive Displacement Pumps
Output largely independent of resistance to flow (suitable for
accurate measurement)
Suitable for high pressure and high viscosity applications
Self-priming capability
Produce a pulsating flow
Tend to be large and complex for their capacity

25

Positive Displacement Pump Characteristic


(Pump Curve)

Capacities

Head

N1

N2

Theoretical no slip

N3

Flow

Positive Displacement Pump Characteristic


(Power Curves)

Flow
N4
N3

Power
No Slip

Capacity

N4

N2
N1
N1
Power
Discharge Pressure

26

Positive Displacement Pump Types

Steam

Double acting

Simplex
Duplex

Double acting
Single acting

Simplex
Duplex
Triplex
Multiplex

Piston
Plunger
Reciprocating

Power

Simplex
Multiplex

Diaphragm

Fluid operated
Mechanically operated

Positive
Displacement
Pumps

Single rotor

Vane
Piston
Progressive cavity
Screw
Peristaltic

Rotary
Gear
Lobe
Circumferential piston
Screw

Multi rotor

27

The Pump Affinity Laws


The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on flow
Diameter Change
(d1 d2)

Speed Change
(N1 N2)

Diameter & Speed Change


(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

(Q2 / Q1) = (d2 / d1)

(Q2 / Q1) = (N2 / N1)

(Q2 / Q1) = (d2 x N2/ d1 x N1)

Q2 = Q1 x (d2 / d1)

Q2 = Q1 x (N2 / N1)

Q2 = Q1 x (d2 x N2/ d1 x N1)

Flow is directly proportional to diameter and speed.


The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on head
Diameter Change
(d1 d2)

Speed Change
(N1 N2)

Diameter & Speed Change


(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

(H2 / H1) = (d2 / d1)2

(H2 / H1) = (N2 / N1)2

(H2 / H1) = (d2 N2/ d1 N1)2

H2 = H1 x (d2 / d1)2

H2 = H1 x (N2 / N1)2

H2 = H1 x (d2 x N2/ d1 x N1)2

Head is proportional to the square of diameter and speed.


The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on power
Diameter Change
(d1 d2)

Speed Change
(N1 N2)

Diameter & Speed Change


(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

(P2 / P1) = (d2 / d1)3

(P2 / P1) = (N2 / N1)3

(P2 / P1) = (d2 N2/ d1 N1)3

P2 = P1 x (d2 / d1)3

P2 = P1 x (N2 / N1)3

P2 = P1 x (d2 x N2/ d1 x N1)3

Power (P) is proportional to the cube of diameter and speed.

28

Variable Speed Pumping

Pump curves at different speeds

Head

System
Curve

100%
75%
50%
Pump speeds
Flow

Work Done in Pumping Hydraulic Power (Pu)


Hydraulic Work Done (kW) = Pu = (gQH) / 1000
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = Total head rise across the pump (m)

Pump & Motor Power Consumption (Pp & Pgr)


Input power to pump shaft: Pp = gQH / p
p = pump efficiency

Input power to motor: Pgr = gQH / p m


m = motor efficiency

29

Specific Speed (n)


Specific Speed is a number that relates pump speed, flow rate and
head rise at the best efficiency operating condition of the pump to
impeller geometry and hydraulic performance.
n = ( x

Qbep) / (g x H bep)0.75

= pump speed (rad/sec)


Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)
H bep = Head rise at best efficiency point (m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Impeller Types

Radial Flow

Mixed Flow

Axial Flow

n 0.3 to 0.8

n 1.0 to 2.5

n > 3.5

Pump Efficiency
Efficiency (%)

80

100 l/s
1000 l/s

10 l/s

60
40
1 l/s

20
0
0.1

1.0

30

Specific Speed 10

Head Flow Characteristics


H/Hbep
Axial
Flow

Radial flow pumps can


easily be started against
a closed valve, axial flow
pumps cannot.

1.0
Radial
Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

Power characteristics
P/Pbep
Axial
Flow

Overloading
characteristic

1.0
Radial
Flow

Radial flow pumps can


overload their motors
discharging to an empty
main.

Non-overloading
characteristic
1.0

Q/Qbep

Efficiency Characteristics
/bep
1.0

Radial flow pumps will


hold their efficiency over
a wider range of design
flows.

Radial
Flow
Axial
Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

31

Solo Pump Operation

System Curve

Head

Pump Curve
Operating Point

Friction
Head

Total
Head

Static
Head

Flowrate

Flow

A fixed speed pump can only operate at head/flow combinations


described by its pump curve. The pump curve is a characteristic of
the pump.
A pumping main or system has a series of possible head/flow
combinations described by its system curve. The system curve is a
characteristic of the pumping main/system.
When a fixed speed pump is pumping into a system, it will operate
at the point at which its pump curve intersects the system curve.
A pump that is designed to run solo is selected to have its best
efficiency point at the solo operating point.
Note: Not all pumps are designed to run solo. Pumps can also be
designed to run in parallel and can be selected to have their best
efficiency point at a parallel pumping operating point.

32

Pumps Operating in Parallel

Head

Single Pump Curve

Combined Operatin

Friction
Head

Static
Head

Total
Head

Solo
Paralle
Flowrate Flowrate

When a pair of fixed speed pumps operate together in parallel their


pump curves are added together to make a combined pump curve.
The combined pump curve is a characteristic of the pump pair
operating in parallel.
The pumping main / system head/flow system curve remains
unchanged.
When the pump pair operates together parallel pumping into the
system, they will operate at the point at which the combined pump
curve intersects the system curve.
Parallel pumping is generally used to increase flow rate. However,
as the flowrate in the system increases, the friction element in the
total head becomes more significant, so a system curve would
need to be very flat indeed for parallel pumping achieve a (near)
doubling of the solo flow rate.

33

Pumps Operating in Series

Head

Two Pump Series Curve

System Curve
Two Pump Series
Operating Point

Solo Pump Curve


Solo Operating Point
Friction
Head

Static
Head

Total
Head

Solo
Flowrate

Series
Flowrate

Flow

When a two fixed speed pumps operate together in series their


pump curves are added together to make a series pump curve.
The combined pump curve is a characteristic of the pump pair
operating in series.
The pumping main / system head/flow system curve remains
unchanged.
When the pump pair operates together in series pumping into the
system, they will operate at the point at which the combined pump
curve intersects the system curve.
Series pumping is generally used to boost water pumped to a
primary destination by the first pump, onward to a secondary
higher destination. The second pump utilises the discharge
pressure of the first pump as increased suction head.
34

35

3. System Characteristics

36

Pump Operating Point


System Curve

Head

Pump Curve
Operating Point

Flow

A fixed speed pump can only operate at head/flow combinations


described by its pump curve. The pump curve is a characteristic of
the pump.
A pumping main / system has a series of possible head/flow
combinations described by its system curve. The system curve is a
characteristic of the pumping main/system.
When a fixed speed pump is pumping into a system, it will operate
at the point at which its pump curve intersects the system curve.
Components of a System Curve
The difference in levels of the liquid surfaces in the suction
and discharge vessels (static head).
Difference in pressures on the liquid surfaces in the suction
and discharge vessels.
Friction losses in components and pipework
Entrance and exit losses

37

A Typical Pump System


Pd

Ps

System Head
H = H s + Hd
System Head = Static Head (Hs) + Dynamic Head (Hd)
Static Head (Hs) is independent of flowrate
Hs = ((Pd - Ps) / g) + h
Note: Static head will change as the levels fall and rise in the
suction and discharge vessels.
Dynamic Head (Hd), also known as Friction Head, is proportional to
the square of the flowrate.
System Curve
Head

Friction Losses V2

Dynamic Head (Hd)

Static Head (Hs)


(Hs)
Flow

38

System Efficiency (sys)


To minimise wasted energy the dynamic head should be as low as
practicable.
System Efficiency
sys = Hs / Hs + Hd
Note: A refurbished pump may deliver an increased flow which will
increase the dynamic head thus consuming more energy to pump
the same volume of water! Be aware of the big picture.
Pipe Friction Losses
The DArcy formula is used to calculate pipe friction losses: H = 4fLV2 / 2dg

(European SI Based)

H = head loss (m)


f = friction factor
L = length of pipe (m)
V = mean flow velocity (m/s)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area
that is "wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Note: the friction factor will need to be estimated (see below)
In the USA a different form of the DArcy formula is used: H = fLV2 / 2dg

(USA Imperial Based)

The reason for the difference is the type of friction factor used. It is
essential that the right version of the D'Arcy equation be used with
the selected friction factor. Matching the wrong equation to the
wrong friction factor will result in a 400% error and it is therefore
important that the correct combination of equation and friction
factor is utilised.
39

Estimating Pipe Head Loss


Data Required: Flow rate
Pipe dimensions (bore, length, roughness)
Properties of liquid (density, viscosity)
Calculations: Mean flow velocity (from flowrate & bore)
Reynolds Number (from density, absolute viscosity,
mean velocity & hydraulic diameter)
Friction factor (from Reynolds number and roughness
by chosen formulae or Moody Chart)
Head loss (DArcy formula)
Reynolds Number (Re)
The Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial
forces to viscous forces and, consequently, it quantifies the relative
importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions
Re = V d / = inertia forces / viscous forces
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)
V = mean velocity (m/s)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

40

Friction Factor (f)


The friction factor in the DArcy formula needs to be estimated. The
friction factor depends on the Reynolds number (Re) of the flowing
liquid and the relative roughness (k/d) of the inside of the pipe.
For smooth pipes and liquids with low Reynolds number use
Poiseuilles formula for laminar flow: f = 16 / Re

(Re <2100)

For liquids with high Reynolds number you can try the Colebrooke
& White formula for turbulent flow: 1/

f = -4log10 (( k / 3.7d ) + ( 1.255 / Re

f)) (Re >3000)

k = the average height of the roughness projections


Blasiuss formula for smooth pipe turbulent flow: f = 0.079 / Re0.25
Estimation of friction factor for turbulent flow: f = 0.0625 / (log10 ((k / 3.7d) + (5.74 / Re0.9))) 2
Pipe Roughness Values (k)
k = the average height of the roughness projections
Pipe Material / Condition
Drawn brass, copper
Glass, Perspex, fibreglass
New smooth steel pipe
Cast iron
Light rust
Water mains with
tuberculations
Mature foul sewer
Pre-cast concrete
Corrugated plastic

Roughness (k (mm))
0.0025
0.0025
0.025
0.15
0.25
1.2
3.0
0.25
3.5

41

Moody Chart
The Moody Chart is used for estimating the friction factor from the
Reynolds number and relative roughness (pipe roughness / pipe
bore).
Moody Chart (H = 4fLV2 / 2dg)

Note: The Moody Chart comes in two different versions. Make sure
you know if a Moody Chart is for the formula with or without the 4.
For the European DArcy formula: H = 4fLV2 / 2dg

(European SI Based)

For the USA DArcy formula: H = fLV2 / 2dg


(USA Imperial Based)
Hazen & Williams Formula for Water
42

A useful method to estimate pipe friction losses is the Hazen &


Williams formula for water: H = 1214.6 L (100/Chw)1.852 x (Q1.852 / d1.852)
H = Straight pipe pressure loss (m)
Chw = Hazen & Williams friction factor
Q = Volumetric Flowrate (l/min)
d = Pipe bore (mm)
L = Pipe length (m)
The empirical nature of the friction factor (Chw) makes the Hazen &
Williams formula unsuitable for accurate prediction of head loss.
Note: The Hazen & Williams friction factor (Chw) bears no relation
to friction factor (f) associated with the DArcy formula above.
Hazen & Williams Friction Factors (Chw)
Pipe Material

Friction Factor (Chw)

Smooth unlined cast iron


Asphalted cast iron
Very smooth cement
Ordinary cement
Drawn steel or wrought iron
Riveted steel

130
140
130-140
110-120
130-140
90-110

43

The Importance of Pipe Diameter


Head loss is highly susceptible to pipe diameter: H d 5
80

Estimated head
loss in 50m of
cast iron pipe
k = 0.15mm
H d5

70
60
Head
Loss
(m)

50
40

250 mm dia

30
20
10
0

300 mm dia
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0
0
0
0 Flow
0 (l/s)
0
0
0
0
0

Estimating Fitting Losses


Pipe configuration, fixtures and fittings will result in head loss.
H = K (V2 / 2g) = K x Hv
K = fitting loss coefficient
Hv = velocity head (m)
V = mean velocity upstream of the fitting (m/s)
Typical Loss Coefficients
Typical loss coefficients at a 150mm nominal pipe size: Configuration, fixture or fitting

Loss Coefficient

Globe valve
Gate valve
Butterfly valve
Swing type check valve
Foot valve
Standard 90 elbow
Long radius 90 elbow
Sharp edged pipe entrance
Bellmouth pipe entrance
Pipe exit (loss of inflow kinetic

5.1
0.12
0.68
0.75
1.1
0.45
0.24
0.5
0.15
1.0

44

energy)

Economic Pipe Sizing


CAPEX

Total
Cost

OPEX
Optimum

CAPEX

OPEX

Pipework diameter

Typical Suction Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)


Bore (mm)

Water

Boiling Liquids

Viscous Liquids

25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.75
0.9
1.4

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.35
0.375
0.45
0.45

0.3
0.33
0.375
0.4
0.425
0.45
0.5
0.5

Typical Discharge Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)


Bore (mm)

Water

Boiling Liquids

Viscous Liquids

25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300

1.0
1.1
1.15
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.65

1.0
1.1
1.15
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.0

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4

Suction pipework of larger diameter than discharge pipework


should be chosen to avoid cavitation.
45

4. Cavitation

46

Cavitation
Cavitation is the boiling of liquid at low pressures and
normal temperatures to form bubbles of vapour. It
occurs when when the local pressure falls sufficiently
far below the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid.
The bubbles of vapour resulting from the liquid boiling
will eventually collapse to a minute fraction of their
original size, at which point the gas within dissipates
into the surrounding liquid via a rather violent
mechanism, which releases a significant amount of
energy largely in the form of an acoustic shock-wave
but also in part as visible light.
Although the collapse of bubbles is a relatively low
energy event, highly localized collapses can erode
metals, such as steel, over time. At the point of total
collapse, the temperature of the vapor within the
bubble may be several thousand degrees kelvin, and
the pressure several hundred atmospheres. The pitting
caused by the collapse of bubbles produces great wear
on components and can dramatically shorten a pump's
lifetime.
Cavitation causes: o Mechanical Damage
o Performance deterioration
o Noise and vibration
Bernoullis Equation
(P/g) + (V2/2g) + h = constant
Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Constant
In a centrifugal pump liquid is drawn in through the suction
manifold. The rotating impeller converts the shaft power of the
motor into increased fluid velocity, reaching a maximum velocity,
and hence maximum kinetic energy of the liquid, at the rim of the
impeller. Much of this kinetic energy is then converted into
pressure energy as the liquid passes through the pump casing.

47

As the kinetic energy of the liquid increases in the pump, its


pressure falls, only to increase again as the kinetic energy is
converted to pressure as the liquid leaves the pump.

48

Vapour Pressure
Vapour Pressure (bar)
1.0
Boiling Point
Curve for Water
0.5

Liquid

Vapour
0.0
0

Temperature (C)

100

If you decrease pressure enough a liquid will boil.


Pressure Distribution

Pressure

Pmin > Pv
Passage through Pump

If Pmin falls below the vapour pressure of the liquid it will boil
causing cavitation.

49

Cavitation
Outlet
Vapour
Bubbles
Implode as
pressure
increases

Liquid
boils
under low
pressure

Inlet

Impeller

Drive Shaft

Bubbles created as the liquid boils under low pressure at the inlet
get carried along by the flow and collapse implosively as the
pressure increases at the outlet. Vapour volume is 150,000 times
the same liquid volume (water), so efficiency is greatly reduced.
Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSH A)

NPSHA

Ps- Pv /g

hs

hs loss

Ps

NPSHA = (PS PV /g) hs - hs loss


PV = Vapour Pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature

NPSHA is a function of the pumping system and should be


designed to be as large as possible.

50

Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)


NPSHR is a function of the design of the pump. For a pump to
work properly, NPSHA must be greater than NPSHR: you must have
more suction head available in the system than required by the
pump.
When NPSHA is less than NPSHR, the pump will either cavitate and
operate at a reduced performance condition, or the pump will not
operate at all.

Onset of Cavitation as NPSHA falls below NPSHR (NPSH-3)

Pump performance at
constant flow and speed
Pump Head
Rise (m)

H = 3%

Onset of
Cavitation

NPSHR (NPSH-3)

NPSHA (m)

NPSHR (NPSH-3) is the suction pressure limit at which the pump's


total differential head performance is reduced by 3% due to
cavitation. It's important to note that cavitation occurs at suction
pressure levels above the NPSH-3 level and pump damage can
occur from cavitation even though the pump may continue to
provide the expected hydraulic performance.

51

Cavitation Free Performance


Head
NPSHA
Cavitation Free

Bep

NPSHR 3%
Head drop
Flow

To ensure pump performance is cavitation free, NPSH A must be


maintained well above NPSHR (NPSH-3).

NPSH Margin
The difference between NPSHA and NPSHR is known as the NPSH
Margin.
Head

h loss
NPSHA
NPSH Margin

NPSHR
Flow

52

Typical NPSH Margins

Application
Cold Water
Hydrocarbons
Small Boiler Feed
Pumps
High Energy Pumps

NPSH Margin (% of NPSHR)


35 - 50
10
50 [1]
100 200

[2]

[1]

Pumps up to 1850kW and 3600 rpm

[2]

Where the impeller inlet peripheral velocity is greater than 25 m/s

Cavitation and Pump Performance


Onset of
Cavitation
Head

Efficiency

Fall-off
in Head

Fall-off in
Efficiency

Flow

The onset of cavitation is marked by a rapid decrease in developed


head. This is accompanied by a rapid decrease in pump efficiency.

53

Cavitation and Pump Noise

Noise
Level

Probable region of
maximum erosion

NPSHA

Cavitation usually produces noise. The noise is generated by the


implosion of the vapour bubbles. This can sound like gravel
passing through the pump. In extreme cases cavitation can be
almost silent due to the sound insulation properties of the vapour
bubbles cushioning the noise of the implosions.

54

Maximum Lift
As a pump is positioned higher above an open suction tank the
NPSHA reduces until cavitation occurs. The maximum lift is
dependant on atmospheric pressure and vapour pressure of the
fluid.
Pump

Lift hs

Ps
Sump

Maximum Suction Lift


NPSHA = (PS PV /g) hs - hs loss
PV = Vapour Pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature

hs = (PS PV /g) - hs loss NPSHA


NPSHA = NPSHR + Margin
hs = (PS PV /g) - hs loss (NPSHR + Margin)
The real maximum lift possible is only about four meters.

55

Maximum elevation of a pump above an open water tank


The maximum elevation or suction head for an open tank will
depend on atmospheric pressure (which in general can be
regarded as constant) and the vapour pressure of the fluid (which
will vary with temperature, especially for water).
he = Patm / g PV / g
Patm = Atmospheric Pressure
= density of liquid kg/m
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s
PV = Absolute vapour pressure of Water

The absolute vapour pressure of water at 20C is 2.3kN/m 2, and


Atmospheric pressure is 101.33kN/m2, therefore the maximum
theoretical elevation height is: he = (101.33) / (1000 x 9.81) - (2.3) / (1000 x 9.81) = 10.1 m
This theoretical value will vary significantly with temperature due to
the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure of water.

56

The maximum theoretical elevation of a pump above an open


water tank at different temperatures can be found in the following
table: Temperature (C)

Vapour Pressure (kN/m2)

Maximum Elevation (m)

0.6

10.3

0.9

10.2

10

1.2

10.2

15

1.7

10.2

20

2.3

10.1

25

3.2

10

30

4.3

9.9

35

5.6

9.8

40

7.7

9.5

45

9.6

9.4

50

12.5

9.1

55

15.7

8.7

60

20

8.3

65

25

7.8

70

32.1

7.1

75

38.6

6.4

80

47.5

5.5

85

57.8

4.4

90

70

3.2

95

84.5

1.7

100

101.33

Due to the head losses in suction pipework and the local


conditions inside the pump the practical maximum elevation is
significantly less than these theoretical values. The practical
maximum lift possible at 20C is only about four meters.
Suction Specific Speed
S = ( x

Qbep) / (g x NPSHR bep)0.75

= pump speed (rad/sec)


Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)
NPSHR bep = Net Positive Suction Head Required at best efficiency point (m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Suction Specific Speed is generally between 2.5 and 4, typically


2.8, but with an Inducer fitted can be up to 8. An Inducer is a small
impeller mounted on the eye of the main impeller to speed up
input.
57

Estimating NPSHR
Estimated NPSHR (m) (n = 2.8)
100.00

NPSHR
(m)
2900 rpm
10.00

1450 rpm
956 rpm
720 rpm
570 rpm

1.00

0.10
10

100

1000

Flow (l/s)

NPSHR can be estimated for pumps running at given rotational


speeds and flow rates at a fixed specific speed.

58

10000

Internal Recirculation
Discharge
Recirculation

Impeller

Suction
Recirculation

Drive Shaft

When the capacity of a pump is reduced by throttling (or by an


increase in system head) recirculation can occur. Recirculation is a
flow reversal at the suction and/or discharge tips if the impeller
vanes. All impellers have a critical capacity at which recirculation
occurs. Recirculation commonly occurs briefly as a pump is shutoff.
Suction recirculation is a reversal of flow at the impeller eye. A
rotating annulus of liquid is formed upstream of the impeller inlet.
The axial flow corresponding to the output of the pump passes
through the core of this annulus. The high shear rate between the
annulus and axial flow creates vortices that form and collapse
resulting in cavitation and noise. Suction recirculation produces a
loud crackling noise about the suction end of a pump (louder than
low NPSHA cavitation) and can be very damaging if it occurs during
continuous operation of the pump.
Discharge recirculation is a reversal of flow at the discharge tips of
the impeller vanes. The high shear rate between the inward and
outward flows produces vortices that cause cavitation that attacks
the pressure side of the vanes. Discharge recirculation produces
the same characteristic crackling noise about the discharge end of
the pump and can be very damaging if it occurs during continuous
operation of the pump.
59

Onset of Suction Recirculation


Percent of BEP Flow
100
Double Suction
Multistage
80
Single Suction
60

40
3

5
Suction Specific Speed

The capacity at which suction recirculation occurs is directly


related to the design suction specific speed of the pump. The
higher the suction specific speed, the closer the onset of
recirculation to the capacity at best efficiency.
Where recirculation during continuous pump operation occurs a
number of possible corrective measures are available:

Increase the output capacity of the pump


Install a bypass between the discharge and suction ends
Bleed air into the pump suction to reduce effects
Replace the impeller with one made of a harder material to
reduce damage

60

Avoid Cavitation by Increasing NPSHA


The following corrective measures will increase NPSH A

Raise the level of liquid in the supply vessel


Lower the pump
Reduce the suction pipework losses (increase diameter)
Install a booster pump
Reduce the vapour pressure of the liquid by cooling it prior to
pumping

Avoid Cavitation by Increasing NPSHR


The following corrective measures will increase NPSH R

Use a slower speed pump


Use a double suction impeller
Fit an impellor with a larger eye (beware of recirculation)
Use an oversize pump
Fit an inducer
Use several pumps operating in parallel

Comparing Single and Double Suction Impellers


S = ( x

Qbep) / (g x NPSHR bep) 0.75

= pump speed (rad/sec)


Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)
NPSHR bep = Net Positive Suction Head Required at best efficiency point (m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

If Q2 = 0.5 x Q1
NPSHR2 = NPSHR1 ( 0.5 x Q1 / Q1) 1.333
NPSHR2 = 0.63 x NPSHR1
So by using a double suction impeller a reduction of 27% NPSH R is
achieved

61

62

5. Costs of Pumping

63

The Cost of Pumping


The capital cost of a pump may seem high but it is quite small
compared to the whole lifetime cost of the pump.
Some Facts and Figures
The initial capital cost of a pump is typically less than 5% of
its total whole life costs
About 70% of all electric motors produced are used to drive
pumps fans and compressors
There are over 10,000,000 electric motors in the UK and
about 3,000 new motors are purchased every day
An electric motor consumes its own value in energy costs
running for less than 30 days
The cost of the electricity used to drive pump motors in the
UK is over 2,000 million a year
Why Pumps are Expensive to Operate

Pumps are normally powered by electric motors


Pumps often run in excess of 5,000 hours per year
Pumps wear in service reducing their operating efficiency
Pumps operating with reduced efficiency can still perform
without any obvious problems
Pump duties are often over specified at the design stage of a
scheme which can result in over-specified pumps that must
operate some way below their best efficiency points
Pumps are often throttled to meet operational requirements
Variations in operational requirements can result in inefficient
pumping regimes
Operating pumps inefficiently increases running wear and
maintenance costs

64

Power Consumed in Pumping


Pgr = gQH / 1000 p m
Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)
= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = head developed by the pump (m)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)

The Cost of Pumping


Annual Cost () = Pgr ntr / 100
Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

Annual Cost () = gQHntr / p m 105


Example
What is the annual cost of running a 100kW pump continuously for
a year (8760 hours) at 8p/kWh?
Cost = 100 x 8760 x 8 / 100 = 70,080 (about 192 a day)
The Whole Lifetime Cost of a Pump
Maintenance 4%

Capital Cost 2%

Power 94%

65

Why Pumps are Expensive


Energy Savings of 10 15% can typically be made by improving
the efficiency of pumps
Energy Savings of 30-40% can typically be made by considering
the performance of complete pumping systems
Energy Lost in Pumping
Losses
Pump
Deterioration
Poor Pumping
Schedules

Useful
Work

Installation
effects
Ineffective use
of tariffs
Inappropriate
pump selection

66

Efficiency Deterioration
Efficiency Deterioration %
0
5

Minimum

10

Average

15
Maximum
20
0

10

15
20
Pump Age Years

25

Starting and stopping pumps is the cause of most deterioration.


Optimising Maintenance
Opex

Refurbishment Interval

67

Savings from Pump Refurbishment


P (kW) = (gQH / 1000) x (1 / 1 - 1 / 2)
Annual Saving () = (gQHntr / 105) x (1 / 1 - 1 / 2)
1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment
2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment
P = electrical power consumed (kW)
= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = head developed by the pump (m)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)

Savings from Pump Refurbishment


Assumptions: Q = 0.102 m3/s (= 8.81 Ml/d)
H = 100m
= 1000 kg/m (water)
n = 8760 hrs (continuous running)
tr = 8 p/kWh
1 = 0.65
2 = 0.75

Hydraulic Power = 100kW


Savings () = 100 x 8760 x 0.08 (1 / 0.65 - 1 / 0.75) = 14,716.80

68

The Effect of Oversizing Pumps

Head

Estimate
System
Curve

Pump Curve
bep

Excess
Head
Excess Flow

Pgr = gQH / p m
H = H s + Hd
&
Hd Q2
H = Hs + aQ2 where a = constant
Pgr = gQ (Hs + aQ2) / p m
Pgr = gQHs + agQ3 / p m
So power is strongly flow dependent.
The Effect of Oversizing Pumps
Power consumption and operating costs are significantly
increased
Pump operates to the right of the best efficiency flow rate
Increased risk of high flow cavitation
o NPSHA reduces with flow, NPSHR increases with flow
69

Fl

Increased risk of overloading pump motor

70

Energy Wasted in Throttling Discharge Valves

Valve A is throttled to reduce


the pump flow from Q1 to Q2
A

When throttled
the head drop
across valve A
is H

Energy Wasted in Throttling


Head

System Curve
with throttling
Pump Curve

Waste
= gQ

Flow

Operating Away from the Best Efficiency Point

71

Q2

Q1

High Temperature Rise

Suction and discharge


recirculation

Head

Reduced bearing
and seal life
Low flow cavitation

Flow

72

High flow cavi

6. Cost Effective Pumping Systems

73

The Design Process


Definition of functional
requirements

Company &
Specialist
Consultants

Development &
conceptual designs
Evaluation of competing
designs
Detailed design &
specification
Procurement &
Installation
Contractors
& Suppliers

Commissioning &
operator training

The Supply Chain


The Client
Consultant
Specification

Main contractor
M&E sub-contractor
Equipment suppliers

The Clients message about running costs has to get to the


equipment supplier, so the Specification has to be very good.

74

The Importance of Functional Specification

25%

Influence on total project cost


65%

10%

Detail
design

Definition of functional
requirements
Evaluation of design
concepts

Procurement construction
and commissioning
5%

10%

Actual expenditure during each stage


85%

The Functional Specification

What is to be pumped and why?


Where is it to be pumped?
Where is it pumping from and where is it pumping to?
How will it interact with other existing or proposed
installations?
Who will operate and maintain it?
How are any of these requirements likely to change?

75

Function of a Typical Pump System

Hs

B
Useful work done (kW)
= gQHs
Energy input
= gQHs + losses

= density of liquid (kg/m)


g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
Hs = Static Head (m)

Energy Losses
Transformer and cable losses
o 2% 4% for a well designed system

Variable speed drive losses


o about 5% for a modern drive

Motor losses
o 4% - 10% depending on size and design

Pump losses
o 10% - 40% depending on design and duty

Pipework losses

76

Efficiency of Motors and Drives


Efficiency (%)

Inverter

100

Motor
50

50

Load (%)

100

Motor and Inverter drive efficiency is fairly flat except at low loads.
Pump Efficiency
100

Efficiency (%)

50

100

Design Flow (%)

Pump efficiency is strongly flow dependent and falls off sharply


moving away from maximum efficiency point.
Pipework Losses
Head (m)
Dynamic Head

Friction losses

Useful Work

Static Head

Flow (l/s)

77

An Example
Flowrate
Static Head
Dynamic Head
Fluid Density (water)
Pump Efficiency
Motor Efficiency
Variable Speed Drive Efficiency
Transformer and Cable Efficiency

0.102 m3/s
80 m
20 m
1000 kg/m3
80%
93%
95%
98%

A good pumping station, well designed system reasonable


components having good values.
From Wire to Water
kW
Useful work done
80
Pipework losses
20
Pump losses
25
Motor losses
9
Drive losses
7
Transmission and cable losses 3
Total energy input
144

%
56
14
17
6
5
2
100

A well designed system with reasonable components having good


values, yet still only 56 percent of power input ends up as useful
work.

78

Specific Power Consumption (PS) (dont confused with suction pressure)


PS = P/Q = .g.HS/gr = Ws/m3 (watt seconds per cubic metre)
PS = .g.HS/3600.gr = kWh/Ml
PS = specific power consumption (kWh/Ml)
= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
HS = static head (m)
gr = product of overall component efficiencies

This measure uses system static head, and so doesnt include the
variation in total pumping head that arises from friction losses.
Specific Power Consumption (PS) Example
Using figures for the example above: PS = .g.HS/3600.gr = (1000 x 9.81 x 80) / (3600 x 0.56)
PS = 389 kWh/Ml
Another very useful measure is Specific power consumption per
metre of static head that can be used to compare the performance
of competing designs: PS/Hs = kWh/Ml/m
Using figures for the example above: PS/Hs =389/80 = 4.9 kWh/Ml/m

79

General Overview
It is very important to evaluate the whole life costs of
competing designs
Select appropriate equipment (its a no brainer)
o high efficiency motors, efficiency enhancing coatings for pump
internals

Minimise installation effects and hydraulic losses


Develop an effective system of operation, control and
monitoring
Polymer Coatings
Efficiency increase from pump casing internal polymer coating

4%

Increasing Specific Speed

3%
2%
1%

100

Discharge diameter (mm)

800

Efficiency derived from polymer coatings will last providing


cavitation is avoided.
Some System Design Issues
Most apparent pump problems are in fact system problems and the
majority of these are related to suction conditions.
allow generous suction pipework diameters with a minimum
of bends and fittings
suction pipework should rise continuously into the pump
suction end to avoid creating air pockets
sumps and suction tanks should be designed to avoid vortex
formation

80

Effect of Entrained Air on Pump Performance


Head

0%
2%
4%
6%
Flow

Increasing quantities of entrained air will progressively reduce


pump performance.
Vortex Formation

Suction Intake

Air Bubbles

Pump Sump Design Guides to Avoid Vortex Formation


B

Available design guides give


plots of primary dimensions
against capacity

S
10 typical

Approach velocity typically


1.5 - 2.0 m/s

81

Some Pump Selection Issues


Compare the power consumption across the operating range of
each pump.
it may be more cost effective to sacrifice peak efficiency at
the design flow for improved performance at lower flows
information is required on the range of flows required and
the period of time spent at each flowrate.
Pump Load Profiles
Hours
Run
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
100% Flow

80% Flow 70% Flow 60% Flow

Efficiency Characteristics
/bep
1.0
Radial
Flow
Axial
Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

Radial flow pumps hold their efficiency over a wider range of


design flows.

82

Some Pump Selection Issues


Do not oversize pumps to meet an anticipated increase in demand
or system head which may never occur.
it is often more cost effective to replace the pump or fit a
larger impeller when required
variable speed drives should not be used to accommodate
short-comings in the design process
Sometimes optimum energy efficiency may have to be balanced
against long term reliability.
for example, sewage pumps inevitably have to sacrifice
some hydraulic efficiency for solids handling capability
the efficiency of multi-stage pumps can be increased by
selecting a higher specific speed model but this leads to a
lower head per stage, more stages, longer shafts and larger
deflections
Pump Specification
The pump specification determines the capital cost and
subsequent lifetime operating and maintenance expenditure. To
minimise lifetime operating and maintenance costs, pump users,
pump manufacturers and component & service suppliers must
work closely together.

83

Pump Specification
Water Industry Mechanical and Electrical Specifications (WIMES)
1.01 to 1.11 cover a variety of pump type specifications that
include standard data sheets. These specifications typically
include a large quantities of performance data.
General Performance Specification
o mode of operation - solo, parallel, series
o type of operation - fixed speed, dual speed, variable
speed
o asset life (years)
o utilisation (%)
Detailed Performance Specification
o operating speed - maximum (rpm), actual at duty
point(s) (rpm)
o hydraulic performance at guaranteed duty point (GDP)
at operating speed - flowrate (l/s), static head (m),
dynamic head (station) (m), dynamic head (main) (m)
o system data - maximum static head (m), minimum
static head (m)
o pump curve [head (m) vs. flowrate (l/s)] - supplier curve
(no.)
o limit (80% & 105%) flowrates at operating speed as
percentage of best efficiency point (BEP) flowrate (Q
(GDP)/Q (BEP)) - upper limit (%), lower limit (%)
o pump efficiency at operating speed (uncoated/coated) at GDP (%), at maximum flow (%)
o absorbed power (bare shaft) at operating speed
(uncoated/coated) at GDP (kW), at maximum flow
(kW), at maximum power (kW)
o maximum flowrate at operating speed (l/s)
o minimum flowrate at operating speed (l/s)
o ability to discharge into empty main (y/n)
o closed valve performance at operating speed - head
(m), maximum operating time (s)
o required NPSHA at operating speed - at GDP (m), at
maximum flow (m)
o actual NPSHA at operating speed - at GDP (m), at
maximum flow (m)

84

o actual NPSH margin at operating speed - at maximum


flowrate (%NPSHR)
o multi-stage pumps - number of stages

85

7. Pump Performance Testing & Monitoring

86

Pump Test Standards*


API 610
API 674
API 675
API RP 11S2
ASME PTC 7,7.1,8.2,18.1
BS5316 Part 1 = ISO 2548
BS5316 Part 2 = ISO 3555
BS5316 Part 3 = ISO 5198
BS 5860 = IEC 607
DIN 1944
DIN 14410
DIN 14420
DIN 19670
Hydraulic Institute 1.6
Hydraulic Institute 6.6
VDMA 24284

Centrifugal pumps
Reciprocating pumps
Metering and dosing pumps
Rotary positive displacement pumps
Rotodynamic pumps
Rotodynamic pumps
Rotodynamic pumps
Rotodynamic pumps
Very large pumps / turbines
Centrifugal pumps
Portable fire pumps
Fire pumps
Effluent pumps
Centrifugal pumps
Reciprocating pumps
Positive displacement pumps

Pump Testing to BS 5316*


Testing under BS 5316 is carried out to guarantee one or more of
the following: Outlet flow
Total head developed
Power input or efficiency
NPSH
Testing is carried out using clean cold water (see below)
Acceptance Tests for Centrifugal Pumps*
BS 5316: Acceptance tests for centrifugal mixed flow and axial flow
pumps
BS5316 Part 1 - ISO 2548 - Class C
BS5316 Part 2 - ISO 3555 - Class B
BS5316 Part 3 - Precision Class - Class A
Pumps >50kW should be tested to Class B (not Class C)
* Note BS 5316 parts 1, 2 &3 has been superseded by BS EN ISO 9906

87

Conventional Pump Testing


Pd

Ps

kW

In a conventional pump testing setup, pressure monitoring is used


to measure both the suction and discharge pressure of the pump.
A flowmeter is used to measure the pumped flowrate.
Power metering is setup to measure the pump motor input power.
The pump is run at operational speed and the discharge valve is
progressively closed in steps to record measurements at a series
of test points.

88

Test Points

Head

Pump Curve

H4
H3
H2
H1

Q4

89

Q3

Q2 Q1

The suction and discharge pressure measurements are used to


calculate the head rise across the pump in meters at each test
point.
The pumped flowrate measurements are used to calculate the
volumetric flowrate through the pump in litres per second at each
test point.
Pump curve: Head rise across pump (m) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)
The pump motor input power measurements are used to calculate
the pump shaft input power in kW at each test point (the motor
efficiency will be required for this).
Pp = Pgr / m
Pp = Input power to pump shaft (kW)
Pgr = Input power to motor (kW)
m = motor efficiency

Power curve: Pump shaft input power (kW) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)
The calculated volumetric flowrate through the pump, the
calculated head rise across the pump, the pump motor input power
and the motor efficiency are used to calculate the pump efficiency
for each test point
p = gQH / Pgr m
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = Total head rise across the pump (m)
Pgr = Input power to motor (kW)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)

Efficiency curve: Pump efficiency p (%) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)

90

Centrifugal Pump Characteristic


Head
(m)

Guarantee Point
Head

HG

Efficiency
(%)

Efficiency

Power
(kW)

Power

QG

Flow (l/s)

The Properties of Clean Cold Water


Characteristic
Temperature
Kinematic Viscosity
Density
Free Solid Content
Dissolved Solid Content

Maximum Value
40C
1.75 x 10-6 m2/s
1100 kg/m3
2.5 kg/m3
50 kg/m3

The defining properties of clean cold water have an enormous


leeway, and it can actually be quite hot and dirty.

91

Limits of Overall Errors BS 5316*


Measure
Rate of Flow
Pump total head
Pump input power
Electrical input power
Speed of rotation
Overall efficiency
Pump efficiency

Class A
(+/- %)
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.2
2.0
2.25

Class B
(+/- %)
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.5
2.5
2.8

Class C
(+/- %)
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
2.0
4.5
5.0

Tolerance Zones BS 5316*


Q
H
HG

Measured
Curves

Guaranteed Duty
Point QG HG

QG
If

[HG XH /H] 2 + [QG XQ /Q] 2


is greater than or equal to unity then the guarantee condition has
been met.
XH
XQ

Class A
0.02
0.02

Class B
0.02
0.04

Tolerance Zones BS 5316*


92

Class C
0.04
0.07

[HG XH /H] 2 + [QG XQ /Q] 2 = 1


This equation defines an elliptical tolerance zone. Knowing the
slope of the pump curve at the GDP: S = H / Q
it is possible to calculate the tolerances for a given GDP

HG.XH

QG.XQ
HG

Ho

Hmax = (HGXH)2 + (QGXQS)2

Qo

Hmax = HG + Hmax

Slope = Ho / Qo

Hmin = HG - Hmin
QG
Example of the Effect of Tolerance Zones*
Class B
H = 90 +/- 3 m
HG

Class C
H = 90 +/- 5.5 m

HG = 90 m

Curve Slope
S = 0.054m/(l/s)

QG = 1100 l/s
QG

* Note BS 5316 parts 1, 2 &3 has been superseded by BS EN ISO 9906

The Problems of Measuring Flow On-site


93

A flowmeter may not be installed


If a flowmeter is installed it may not be calibrated
The flowmeter may be sized to measure the output of a
number of pumps
The pipework configuration may be far from ideal
On-site Measurements of Flowmeter Uncertainty
% of Flowmeter
Population
25%
50%
25%

Uncertaint
y
<5%
5% to 10%
>10%

In-service flowmeter tests show widespread inaccuracy.


Thermodynamic Pump Testing
Efficiency = work out / work in
work in = work out + losses
work out = gQH
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = total head rise across the pump (m)

Once the pumping system has reached thermal equilibrium, the


energy losses from the system are almost exclusively in the guise
of a temperature rise in the pumped liquid.
losses = QCpT
= density (kg/m)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
Cp = specific heat capacity at constant pressure (J/kg.K)
T = temperature rise across the pump

Efficiency = 1 / ((1 + CpT) / (gH))


Efficiency can therefore be calculated by measuring the head rise
and temperature rise across the pump. This method of efficiency
measurement does not rely on measuring the pumped flowrate.
94

Thermodynamic Pump Testing


Td
Ts

Pd

Ps

kW

In a thermodynamic pump test setup, pressure monitoring is used


to measure both the suction and discharge pressure of the pump.
Accurate thermocouples are used to measure the difference
between the suction and discharge temperatures of the pumped
liquid. Power metering is setup to measure the pump motor input
power.
As in conventional testing the pump is run at operational speed
and the discharge valve is progressively closed in steps to record
measurements at a series of test points.

95

Test Points

Head

Pump Curve

H4
H3
H2
H1

Q4

Q3

The true flowrate at each point can be back-calculated from the


pump head, temperature rise, power readings and known motor
efficiency. In practice, readings are also normally taken from the
site flowmeter at each test point that can be used to determine its
accuracy.
The Advantages of the Thermodynamic Technique
Pump efficiency and performance can be accurately
determined on-site
Accuracy is not sensitive to pipework configuration (accurate
flow metering is sensitive to pipework configuration)
Portable testing equipment can be easily installed
Test work can be carried out with the minimum disruption to
operations
Testing does not rely in existing installed flow metering
equipment of variable accuracy
Magnitude of Temperature rise in Thermodynamic pump
testing
96

Q2 Q1

Increasing efficiency

80%
60%

T (mK)
@100m & 80% efficiency, T = 59mK
@100m & 60% efficiency, T = 156mK
On-site Pump Performance Testing
detect loss in performance and aid optimisation of
maintenance intervals
assess the effectiveness of refurbishment work
o it is economically viable to refurbish one out of every
three pump tested
o paybacks on refurbishment are generally less than 2
years
optimise operating schedules to minimise operating costs
evaluate system losses and condition
assess fitness for purpose
calibrate permanently installed flowmeters

97

8. Pump Control & Scheduling

98

Throttle Control
Only suitable for centrifugal pumps
Most common and simplest
arrangement
Limited by the acceptable flow range of
the pump
Reducing flow to minimise or avoid
stops and starts is a consideration in
water quality and process issues

Energy Loss in Throttling Fixed Speed Pumps


Power
Motor input power
Pump input power
Pump output power

Energy loss
in pump

Energy loss
in valve
Power producing flow
Flow

99

Bypass Control
Suitable for positive displacement
pumps
Maintains pump flow within acceptable
range
By-pass flow is typically 15% of normal
delivery flow

100

Variable Speed Control


Suitable for both centrifugal and
positive displacement pumps
Extends life of systems handling
abrasives
Can give significant power savings
Smooth flow changes minimise water
quality and process issues

The Pump Affinity Laws for Variable Speed Pumping


For a Speed Change (N1 N2)
Q2 = Q1 (N2 / N1)
Flowrate (Q) is directly proportional to speed.
H2 = H1 (N2 / N1)2
Head (H) is proportional to the square of speed.
P2 = P1 (N2 / N1)3
Power (P) is proportional to the cube of speed.
NPSHR2 = NPSHR1 (N2 / N1)2
Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSH R) is proportional to the
square of speed.

101

Variable Speed - No Static Head


Head (m)
100

System
Curve

80
bep

60

100% Speed
bep

40

80% Speed

bep
20

60% Speed

0
0

50 100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Flow (l/s)

Where there is no static head, the variable speed pump control will
produce flow at all motor speeds.
Variable Speed 60% Static Head
Head (m)
100
80

System
Curve
100% Speed

Operating point moves to left

60
40

80% Speed
60% Speed cannot overcome
static head

20
0
0

50 100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Flow (l/s)

With significant static head contribution, operating points move to


the left. At slower speeds the pump doesnt produce enough head
to overcome static head and hydraulic shut-off occurs.
Variable Speed Pumping
Variable speed control becomes less attractive as static head
contribution increases
o the pump operating point moves to the left of bep
o flow becomes increasingly sensitive to small speed changes

Other options should be considered when static head


exceeds 60% of total head required
102

Parallel Pumping

Suction
Main

Discharge
Main

In a parallel pumping arrangement individual pumps have their


own suction and discharge valves.
Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps
Head (m)
100

Operating point
with one pump

Operating point
with two pumps

80

System curve
80% static

60

Single pump
curve

40

Flow from
each pump

20

Combined pump
curve
Total flow from
both pumps

0
0

100 200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Flow (l/s)

Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps


Head (m)
100

Operating point
with one pump

80

Operating point
with two pumps System curve
25% static

60

Flow from
each pump

40

Single pump
curve

20

Combined pump
curve
Total flow from
both pumps

0
0

100 200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Flow (l/s)

If static head contribution is low, there is a danger of cavitation if


one pump fails as flow through the remaining pump increases.
103

Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps


If one or more pumps fail in a parallel pumping arrangement, flow
through the remaining pump(s) increases.
The effect becomes more significant as the static head
contribution decreases.
If the operating point moves to the right of the bep efficiency
is reduced and there is a risk of overloading the motor and a
risk of high flow cavitation occurring.
Operating Variable Speed Pumps in Parallel
The characteristics of pumps operating in parallel must be
carefully matched to prevent hydraulic shut-off
o leading to overheating, high shaft forces and premature
bearing and seal failure
Operating pumps running in parallel at different speeds is the
easiest way to mismatch their characteristics

104

Variation in Impeller Forces with Pump Flow

Faxial

Force

Fradial (volute casing)


Fradial (circular casing)

bep

Flow

Axial flow centrifugal pumps have a propeller type impeller.


Volute casings are used for high head applications. The volute that
surrounds the impeller periphery is a curved funnel that increases
in cross-sectional area towards the discharge manifold. As the
area of the cross-section increases, the volute reduces the speed
and increases the pressure of the liquid.
One of the main purposes of a volute casing is to help balance the
hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump. Balancing is
maximised at the bep. Running volute-style pumps at a lower
capacity than the bep can put lateral stress on the shaft of the
pump, increasing wear-and-tear on the seals and bearings, and on
the shaft itself. Double-volute casings are used where radial
thrusts become significant at reduced capacities
Circular casings are used for low head high capacity applications.
Circular casing have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the
impeller periphery that convert velocity energy to pressure energy

105

Series Pumping
Discharge
Main

Suction
Main

Operating Pumps in Series


The suction pressure of the second pump is equal to the
discharge pressure of the first pump
If the first pump fails or cannot provide sufficient flow the
second pump may cavitate
problems can occur when series pumping stations are
remote from each other and not under common control
Pump Scheduling
There are often savings to be made from pump scheduling
where there is
o over-capacity
o variable demand
o sufficient storage capacity
o variable energy tariffs
The selection of operating schedules are often based on
minimal or out of date information
Compare the specific power consumption of installations and
individual plant items
Obtain current pump and system operating characteristics
Review the operating schedules to identify cost saving
opportunities
Implement revised operating schedules and train operators

106

Identifying Cost Savings Opportunities


Electricity Consumption
High Priority
High Consumption
& High Efficiency
Medium Priority
Medium Consumption
& Medium Efficiency
Low Priority
Low Consumption
& High Efficiency
Specific Power Consumption

Controlling Complex Systems


For energy intensive and complex systems with a high degree of
interaction between individual assets continuous monitoring may
be required to maintain efficiency
data accessed and analysed remotely.
provision of information, not just data.
customised control software

107

Appendix 1. Formulas

108

Head (H)
H = P/g
H = head (m)
P = pressure (N/m2)
= density of liquid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Mean Flow Velocity (Vm)


Vm = Q/A = 4Q/d2
Vm = mean flow velocity (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
A = flow area (m2)
d = pipe bore internal diameter (m)

Velocity Head (Hv)


Velocity Head Hv = V2/2g
Hv = velocity head (m)
V = mean velocity (m/s)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Reynolds Number (Re)


Re = Vd/ = inertia forces / viscous forces = Vd/
Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
V = mean velocity (m/s)
= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
= kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

Pump Speed ()
= 2N/60
= pump speed (rad/sec)
N = speed (rpm)

Hydraulic Power (Pu)


109

Pu = (gQH)/1000
Pu = hydraulic power (kW)
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = total head rise across the pump (m)

Pump Input Power (Pp)


Pp = gQH/p
Pp = pump input power (kW)
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = total head rise across the pump (m)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)

Motor Input Power (Pgr)


Pgr = gQH/pm
Pgr = motor input power (kW)
= density (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = total head rise across the pump (m)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)

System Efficiency (sys)


sys = Hs/(Hs+Hd)
sys = system efficiency (decimal)
Hd =dynamic head (m)
Hs =static head (m)

110

Specific Speed (n)


n = (

Qbep)/(gH bep)0.75

n = specific speed (non-dimensional)


= pump speed (rad/sec)
Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)
H bep = head rise at best efficiency point (m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Head Loss in Pipes(H)


The DArcy formula: H = 4fLV2/2dg

(European SI Based)

H = fLV2/2dg

(USA Imperial Based)

H = head loss (m)


f = friction factor (non-dimensional)
L = length of pipe (m)
V = mean flow velocity (m/s)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is
"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Head Loss In Fittings(H)


H = K (V2/2g) = KHv
H = head loss (m)
K = fitting loss coefficient (non-dimensional)
V = mean velocity upstream of the fitting (m/s)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Hv = velocity head (m)

111

Friction Factor (f) Laminar Flow


Poiseuilles formula: f = 16/Re

(Re<2100)

f = friction factor (non-dimensional)


Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

Friction Factor (f) Turbulent Flow


Colebrooke & White formula for turbulent flow: 1/

f = -4log10((k/3.7d)+(1.255/Re

f))

(Re>3000)

f = friction factor (non-dimensional)


k = the average height of the roughness projections (m)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is
"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)
Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

Friction Factor (f) Smooth Pipe Turbulent Flow


Blasiuss formula for smooth pipe turbulent flow: f = 0.079/Re0.25
f = friction factor (non-dimensional)
Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

Friction Factor (f) Turbulent Flow


f = 0.0625 / (log10 (k/3.7d) + (5.74/Re0.9)) 2
f = friction factor (non-dimensional)
k = the average height of the roughness projections (m)
d = hydraulic diameter (m)
d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is
"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)
Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

112

Hazen & Williams Head Loss (H) Formula for Water


Hazen & Williams formula for water: H = 1214.6L (100/Chw) 1.852 (Q1.852/d1.852)
H = straight pipe pressure loss (m)
L = Pipe length (m)
Chw = Hazen & Williams friction factor (non-dimensional)
Q = volumetric flowrate (l/min)*
d = pipe bore (mm)*
* Only for use these units in the Hazen & Williams formula

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)


NPSHA = (PS PV/g) hs - hs loss
NPSHA = net positive suction head available (m)
PS = static suction pressure (N/m2)
PV = vapour pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature (N/m 2)
= density of liquid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s
hs = suction lift (m)
hs loss = suction head loss (m)

Maximum Suction Lift (hs)


hs = (PS PV/g)-hs loss (NPSHR + Margin)
hs = suction lift (m)
PS = static suction pressure (N/m2)
PV = vapour pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature (N/m 2)
= density of liquid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s
hs loss = suction head loss (m)
NPSHR = net positive suction head required (m)

Suction Specific Speed (S)


S = (

Qbep) / (gNPSHR bep) 0.75

S = suction specific speed (non-dimensional)


= pump speed (rad/sec)
Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)
NPSHR bep = net positive suction head required at best efficiency point (m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Annual Cost of Pumping

113

Annual Cost () = Pgrntr/100


Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

Annual Cost () = gQHntr/pm105


= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = head developed by the pump (m)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)

114

Annual Savings from Refurbishment


P = (gQH/1000) (1/1 - 1/2)
P = electrical power consumed (kW)
= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = head developed by the pump (m)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)
1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment
2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

Annual Saving () = (gQHntr/105) (1/1 - 1/2)


= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
H = head developed by the pump (m)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)
1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment
2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

Annual Saving () = (Puntr/100) (1/1 - 1/2)


Pu = hydraulic power (kW)
n = hours run per year (hrs)
tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)
p = pump efficiency (decimal)
m = motor efficiency (decimal)
1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment
2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

115

Specific Power Consumption


PS = .g.HS/3600.gr
PS = specific power consumption (kWh/Ml)
= density of fluid (kg/m)
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)
HS = static head (m)
gr = overall pump efficiency

Pump Affinity Laws


Flow is directly proportional to impeller diameter and pump speed: -

Q2 = Q1 (N2D2/N1D1)
Q1 = old volumetric flowrate (m3/s)
N1 = old pump speed (rpm)
D1 = old impeller diameter (m)
Q2 = new volumetric flowrate (m3/s)
N2 = new pump speed (rpm)
D2 = new impeller diameter (m)
Head is proportional to the square of impeller diameter and pump speed: -

H2 = H1 (N2D2/N1D1)2
H1 = old head (m)
N1 = old pump speed (rpm)
D1 = old impeller diameter (m)
H2 = new head (m)
N2 = new pump speed (rpm)
D2 = new impeller diameter (m)
Power is proportional to the cube of impeller diameter and pump speed: -

P2 = P1 (N2D2/N1D1)3
P1 = old power (kW)
N1 = old pump speed (rpm)
D1 = old impeller diameter (m)
P2 = new power (kW)
N2 = new pump speed (rpm)
D2 = new impeller diameter (m)

116

117

Appendix 2. Definition of Symbols

118

Symbol
A
C
d
D
f
g
H
Hbep
Hd
hloss
Hs
hS
Hv
K
k
Margin
N
n
NPSHA
NPSHR
NPSHRbep
n
P
Pgr
Pp
PS
PS
Pu
PV
Q
Qbep
Re
S
tr
V
H

Definition
flow area
Hazen & Williams friction factor
internal diameter
impeller outside diameter
friction factor
gravitational constant
head
best efficiency head rise
dynamic head
suction head loss
static head
suction lift
velocity head
fitting loss coefficient
average height of surface projections
required difference between NPSHA &
NPSHR
speed
number of hour operation per year
net positive suction head available
net positive suction head required
net positive suction head required at
best efficiency flow
specific speed
pressure
motor input power
pump input power
static pressure at suction end
specific power consumption
hydraulic power
vapour pressure
volumetric flowrate
best efficiency flowrate
Reynolds Number
suction specific speed
tariff rate
mean velocity
head loss
119

=Value (Units)
(m2)
(m)
(m)
= 9.81 (m/s)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(rpm)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(N/m2)
(kW)
(kW)
(N/m2)
(kWh/Ml)
(kW)
(N/m2)
(m/s)
(m/s)
(p/kWh)
(m/s)
(m)

1
2
gr
m
p
s

overall efficiency before refurbishment


overall efficiency after refurbishment
overall pump efficiency
motor efficiency
pump efficiency
system efficiency
absolute viscosity
kinematic viscosity
density
speed

120

decimal
decimal
decimal
(decimal)
(decimal)
(decimal)
(Ns/m2)
(m2/s)
(kg/m)
(rads/s)