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A Comparative Study of High Density Polyethylene and Low

Density Polyethylene as Mulch for Growing Pechay1

Mojica, Kirk Patrick C.


Dichoso, Ailyn Jean A.

Mrs. Glory M. Serrano


Research Teacher
San Pablo City National High School

A Science Investigatory Project Submitted in the Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement


In Research 1-B for the School Year 2014-2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the following:

First of all, we thank our Almighty God who gave us knowledge and determination that
we need in finishing our Science Investigatory Project (SIP).
To our loving parents for their guidance, financial assistance and helping hand in doing
this investigatory project.
To Mrs. Gloria Ramirez of PAMANA, UP Los Baos that gave us knowledge to make
the experimentation.
To our research adviser, Mrs. Glory M. Serrano for her patience and forbearance in our
project and guiding us in doing this.
To Mr. Ryan Race our Statistics teacher for discussing us the Statistical methods that
were beneficial to our project.
To Mr. Wilson Ray Anzures who aided us in our Statistical Analysis even though he has
a busy schedule.
To our dear adviser, Mr. Elmon Cornista who advises us to have hope and faithfulness
to God to finish this SIP.
And lastly, to our dearest IV-Science (Theta family) in helping and supporting us while
doing this SIP.
Without all these people, we cannot finish this Science Investigatory Project.

~Ailyn and Kirk~

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ABSTRACT

Here in the Philippines, pechay is one of the widely and popular crops used by Filipinos
because of its fast growth and production. However, some growers are having a hard time to find
effective mulch for growing these plants. So this research study was conducted if LDPE (Low
Density Polyethylene) and HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) can be used as mulch for growing
pechay plants.
Three different conditions were prepared as mulch for these pechays. (Condition 1;
LDPE plastic mulch, Condition 2; HDPE plastic mulch, Condition 3; No mulch). Under each
condition, 15 pechay plants were used and gathering was done after 50 days. Using concepts in
statistics (Descriptive and Analysis of Variance), the data were analyzed.
The test revealed all of the Conditions have effect on the growth rate of pechay. In terms
of mortality rate, no plant died.

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study

The Philippines is a country were farming is a common livelihood. Many of the Filipinos
farm and harvest different kinds of crops and plants every year. One of these crops is the pechay
or Chinese cabbage. It is cultivated and favored by many farmers due to its very fast production.
But many problems farmers encounter planting these plants. Most commonly is growth
of harmful weeds and losing the health and fertility of the soil where it is planted. So farmers
needed the use of mulch. Mulch is a layer of material that covers the surface of soil commonly
grass clippings or hay that help stop these problems but materials were commonly used as mulch
and decompose easily, making farmers make more mulch.
With this, the researchers find a material that doesnt decompose easily and can be used
again as mulch. The researchers concluded plastic to be used because of its slow deterioration
and abundance but there were only two kinds of plastic that can be applied and wielded on the
surface of the soil, HDPE and LDPE plastic. HDPE is a type of plastic mostly used in making
plastic bags, storage containers and even chains. It is now one of the popular plastic used due to
its strength, durability and higher chemical resistance. LDPE is another plastic commonly used
today. LDPE

or Low Density Polyethylene was created before HDPE

by two chemists,

Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett. LDPE was favored because of its flexibility and toughness.
Due to this, it was used to make plastic bags for newspapers, breads and plastic bottles. So the
researchers decided to find if plastic can be used as mulch as well compare which plastic is
highly effective as mulch.
The researchers then tested if HDPE and LDPE plastic can yield an effect on the growth
rate of pechay. The effectiveness of this study can be an option for the future, reduce costs and
have a cheap, safe, abundant and environment-friendly mulch as well as eliminate he problems
of growing pechay.

Statement of the Problem

The research was conducted to determine if Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and High
Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plastics can be made as mulch for growing pechay plants.
Specifically, this study aims to prove the following:
1. LDPE and HDPE plastics are feasible to use as mulch for growing pechay plants.
2. Determine which kind of plastic is more effective in growing pechay in terms of the pechays
height, number of leaves, length of leaves, leaf color, and root length.

Hypotheses
1. HDPE and LDPE plastics can affect the growth rate of pechay plants.
2. HDPE and LDPE plastics can be used as mulch for growing pechay plants.
3. HDPE and LDPE plastics can be used as mulch for growing other crops.

Significance of the Study

The study is aimed to determine if HDPE and LDPE plastics can be substituted as mulch
for effective growing of pechay plants. This study is highly significant to farmers and growers
who has difficulty on growing pechay because of the given problems. They can use plastic as
mulch because of its abundance and slow deterioration.
The successful result of this experiment can help the farming community to have mulch
for better growing of their crops.

Scope and Limitation

The main purpose of this study was to determine if LDPE and HDPE plastic has the
potential as mulch for growing pechay plants. This was limited only with LDPE and HDPE
plastics that will be used.
. The experiment started on June 22, 2014 and ended on July 30, 2014. The whole
experiment were conducted in Brgy. San Roque, San Pablo City.

Definitions of Terms

Mulch a layer of material that is applied on the surface of the soil.


HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) is made from petroleum and is considerably stronger than
LDPE. It can be welded and is often found in larger plastic items because of its strong and
durability.
LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) is primarily used in film applications because it is though,
flexible and relatively transparent. It is also used to produce some flexible lids and bottles as well
as in wire and cable application.
Pechay is an erect, biennal herb, cultivated as an annual about 15-30cm. tall in vegetative
stage.
Crystalline polypropylene - is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications
including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets),
stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment,
loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes.
Polymer - is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Petiole - the stalk of a leaf, attaching the blade to the stem.
Sowing - is the process of planting seeds.
Plant pathogenic bacteria - cause many serious diseases of plants throughout the world but
fewer than fungi or viruses, and they cause relatively less damage and economic cost.
Biennial plant - is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle. In
the first year the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a
period of dormancy over the colder months.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

Mulch
Mulch is a layer of material that is applied to the surface of an area of soil. Its purpose is
to conserve moisture, to improve fertility and health of the soil, to reduce weed growth and to
enhance the visual appeal of the area.
A mulch is usually but not exclusively organic in nature. It maybe applied to bare soil, or
around existing plants. Mulches of manure or compost will be incorporated naturally into the soil
by the activity of worms and other organisms. The process is both used in commercial crop
production and in gardening and when applied correctly can dramatically improve oil
productivity.
Materials used as mulches vary and depend on a number of factors. Use takes into
consideration availability, cost, appearance, the effect it has on soil including chemical reactions
and pH, durability, combustibility, rate of decomposition, how clean it is some contain weed
seeds or plant pathogens.
A variety of materials used as mulch are organic residues, compost, rubber, plastic, rock
and gravel. Organic residues like grass clippings, hay, straw, kitchen scraps comfrey, shredded
bark, sawdust, shells, woodchips, animal manure etc. are used as mulch. Many of these materials
also act as a direct composing system or other organics applied as sheet composing. Mulch made
by compost should be fully composted to avoid possible phytoxicity problems, and the weed
seed must be fully eliminated, otherwise the mulch will actually produce weed cover.
Mulch is usually applied towards the beginning of the growing season, and is often
reapplied it necessary. It serves initially to warm the soil by helping it retains heat which is lost
during the night. This allows early seeding and transplanting certain crops, and encourages faster
growth. As the season progresses, mulch stabilizes the soil temperature and moisture, and
prevents sunlight from germinating weed seeds. (www.organicgardening.com/learn-andgrow/mulch)
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Many materials are used as mulches, which are used to retain soil moisture, regulate soil
temperature, suppress weed growth, and for aesthetics. They are applied to the soil surface,
around trees, paths, flower beds, to prevent soil erosion on slopes, and in production areas for
flower and vegetable crops.
They are applied at varies times of the year depending on the purpose. Towards the
beginning of the growing season mulches serve initially to warm the soil by helping it retains
heat which is lost during the night. This allows early seeding and transplanting of certain crops,
and encourages faster growth. As the season progresses, mulch stabilizes the soil temperature
and moisture, and prevents the growing of weeds from seeds. In temperate climates, the effect of
mulch is dependent upon the time of year they are applied and when applied in fall and winter,
are used to delay the growth of perennial plants in the spring or prevent growth in winter during
warm spells, which limits freeze thaw damage.
The effect of mulch upon soil moisture content is complex. Mulch forms a layer between
the soil and the atmosphere which prevents sunlight from reaching the soil surface, thus reducing
evaporation. However, mulch can also prevent water from reaching the soil by absorbing or
blocking water from light rains.
In order to maximize the benefits of mulch, while minimizing its negative influences, it is
often applied in late spring/early summer when soil temperatures have risen sufficiently, but soil
moisture content is still relatively high. However, permanent mulch is also widely used and
valued for its simplicity, as popularized by author Ruth Stout, who said, "My way is simply to
keep a thick mulch of any vegetable matter that rots on both sides of my vegetable and flower
garden all year long. As it decays and enriches the soils, I add more."
(www.gardening.about.com/od/gardenmaintenance/a/Mulch.htm)
Plastic mulch used in large-scale commercial production is laid down with a tractordrawn or standalone layer of plastic mulch. This is usually part of a sophisticated mechanical
process, where raised beds are formed, plastic is rolled out on top, and seedlings are transplanted
through it.
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Some organic mulch is colored red, brown, black, and other colors. Isopropanol amine,
specifically 1-Amino-2-propanol or DOW mono isopropanol amine, may be used as a pigment
dispersant and color fastener in these mulches. Types of mulch which can be dyed include: wood
chips, bark chips (bark dust) and pine straw. Colored mulch is made by dyeing the mulch in a
water-based solution of colorant and chemical binder. When colored mulch first entered the
market, most formulas were suspected to contain toxic, heavy metals and other contaminates.
Today, current investigations indicate that mulch colorants pose no threat to people, pets or the
environment. The dyes currently used by the mulch and soil industry are similar to those used in
the cosmetic and other manufacturing industries (i.e., iron oxide), as stated by the Mulch and
Soil Council. Colored mulch can be applied anywhere non-colored mulch is used (such as large
bedded areas or around plants) and features many of the same gardening benefits as traditional
mulch, such as improving soil productivity and retaining moisture.
(www.lowes.com/cd_Landscape+with+Mulch_880808339)

HDPE Plastics (High Density Polyethylene)


HDPE was discovered by two chemists, Paul Hogan and Robert Banks. They discovered
crystalline polypropylene through an experiment with high octane gasoline. From there they
found a way to manufacture crystalline polypropylene and HDPE. HDPE is made from
petroleum and is considerably stronger than LDPE. HDPE can be welded and is often found in
larger plastic items because of its strength and durability. One of the first things HPDE was used
to make was the hula hoop.
HDPE can be found in folding tables and chairs, storage sheds and snowboards rails and
boxes. Thicker pieces of plastic such as plumbing, automotive fittings and storage containers are
produced by using HDPE. Certain HDPE containers can be used to store food and are considered
dishwasher safe. HDPE can be recycled but like LDPE, it also loses some of its quality the
second time around.

Polyethylene plastic was discovered accidentally through experiments many years ago. It
can now be found in just about everything we use in modern day life. It is one of the most
popular plastics in the world.
A linear polymer, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is prepared from ethylene by a
catalytic process. The absence of branching results in more closely packed structure with a
higher density and somewhat higher chemical resistance than LDPE. High Density Polyethylene
is also somewhat harder and more opaque and it can withstand rather higher temp. (120 Celsius
for short periods, 110 Celsius continuously). High Density Polyethylene lends itself particularly
well to blow molding.
(www.wisegeek.com/what-is-polyethylene-plastic.htm)

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a


polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. Known for its large strength to density ratio,
HDPE is commonly used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping,
geomembranes, and plastic lumber. HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number "2" as its
resin identification code (formerly known as recycling symbol).
HDPE is known for its large strength to density ratio. The density of high-density
polyethylene can range from 0.93 to 0.97 g/cm3. Although the density of HDPE is only
marginally higher than that of low-density polyethylene, HDPE has little branching, giving it
stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength than LDPE. The difference in strength
exceeds the difference in density, giving HDPE a higher specific strength. It is also harder and
more opaque and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures (120 C/ 248 F for short periods,
110 C /230 F continuously). High-density polyethylene, unlike polypropylene, cannot
withstand normally required autoclaving conditions.
HDPE is also used for cell liners in subtitle D sanitary landfills, wherein large sheets of
HDPE are either extrusion or wedge welded to form a homogeneous chemical-resistant barrier,
with the intention of preventing the pollution of soil and groundwater by the liquid constituents
of solid waste.
(www.dynalabcorp.com/technical_info_hd_polyethylene.asp)
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Milk jugs and other hollow goods manufactured through blow molding are the most
important application area for HDPE More than 8 million tons, or nearly one third of
worldwide production, was applied here. In addition to being recycled using conventional
processes, HDPE can also be processed by recycle bots into filament for 3-D printers via
distributed recycling. There is some evidence that this form of recycling is less energy intensive
than conventional recycling, which can involve a large embodied energy for transportation.
Above all, China, where beverage bottles made from HDPE were first imported in 2005,
is a growing market for rigid HDPE packaging, as a result of its improving standard of living. In
India and other highly populated, emerging nations, infrastructure expansion includes the
deployment of pipes and cable insulation made from HDPE. The material has benefited from
discussions about possible health and environmental problems caused by PVC and
Polycarbonate associated Bisphenol A, as well as its advantages over glass, metal and cardboard.
It has excellent resistance (no attack) to dilute and concentrated acids, alcohols and bases,
has good resistance (minor attack) to aldehydes, esters, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons,
ketones and mineral and vegetable oils and limited resistance (moderate attack and suitable for
short term use only) to halogenated hydrocarbons and oxidizing agents.
Excellent for many food related products, FDA, NSF, and USDA approved for direct
contact (depending on grade of material). This material machines extremely well. Good chemical
resistance and high rigidity make it a good choice for trays and tanks. Other uses include pipe
fittings, wear plates, hinges and cutting boards. It has good impact resistance, light weight, high
moisture absorption, and high tensile strength. Not a good candidate for gluing.
(www.ulprospector.com/pm/HDPE.asp)

LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)


Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) came about in 1993 when it was discovered by two
scientists, Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett. LDPE is made from oil. It has less strength and
exhibits more flexibility than high density polyethylene plastic.
LDPE is used to make many thin, flexible products like plastic bags for dry-cleaning,
newspapers, bread; frozen foods, fresh produce and garbage. Most shrink-wrap and stretch film
is also made out of LDPE, as well as coatings for paper milk cartons and disposable beverage
cups. Manufacturers also use LDPE to create thin container lids, squeezable bottles and some
toys.
Most areas offer recycling for products made with LDPE and linear low-density
polyethylene (LDPE), which also features a recycling number 4. Like all other types of plastics,
LDPE can take hundreds of years to decompose in the landfill, so products that are made
exclusively of LDPE should be recycled if possible. Some areas dont offer recycling for plastic
bags made from LDPE, but these can be reused instead.
Films or packaging materials such as garbage bags or sandwich bags are produce by
using LDPE. LDPE is used to manufacture dispensing bottles and various laboratory equipment.
It is used to make general purpose containers, trays and food storage. Recycling is possible with
this particular form of plastics but it loses some of its quality the second time around. LDPE is
also used to produce some flexible lids and bottles as well as in wire and cable applications.
LDPE has an excellent resistance to acids; bases and vegetable oils. Its toughness, flexibility and
relative transparency make it good for packaging applications requiring heat-sealing.
(www.ehow.com/facts_6001216_ldpe-plastic_.html)

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.


It was the first grade of polyethylene, produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI)
using a high pressure process via free radical polymerization. Its manufacture employs the same
method today. The EPA estimates 5.7% of LDPE (recycling number 4) is recycled. Despite
competition from more modern polymers, LDPE continues to be an important plastic grade. In
2009 the worldwide LDPE market reached a volume of US$22.2 billion (15.9 billion).
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LDPE is defined by a density range of 0.9100.940 g/cm3. It is not reactive at room


temperatures, except by strong oxidizing agents, and some solvents cause swelling. It can
withstand temperatures of 80 C continuously and 95 C for a short time. Made in translucent or
opaque variations, it is quite flexible, and tough but breakable.
LDPE has more branching (on about 2% of the carbon atoms) than HDPE, so its
intermolecular forces (instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attraction) are weaker, its tensile
strength is lower, and its resilience is higher. Also, since its molecules are less tightly packed and
less crystalline because of the side branches, its density is lower. LDPE contains the chemical
elements carbon and hydrogen.
It has excellent resistance (no attack / no chemical reaction) to dilute and concentrated
acids, alcohols, bases and esters, good resistance (minor attack / very low chemical reactivity) to
aldehydes, ketones and vegetable oils, limited resistance (moderate attack / significant chemical
reaction, suitable for short-term use only) to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils,
and oxidizing agents and poor resistance, and not recommended for use with halogenated
hydrocarbons.
(www.ehow.com/facts_7685455_safe-lowdensity-polyethylene.html)

LDPE is widely used for manufacturing various containers, dispensing bottles, wash
bottles, tubing, plastic bags for computer components, and various molded laboratory equipment.
Its most common use is in plastic bags. Other products made from it like trays and general
purpose containers, corrosion-resistant work surfaces, parts that need to be wieldable and
machinable, parts that require flexibility, for which it serves very well, very soft and pliable parts
such as snap-on lids, six pack rings, juice and milk cartons are made of liquid packaging board, a
laminate of paperboard and LDPE (as the waterproof inner and outer layer), and often with of a
layer of aluminum foil (thus becoming aseptic packaging), parts of computer hardware, such as
hard disk drives, screen cards, and optical disc drives. playground slides and plastic wraps.

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The first of the polyolefins, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) was originally prepared
some fifty years ago by the high pressure polymerization of ethylene. Its comparatively low
density arises from the presence of a small amount of branching in the chain (on about 2% of the
carbon atoms). This gives a more open structure. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is a most
useful and widely used plastic especially in dispensing bottles or wash bottles.
It is translucent to opaque, robust enough to be virtually unbreakable and at the same time
quite flexible. Chemically LDPE is unreactive at room temperature although it is slowly attacked
by strong oxidizing agents and some solvents will cause softening or swelling. It may be used at
temperatures up to 95 Celsius for short periods and at 80 Celsius continuously. LDPE is ideally
suited for a wide range of molded laboratory apparatus including wash bottles, pipette washing
equipment, general purpose tubing, bags and small tanks.
According to a 2002 draft industry guide document from the FDA, there is one possible
concern about LDPE safety --- although not one that relates to its use in food packaging. The
draft guide noted that LDPE was not impermeable to volatile chemicals, so LDPE vials
containing substances that must be kept pure like inhalation drugs would not necessarily prevent
ingress of contaminants from the environment. This issue, however, is not one that would
typically pose any problems for household or everyday use.
(www.dynalabcorp.com/technical_info_ld_polyethylene.asp)

Pechay
Pechay (Brassica rapa L. cv group Pak Choi) is an erect, biennal herb, cultivated as
annual about 15-30cm. tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and spreading.
The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a sub cylindrical bundle. Inflorescence is a
raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1mm. in diameter and are reddish to blackish brown
in color.

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Pechay is used mainly for its immature, but fully expanded tender leaves. The succulent
petioles are often the preferred part. It is used as main ingredient for soup and stir-fried dishes. In
Chinese cuisine, its green petioles and leaves are also used as garnish. Pechay can be grown from
low to mid elevations throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the dry season in
sandy to clay loam soil, with a pH of 5.5-6.5.
Pechay can either be sown directly in soil or transplanted. Direct seeding is carried out by
broadcasting or by sowing in rows. It is applied with mulch made of grass clippings or rice
straw.
Damping-off, soft rot and club root are the most important diseases of pechay, while
diamond back moth and aphids are the major insect pests. When seedlings begin to wilt, reduce
watering immediately. Uproot and burn disease-infected plans to prevent spread if disease.
Cultivation is also necessary to minimize weeds.
(www.darfu4b.da.gov.ph/pechay.html)

There are two distinctly different groups of Brassica rapa used as leaf vegetables in
China, and a wide range of varieties within these two groups. The binomial name B. campestris
is also used.
Pekinese is the more common of the two. Pekinese cabbages have broad green leaves
with white petioles, tightly wrapped in a cylindrical formation and usually forming a compact
head. As the group name indicates, this is particularly popular in northern China around Beijing
(Peking).
Chinese varieties do not form heads; instead, they have smooth, dark green leaf blades forming a
cluster reminiscent of mustard or celery. Chinese varieties are popular in southern China and
Southeast Asia. Being winter-hardy, they are increasingly grown in Northern Europe. This group
was originally classified as its own species under the name B. chinese by Linnaeus.
(http://www.philippines.hvu.nl/vegetables3.htm)

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METHODOLOGY
Preparation of Materials
The HDPE and LDPE plastics were manually gathered at Brgy. San Diego San Pablo
City. The pechay seeds were bought at Ato Belens farm at Brgy. San Juan San Pablo City.
Three apple trays were accumulated at the San Pablo City Market for the germination boxes.

Sowing of Seeds
The apple trays were used as improvised germination boxes. Each socket was placed with
soil mix for germination. Then, the pechay seeds were sowed on each socket. The seeds were left
to germinate for 2 weeks. The seeds were given equal water and sunlight.

Initial Data Recording


Then as the pechay plants were fully germinated, it was now ready for data recording.
The pechay plants height (cm.), length of leaves (cm.), and root length (cm.) was measured by
micrometer while the numbers of leaves were determined using counting system. The leaf color
of the plant were rated using the standardized shades of leaf scales. The collected data were
recorded.

Preparation of Mulch
First, the seedbeds were made. Each condition has its own seedbed. Then, the seedbeds
were placed with HDPE and LDPE plastics. After that, the plastics were punched with holes for
the plant.

Transplanting of Pechay Plants


After the 2 weeks of germination, the seedlings were ready for transplanting. The pechay
plants were transplanted to its respective conditions. The plants were carefully transplanted to
avoid damage to the plant. Then, the plants were watered. Each was given equal sunlight and
watering.

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Final Data Recording


After three weeks, the pechay plants were ready for gathering. The length of the root
(cm.), height (cm.), longest leaf (cm.), number of leaves, leaf color were determined. The
collected data were recorded.

Statistical Analysis
The data gathered were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics and Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Determining the mean of the growth rate of the pechays plant in terms of number of
roots and leaves, root length, longest leaf, leaf color and height was done to test whether each
condition yield an effect on the pechay.
Descriptive and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to find out if there are
significant differences among the conditions.

Table 1: Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Root Number


Treatment

Initial Number of
Roots

Final Number of
Roots

FNR-INR

3.27

5.2

1.93

3.6

5.93

2.33

2.33

2.87

0.54

The mean of the pechays Number of Roots were depicted on Table 1. The table shows
that treatment 2 has the highest mean of 2.33. It was also found that the entire conditions yield an
effect on the pechays Number of Roots.

Table 2.Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Root Length


Initial Root Length

Final Root Length

Treatment

FRT-IRT

2.63

5.44

2.81

2.36

6.95

4.59

2.77

5.51

2.74

The mean of the pechays Root Length were depicted on Table 2. The table shows that
treatment 2 has the highest mean of 4.59 but it was also found that the entire conditions yield an
effect on the pechays Root Length.
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Table 3: Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Height


Initial Height

Final Height

Condition

FH-IH

5.41

17.28

11.87

4.78

19.17

14.39

5.87

14.71

8.84

The mean of the pechays Height were depicted on Table 3. The table shows that
condition 2 has the highest mean of 14. 39 but it was also found that the entire conditions yield
an effect on the pechays Height.

Table 4: Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Number of Leaves


Condition

Initial Number of
Leaves

Final Number of
Leaves

FNL-INL

3.8

1.2

3.33

5.53

2.2

3.37

4.4

1.13

The mean of the pechays Number of Leaves were depicted on Table 4. The table shows
that condition 2 has the highest mean of 2.2 but it was also found that the entire conditions yield
an effect on the pechays Number of Leaves.

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Table 5: Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Length of Leaves


Condition

Initial Length of
Leaves

Final Length of
Leaves

FLL-ILL

2.08

5.09

3.01

1.83

8.24

6.41

2.01

6.03

4.02

The mean of the pechays Length of Leaves were depicted on Table 5. The table shows
that condition 2 has the highest mean of 6.41 but it was also found that the entire conditions yield
an effect on the pechays Length of Leaves.

Table 6: Comparison of the Growth Rate of Pechay in Terms of Leaf Color


Initial Leaf Color

Final Leaf Color

Condition

FLC-ILC

2.8

1.2

4.4

1.4

2.73

3.6

0.87

The mean of the pechays Leaf Color were depicted on Table 6. The table shows that
condition 2 has the highest mean of 1.4 but it was also found that the entire conditions yield an
effect on the pechays Leaf Color.

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Summary of Findings

This study was conducted to prove if HDPE and LDPE plastic can be used as mulch for
growing pechays. Three different conditions were utilized, each having 5 replicates and were
grown in 60 days. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the effects of different
conditions on the growth rate of pechay plant.

Tests showed that HDPE and LDPE plastics yield an effect on the growth rate of the
pechay plants.

Conclusions
Using concepts in statistics, the test revealed that HDPE is the most effective mulch that
can be used in growing pechay. But LDPE plastic yields an effect on growth rate. Hence, it can
be made as mulch, too. The following are the conclusions of the researchers.

HDPE and LDPE plastic is feasible to use as mulch for growing pechay.

The most effective condition in terms of pechays growth rate is HDPE plastic.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

After careful analysis of the results, the researchers recommend the following:

1. Further studies should be conducted or other varieties of crops that need mulch.

2. Make use of needed methods and requirements to reveal an effect on the growth rate of
pechay.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:

Andres M. De la Cruz, Ofelia K. Bautista, 1970, Pechay Production in the Philippines: A


Student Manual for Use in Vocational Agriculture

Internal Sites:

http://www.organicgardening.com/learn-and-grow/mulch

http://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?pid=323

http://www.qualitylogoproducts.com/lib/different-types-of-plastic.htm.

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-polyethylene-plastic.htm.

http://www.ehow.com/facts_6001216_ldpe-plastic_.html

http://www.darfu4b.da.gov.ph/pechay.html

21

Appendix A
INITIAL DATA
Condition 1 (LDPE Plastic)

C1P1
CIP2
CIP3
C1P4
C1P5
C1P6
CIP7
CIP8
CIP9
CIP10
CIP11
CIP12
CIP13
C1P14
C1P15

Number of
roots
6
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
4

Root length
3.2
2.5
2.1
1.2
2.6
3.2
3.4
3.2
3.3
2.2
2.4
2.9
2.3
3
2

Plant
height
5
7.4
4.2
4.2
4.1
7.5
6.8
6.5
6.9
5.4
4.9
3.7
4.5
5.9
4.1

Number of
leaves
5
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
5
3
4
4
3
4
3

Length of
leaves
2.3
3.1
1.5
2
2.1
3
2
2.7
2.4
2.6
1.2
1.4
1.2
2.3
1.4

Color of
leaves
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
5
3
3
2
3
3
3

Length of
leaves
1.8
2.4
1.5
1.8
1.1
1.7
1.5
1.6
2.2
2.2
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.7
2.8

Color of
leaves
3
4
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
4
3
3

Condition 2 (HDPE Plastic)

C2P1
C2P2
C2P3
C2P4
C2P5
C2P6
C2P7
C2P8
C2P9
C2P10
C2P11
C2P12
C2P13
C2P14
C2P15

Number of
roots
4
4
3
3
2
3
4
3
4
4
6
3
4
4
3

Root length
3
2.3
2.1
3
0.4
2.4
2
2.5
2.7
2.7
2.2
1.4
2.1
3.2
3.4

Plant
height
6
5.8
3.2
3
2.9
5.8
5
5.8
5.5
4.2
4.4
3.5
4.2
5.5
6.9

Number of
leaves
3
5
3
3
2
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
3
2
4

Condition 3 (No Mulch)

C3P1
C3P2
C3P3
C3P4
C3P5
C3P6
C3P7
C3P8
C3P9
C3P10
C3P11
C3P12
C3P13
C3P14
C3P15

Number of
roots
4
3
3
3
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
3

Root length
3.1
3
2.2
3.4
3.2
3.6
2.9
2.1
2.2
3.0
3
3.3
2.1
2.3
2.1

Plant
height
6.2
7.2
5.7
6.8
4.6
8
7.1
6.2
4.4
5.1
6
6.7
4.4
4.5
5.2

Number of
leaves
3
5
4
3
4
4
4
3
2
3
2
3
2
4
3

Length of
leaves
1.6
2.1
2.3
3.1
2.1
2.3
1.4
1.7
2.4
1.1
3
1.9
1
2.5
1.6

Color of
leaves
2
4
2
3
2
3
2
2
4
4
3
3
2
3
2

Length of
leaves
10.1
8.4
8.3
7.2
7.2
9.2
7.2
7.3
6.1
5.4
4.1
3.2
4.3
5.6
4.3

Color of
leaves
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
4
5
4
4
3
3
4
4

FINAL DATA
Condition 1 (LDPE Plastic)

C1P1
CIP2
CIP3
C1P4
C1P5
C1P6
C1P7
CIP8
CIP9
CIP10
CIP11
CIP12
CIP13
CIP14
CIP15

Number of
roots
8
6
6
5
7
6
5
4
4
4
4
4
6
5
4

Root length
5
3
3.1
2.1
3.4
10.1
6.2
6
7.3
8
3.1
3.2
5.4
10.1
5.6

Plant
height
20.1
17.2
16.9
15.4
15.5
22
18.4
18.1
17.9
16.2
16.2
12.1
16.3
20.2
16.7

Number of
leaves
7
5
5
5
6
5
4
5
6
4
5
6
4
4
4

Condition 2 (HDPE Plastic)

C2P1
C2P2
C2P3
C2P4
C2P5
C2P6
C2P7
C2P8
C2P9
C2P10
C2P11
C2P12
C2P13
C2P14
C2P15

Number of
roots
8
7
7
6
5
5
6
6
7
4
6
7
6
4
5

Root length
4.7
4.2
3.7
4.6
3.2
11.2
8.3
7.2
7.9
9.1
6.7
7.8
8.9
9.1
7.6

Plant
height
18.2
23.2
16
17.2
18.2
20.1
18.7
21.5
19.7
20.1
16.5
18.4
20.2
21.2
18.3

Number of
leaves
6
7
6
7
5
5
6
5
5
6
5
6
5
4
5

Length of
leaves
9.1
11.1
8.4
7.1
7.3
9.2
11.1
8.5
7.1
8.5
4.4
9.2
9.1
7.3
6.2

Color of
leaves
5
5
4
4
4
5
4
5
5
4
5
4
3
4
5

Length of
leaves
6.9
6.5
5.2
6.4
7.7
6.7
5.4
4.3
5.2
6.1
6
5.9
6.2
6.4
5.5

Color of
leaves
3
5
3
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
3

Condition 3 (No Mulch)

C3P1
C3P2
C3P3
C3P4
C3P5
C3P6
C3P7
C3P8
C3P9
C3P10
C3P11
C3P12
C3P13
C3P14
C3P15

Number of
roots
5
4
4
4
5
5
6
4
5
4
3
4
5
4
3

Root length
3.2
3.1
4.2
5.2
4.1
6.2
6.1
5.4
7.2
7.1
6.2
7.4
7.6
5.4
4.2

Plant
height
14.3
15.4
11.4
12.5
16.1
17.1
15.4
15.2
15.2
14.9
18.1
17.5
14.1
12.2
11.3

Number of
leaves
5
7
5
5
5
5
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
4

APPENDICES

After using counting system, the number of roots were determined. The graph below shows the
effect of different treatments.

Number of Roots

Figure 1: Effects of different treatments in the root number of pechay


7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Initial
Final
Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Treatments

Figure 1- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of root number

After using a micrometer, root length. The chart below shows the effect of different treatments.
Figure 2: Effects of different treatments in the Root Length of pechay

Root Length

8
6
4

Initial

Final

0
Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Treatments

Figure 2- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of root length

The height of the plant was measured using micrometer. The graph below shows the different
effects of treatments.
Figure 3: Effects of different treatments in the Height of pechay

Height of the Plant

25
20
15
Initial

10

Final

5
0
Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Treatments

Figure 3- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of the Height of the Plant

The Number of Leaves were determined using counting system. The graph below shows the
different effects of treatments.
Figure 4: Effects of different treatments in the Number of Leaves of pechay
6
5
4
3

Initial

Final

1
0
Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Figure 4- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of the Number of Leaves

After using micrometer, length of leaves. The chart below shows the different effect of
treatments.
Figure 5: Effects of different treatments in the Length of Leaves of pechay
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Initial
Final

Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Figure 5- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of the Length of Leaves

The Color of the Leaf was measured using standardized shades of leaf. The graph below shows
the different effects of treatments.
Figure 6: Effects of different treatments in the Leaf Color of pechay
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Initial
Final

Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Figure 6- shows that Condition 2 yields the highest effect in terms of the Leaf Color

Table of Contents

Abstract

Acknowledgement

ii

INTRODUCTION

1-4

Background of the Study


Statement of the Problem
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

5-13

Methodology

14-15

Results and Discussion

16-18

Summary and Conclusions

19

Recommendations

20

Bibliography

21

APPENDICES
Appendix A
Appendix B

Appendix B
Initial (Number of Roots)
SUMMARY
Groups
6
4
4

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
1.857143
19.78571

Total

21.64286

Sum
Average Variance
43 3.071429 0.379121
50 3.571429 0.879121
48 3.428571 0.263736

df

MS
F
2 0.928571 1.830325
39 0.507326

P-value
F crit
0.17387 3.238096

41

Initial (Root Length)


SUMMARY
Groups
3.2
3
3.1

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
1.324286
16.38071

Total

17.705

Sum
Average Variance
36.3 2.592857 0.382253
32.4 2.314286 0.575165
38.4 2.742857 0.302637

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 0.662143 1.576462 0.219594 3.238096
39 0.420018
41

Initial (Plant Height)


SUMMARY
Groups
5
6
6.2

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
9.624762
62.89643

Total

72.52119

Sum
Average Variance
76.1 5.435714 1.867088
65.7 4.692857 1.557637
81.9
5.85 1.413462

df

MS
F
2 4.812381 2.983999
39 1.612729

P-value
F crit
0.06225 3.238096

41

Initial (Number of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
5
3
3

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
1.47619
26.92857

Total

28.40476

Sum
Average Variance
52 3.714286 0.527473
47 3.357143 0.708791
46 3.285714 0.835165

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 0.738095 1.068966 0.353209 3.238096
39 0.690476
41

Initial (Length of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
2.3
1.8
1.6

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
0.434286
14.47643

Total

14.91071

Sum
Average Variance
28.9 2.064286 0.424011
25.7 1.835714 0.287088
28.5 2.035714 0.402473

df

MS
2 0.217143
39 0.37119

F
P-value
F crit
0.58499 0.561925 3.238096

41

Initial (Color of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
3
3
2

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
0.428571
28.71429

Total

29.14286

Sum
Average Variance
39 2.785714 0.642857
42
3 0.923077
39 2.785714 0.642857

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 0.214286 0.291045 0.749091 3.238096
39 0.736264
41

Final (Number of Roots)


SUMMARY
Groups
8
8
5

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
15.7619
37.21429

Total

52.97619

Sum
Average Variance
70
5 1.076923
81 5.785714 1.104396
60 4.285714 0.681319

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 7.880952 8.259117 0.001022 3.238096
39 0.954212
41

Final (Root Length)


SUMMARY
Groups
5
4.7
3.2

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
22.2919
189.6664

Total

211.9583

Sum
Average Variance
76.6 5.471429 7.045275
99.5 7.107143 5.57456
79.4 5.671429 1.96989

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 11.14595 2.291877 0.114533 3.238096
39 4.863242
41

Final (Plant Height)


SUMMARY
Groups
20.1
18.2
14.3

ANOVA
Source of
Variation

Count
14
14
14

SS

Sum
Average Variance
239.1 17.07857 5.374121
269.3 19.23571 4.028626
206.4 14.74286 4.808791

df

MS

Between Groups
Within Groups

141.3748
184.75

2 70.68738 14.92183
39 4.737179

Total

326.1248

41

P-value
F crit
1.54E05 3.238096

Final (Number of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
7
6
5

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
9.190476
30.42857

Total

39.61905

Sum
Average Variance
68 4.857143 0.593407
77
5.5 0.730769
61 4.357143 1.016484

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 4.595238 5.889671 0.005819 3.238096
39 0.78022
41

Final (Length of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
10.1
9.1
6.9

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
40.29476
95.12429

Total

Sum
Average Variance
87.8 6.271429 3.386813
114.5 8.178571 3.255659
83.5 5.964286 0.67478

df

135.419

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 20.14738 8.260223 0.001021 3.238096
39 2.439084
41

Final (Color of Leaves)


SUMMARY
Groups
5
5
3

Count
14
14
14

ANOVA
Source of
Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups

SS
3.619048
15.35714

Total

18.97619

Sum
Average Variance
55 3.928571 0.379121
61 4.357143 0.401099
51 3.642857 0.401099

df

MS
F
P-value
F crit
2 1.809524 4.595349 0.016143 3.238096
39 0.393773
41

METHODOLOGY FLOW CHART

Preparing of Materials

Sowing of Seeds

Initial Data Recording

Preparing of Mulch

Transplanting of Pechay plants

Final Data Recording