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Note the sections in Red refer to: BS 5316 Part 1 (ISO 2548) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps

BS 5316 Part 2 (ISO 3555) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps

BS 5316 Part 3 (ISO 5198) Testing Rotodynamic Pumps

which have since been superseded by: BS EN ISO 9906 Rotodynamic Pumps Hydraulic Performance Acceoptance Tests Grade

1&2

1. Basic Hydraulics

Fluid Density ()

Specific Gravity (SG)

Absolute Viscosity ()

Kinematic Viscosity ()

Pressure (P)

Head (H)

Pressure Gauge Corrections

Saturation Vapour Pressure of Water

Vapour Pressure

Bernoullis Equation

Continuity Equation

Velocity Head (Hv)

Pump Suction Head (Hs)

Pump Discharge Head (Hd)

Total Pump Head (H)

Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (Centrifugal Relift Pumps)

Measuring Total Pump Head Rise (Submersible Pumps)

Types of Fluid Flow (Laminar & Turbulent)

Reynolds Number (Re)

Centrifugal Pumps

Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pump Curve, Efficiency Curve & Power Curve

Centrifugal Pump Types

Positive Displacement Pumps

Characteristics of Positive Displacement Pumps

Positive Displacement Pump Curve & Power Curve

Positive Displacement Pump Types

The Pump Affinity Laws

Variable Speed Pumping

Work Done in Pumping (Pu)

Pump & Motor Power Consumption (Pp & Pgr)

Specific Speed (n)

Impeller Types

Pump Efficiency

Head Flow Characteristics

Power Characteristics

Efficiency Characteristics

Solo Pumping

Pumps Operating in Series

3. System Characteristics

Components of a System Curve

Typical Pump System

System Head

System Curve

System Efficiency (sys)

Pipe Friction Losses (DArcy formula)

Estimating Pipe Head Loss

Reynolds Number (Re)

Friction Factor (f) (Poiseuilles formula, Colebrooke & White

formula, Blasiuss formula, etc)

Pipe Roughness Values (k)

Moody Chart

Hazen & Williams Formula for Water

Hazen & Williams Friction Factors

The Importance of Pipe Diameter

Estimating Fitting Losses

Typical Loss Coefficients

Economic Pipe Sizing

Typical Suction Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)

Typical Discharge Pipe Acceptable Mean Flow Velocities (m/s)

4. Cavitation

Cavitation

Bernoullis Equation

Vapour Pressure

Pressure Distribution

Cavitation

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)

Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)

Cavitation Free Performance

Net Positive Suction Head Margin

Typical NPSH Margins

Cavitation and Pump Performance

Cavitation and Pump Noise

Maximum Lift

Maximum Suction Lift

Maximum elevation of a pump above an open water tank

Suction Specific Speed

Estimating NPSHR

Internal Recirculation

Onset of Suction Recirculation

Avoid Cavitation by Decreasing NPSHR

Comparing Single and Double Suction Impellers

5. Cost of Pumping

Some Facts and Figures

Why Pumps are Expensive to Operate

Power Consumed

The Cost of Pumping

The Whole Life Cost of a Pump

Why Pumps are Expensive

Energy Lost in Pumping

Efficiency Deterioration

Optimising Maintenance

Savings from Pump Refurbishment

The Effect of Oversizing Pumps

Energy Wasted in Throttling Discharge Valves

Energy Wasted in Throttling

Operating Away from the Best Efficiency Point

The Supply Chain

The Importance of Functional Specification

The Functional Specification

Function of a Typical Pump System

Energy Losses

Efficiency of Motors and Drives

Pump Efficiency

Pipework Losses

An Example

From Wire to Water

Specific Power Consumption

General Overview

Polymer Coatings

Some System Design Issues

Effect of Entrained Air on Pump Performance

Vortex Formation

Pump Sump Design Guides to Avoid Vortex Formation

Some Pump Selection Issues

Pump Load Profiles

Efficiency Characteristics

Pump Specification

Pump Testing to BS 5316*

Acceptance Tests for Centrifugal Pumps*

Conventional Pump Testing

Centrifugal Pump Characteristic

The Properties of Clean Cold Water

Limits of Overall Errors BS 5316*

Tolerance Zones BS 5316*

Example of the Effect of Tolerance Zones*

The Problems of Measuring Flow On-site

On-site Measurements of Flowmeter Uncertainty

Thermodynamic Pump Testing

The Advantages of the Thermodynamic Technique

Magnitude of Temperature rises in Thermodynamic pump testing

On-site Pump Performance Testing

Throttle Control

Energy Loss in Throttling Fixed Speed Pumps

Bypass Control

Variable Speed Control

The Pump Affinity Laws for Variable Speed Pumping

Variable Speed - No Static Head

Variable Speed 60% Static Head

Variable Speed Pumping

Parallel Pumping

Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps

Operating Variable Speed Pumps in Parallel

Variation in Impeller Forces with Pump Flow

Series Pumping

Operating Pumps in Series

Pump Scheduling

Identifying Cost Savings Opportunities

Controlling Complex Systems

Appendix 1

Formulas

Head

Mean Flow Velocity

Velocity Head

Reynolds Number

Pump Speed

Hydraulic Power

Pump Input Power

Motor Input Power

System Efficiency

Specific Speed

Head Loss in Pipes

Head Loss In Fittings

Friction Factor Laminar Flow

Friction Factor Turbulent Flow

Hazen & Williams Head Loss Formula for Water

Net Positive Suction Head Available

Maximum Suction Lift

Suction Specific Speed

Annual Cost of Pumping

Annual Saving

Specific Power Consumption

Pump Affinity Laws

Appendix 2

Definition of Symbols

1. Basic Hydraulics

Fluid Density ()

= mass / volume

1m

1m

1m

for water = 1000kg/m

Specific Gravity = density of fluid / density of water.

Densities of some typical liquids

Approximate densities at 20C (kg/m)

Fluid

(kg/m)

Petrol

Pure Alcohol

Mineral Oil

Water

Nitric Acid

Mercury

750

790

920

1000

1500

13600

10

Absolute Viscosity ()

Viscosity is the resistance to fluid flow (shear)

moving

surface

y

Fluid

U

stationary surface

F

Forces between

adjacent fluid

layers

U + U

U

F

shear.

= F/A u / y

= u / y

is the absolute or dynamic viscosity measured in Ns/m2

1 Ns/m2 = 1000cP

1 poise (P) = 100 centipoise (cP)

Approximate absolute viscosity at 20C (cP)

Liquid

Petrol

Water

Mercury

Crude Oil

0.4

1.0

1.5

60.0

11

Kinematic Viscosity ()

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the viscous force to the inertial

force.

Kinematic Viscosity = /

Kinematic viscosity = Absolute Viscosity / Density

is the kinematic viscosity measured in m2/s

1 m2/s = 106 cSt, 1 mm2/s = 1 cST

(1 stoke (St) = 100 centistokes (cSt)

Approximate kinematic viscosity at 20C (cSt)

Liquid

Mercury

Petrol

Water

Crude Oil

0.1

0.6

1.0

80.0

viscous liquids. Larger pumps suffer less. Positive displacement

pumps are more suitable for pumping very viscous liquids

12

Pressure (P)

Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmospheric

Standard atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 bar abs = 0 bar gauge

1 bar = 105 N/m = 10.2 m H2O = 750mm Hg

Note. Always compare like with like. Dont use a mix of absolute

and gauge pressures. For calculation purposes use absolute

pressure.

Head (H)

Head (H) = P / g

= density of liquid kg/m

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Petrol SG=0.75

Mercury SG=1

Water SG=1

20m

20m

20m

1.96 barg

26.65 barg

13

1.47 barg

P1

Pressure at A = P1 + gh

h

A

B

h

Pressure at B = P2 - gh

P2

which you are measuring the pressure.

14

Vapour Pressure (N/m2)

615

1230

2340

7400

20000

474000

101500

Temperature (C)

0

10

20

40

60

80

100

Vapour Pressure

Vapour Pressure (bar)

1.0

Boiling Point

Curve for Water

0.5

Liquid

Vapour

0.0

0

Temperature (C)

100

Saturation Vapour Pressures of typical liquids

Approximate vapour pressures at 20C (N/m2)

Vapour Pressure (N/m2)

0.16

2340

3300

5900

10000

12500

30400

Liquid

Mercury

Water

Kerosene

Ethyl Alcohol

Benzene

Methyl Alcohol

Petrol

15

Bernoullis Equation

(P/g) + (V2/2g) + h = constant

Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Constant

P2 , V2

(P1/ g)+(V12/2g)+z1 = (P2/ g)+(V22/2g)+z2+ losses

P1 , V1

z2

z1

Continuity Equation

Mass flow rate = A Vm remains constant

Where:

A = flow area

Vm = mean flow velocity

= density

A2 , Vm2

A1 , Vm1

1 A1 Vm1 = 2 A2 Vm2

16

Incompressible

flow 1 = 2

Vm = Q/A = 4 x Q / x d2

Velocity Head Hv = Vm2/2g

Where:

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

d = pipe bore (m)

Hs = (Ps/g) hs - hs loss

Ps/g

Hs

hs loss

datum

hs

Ps

hd loss

Hd

Vd2/2g

Pd

Pd/g

hd

Total Pump Head Rise (H)

H = H d - Hs

H = (Pd-Ps/g) + (hd + hs) + (hd loss + hs loss) + (Vd2/2g)

17

Discharge

Pd , Vd

hd

Ps , Vs

hs

Suction

Head Rise (H) = ((Pd - Ps) / g) + ((Vd2 - Vs2) / 2g) + (hd hs)

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

g = gravitational constant (9.81m/s)

Vd = mean velocity in discharge pipe (m/s)

Vs = mean velocity in suction pipe (m/s)

Pd = discharge pressure (N/m2)

Ps = suction pressure (N/m2)

hd, hs = height above pump centreline (m)

18

Pd , Vd

Well

Wet Well

h

Dry Well

Liquid Level

Submersible

Pump

Head Rise (H) = (Pd / g) + (Vd2 / 2g) + h

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

g = gravitational constant (9.81m/s)

Vd = mean velocity in discharge pipe (m/s)

Pd = discharge pressure (N/m2)

h = height above liquid level in wet well (m)

19

Laminar Flow - Fluid flow in which adjacent layers do not mix

except on the molecular scale

In laminar flow viscous forces dominate.

Turbulent Flow - Fluid flow in which the particle motion at any

point varies rapidly in magnitude and direction

In Turbulent flow inertia forces dominate

Reynolds Number (Re)

The Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial

forces to viscous forces and, consequently, it quantifies the relative

importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions

Re = V d / = inertia forces / viscous forces

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)

V = mean velocity (m/s)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is "wet"

excluding any free surfaces where the liquid is not in contact with the pipe)

Pipe

Dye

Flow

Turbulent Flow Re > 3000

Pipe

Dye

Flow

is generally accepted to be at about Re = 2300. Avoid any pipe

configuration within the range 2000 to 3000 to ensure the flow is

either fully laminar or fully turbulent.

20

21

Centrifugal Pumps

The rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump converts the shaft

power of the motor into increased fluid velocity and hence kinetic

energy of the liquid. This kinetic energy is converted into pressure

energy as the liquid passes through the pump casing.

Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps

Capable of handling high flows

Output strongly dependant on resistance to flow

Compact for a given capacity

Not self-priming

Not suitable for high pressure or high viscosity applications

(Pump Curve, Efficiency Curve, Power Curve)

Head

Pump

Curve (m)

Efficiency

Curve (%)

Power

Curve (kW)

Flow

Notes:

Curves are for specific liquids e.g. Water

Power curve is typically pump shaft input power

22

23

Axial

Flow

Single Stage

Multi Stage

Closed Impeller

Open Impeller

Fixed Pitch

Variable Pitch

Centrifugal

Pumps

Mixed

Flow

Single Suction

Multi Suction

Radial

Flow

Self Priming

Non Priming

Single Stage

Multi Stage

Open Impeller

Semi Open Impeller

Closed Impeller

24

In a positive displacement pump either rotary or linear motion is

used to force pockets of liquid through the pump casing.

Positive displacement pumps will draw upon the available power to

overcome resistance to flow.

Characteristics of Positive Displacement Pumps

Output largely independent of resistance to flow (suitable for

accurate measurement)

Suitable for high pressure and high viscosity applications

Self-priming capability

Produce a pulsating flow

Tend to be large and complex for their capacity

25

(Pump Curve)

Capacities

Head

N1

N2

Theoretical no slip

N3

Flow

(Power Curves)

Flow

N4

N3

Power

No Slip

Capacity

N4

N2

N1

N1

Power

Discharge Pressure

26

Steam

Double acting

Simplex

Duplex

Double acting

Single acting

Simplex

Duplex

Triplex

Multiplex

Piston

Plunger

Reciprocating

Power

Simplex

Multiplex

Diaphragm

Fluid operated

Mechanically operated

Positive

Displacement

Pumps

Single rotor

Vane

Piston

Progressive cavity

Screw

Peristaltic

Rotary

Gear

Lobe

Circumferential piston

Screw

Multi rotor

27

The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on flow

Diameter Change

(d1 d2)

Speed Change

(N1 N2)

(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

Q2 = Q1 x (d2 / d1)

Q2 = Q1 x (N2 / N1)

The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on head

Diameter Change

(d1 d2)

Speed Change

(N1 N2)

(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

H2 = H1 x (d2 / d1)2

H2 = H1 x (N2 / N1)2

The effect of changed impeller size and pump speed on power

Diameter Change

(d1 d2)

Speed Change

(N1 N2)

(d1 d2) & (N1 N2)

P2 = P1 x (d2 / d1)3

P2 = P1 x (N2 / N1)3

28

Head

System

Curve

100%

75%

50%

Pump speeds

Flow

Hydraulic Work Done (kW) = Pu = (gQH) / 1000

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = Total head rise across the pump (m)

Input power to pump shaft: Pp = gQH / p

p = pump efficiency

m = motor efficiency

29

Specific Speed is a number that relates pump speed, flow rate and

head rise at the best efficiency operating condition of the pump to

impeller geometry and hydraulic performance.

n = ( x

Qbep) / (g x H bep)0.75

Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)

H bep = Head rise at best efficiency point (m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Impeller Types

Radial Flow

Mixed Flow

Axial Flow

n 0.3 to 0.8

n 1.0 to 2.5

n > 3.5

Pump Efficiency

Efficiency (%)

80

100 l/s

1000 l/s

10 l/s

60

40

1 l/s

20

0

0.1

1.0

30

Specific Speed 10

H/Hbep

Axial

Flow

easily be started against

a closed valve, axial flow

pumps cannot.

1.0

Radial

Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

Power characteristics

P/Pbep

Axial

Flow

Overloading

characteristic

1.0

Radial

Flow

overload their motors

discharging to an empty

main.

Non-overloading

characteristic

1.0

Q/Qbep

Efficiency Characteristics

/bep

1.0

hold their efficiency over

a wider range of design

flows.

Radial

Flow

Axial

Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

31

System Curve

Head

Pump Curve

Operating Point

Friction

Head

Total

Head

Static

Head

Flowrate

Flow

described by its pump curve. The pump curve is a characteristic of

the pump.

A pumping main or system has a series of possible head/flow

combinations described by its system curve. The system curve is a

characteristic of the pumping main/system.

When a fixed speed pump is pumping into a system, it will operate

at the point at which its pump curve intersects the system curve.

A pump that is designed to run solo is selected to have its best

efficiency point at the solo operating point.

Note: Not all pumps are designed to run solo. Pumps can also be

designed to run in parallel and can be selected to have their best

efficiency point at a parallel pumping operating point.

32

Head

Combined Operatin

Friction

Head

Static

Head

Total

Head

Solo

Paralle

Flowrate Flowrate

pump curves are added together to make a combined pump curve.

The combined pump curve is a characteristic of the pump pair

operating in parallel.

The pumping main / system head/flow system curve remains

unchanged.

When the pump pair operates together parallel pumping into the

system, they will operate at the point at which the combined pump

curve intersects the system curve.

Parallel pumping is generally used to increase flow rate. However,

as the flowrate in the system increases, the friction element in the

total head becomes more significant, so a system curve would

need to be very flat indeed for parallel pumping achieve a (near)

doubling of the solo flow rate.

33

Head

System Curve

Two Pump Series

Operating Point

Solo Operating Point

Friction

Head

Static

Head

Total

Head

Solo

Flowrate

Series

Flowrate

Flow

pump curves are added together to make a series pump curve.

The combined pump curve is a characteristic of the pump pair

operating in series.

The pumping main / system head/flow system curve remains

unchanged.

When the pump pair operates together in series pumping into the

system, they will operate at the point at which the combined pump

curve intersects the system curve.

Series pumping is generally used to boost water pumped to a

primary destination by the first pump, onward to a secondary

higher destination. The second pump utilises the discharge

pressure of the first pump as increased suction head.

34

35

3. System Characteristics

36

System Curve

Head

Pump Curve

Operating Point

Flow

described by its pump curve. The pump curve is a characteristic of

the pump.

A pumping main / system has a series of possible head/flow

combinations described by its system curve. The system curve is a

characteristic of the pumping main/system.

When a fixed speed pump is pumping into a system, it will operate

at the point at which its pump curve intersects the system curve.

Components of a System Curve

The difference in levels of the liquid surfaces in the suction

and discharge vessels (static head).

Difference in pressures on the liquid surfaces in the suction

and discharge vessels.

Friction losses in components and pipework

Entrance and exit losses

37

Pd

Ps

System Head

H = H s + Hd

System Head = Static Head (Hs) + Dynamic Head (Hd)

Static Head (Hs) is independent of flowrate

Hs = ((Pd - Ps) / g) + h

Note: Static head will change as the levels fall and rise in the

suction and discharge vessels.

Dynamic Head (Hd), also known as Friction Head, is proportional to

the square of the flowrate.

System Curve

Head

Friction Losses V2

(Hs)

Flow

38

To minimise wasted energy the dynamic head should be as low as

practicable.

System Efficiency

sys = Hs / Hs + Hd

Note: A refurbished pump may deliver an increased flow which will

increase the dynamic head thus consuming more energy to pump

the same volume of water! Be aware of the big picture.

Pipe Friction Losses

The DArcy formula is used to calculate pipe friction losses: H = 4fLV2 / 2dg

(European SI Based)

f = friction factor

L = length of pipe (m)

V = mean flow velocity (m/s)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area

that is "wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Note: the friction factor will need to be estimated (see below)

In the USA a different form of the DArcy formula is used: H = fLV2 / 2dg

The reason for the difference is the type of friction factor used. It is

essential that the right version of the D'Arcy equation be used with

the selected friction factor. Matching the wrong equation to the

wrong friction factor will result in a 400% error and it is therefore

important that the correct combination of equation and friction

factor is utilised.

39

Data Required: Flow rate

Pipe dimensions (bore, length, roughness)

Properties of liquid (density, viscosity)

Calculations: Mean flow velocity (from flowrate & bore)

Reynolds Number (from density, absolute viscosity,

mean velocity & hydraulic diameter)

Friction factor (from Reynolds number and roughness

by chosen formulae or Moody Chart)

Head loss (DArcy formula)

Reynolds Number (Re)

The Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial

forces to viscous forces and, consequently, it quantifies the relative

importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions

Re = V d / = inertia forces / viscous forces

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)

V = mean velocity (m/s)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

dcircular pipe = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

40

The friction factor in the DArcy formula needs to be estimated. The

friction factor depends on the Reynolds number (Re) of the flowing

liquid and the relative roughness (k/d) of the inside of the pipe.

For smooth pipes and liquids with low Reynolds number use

Poiseuilles formula for laminar flow: f = 16 / Re

(Re <2100)

For liquids with high Reynolds number you can try the Colebrooke

& White formula for turbulent flow: 1/

Blasiuss formula for smooth pipe turbulent flow: f = 0.079 / Re0.25

Estimation of friction factor for turbulent flow: f = 0.0625 / (log10 ((k / 3.7d) + (5.74 / Re0.9))) 2

Pipe Roughness Values (k)

k = the average height of the roughness projections

Pipe Material / Condition

Drawn brass, copper

Glass, Perspex, fibreglass

New smooth steel pipe

Cast iron

Light rust

Water mains with

tuberculations

Mature foul sewer

Pre-cast concrete

Corrugated plastic

Roughness (k (mm))

0.0025

0.0025

0.025

0.15

0.25

1.2

3.0

0.25

3.5

41

Moody Chart

The Moody Chart is used for estimating the friction factor from the

Reynolds number and relative roughness (pipe roughness / pipe

bore).

Moody Chart (H = 4fLV2 / 2dg)

Note: The Moody Chart comes in two different versions. Make sure

you know if a Moody Chart is for the formula with or without the 4.

For the European DArcy formula: H = 4fLV2 / 2dg

(European SI Based)

(USA Imperial Based)

Hazen & Williams Formula for Water

42

Williams formula for water: H = 1214.6 L (100/Chw)1.852 x (Q1.852 / d1.852)

H = Straight pipe pressure loss (m)

Chw = Hazen & Williams friction factor

Q = Volumetric Flowrate (l/min)

d = Pipe bore (mm)

L = Pipe length (m)

The empirical nature of the friction factor (Chw) makes the Hazen &

Williams formula unsuitable for accurate prediction of head loss.

Note: The Hazen & Williams friction factor (Chw) bears no relation

to friction factor (f) associated with the DArcy formula above.

Hazen & Williams Friction Factors (Chw)

Pipe Material

Asphalted cast iron

Very smooth cement

Ordinary cement

Drawn steel or wrought iron

Riveted steel

130

140

130-140

110-120

130-140

90-110

43

Head loss is highly susceptible to pipe diameter: H d 5

80

Estimated head

loss in 50m of

cast iron pipe

k = 0.15mm

H d5

70

60

Head

Loss

(m)

50

40

250 mm dia

30

20

10

0

300 mm dia

0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

0

0

0

0 Flow

0 (l/s)

0

0

0

0

0

Pipe configuration, fixtures and fittings will result in head loss.

H = K (V2 / 2g) = K x Hv

K = fitting loss coefficient

Hv = velocity head (m)

V = mean velocity upstream of the fitting (m/s)

Typical Loss Coefficients

Typical loss coefficients at a 150mm nominal pipe size: Configuration, fixture or fitting

Loss Coefficient

Globe valve

Gate valve

Butterfly valve

Swing type check valve

Foot valve

Standard 90 elbow

Long radius 90 elbow

Sharp edged pipe entrance

Bellmouth pipe entrance

Pipe exit (loss of inflow kinetic

5.1

0.12

0.68

0.75

1.1

0.45

0.24

0.5

0.15

1.0

44

energy)

CAPEX

Total

Cost

OPEX

Optimum

CAPEX

OPEX

Pipework diameter

Bore (mm)

Water

Boiling Liquids

Viscous Liquids

25

50

75

100

150

200

250

300

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.75

0.9

1.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.35

0.375

0.45

0.45

0.3

0.33

0.375

0.4

0.425

0.45

0.5

0.5

Bore (mm)

Water

Boiling Liquids

Viscous Liquids

25

50

75

100

150

200

250

300

1.0

1.1

1.15

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.0

2.65

1.0

1.1

1.15

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.0

2.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.4

should be chosen to avoid cavitation.

45

4. Cavitation

46

Cavitation

Cavitation is the boiling of liquid at low pressures and

normal temperatures to form bubbles of vapour. It

occurs when when the local pressure falls sufficiently

far below the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid.

The bubbles of vapour resulting from the liquid boiling

will eventually collapse to a minute fraction of their

original size, at which point the gas within dissipates

into the surrounding liquid via a rather violent

mechanism, which releases a significant amount of

energy largely in the form of an acoustic shock-wave

but also in part as visible light.

Although the collapse of bubbles is a relatively low

energy event, highly localized collapses can erode

metals, such as steel, over time. At the point of total

collapse, the temperature of the vapor within the

bubble may be several thousand degrees kelvin, and

the pressure several hundred atmospheres. The pitting

caused by the collapse of bubbles produces great wear

on components and can dramatically shorten a pump's

lifetime.

Cavitation causes: o Mechanical Damage

o Performance deterioration

o Noise and vibration

Bernoullis Equation

(P/g) + (V2/2g) + h = constant

Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Constant

In a centrifugal pump liquid is drawn in through the suction

manifold. The rotating impeller converts the shaft power of the

motor into increased fluid velocity, reaching a maximum velocity,

and hence maximum kinetic energy of the liquid, at the rim of the

impeller. Much of this kinetic energy is then converted into

pressure energy as the liquid passes through the pump casing.

47

pressure falls, only to increase again as the kinetic energy is

converted to pressure as the liquid leaves the pump.

48

Vapour Pressure

Vapour Pressure (bar)

1.0

Boiling Point

Curve for Water

0.5

Liquid

Vapour

0.0

0

Temperature (C)

100

Pressure Distribution

Pressure

Pmin > Pv

Passage through Pump

If Pmin falls below the vapour pressure of the liquid it will boil

causing cavitation.

49

Cavitation

Outlet

Vapour

Bubbles

Implode as

pressure

increases

Liquid

boils

under low

pressure

Inlet

Impeller

Drive Shaft

Bubbles created as the liquid boils under low pressure at the inlet

get carried along by the flow and collapse implosively as the

pressure increases at the outlet. Vapour volume is 150,000 times

the same liquid volume (water), so efficiency is greatly reduced.

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSH A)

NPSHA

Ps- Pv /g

hs

hs loss

Ps

PV = Vapour Pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature

designed to be as large as possible.

50

NPSHR is a function of the design of the pump. For a pump to

work properly, NPSHA must be greater than NPSHR: you must have

more suction head available in the system than required by the

pump.

When NPSHA is less than NPSHR, the pump will either cavitate and

operate at a reduced performance condition, or the pump will not

operate at all.

Pump performance at

constant flow and speed

Pump Head

Rise (m)

H = 3%

Onset of

Cavitation

NPSHR (NPSH-3)

NPSHA (m)

total differential head performance is reduced by 3% due to

cavitation. It's important to note that cavitation occurs at suction

pressure levels above the NPSH-3 level and pump damage can

occur from cavitation even though the pump may continue to

provide the expected hydraulic performance.

51

Head

NPSHA

Cavitation Free

Bep

NPSHR 3%

Head drop

Flow

maintained well above NPSHR (NPSH-3).

NPSH Margin

The difference between NPSHA and NPSHR is known as the NPSH

Margin.

Head

h loss

NPSHA

NPSH Margin

NPSHR

Flow

52

Application

Cold Water

Hydrocarbons

Small Boiler Feed

Pumps

High Energy Pumps

35 - 50

10

50 [1]

100 200

[2]

[1]

[2]

Onset of

Cavitation

Head

Efficiency

Fall-off

in Head

Fall-off in

Efficiency

Flow

head. This is accompanied by a rapid decrease in pump efficiency.

53

Noise

Level

Probable region of

maximum erosion

NPSHA

implosion of the vapour bubbles. This can sound like gravel

passing through the pump. In extreme cases cavitation can be

almost silent due to the sound insulation properties of the vapour

bubbles cushioning the noise of the implosions.

54

Maximum Lift

As a pump is positioned higher above an open suction tank the

NPSHA reduces until cavitation occurs. The maximum lift is

dependant on atmospheric pressure and vapour pressure of the

fluid.

Pump

Lift hs

Ps

Sump

NPSHA = (PS PV /g) hs - hs loss

PV = Vapour Pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature

NPSHA = NPSHR + Margin

hs = (PS PV /g) - hs loss (NPSHR + Margin)

The real maximum lift possible is only about four meters.

55

The maximum elevation or suction head for an open tank will

depend on atmospheric pressure (which in general can be

regarded as constant) and the vapour pressure of the fluid (which

will vary with temperature, especially for water).

he = Patm / g PV / g

Patm = Atmospheric Pressure

= density of liquid kg/m

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

PV = Absolute vapour pressure of Water

Atmospheric pressure is 101.33kN/m2, therefore the maximum

theoretical elevation height is: he = (101.33) / (1000 x 9.81) - (2.3) / (1000 x 9.81) = 10.1 m

This theoretical value will vary significantly with temperature due to

the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure of water.

56

water tank at different temperatures can be found in the following

table: Temperature (C)

0.6

10.3

0.9

10.2

10

1.2

10.2

15

1.7

10.2

20

2.3

10.1

25

3.2

10

30

4.3

9.9

35

5.6

9.8

40

7.7

9.5

45

9.6

9.4

50

12.5

9.1

55

15.7

8.7

60

20

8.3

65

25

7.8

70

32.1

7.1

75

38.6

6.4

80

47.5

5.5

85

57.8

4.4

90

70

3.2

95

84.5

1.7

100

101.33

conditions inside the pump the practical maximum elevation is

significantly less than these theoretical values. The practical

maximum lift possible at 20C is only about four meters.

Suction Specific Speed

S = ( x

Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)

NPSHR bep = Net Positive Suction Head Required at best efficiency point (m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

2.8, but with an Inducer fitted can be up to 8. An Inducer is a small

impeller mounted on the eye of the main impeller to speed up

input.

57

Estimating NPSHR

Estimated NPSHR (m) (n = 2.8)

100.00

NPSHR

(m)

2900 rpm

10.00

1450 rpm

956 rpm

720 rpm

570 rpm

1.00

0.10

10

100

1000

Flow (l/s)

speeds and flow rates at a fixed specific speed.

58

10000

Internal Recirculation

Discharge

Recirculation

Impeller

Suction

Recirculation

Drive Shaft

increase in system head) recirculation can occur. Recirculation is a

flow reversal at the suction and/or discharge tips if the impeller

vanes. All impellers have a critical capacity at which recirculation

occurs. Recirculation commonly occurs briefly as a pump is shutoff.

Suction recirculation is a reversal of flow at the impeller eye. A

rotating annulus of liquid is formed upstream of the impeller inlet.

The axial flow corresponding to the output of the pump passes

through the core of this annulus. The high shear rate between the

annulus and axial flow creates vortices that form and collapse

resulting in cavitation and noise. Suction recirculation produces a

loud crackling noise about the suction end of a pump (louder than

low NPSHA cavitation) and can be very damaging if it occurs during

continuous operation of the pump.

Discharge recirculation is a reversal of flow at the discharge tips of

the impeller vanes. The high shear rate between the inward and

outward flows produces vortices that cause cavitation that attacks

the pressure side of the vanes. Discharge recirculation produces

the same characteristic crackling noise about the discharge end of

the pump and can be very damaging if it occurs during continuous

operation of the pump.

59

Percent of BEP Flow

100

Double Suction

Multistage

80

Single Suction

60

40

3

5

Suction Specific Speed

related to the design suction specific speed of the pump. The

higher the suction specific speed, the closer the onset of

recirculation to the capacity at best efficiency.

Where recirculation during continuous pump operation occurs a

number of possible corrective measures are available:

Install a bypass between the discharge and suction ends

Bleed air into the pump suction to reduce effects

Replace the impeller with one made of a harder material to

reduce damage

60

The following corrective measures will increase NPSH A

Lower the pump

Reduce the suction pipework losses (increase diameter)

Install a booster pump

Reduce the vapour pressure of the liquid by cooling it prior to

pumping

The following corrective measures will increase NPSH R

Use a double suction impeller

Fit an impellor with a larger eye (beware of recirculation)

Use an oversize pump

Fit an inducer

Use several pumps operating in parallel

S = ( x

Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)

NPSHR bep = Net Positive Suction Head Required at best efficiency point (m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

If Q2 = 0.5 x Q1

NPSHR2 = NPSHR1 ( 0.5 x Q1 / Q1) 1.333

NPSHR2 = 0.63 x NPSHR1

So by using a double suction impeller a reduction of 27% NPSH R is

achieved

61

62

5. Costs of Pumping

63

The capital cost of a pump may seem high but it is quite small

compared to the whole lifetime cost of the pump.

Some Facts and Figures

The initial capital cost of a pump is typically less than 5% of

its total whole life costs

About 70% of all electric motors produced are used to drive

pumps fans and compressors

There are over 10,000,000 electric motors in the UK and

about 3,000 new motors are purchased every day

An electric motor consumes its own value in energy costs

running for less than 30 days

The cost of the electricity used to drive pump motors in the

UK is over 2,000 million a year

Why Pumps are Expensive to Operate

Pumps often run in excess of 5,000 hours per year

Pumps wear in service reducing their operating efficiency

Pumps operating with reduced efficiency can still perform

without any obvious problems

Pump duties are often over specified at the design stage of a

scheme which can result in over-specified pumps that must

operate some way below their best efficiency points

Pumps are often throttled to meet operational requirements

Variations in operational requirements can result in inefficient

pumping regimes

Operating pumps inefficiently increases running wear and

maintenance costs

64

Pgr = gQH / 1000 p m

Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = head developed by the pump (m)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

Annual Cost () = Pgr ntr / 100

Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

Example

What is the annual cost of running a 100kW pump continuously for

a year (8760 hours) at 8p/kWh?

Cost = 100 x 8760 x 8 / 100 = 70,080 (about 192 a day)

The Whole Lifetime Cost of a Pump

Maintenance 4%

Capital Cost 2%

Power 94%

65

Energy Savings of 10 15% can typically be made by improving

the efficiency of pumps

Energy Savings of 30-40% can typically be made by considering

the performance of complete pumping systems

Energy Lost in Pumping

Losses

Pump

Deterioration

Poor Pumping

Schedules

Useful

Work

Installation

effects

Ineffective use

of tariffs

Inappropriate

pump selection

66

Efficiency Deterioration

Efficiency Deterioration %

0

5

Minimum

10

Average

15

Maximum

20

0

10

15

20

Pump Age Years

25

Optimising Maintenance

Opex

Refurbishment Interval

67

P (kW) = (gQH / 1000) x (1 / 1 - 1 / 2)

Annual Saving () = (gQHntr / 105) x (1 / 1 - 1 / 2)

1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment

2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

P = electrical power consumed (kW)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = head developed by the pump (m)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

Assumptions: Q = 0.102 m3/s (= 8.81 Ml/d)

H = 100m

= 1000 kg/m (water)

n = 8760 hrs (continuous running)

tr = 8 p/kWh

1 = 0.65

2 = 0.75

Savings () = 100 x 8760 x 0.08 (1 / 0.65 - 1 / 0.75) = 14,716.80

68

Head

Estimate

System

Curve

Pump Curve

bep

Excess

Head

Excess Flow

Pgr = gQH / p m

H = H s + Hd

&

Hd Q2

H = Hs + aQ2 where a = constant

Pgr = gQ (Hs + aQ2) / p m

Pgr = gQHs + agQ3 / p m

So power is strongly flow dependent.

The Effect of Oversizing Pumps

Power consumption and operating costs are significantly

increased

Pump operates to the right of the best efficiency flow rate

Increased risk of high flow cavitation

o NPSHA reduces with flow, NPSHR increases with flow

69

Fl

70

the pump flow from Q1 to Q2

A

When throttled

the head drop

across valve A

is H

Head

System Curve

with throttling

Pump Curve

Waste

= gQ

Flow

71

Q2

Q1

recirculation

Head

Reduced bearing

and seal life

Low flow cavitation

Flow

72

73

Definition of functional

requirements

Company &

Specialist

Consultants

Development &

conceptual designs

Evaluation of competing

designs

Detailed design &

specification

Procurement &

Installation

Contractors

& Suppliers

Commissioning &

operator training

The Client

Consultant

Specification

Main contractor

M&E sub-contractor

Equipment suppliers

equipment supplier, so the Specification has to be very good.

74

25%

65%

10%

Detail

design

Definition of functional

requirements

Evaluation of design

concepts

Procurement construction

and commissioning

5%

10%

85%

Where is it to be pumped?

Where is it pumping from and where is it pumping to?

How will it interact with other existing or proposed

installations?

Who will operate and maintain it?

How are any of these requirements likely to change?

75

Hs

B

Useful work done (kW)

= gQHs

Energy input

= gQHs + losses

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

Hs = Static Head (m)

Energy Losses

Transformer and cable losses

o 2% 4% for a well designed system

o about 5% for a modern drive

Motor losses

o 4% - 10% depending on size and design

Pump losses

o 10% - 40% depending on design and duty

Pipework losses

76

Efficiency (%)

Inverter

100

Motor

50

50

Load (%)

100

Motor and Inverter drive efficiency is fairly flat except at low loads.

Pump Efficiency

100

Efficiency (%)

50

100

moving away from maximum efficiency point.

Pipework Losses

Head (m)

Dynamic Head

Friction losses

Useful Work

Static Head

Flow (l/s)

77

An Example

Flowrate

Static Head

Dynamic Head

Fluid Density (water)

Pump Efficiency

Motor Efficiency

Variable Speed Drive Efficiency

Transformer and Cable Efficiency

0.102 m3/s

80 m

20 m

1000 kg/m3

80%

93%

95%

98%

components having good values.

From Wire to Water

kW

Useful work done

80

Pipework losses

20

Pump losses

25

Motor losses

9

Drive losses

7

Transmission and cable losses 3

Total energy input

144

%

56

14

17

6

5

2

100

values, yet still only 56 percent of power input ends up as useful

work.

78

PS = P/Q = .g.HS/gr = Ws/m3 (watt seconds per cubic metre)

PS = .g.HS/3600.gr = kWh/Ml

PS = specific power consumption (kWh/Ml)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

HS = static head (m)

gr = product of overall component efficiencies

This measure uses system static head, and so doesnt include the

variation in total pumping head that arises from friction losses.

Specific Power Consumption (PS) Example

Using figures for the example above: PS = .g.HS/3600.gr = (1000 x 9.81 x 80) / (3600 x 0.56)

PS = 389 kWh/Ml

Another very useful measure is Specific power consumption per

metre of static head that can be used to compare the performance

of competing designs: PS/Hs = kWh/Ml/m

Using figures for the example above: PS/Hs =389/80 = 4.9 kWh/Ml/m

79

General Overview

It is very important to evaluate the whole life costs of

competing designs

Select appropriate equipment (its a no brainer)

o high efficiency motors, efficiency enhancing coatings for pump

internals

Develop an effective system of operation, control and

monitoring

Polymer Coatings

Efficiency increase from pump casing internal polymer coating

4%

3%

2%

1%

100

800

cavitation is avoided.

Some System Design Issues

Most apparent pump problems are in fact system problems and the

majority of these are related to suction conditions.

allow generous suction pipework diameters with a minimum

of bends and fittings

suction pipework should rise continuously into the pump

suction end to avoid creating air pockets

sumps and suction tanks should be designed to avoid vortex

formation

80

Head

0%

2%

4%

6%

Flow

pump performance.

Vortex Formation

Suction Intake

Air Bubbles

B

plots of primary dimensions

against capacity

S

10 typical

1.5 - 2.0 m/s

81

Compare the power consumption across the operating range of

each pump.

it may be more cost effective to sacrifice peak efficiency at

the design flow for improved performance at lower flows

information is required on the range of flows required and

the period of time spent at each flowrate.

Pump Load Profiles

Hours

Run

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

100% Flow

Efficiency Characteristics

/bep

1.0

Radial

Flow

Axial

Flow

1.0

Q/Qbep

design flows.

82

Do not oversize pumps to meet an anticipated increase in demand

or system head which may never occur.

it is often more cost effective to replace the pump or fit a

larger impeller when required

variable speed drives should not be used to accommodate

short-comings in the design process

Sometimes optimum energy efficiency may have to be balanced

against long term reliability.

for example, sewage pumps inevitably have to sacrifice

some hydraulic efficiency for solids handling capability

the efficiency of multi-stage pumps can be increased by

selecting a higher specific speed model but this leads to a

lower head per stage, more stages, longer shafts and larger

deflections

Pump Specification

The pump specification determines the capital cost and

subsequent lifetime operating and maintenance expenditure. To

minimise lifetime operating and maintenance costs, pump users,

pump manufacturers and component & service suppliers must

work closely together.

83

Pump Specification

Water Industry Mechanical and Electrical Specifications (WIMES)

1.01 to 1.11 cover a variety of pump type specifications that

include standard data sheets. These specifications typically

include a large quantities of performance data.

General Performance Specification

o mode of operation - solo, parallel, series

o type of operation - fixed speed, dual speed, variable

speed

o asset life (years)

o utilisation (%)

Detailed Performance Specification

o operating speed - maximum (rpm), actual at duty

point(s) (rpm)

o hydraulic performance at guaranteed duty point (GDP)

at operating speed - flowrate (l/s), static head (m),

dynamic head (station) (m), dynamic head (main) (m)

o system data - maximum static head (m), minimum

static head (m)

o pump curve [head (m) vs. flowrate (l/s)] - supplier curve

(no.)

o limit (80% & 105%) flowrates at operating speed as

percentage of best efficiency point (BEP) flowrate (Q

(GDP)/Q (BEP)) - upper limit (%), lower limit (%)

o pump efficiency at operating speed (uncoated/coated) at GDP (%), at maximum flow (%)

o absorbed power (bare shaft) at operating speed

(uncoated/coated) at GDP (kW), at maximum flow

(kW), at maximum power (kW)

o maximum flowrate at operating speed (l/s)

o minimum flowrate at operating speed (l/s)

o ability to discharge into empty main (y/n)

o closed valve performance at operating speed - head

(m), maximum operating time (s)

o required NPSHA at operating speed - at GDP (m), at

maximum flow (m)

o actual NPSHA at operating speed - at GDP (m), at

maximum flow (m)

84

flowrate (%NPSHR)

o multi-stage pumps - number of stages

85

86

API 610

API 674

API 675

API RP 11S2

ASME PTC 7,7.1,8.2,18.1

BS5316 Part 1 = ISO 2548

BS5316 Part 2 = ISO 3555

BS5316 Part 3 = ISO 5198

BS 5860 = IEC 607

DIN 1944

DIN 14410

DIN 14420

DIN 19670

Hydraulic Institute 1.6

Hydraulic Institute 6.6

VDMA 24284

Centrifugal pumps

Reciprocating pumps

Metering and dosing pumps

Rotary positive displacement pumps

Rotodynamic pumps

Rotodynamic pumps

Rotodynamic pumps

Rotodynamic pumps

Very large pumps / turbines

Centrifugal pumps

Portable fire pumps

Fire pumps

Effluent pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Reciprocating pumps

Positive displacement pumps

Testing under BS 5316 is carried out to guarantee one or more of

the following: Outlet flow

Total head developed

Power input or efficiency

NPSH

Testing is carried out using clean cold water (see below)

Acceptance Tests for Centrifugal Pumps*

BS 5316: Acceptance tests for centrifugal mixed flow and axial flow

pumps

BS5316 Part 1 - ISO 2548 - Class C

BS5316 Part 2 - ISO 3555 - Class B

BS5316 Part 3 - Precision Class - Class A

Pumps >50kW should be tested to Class B (not Class C)

* Note BS 5316 parts 1, 2 &3 has been superseded by BS EN ISO 9906

87

Pd

Ps

kW

to measure both the suction and discharge pressure of the pump.

A flowmeter is used to measure the pumped flowrate.

Power metering is setup to measure the pump motor input power.

The pump is run at operational speed and the discharge valve is

progressively closed in steps to record measurements at a series

of test points.

88

Test Points

Head

Pump Curve

H4

H3

H2

H1

Q4

89

Q3

Q2 Q1

calculate the head rise across the pump in meters at each test

point.

The pumped flowrate measurements are used to calculate the

volumetric flowrate through the pump in litres per second at each

test point.

Pump curve: Head rise across pump (m) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)

The pump motor input power measurements are used to calculate

the pump shaft input power in kW at each test point (the motor

efficiency will be required for this).

Pp = Pgr / m

Pp = Input power to pump shaft (kW)

Pgr = Input power to motor (kW)

m = motor efficiency

Power curve: Pump shaft input power (kW) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)

The calculated volumetric flowrate through the pump, the

calculated head rise across the pump, the pump motor input power

and the motor efficiency are used to calculate the pump efficiency

for each test point

p = gQH / Pgr m

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = Total head rise across the pump (m)

Pgr = Input power to motor (kW)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

Efficiency curve: Pump efficiency p (%) Vs. Flowrate through pump (l/s)

90

Head

(m)

Guarantee Point

Head

HG

Efficiency

(%)

Efficiency

Power

(kW)

Power

QG

Flow (l/s)

Characteristic

Temperature

Kinematic Viscosity

Density

Free Solid Content

Dissolved Solid Content

Maximum Value

40C

1.75 x 10-6 m2/s

1100 kg/m3

2.5 kg/m3

50 kg/m3

leeway, and it can actually be quite hot and dirty.

91

Measure

Rate of Flow

Pump total head

Pump input power

Electrical input power

Speed of rotation

Overall efficiency

Pump efficiency

Class A

(+/- %)

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.2

2.0

2.25

Class B

(+/- %)

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

2.5

2.8

Class C

(+/- %)

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

2.0

4.5

5.0

Q

H

HG

Measured

Curves

Guaranteed Duty

Point QG HG

QG

If

is greater than or equal to unity then the guarantee condition has

been met.

XH

XQ

Class A

0.02

0.02

Class B

0.02

0.04

92

Class C

0.04

0.07

This equation defines an elliptical tolerance zone. Knowing the

slope of the pump curve at the GDP: S = H / Q

it is possible to calculate the tolerances for a given GDP

HG.XH

QG.XQ

HG

Ho

Qo

Hmax = HG + Hmax

Slope = Ho / Qo

Hmin = HG - Hmin

QG

Example of the Effect of Tolerance Zones*

Class B

H = 90 +/- 3 m

HG

Class C

H = 90 +/- 5.5 m

HG = 90 m

Curve Slope

S = 0.054m/(l/s)

QG = 1100 l/s

QG

93

If a flowmeter is installed it may not be calibrated

The flowmeter may be sized to measure the output of a

number of pumps

The pipework configuration may be far from ideal

On-site Measurements of Flowmeter Uncertainty

% of Flowmeter

Population

25%

50%

25%

Uncertaint

y

<5%

5% to 10%

>10%

Thermodynamic Pump Testing

Efficiency = work out / work in

work in = work out + losses

work out = gQH

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = total head rise across the pump (m)

energy losses from the system are almost exclusively in the guise

of a temperature rise in the pumped liquid.

losses = QCpT

= density (kg/m)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

Cp = specific heat capacity at constant pressure (J/kg.K)

T = temperature rise across the pump

Efficiency can therefore be calculated by measuring the head rise

and temperature rise across the pump. This method of efficiency

measurement does not rely on measuring the pumped flowrate.

94

Td

Ts

Pd

Ps

kW

to measure both the suction and discharge pressure of the pump.

Accurate thermocouples are used to measure the difference

between the suction and discharge temperatures of the pumped

liquid. Power metering is setup to measure the pump motor input

power.

As in conventional testing the pump is run at operational speed

and the discharge valve is progressively closed in steps to record

measurements at a series of test points.

95

Test Points

Head

Pump Curve

H4

H3

H2

H1

Q4

Q3

pump head, temperature rise, power readings and known motor

efficiency. In practice, readings are also normally taken from the

site flowmeter at each test point that can be used to determine its

accuracy.

The Advantages of the Thermodynamic Technique

Pump efficiency and performance can be accurately

determined on-site

Accuracy is not sensitive to pipework configuration (accurate

flow metering is sensitive to pipework configuration)

Portable testing equipment can be easily installed

Test work can be carried out with the minimum disruption to

operations

Testing does not rely in existing installed flow metering

equipment of variable accuracy

Magnitude of Temperature rise in Thermodynamic pump

testing

96

Q2 Q1

Increasing efficiency

80%

60%

T (mK)

@100m & 80% efficiency, T = 59mK

@100m & 60% efficiency, T = 156mK

On-site Pump Performance Testing

detect loss in performance and aid optimisation of

maintenance intervals

assess the effectiveness of refurbishment work

o it is economically viable to refurbish one out of every

three pump tested

o paybacks on refurbishment are generally less than 2

years

optimise operating schedules to minimise operating costs

evaluate system losses and condition

assess fitness for purpose

calibrate permanently installed flowmeters

97

98

Throttle Control

Only suitable for centrifugal pumps

Most common and simplest

arrangement

Limited by the acceptable flow range of

the pump

Reducing flow to minimise or avoid

stops and starts is a consideration in

water quality and process issues

Power

Motor input power

Pump input power

Pump output power

Energy loss

in pump

Energy loss

in valve

Power producing flow

Flow

99

Bypass Control

Suitable for positive displacement

pumps

Maintains pump flow within acceptable

range

By-pass flow is typically 15% of normal

delivery flow

100

Suitable for both centrifugal and

positive displacement pumps

Extends life of systems handling

abrasives

Can give significant power savings

Smooth flow changes minimise water

quality and process issues

For a Speed Change (N1 N2)

Q2 = Q1 (N2 / N1)

Flowrate (Q) is directly proportional to speed.

H2 = H1 (N2 / N1)2

Head (H) is proportional to the square of speed.

P2 = P1 (N2 / N1)3

Power (P) is proportional to the cube of speed.

NPSHR2 = NPSHR1 (N2 / N1)2

Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSH R) is proportional to the

square of speed.

101

Head (m)

100

System

Curve

80

bep

60

100% Speed

bep

40

80% Speed

bep

20

60% Speed

0

0

50 100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Flow (l/s)

Where there is no static head, the variable speed pump control will

produce flow at all motor speeds.

Variable Speed 60% Static Head

Head (m)

100

80

System

Curve

100% Speed

60

40

80% Speed

60% Speed cannot overcome

static head

20

0

0

50 100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Flow (l/s)

the left. At slower speeds the pump doesnt produce enough head

to overcome static head and hydraulic shut-off occurs.

Variable Speed Pumping

Variable speed control becomes less attractive as static head

contribution increases

o the pump operating point moves to the left of bep

o flow becomes increasingly sensitive to small speed changes

exceeds 60% of total head required

102

Parallel Pumping

Suction

Main

Discharge

Main

own suction and discharge valves.

Parallel Operation of Fixed Speed Pumps

Head (m)

100

Operating point

with one pump

Operating point

with two pumps

80

System curve

80% static

60

Single pump

curve

40

Flow from

each pump

20

Combined pump

curve

Total flow from

both pumps

0

0

100 200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Flow (l/s)

Head (m)

100

Operating point

with one pump

80

Operating point

with two pumps System curve

25% static

60

Flow from

each pump

40

Single pump

curve

20

Combined pump

curve

Total flow from

both pumps

0

0

100 200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Flow (l/s)

one pump fails as flow through the remaining pump increases.

103

If one or more pumps fail in a parallel pumping arrangement, flow

through the remaining pump(s) increases.

The effect becomes more significant as the static head

contribution decreases.

If the operating point moves to the right of the bep efficiency

is reduced and there is a risk of overloading the motor and a

risk of high flow cavitation occurring.

Operating Variable Speed Pumps in Parallel

The characteristics of pumps operating in parallel must be

carefully matched to prevent hydraulic shut-off

o leading to overheating, high shaft forces and premature

bearing and seal failure

Operating pumps running in parallel at different speeds is the

easiest way to mismatch their characteristics

104

Faxial

Force

Fradial (circular casing)

bep

Flow

Volute casings are used for high head applications. The volute that

surrounds the impeller periphery is a curved funnel that increases

in cross-sectional area towards the discharge manifold. As the

area of the cross-section increases, the volute reduces the speed

and increases the pressure of the liquid.

One of the main purposes of a volute casing is to help balance the

hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump. Balancing is

maximised at the bep. Running volute-style pumps at a lower

capacity than the bep can put lateral stress on the shaft of the

pump, increasing wear-and-tear on the seals and bearings, and on

the shaft itself. Double-volute casings are used where radial

thrusts become significant at reduced capacities

Circular casings are used for low head high capacity applications.

Circular casing have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the

impeller periphery that convert velocity energy to pressure energy

105

Series Pumping

Discharge

Main

Suction

Main

The suction pressure of the second pump is equal to the

discharge pressure of the first pump

If the first pump fails or cannot provide sufficient flow the

second pump may cavitate

problems can occur when series pumping stations are

remote from each other and not under common control

Pump Scheduling

There are often savings to be made from pump scheduling

where there is

o over-capacity

o variable demand

o sufficient storage capacity

o variable energy tariffs

The selection of operating schedules are often based on

minimal or out of date information

Compare the specific power consumption of installations and

individual plant items

Obtain current pump and system operating characteristics

Review the operating schedules to identify cost saving

opportunities

Implement revised operating schedules and train operators

106

Electricity Consumption

High Priority

High Consumption

& High Efficiency

Medium Priority

Medium Consumption

& Medium Efficiency

Low Priority

Low Consumption

& High Efficiency

Specific Power Consumption

For energy intensive and complex systems with a high degree of

interaction between individual assets continuous monitoring may

be required to maintain efficiency

data accessed and analysed remotely.

provision of information, not just data.

customised control software

107

Appendix 1. Formulas

108

Head (H)

H = P/g

H = head (m)

P = pressure (N/m2)

= density of liquid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Vm = Q/A = 4Q/d2

Vm = mean flow velocity (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

A = flow area (m2)

d = pipe bore internal diameter (m)

Velocity Head Hv = V2/2g

Hv = velocity head (m)

V = mean velocity (m/s)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

Re = Vd/ = inertia forces / viscous forces = Vd/

Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

V = mean velocity (m/s)

= absolute or dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

= kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

Pump Speed ()

= 2N/60

= pump speed (rad/sec)

N = speed (rpm)

109

Pu = (gQH)/1000

Pu = hydraulic power (kW)

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = total head rise across the pump (m)

Pp = gQH/p

Pp = pump input power (kW)

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = total head rise across the pump (m)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

Pgr = gQH/pm

Pgr = motor input power (kW)

= density (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = total head rise across the pump (m)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

sys = Hs/(Hs+Hd)

sys = system efficiency (decimal)

Hd =dynamic head (m)

Hs =static head (m)

110

n = (

Qbep)/(gH bep)0.75

= pump speed (rad/sec)

Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)

H bep = head rise at best efficiency point (m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

The DArcy formula: H = 4fLV2/2dg

(European SI Based)

H = fLV2/2dg

f = friction factor (non-dimensional)

L = length of pipe (m)

V = mean flow velocity (m/s)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is

"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

H = K (V2/2g) = KHv

H = head loss (m)

K = fitting loss coefficient (non-dimensional)

V = mean velocity upstream of the fitting (m/s)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Hv = velocity head (m)

111

Poiseuilles formula: f = 16/Re

(Re<2100)

Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

Colebrooke & White formula for turbulent flow: 1/

f = -4log10((k/3.7d)+(1.255/Re

f))

(Re>3000)

k = the average height of the roughness projections (m)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is

"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)

Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

Blasiuss formula for smooth pipe turbulent flow: f = 0.079/Re0.25

f = friction factor (non-dimensional)

Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

f = 0.0625 / (log10 (k/3.7d) + (5.74/Re0.9)) 2

f = friction factor (non-dimensional)

k = the average height of the roughness projections (m)

d = hydraulic diameter (m)

d (circular pipe) = 4 x cross sectional area / wetted perimeter

(The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is

"wet", i.e in contact with the pipe)

Re = reynolds number (non-dimensional)

112

Hazen & Williams formula for water: H = 1214.6L (100/Chw) 1.852 (Q1.852/d1.852)

H = straight pipe pressure loss (m)

L = Pipe length (m)

Chw = Hazen & Williams friction factor (non-dimensional)

Q = volumetric flowrate (l/min)*

d = pipe bore (mm)*

* Only for use these units in the Hazen & Williams formula

NPSHA = (PS PV/g) hs - hs loss

NPSHA = net positive suction head available (m)

PS = static suction pressure (N/m2)

PV = vapour pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature (N/m 2)

= density of liquid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

hs = suction lift (m)

hs loss = suction head loss (m)

hs = (PS PV/g)-hs loss (NPSHR + Margin)

hs = suction lift (m)

PS = static suction pressure (N/m2)

PV = vapour pressure of the pumped fluid at the operating temperature (N/m 2)

= density of liquid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81m/s

hs loss = suction head loss (m)

NPSHR = net positive suction head required (m)

S = (

= pump speed (rad/sec)

Qbep = flowrate at best efficiency point (m3/s)

NPSHR bep = net positive suction head required at best efficiency point (m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

113

Pgr = electrical power consumed (kW)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = head developed by the pump (m)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

114

P = (gQH/1000) (1/1 - 1/2)

P = electrical power consumed (kW)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = head developed by the pump (m)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment

2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

Q = volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

H = head developed by the pump (m)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment

2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

Pu = hydraulic power (kW)

n = hours run per year (hrs)

tr = tariff rate (p/kWh)

p = pump efficiency (decimal)

m = motor efficiency (decimal)

1 = p1 x m1 = overall efficiency before refurbishment

2 = p2 x m2 = overall efficiency after refurbishment

115

PS = .g.HS/3600.gr

PS = specific power consumption (kWh/Ml)

= density of fluid (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 (m/s)

HS = static head (m)

gr = overall pump efficiency

Flow is directly proportional to impeller diameter and pump speed: -

Q2 = Q1 (N2D2/N1D1)

Q1 = old volumetric flowrate (m3/s)

N1 = old pump speed (rpm)

D1 = old impeller diameter (m)

Q2 = new volumetric flowrate (m3/s)

N2 = new pump speed (rpm)

D2 = new impeller diameter (m)

Head is proportional to the square of impeller diameter and pump speed: -

H2 = H1 (N2D2/N1D1)2

H1 = old head (m)

N1 = old pump speed (rpm)

D1 = old impeller diameter (m)

H2 = new head (m)

N2 = new pump speed (rpm)

D2 = new impeller diameter (m)

Power is proportional to the cube of impeller diameter and pump speed: -

P2 = P1 (N2D2/N1D1)3

P1 = old power (kW)

N1 = old pump speed (rpm)

D1 = old impeller diameter (m)

P2 = new power (kW)

N2 = new pump speed (rpm)

D2 = new impeller diameter (m)

116

117

118

Symbol

A

C

d

D

f

g

H

Hbep

Hd

hloss

Hs

hS

Hv

K

k

Margin

N

n

NPSHA

NPSHR

NPSHRbep

n

P

Pgr

Pp

PS

PS

Pu

PV

Q

Qbep

Re

S

tr

V

H

Definition

flow area

Hazen & Williams friction factor

internal diameter

impeller outside diameter

friction factor

gravitational constant

head

best efficiency head rise

dynamic head

suction head loss

static head

suction lift

velocity head

fitting loss coefficient

average height of surface projections

required difference between NPSHA &

NPSHR

speed

number of hour operation per year

net positive suction head available

net positive suction head required

net positive suction head required at

best efficiency flow

specific speed

pressure

motor input power

pump input power

static pressure at suction end

specific power consumption

hydraulic power

vapour pressure

volumetric flowrate

best efficiency flowrate

Reynolds Number

suction specific speed

tariff rate

mean velocity

head loss

119

=Value (Units)

(m2)

(m)

(m)

= 9.81 (m/s)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(rpm)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(N/m2)

(kW)

(kW)

(N/m2)

(kWh/Ml)

(kW)

(N/m2)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(p/kWh)

(m/s)

(m)

1

2

gr

m

p

s

overall efficiency after refurbishment

overall pump efficiency

motor efficiency

pump efficiency

system efficiency

absolute viscosity

kinematic viscosity

density

speed

120

decimal

decimal

decimal

(decimal)

(decimal)

(decimal)

(Ns/m2)

(m2/s)

(kg/m)

(rads/s)

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