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Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere in a region, and its short-term (minutes

to weeks) variation whereas Climate is defined as statistical weather information that

describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval. They are both
used interchangeably sometimes but differ in their measure of time, and trends that affect
Weather is the combination of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility,
and wind. In popular usage, climate represents the synthesis of weather; more formally it is
the weather of a locality averaged over some period (usually 30 years) plus statistics of
weather extremes.
Weather and climate
There is often confusion between weather and climate.
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time. For
example, on a particular day in Trinidad, the weather is warm in the afternoon. But later in the
day, when there are clouds blocking Sun's rays, the weather would become cooler.
Climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period, maybe 30 years or
more, long enough to yield meaningful averages ([1][2]). For example, although the weather in
Pakistan may be cool and dry today, Pakistan's climate is hot most of the time.
Meteorology studies weather, while Climatology studies climate. Both are Atmospheric
sciences, and indeed, several university departments are named in this manner to avoid

1 Elements
There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of
these elements are five: temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, and rain. Analysis of these
elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather and defining its climate. These same
elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a longer time scale rather
than it does in meteorology.

Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many degrees it is above or below
freezing . Temperature is a very important factor in determining the weather, because it
influences or controls other elements of the weather, such as precipitation, humidity, clouds
and atmospheric pressure.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
Precipitation is the product of a rapid condensation process (if this process is slow, it only
causes cloudy skies). It may include snow, hail, sleet, drizzle, fog, mist and rain.
Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the earth's surface.
Pressure is shown on a weather map, often called a synoptic map, with lines called isobars.

Wind is the movement of air masses, especially on the Earth's surface.

Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold the air is. It is commonly measured in Celsius or
Fahrenheit. Temperature is a very important factor in determining the weather, because it
influences other elements of the weather.
Temperature may be affected by:





Sea Proximity and Temperature

Ocean Currents


The amount of sunshine at a certain place can influence its temperature. The amount of
sunshine can be measured in sunshine hours. That is worked out by the number of hours of
daylight and how many of these are cloud free. Sunshine is variable due to daylight hours as
during the night there is no sunshine as the Earth is pointing away from the sun at the given
spot. Also due to the Earth's tilt some times of the year have more sunshine (summer) and
some less (winter).
Latitude is the distance of a location from the equator. The hottest temperatures on Earth are
found near the equator. This is because the sun shines directly on it for more hours during the
year than anywhere else. As you move further away from the equator towards the poles, less
sun is received during the year and the temperature become colder.
Altitude is the height you are above sea level. The higher up you are the lower the temperature
will be. This is because air that is higher up is less dense than it is at lower altitudes and air
temperature depends on its density. As a general rule for every 1,000m higher you go the
temperature will drop by 6.5 C.

Aspect is the direction in which you are facing. So if you are facing towards the equator then the
temperature will be warmer than facing away. Therefore in the Northern Hemisphere if you
wanted to lie in the sun on a hillside you would do so on the south facing slope (if you were in
the Southern Hemisphere it would be the North Facing Slope).
Sea Proximity and Temperature
Sea temperature changes slower than land temperature. If the temperature on land drops then
the area next to the sea will be kept warmer for longer than areas inland. Islands therefore have
a less dramatic climate than continents. Different seas have different temperatures therefore
allowing one side of an island to be a different temperature to the other side.
Ocean Currents
Currents are driven by the prevailing winds passing over the surface of the ocean. Therefore
winds blowing from tropical areas bring warm currents and vice versa.
Humidity is the level of water in the air, the more water vapour in the air the higher the humidity.
If the humidity level exceeds the amount of water air can hold condensation occurs forming dew
if it's warm or frost if it's cold. When air is at a high altitude and has a high humidity then clouds
start to form. Humidity varies with temperature. Warmer air can hold more moisture. Humidity is
measured in percentages on the scale of air's ability to hold moisture. Therefore condensation
occurs at 100% humidity for a given temperature thus reducing the humidity again.
Precipitation is the term given to moisture that falls from the air to the ground. Precipitation can
be snow, hail, sleet, drizzle, fog, mist and rain. The water cycle drives the water from the
oceans/seas on-shore were it falls as precipitation and then flows via rivers back in to the sea.
Types of Rainfall

Convectional Rainfall

Convectional Rainfall

This is where a water surface is heated by the sun, e.g. the sea. The air above the sea then
becomes heated making the air less dense so it rises and cools. As we know cooler air can not
hold as much water vapour as warm air therefore when the rising air becomes too cold to hold
the moisture the condensation occurs giving us clouds. Once there is too much water in the
cloud for the air to support gravity forces the water to be released in what we know as rain.

Frontal Rainfall

When two air masses met, one is warmer than the other the warmer air is forced to rise over the
colder air. As this warm air rises it cools and forms clouds just like the air in convectional rainfall.

Relief Rainfall

Relief Rainfall

Wind bringing moist air from the seashore starts to rise up a hillside. As this air rises the air
passes its Dew Point, the point at which condensation occurs, and the vapour forms clouds. The
water vapour then falls as precipitation on top of the hill or on the other side.
Cloud Types

Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence

Clouds are split into different groups depending on their height, shape and size. The most
common terms are:

Cirrus - Wispy, white clouds found at high altitudes

Cumulus - Fluffy or heaped white clouds at relatively low altitudes

Stratus - Low altitude layered cloud very rarely bringing precipitation

Nimbus - Rain Clouds

Cirro - High Altitude Clouds

Alto - Medium Altitude cloud

The above terms are put together to form names of certain clouds:

Cumulonimbus - Very large clouds bringing heavy rain, notice how the name comes from
cumulus and nimbus above.

Air Pressure and Wind

Air pressure is simply the weight of the air above the Earth. Low Pressure is when air is warmer
and therefore lighter. High pressure is colder air becoming heavier.
In meteorology pressure is charted on maps with isobars. The higher the number the higher the
Wind is simply the movement of air from high pressure to low pressure. The speed of the wind
is determined by the difference between the high and low pressure. The greater the difference
the faster the wind speed. Also the closer the isobars are on a weather chart the stronger the
The wind brings with it the temperature of the area it is coming from, therefore a high pressure
in a warm region will make the temperature in the low pressure area higher.
Wind-chill is the effect of the wind making it feel colder than it actually is. As the wind speed
increases air is moving more quickly and therefore removes warm air therefore making it seem
colder than the actual temperature.

Comparison chart

Definition Describes the average conditions


Describes the atmospheric conditions



expected at a specific place at a given

at a specific place at a specific point in

time.A region's climate is generated by

time. Weather generally refers to day-

the climate system, which has five

to-day temperature and precipitation

components: atmosphere, hydrosphere,


cryosphere, land surface, andbiosphere.


Climate may include precipitation,

Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud

temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind

cover, winds, hail, snow, sleet, freezing

velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost,

rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms,

and hail storms over a long period of

thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold


front or warm front, excessive heat,

heat waves and more


By aggregates of weather statistics over

By collecting meteorological data, like

periods of 30 years

air temperature, pressure, humidity,

solar radiation, wind speeds and
direction etc.


Aggregating weather statistics over

Real-time measurements of

periods of 30 years ("climate normals").

atmospheric pressure, temperature,

wind speed and direction, humidity,


precipitation, cloud cover, and other



Climate is defined as statistical weather

Weather is the day-to-day state of the

information that describes the variation

atmosphere, and its short-term

of weather at a given place for a

(minutes to weeks) variation

specified interval.
Time period

Measured over a long period

Measured for short term


Macro and Micro Climate

The climate of the earth consists of a series of interlinked physical systems powered by the sun.
In the built environment we are generally concerned with local climatic systems in particular:
Macro-climate the climate of a larger area such as a region or a country
Micro-climate the variations in localised climate around a building
The macro and micro climate has a very important effect on both the energy performance and
environmental performance of buildings, both in the heating season and in summer.
The site and design of a building can have a profound effect upon the interaction between a
building and its environment.

The building site affects exposure to the prevailing wind, the solar radiation the building
receives, pollution levels, temperatures and rain penetration.
Site and macro climate
The orientation of the building affects solar gains and exposure to the prevailing wind
The location of neighbouring trees and buildings affects the solar gains (shading) and wind
Neighbouring trees and buildings also protect the building from driving rain.
Macro Climate
The macro climate around a building cannot be affected by any design changes, however the
building design can be developed with a knowledge of the macro climate in which the building is
located. General climatic data give an idea of the local climatic severity:
Seasonal accumulated temperature difference (degree day) are a measure of the outside air
temperature, though do not acount for available solar
Typical wind speeds and direction
Annual totals of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation
The driving rain index (DRI) relates to the amount of moisture contained in exposed surfaces
and will affect thermal conductivity of external surfaces.
This Metereological data gives a general impression of the climate at the site of a building and
the building design can be planned accordingly. However the building itself and surrounding
geography will affect the local climate.
The site of a building may have a many micro climates caused by the presence of hills valleys,
slopes, streams and other buildings.
Micro Climate Effect of Local Terrain

Surrounding slopes have important effects on air movement, especially at the bottom of a
hollow. In hollows air warmed by the rises upwards due to buoyancy effects (anabatic flow), to
be replaced by cooler air drifting down the slope (katabatic flow).
The result is that valey floors are significantly colder than locations part way up the
slope. Katabaticflows often result in frosts persisting for longer in low lying locations. The most
favourable location in a valley is known as the thermal belt, lying just above the level to which
pools of cold air build up, but below the height at which exposure to wind increases.

The crests of hills and ridges have unfavourable wind velocity profiles, the wind flow is
compressed (as happens with an aerofoil) leading to high wind velocities.

Micro-Climate Effects of Buildings

Buildings themselves create further micro-climates by shading the ground, changing wind flow
One example of how buildings affect the local climate is the heat island effect in large cities
where the average temperature is higher than the surrounding area:
Solar energy absorbed and re-emitted from building surfaces, pavements roads etc. creates a
warming effect on the surrounding air. Also the large quantities of buildings break up the wind
flow, reducing wind speeds and causing the warm air to remain stagnant in the city. This also
causes increased pollution as well as temperatures.
The presence of local high rise buildings can degrade the local climate as wind speed at ground
level can be significantly increased, while extensive shadows block access to sunlight for long
periods, increasing space heating costs in surrounding buildings.
Improving Micro Climate through Design
The aims of enhancing Micro-Climate around Buildings:
Reduce costs of winter heating
Reduce summer overheating and the need for cooling

Maximise outdoor comfort in summer and winter

Improve durability of building material (reduced rain penetration)
Provide a better visual environment in spaces around buildings
Encourage growth of plants
Discourage growth of mosses and algae
Facilitate open air drying of clothes
Means of enhancing the micro climate around a building include:
Solar Access:
Allow maximum daylight into space and buildings
Allow maximum solar radiation into space and buildings
Shade space and windows from prolonged exposure to summer sun
Protect space and windows from glare
Wind Protection
Protect space and buildings from prevailing winds and cold (e.g. North/East) winds.
Prevent buildings and terrain features from generating turbulence
Protect spaces and buildings from driving rain and snow
Protect space and buildings from katabatic flows, while retaining enough air
movement to disperse pollutants
Provide thermal mass to moderate extreme temperatures
Use vegetation for sun shading and wind protection (transpiration helps moderate high
Provide surfaces that drain readily.
Provide water for cooling be evaporation (pools and fountains)

Factors Affecting Micro Climate

Outside Designers Control
Area and local climate
Site surroundings
Site shape
Topographic features
Surrounding Buildings

Within Designers Remit

Spacing and orientation of buildings
Location of open spaces
Form and height of buildings
Tree cover
Ground profiling
Wind breaks
Surrounding surfaces (paving grass etc)
Two main possibilities for influencing Micro Climate are Solar Access and Wind
Solar Access
Solar access to a site is often a case of minimising solar overheating in summer
while maximising solar access during the winter.
Buildings with a heating requirement should be orientated north south with maximum glazing on
the south face.
Deciduous trees offer an excellent means of site shading, with shading being reduced in winter
when the trees lose their leaves.
The colour of surrounding surfaces will have a pronounced effect on the solar
radiation available to the building. Light coloured paving will increase the radiation reflected from
the ground into the building. Paving stones will also provide external thermal mass, moderating
temperature swings immediately adjacent to the building.

Grass planted outside a building will reduce the ground reflected solar.
Use of courtyards and water can also moderate the effects of high temperatures on summer.

Wind Control
The form of the building can have a great effect on the impact of the wind:
Avoidance of the building flank facing the wind
Avoidance of funnel-like gaps between buildings
Avoidance of flat roofed buildings and cubical forms
Avoid piercing buildings at ground level
Avoid abrupt changes in building heights
Orientate long axis of the building parallel to the direction of the wind
Use podium to limit down draught at ground level
Use pitched rather than flat roofs and stepped forms for higher buildings
Groups of buildings can be arranged inirregular patterns to avoid wind tunneling.
Coniferous trees and fencing and other landscape features such as mounds of earth and
hedges can also reduce the impact of wind and driving rain on the building
Enhanced Micro Climate and Energy Saving
Increased external air temperature leading to reduced space heating reduction:
increase solar access to site, wind protection, external thermal mass, quick drying surfaces.
Reduced Air Change Rate, internal air movement and decreased external surface connective
heat transfer: reduced pressure driven ventilation by wind protection.
Reduced moisture effects on fabric: less wetting of fabric and energy loss due to evaporation
from wet surfaces by protecting from driving rain and providing adequate surface drainage
Features of hot and dry climate
ngformandconstruction methodsofthepast.
The general characteristics of climate plateau plains are as follows:

hot dry weather in summer and cold in winter and dry.

very little rainfall

very low humidity in the

very low vegetation cover

high temperature difference between night and day

the desert and desert areas , combined with wind and dust

Ductility and implementation of urban and rural living conditions with natural factors and the use
of these agents invery adverse weather conditions in these areas ,is considerable. Dare to be
expressed in one very important achievement in the implementation of our traditional
architecture and provide a suitable living nvironment in arid regions and is without water and
grass. General urban and rural areas is as follows:

Very dense urban and rural

urban area completely surrounded by narrow walleys and irregular and some times
covered with a vault
buildings joined together
the establishment of biological collections according to sunand wind

Psychrometrics or psychrometry or hygrometry are terms used to describe the field of

engineering concerned with the determination of physical and thermodynamic properties of gasvapor mixtures. The term derives from the Greek psuchron () meaning
"cold"[1] and metron () meaning "means of measurement"
Common applications
Although the principles of psychrometry apply to any physical system consisting of gas-vapor
mixtures, the most common system of interest is the mixture of water vapor and air, because of
its application in heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning and meteorology. In human terms,
our thermal comfort is in large part a consequence of not just the temperature of the
surrounding air, but (because we cool ourselves via perspiration) the extent to which that air is
saturated with water vapor.
Many substances are hygroscopic, meaning they attract water, usually in proportion to the
relative humidity or above a critical relative humidity. Such substances include cotton, paper,
cellulose, other wood products, sugar, calcium oxide (burned lime) and many chemicals and

fertilizers. Industries that use these materials are concerned with relative humidity control in
production and storage of such materials.
In industrial drying applications, such as drying paper, manufacturers usually try to achieve an
optimum between low relative humidity, which increases the drying rate, and energy usage,
which decreases as exhaust relative humidity increases. In many industrial applications it is
important to avoid condensation that would ruin product or cause corrosion.
Molds and fungi can be controlled by keeping relative humidity low. Wood destroying fungi
generally do not grow at relative humidities below 75%.
Psychrometric properties
Dry-bulb temperature (DBT)
The dry-bulb temperature is the temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a
place sheltered from direct solar radiation. The term dry-bulb is customarily added to
temperature to distinguish it from wet-bulb and dewpoint temperature. In meteorology and
psychrometrics the word temperature by itself without a prefix usually means dry-bulb
temperature. Technically, the temperature registered by the dry-bulb thermometer of a
psychrometer. The name implies that the sensing bulb or element is in fact dry. WMO provides
a 23 page chapter on the measurement of temperature.[4]
Wet-bulb temperature
The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is a thermodynamic property of a mixture of air and
water vapor. The value indicated by a wet-bulb thermometer often provides an adequate
approximation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature.
The accuracy of a simple wet-bulb thermometer depends on how fast air passes over the bulb
and how well the thermometer is shielded from the radiant temperature of its surroundings.
Speeds up to 5,000 ft/min (~60 mph) are best but it may be dangerous to move a thermometer
at that speed. Errors up to 15% can occur if the air movement is too slow or if there is too much
radiant heat present (from sunlight, for example).

A wet bulb temperature taken with air moving at about 12 m/s is referred to as a screen
temperature, whereas a temperature taken with air moving about 3.5 m/s or more is referred to
as sling temperature.
A psychrometer is a device that includes both a dry-bulb and a wet-bulb thermometer. A sling
psychrometerrequires manual operation to create the airflow over the bulbs, but a powered
psychrometer includes a fan for this function. Knowing both the dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and
wet-bulb temperature (WBT), one can determine the relative humidity (RH) from the
psychrometric chart appropriate to the air pressure.
Relative humidity
The ratio of the vapor pressure of moisture in the sample to the saturation pressure at the dry
bulb temperature of the sample.
Dew point temperature
The saturation temperature of the moisture present in the sample of air, it can also be defined
as the temperature at which the vapour changes into liquid (condensation). Usually the level at
which water vapor changes into liquid marks the base of the cloud in the atmosphere hence
called condensation level. So the temperature value that allows this process (condensation) to
take place is called the 'dew point temperature'. A simplified definition is the temperature at
which the water vapour turns into "dew" (Chamunoda Zambuko 2012).
Specific Humidity
Specific humidity is defined as the proportion of the mass of water vapor per unit mass of the
moist air sample (dry air plus the water vapor); it is closely related to humidity ratio and always
lower in value.
Absolute humidity
The mass of water vapor per unit volume of air containing the water vapor. This quantity is also
known as the water vapor density.[5]

Specific enthalpy
Analogous to the specific enthalpy of a pure substance. In psychrometrics, the term quantifies
the total energy of both the dry air and water vapour per kilogram of dry air.
Specific volume
Analogous to the specific volume of a pure substance. In psychrometrics, the term quantifies the
total volume of both the dry air and water vapour per kilogram of dry air.
Psychrometric ratio
The psychrometric ratio is the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient to the product of mass
transfer coefficient and humid heat at a wetted surface. It may be evaluated with the following


= Psychrometric ratio, dimensionless

= convective heat transfer coefficient, W m-2 K-1

= convective mass transfer coefficient, kg m-2 s-1

= humid heat, J kg-1 K-1

The psychrometric ratio is an important property in the area of psychrometrics, as it

relates the absolute humidity and saturation humidity to the difference between the dry
bulb temperature and the adiabatic saturation temperature.
Mixtures of air and water vapor are the most common systems encountered in
psychrometry. The psychrometric ratio of air-water vapor mixtures is approximately
unity, which implies that the difference between the adiabatic saturation temperature
and wet bulb temperature of air-water vapor mixtures is small. This property of air-water
vapor systems simplifies drying and cooling calculations often performed using
psychrometic relationships.
Humid heat
Humid heat is the constant-pressure specific heat of moist air, per unit mass of dry air.

Many psychrometric properties are dependent on the atmospheric pressure at the
location of the sample.
Psychrometric charts

A psychrometric chart for sea-level elevation

A psychrometric chart is a graph of the thermodynamic parameters of moist air at a
constant pressure, often equated to an elevation relative to sea level. The ASHRAEstyle psychrometric chart, shown here, was pioneered by Willis Carrier in 1904. It
depicts these parameters and is thus a graphical equation of state. The parameters are:

Dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is that of an air sample, as determined by an ordinary

thermometer. It is typically plotted as the abscissa (horizontal axis) of the graph. The
SI units for temperature are kelvinsor degrees Celsius; other units are degrees
Fahrenheit and degrees Rankine.

Wet-bulb temperature (WBT) is that of an air sample after it has passed through a
constant-pressure, ideal, adiabatic saturation process, that is, after the air has
passed over a large surface of liquid water in an insulated channel. In practice this is
the reading of a thermometer whose sensing bulb is covered with a wet sock
evaporating into a rapid stream of the sample air (see Hygrometer). When the air
sample is saturated with water, the WBT will read the same as the DBT. The slope
of the line of constant WBT reflects the heat of vaporization of the water required to
saturate the air of a given relative humidity.

Dew point temperature (DPT) is the temperature at which a moist air sample at the
same pressure would reach water vapor "saturation." At this point further removal of
heat would result in water vapor condensing into liquid water fog or, if
below freezing point, solid hoarfrost. The dew point temperature is measured easily
and provides useful information, but is normally not considered an independent
property of the air sample as it duplicates information available via other humidity
properties and the saturation curve.

Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor to the mole
fraction of saturated moist air at the same temperature and pressure. RH is
dimensionless, and is usually expressed as a percentage. Lines of constant RH
reflect the physics of air and water: they are determined via experimental
measurement. The concept that air "holds" moisture, or that moisture "dissolves" in
dry air and saturates the solution at some proportion, is erroneous (albeit
widespread); see relative humidity for further details.

Humidity ratio is the proportion of mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air at the
given conditions (DBT, WBT, DPT, RH, etc.). It is also known as the moisture
content or mixing ratio. It is typically plotted as theordinate (vertical axis) of the
graph. For a given DBT there will be a particular humidity ratio for which the air
sample is at 100% relative humidity: the relationship reflects the physics of water
and air and must be determined by measurement. The dimensionless humidity ratio
is typically expressed as grams of water per kilogram of dry air, or grains of water
per pound of air (7000 grains equal 1 pound).

Specific enthalpy, symbolized by h, is the sum of the internal (heat) energy of the
moist air in question, including the heat of the air and water vapor within. Also called
heat content per unit mass. In the approximation of ideal gases, lines of constant
enthalpy are parallel to lines of constant WBT. Enthalpy is given in (SI) joules per
kilogram of air, or BTU per pound of dry air.

Specific volume is the volume of the mixture (dry air plus the water vapor)
containing one unit of mass of "dry air". The SI units are cubic meters per kilogram
of dry air; other units are cubic feet per pound of dry air. The inverse of specific
volume is usually confused as the density of the mixture (see "Applying the
Psychrometric Relationships" CIBSE, August 2009). However, to obtain the actual
mixture density one must multiply the inverse of the specific volume by unity plus
the humidity ratio value at the point of interest (see ASHRAE Fundamentals 1989
6.6, equation 9).

The psychrometric chart allows all the parameters of some moist air to be determined
from any three independent parameters, one of which must be the pressure. Changes
in state, such as when two air streams mix, can be modeled easily and somewhat
graphically using the correct psychrometric chart for the location's air pressure or
elevation relative to sea level. For locations at not more than 2000 ft (600 m) of altitude
it is common practice to use the sea-level psychrometric chart.
In the -t chart, the dry bulb temperature (t) appears as the abscissa (horizontal axis)
and the humidity ratio () appear as the ordinate (vertical axis). A chart is valid for a
given air pressure (or elevation above sea level). From any two independent ones of the
six parameters dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity
ratio, specific enthalpy, and specific volume, all the others can be determined. There

possible combinations of independent and derived parameters.

Locating parameters on chart

* Dry bulb temperature: These lines are drawn straight, not always parallel to each
other, and slightly inclined from the vertical position. This is the taxis, the abscissa
(horizontal) axis. Each line represents a constant temperature.
* Dew point temperature: From the state point follow the horizontal line of constant
humidity ratio to the intercept of 100% RH, also known as the saturation curve. The dew
point temperature is equal to the fully saturated dry bulb or wet bulb temperatures.

* Wet bulb temperature: These lines are oblique lines that differ slightly from the
enthalpy lines. They are identically straight but are not exactly parallel to each other.
These intersect the saturation curve at DBT point.
* Relative humidity: These hyperbolic lines are shown in intervals of 10%. The
saturation curve is at 100% RH, while dry air is at 0% RH.
* Humidity ratio: These are the horizontal lines on the chart. Humidity ratio is usually
expressed as mass of moisture per mass of dry air (pounds or kilograms of moisture per
pound or kilogram of dry air, respectively). The range is from 0 for dry air up to 0.03
(lbmw/lbma) on the right hand -axis, the ordinate or vertical axis of the chart.
* Specific enthalpy: These are oblique lines drawn diagonally downward from left to
right across the chart that are parallel to each other. These are not parallel to wet bulb
temperature lines.
Specific volume: These are a family of equally spaced straight lines that are nearly
The region above the saturation curve is a two-phase region that represents a mixture
of saturated moist air and liquid water, in thermal equilibrium.
The protractor on the upper left of the chart has two scales. The inner scale represents
sensible-total heat ratio (SHF). The outer scale gives the ratio of enthalpy difference to
humidity difference. This is used to establish the slope of a condition line between two
processes. The horizontal component of the condition line is the change in sensible heat
while the vertical component is the change in latent heat.
How to read the chart: fundamental examples
Psychrometric charts are available in SI (metric) and IP (U.S./English) units. They are
also available in low and high temperature ranges and for different pressures.

Determining relative humidity: The percent relative humidity can be located at the
intersection of the horizontal dry bulb and diagonally down sloping wet bulb

temperature lines. Metric (SI): Using a dry bulb of 25 C and a wet bulb of 20 C,
read the relative humidity at approximately 63.5%. English/U.S (IP): Using a dry
bulb of 77 F and a wet bulb of 68 F, read the relative humidity at approximately
63.5%. In this example the humidity ratio is 0.0126 kg water per kg dry air.

Determining the effect of temperature change on relative humidity: For air of a fixed
water composition ormoisture ratio, find the starting relative humidity from the
intersection of the wet and dry bulb temperature lines. Using the conditions from the
previous example, the relative humidity at a different dry bulb temperatures can be
found along the horizontal humidity ratio line of 0.0126, either in kg water per kg dry

air or pounds water per pound dry air.

A common variation of this problem is determining the final humidity of air leaving an air
conditioner evaporator coil then heated to a higher temperature. Assume that the
temperature leaving the coil is 10C (50F) and is heated to room temperature (not
mixed with room air), which is found by following the horizontal humidity ratio from the
dew point or saturation line to the room dry bulb temperature line and reading the
relative humidity. In typical practice the conditioned air is mixed with room air that is
being infiltrated with outside air.

Determining the amount of water to be removed or added in lowering or raising

relative humidity: This is the difference in humidity ratio between the initial and

final conditions times the weight of dry air.

Mollier diagram

Mollier Diagram (Chart), IP Units

The "Mollier i-x" (Enthalpy - Humidity Mixing Ratio) diagram, developed byRichard
Mollier in 1923,[13] is an alternative psychrometric chart, preferred by many users in
Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and Russia.[14]
The underlying psychrometric parameter data for the psychrometric chart and the
Mollier diagram are identical. At first glance there is little resemblance between the
charts, but if the chart is rotated by ninety degrees and looked at in a mirror the
resemblance becomes apparent. The Mollier diagram coordinates are enthalpy and
humidity ratio. The enthalpy coordinate is skewed and the lines of constant enthalpy
are parallel and evenly spaced. The ASHRAE psychrometric charts since 1961 use
similar plotting coordinates. Some psychrometric charts use dry-bulb
temperature and humidity ratio coordinates

Solar chart
A Sun chart is a graph of the ecliptic of the Sun through the sky throughout the year at a
particular latitude.
Most sun charts plot azimuth versus altitude throughout the days of thewinter
solstice and summer solstice, as well as a number of intervening days. Since the apparent
movement of the Sun as viewed from Earth is nearly symmetrical about the solstice, plotting
dates for one half of the year gives a good approximation for the rest of the year. Thus, to
simplify the diagram, some sun charts show days for different months as the same, e.g. March
21 equals September 21. The accompanying sun chart for Berlin accounts for deviations in
symmetry between the two halves of the year through the use of the analemma, represented by
each figure eight on the chart.
The graph may show the entire horizon or only that half of the horizon closest to the equator.
Sky view obstructions can be superimposed upon a Sun chart to obtain the insolation of a

A bioclimatic chart is a preliminary analysis tool used during the early planning stages of a
building project. In the process known as bioclimatic architecture, an architect uses the
bioclimatic chart to design buildings that include the most efficient passive cooling and heating
strategies based on the climate and location of a building site, according to the Center for
Renewable Energy Sources and Saving.

Accumulating Chart Data

In order to create a bioclimatic chart, monthly statistical data is collected. The chart is used to
plot the average maximum and minimum temperature and the average maximum and minimum
relative humidity. The website recommends using a meteorology website to collect
the information. You can also obtain the information from weather reports kept by local airports.

Plotting the Chart

To create a bioclimatic chart two points are plotted for each month. The first plot point is used to
indicate the minimum temperature and maximum relative humidity, also known as RH. The
second plot point is used to indicate maximum temperature along with the minimum RH. The
two points are connected with a line. Each line on the bioclimatic chart represents an average
day's changes in temperature and humidity. To be effective, the chart is developed over a oneyear period.


A completed bioclimatic chart will indicate the boundaries for different types of passive design
strategies. Passive solar heating can be assessed using the chart as well as passive cooling
strategies. Additionally, the chart can indicate a comfort zone where no cooling or heating is
required to maintain thermal comfort. An architect will then use the chart to start planning the
type of project best suited for a particular climatic location. Doing so creates energy-efficient
bioclimatic buildings that enhance the quality of life for its users.


The building sector accounts for nearly 40 percent of national final energy consumption,
according to the Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving. This type of energy
consumption, using mostly oil as well as electricity, causes the major atmospheric pollution
responsible for the greenhouse effect and climatic change. Energy consumption is also a major
economic burden. Using a bioclimatic chart helps an architect use simple building techniques
and methods that reduce energy consumption, such as incorporating a passive solar heating
system, natural cooling systems and techniques, as well as natural lighting systems and

The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black
body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation. Effective temperature
is often used as an estimate of a body's temperature when the body's emissivity curve (as a
function of wavelength) is not known.
When the star's or planet's net emissivity in the relevant wavelength band is less than unity (less
than that of a black body), the actual temperature of the body will be higher than the effective
temperature. The net emissivity may be low due to surface or atmospheric properties,
including greenhouse effect.

The effective temperature of the Sun(5777 K) is the temperature a black body of the same size
must have to yield the same total emissive power.
The effective temperature of a star is the temperature of a black body with the same luminosity
per surface area (

) as the star and is defined according to the StefanBoltzmann


. Notice that the total (bolometric) luminosity of a star is

, where

is the stellar radius.[2] The definition of the stellar radius is

obviously not straightforward. More rigorously the effective temperature corresponds to the
temperature at the radius that is defined by a certain value of the Rosseland optical depth
(usually 1).[3][4]The effective temperature and the bolometric luminosity are the two fundamental
physical parameters needed to place a star on the HertzsprungRussell diagram. Both effective
temperature and bolometric luminosity actually depend on the chemical composition of a star.
The effective temperature of our Sun is around 5780 kelvin (K).[5][6] Stars actually have a
temperature gradient, going from their central core up to the atmosphere. The "core
temperature" of the sunthe temperature at the centre of the sun where nuclear reactions take
placeis estimated to be 15 000 000 K.
The color index of a star indicates its temperature from the very coolby stellar standards, that
isred M stars that radiate heavily in the infrared to the very blue O stars that radiate largely in
the ultraviolet. The effective temperature of a star indicates the amount of heat that the star
radiates per unit of surface area. From the warmest surfaces to the coolest is the sequence of
star types known as O, B, A, F, G, K, and M.
A red star could be a tiny red dwarf, a star of feeble energy production and a small surface or a
bloated giant or even supergiant star such as Antares or Betelgeuse, either of which generates
far greater energy but passes it through a surface so large that the star radiates little per unit of
surface area. A star near the middle of the spectrum, such as the modestSun or the
giant Capella radiates more heat per unit of surface area than the feeble red dwarf stars or the
bloated supergiants, but much less than such a white or blue star as Vega or Rigel.
The effective temperature of a planet can be calculated by equating the power received by the
planet with the power emitted by a blackbody of temperature T.
Take the case of a planet at a distance D from the star, of luminosity L.

Assuming the star radiates isotropically and that the planet is a long way from the star, the
power absorbed by the planet is given by treating the planet as a disc of radius r, which
intercepts some of the power which is spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D (the
distance of the planet from the star). We also allow the planet to reflect some of the incoming
radiation by incorporating a parameter called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the
radiation is reflected, an albedo of 0 means all of it is absorbed. The expression for absorbed
power is then:

The next assumption we can make is that the entire planet is at the same temperature T, and
that the planet radiates as a blackbody. The StefanBoltzmann law gives an expression for the
power radiated by the planet:

Equating these two expressions and rearranging gives an expression for the effective

Note that the planet's radius has cancelled out of the final expression.
The effective temperature for Jupiter from this calculation is 112 K and 51 Pegasi
b (Bellerophon) is 1258 K. A better estimate of effective temperature for some planets, such as
Jupiter, would need to include the internal heating as a power input. The actual temperature
depends on albedo and atmosphere effects. The actual temperature from spectroscopic
analysis for HD 209458 b (Osiris) is 1130 K, but the effective temperature is 1359 K.[citation

The internal heating within Jupiter raises the effective temperature to about 152 K.[citation


Surface temperature of a planet

The surface temperature of a planet can be estimated by modifying the effective-temperature

calculation to account for emissivity and temperature variation.
The area of the planet that absorbs the power from the star is Aabs which is some fraction of the
total surface area

, where r is the radius of the planet. This area intercepts

some of the power which is spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D. We also allow the
planet to reflect some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter a called
the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, an albedo of 0 means all of it
is absorbed. The expression for absorbed power is then:

The next assumption we can make is that although the entire planet is not at the same
temperature, it will radiate as if it had a temperature T over an area Arad which is again some
fraction of the total area of the planet. There is also a factor , which is the emissivity and
represents atmospheric effects. ranges from 1 to 0 with 1 meaning the planet is a perfect
blackbody and emits all the incident power. The StefanBoltzmann law gives an expression for
the power radiated by the planet:

Equating these two expressions and rearranging gives an expression for the surface

Note the ratio of the two areas. Common assumptions for this ratio are 1/4 for a rapidly rotating
body and 1/2 for a slowly rotating body. This ratio would be 1 for the subsolar point, the point on
the planet directly below the sun and gives the maximum temperature of the planet. [7]
Let's look at the Earth. The Earth has an albedo of about 0.367.[8] The emissivity is dependent
on the type of surface and many climate models set the value of the Earth's emissivity to 1.
However, a more realistic value is 0.96.[9]The Earth is a fairly fast rotator so the area ratio can

be estimated as 1/4. The other variables are constant. This calculation gives us an effective
temperature of the Earth of 252K or -21 C. The average temperature of the Earth is 288K or
15 C. One reason for the difference between the two values is due to the Greenhouse effect,
which increases the average temperature of the Earth's surface.
Also note here that this equation does not take into account any effects from internal heating of
the planet, which can arise directly from sources such as radioactive decay and also be
produced from frictions resulting fromtidal forces.
What is building orientation?
Design for orientation is a fundamental step to ensure that buildings work with the passage of
the sun across the sky. Knowledge of sunpaths for any site is fundamental in design building
facades to let in light and passive solar gain, as well as reducing glare and overheating to the
building interior. It is important to remember that the position of the sun in the sky is dynamic,
changing according to time of day, time of year and the sites latitude.

This diagram sets out the key definitions used when describing the suns passage across a

Why consider building orientation?

Well-orientated buildings maximise daylighting through building facades reducing the need for
artificial lighting. Some typologies especially housing can be zoned to ensure different functional
uses receive sunlight at different times of the day. Buildings that maximise sunlight are ideal for
the incorporation of passive solar collection techniques that can reduce carbon use and
enhance user comfort. A careful strategy can also mitigate overheating and glare when sunlight
is excessive. You should know how the sun interacts with your building in high summer and the
depths of winter.

How to design for building orientation?

In the past the passage of the sun across the sky was plotted with pre printed sunpath diagrams
for specific latitudes. Thankfully CAD packages can do this for you. Specifically Google
SketchUp is effective in setting up a model in any global location and then able to simulate a
sunpath across a building.

Google SketchUp model showing building design orientated to maximise south light.

Housing in temperate regions can benefit from admitting the sun into the building interior.
Openings should be primarily orientated southwards, consider the use of conservatories and
buffer spaces. Kitchens are better facing east, living rooms to the south and west. Bedrooms
are often better to the north to avoid light disturbance.

Simple criteria for the organisation of spaces in housing to maximise positive effects of

Office buildings typically are about the reduction of excessive solar gain and glare. This is
because of a greater preponderance of glazed facades and also higher internal gains from
people, computers etc. Use glazing due south sparingly and incorporate shading devices.

Knowledge of building orientation can prioritise where to provide protection for glazed facades.

Orientation of Building
Orientation of building is to design building in such a way as it receives maximum
ventilation and natural light in all climatic conditions. It provides comfortable living

conditions inside the house/building and saves energy bills also. The orientation can defend
undesirable effects of worse weather. While planning to build a new house, ask your architect to
design building in such a way that energy loss is minimum.
Climatic Implication
Orientation of building determines the amount of radiation the building receives. The orientation
with respect to air patterns affects the amount of natural ventilation as much as possible.
Benefits of building orientation
Energy saving
Orientation of building is energy efficient approach as the building orientation saves heating,
cooling and lighting cost. You can take optimal benefits of the sun by maximizing southern
exposure. It lowers cooling cost by minimizing western exposure where it is most difficult to
provide sunshade.

Breeze/Natural Air
Orientation of building provides breeze is in warm and humid climates. On the other hand, the
orientation prevents hot winds in hot and dry climates.

Natural ventilation
Building orientation provides natural ventilation and light which is beneficial to the health of
inhabitants of the house.
Factors Affecting Building Orientation
1. Solar radiation and temperature
The intensity of solar radiation depends on the direction of sunrays. The temperature of a
structure and living space increases due to sun radiation and affects environment of the house.
Solar radiation acts in two ways.

Sunrays directly come to the house through openings

Radiation comes indirectly through walls and roof of building by absorbing heat.

For comfortable living particularly during summer season, radiation, temperature and
treatment of room are considered. From solar radiation point of view, the best orientation is
that which receives maximum solar radiation during winter and receives minimum solar radiation
during summer season.
The South faade has advantage of receiving more solar radiation during winter than that
of receiving during summer. Even for openings on south facade, small overhang such as
curtains can cut off direct solar penetration during summer and allows it during winter.
Obviously, this is most beneficial aspect, not available on any other faade.

How to minimize solar heat in south faade?

In fact the incidence of ground reflected radiation on human body from southern sun in south
facade causes great thermal discomfort and visual glare. In northern India the South wall of a
building or house receives least solar radiation during summer. To minimize reflected solar heat,
grassy lawns should be developed in front of south faade.
How to minimize solar radiation in western faade?
The eastern and western faade receive nearly equal amounts of daily solar radiation
throughout the year. The only difference is when the sun shines on eastern faade, the building
or house is comparatively cool and air temperature is low. On the other hand due to higher air
temperature in afternoon, the heat flows indoor through western faade. To minimize the affect
of solar radiation in western faade, the sunshade on openings should be constructed.
2. Clouds and Rains
Clouds and rains have comparatively less importance in orientation of building. The areas with
low clouds cover sky largely and determine the effect of both incoming solar radiation and
outgoing terrestrial radiation. Glazing and opening should be designed keeping in view the
direction of rain, beating the building because the direction of rain is generally same as that of
prevailing wind expect in case of storms. If due to architectural view glazing is provided, it
should be covered by proper sunshade etc. The walls of lesser thickness should not be
designed in the direction of heavy rains.
3. Humidity
It depends on weather condition of the area and has little role in orientation of building. The
movement of air and use of prevailing wind are very important during periods of high humidity.
Humidity can be classified into four categories i.e.

Very dry
Very humid

When humidity is low, dry or very dry, it is easy to take advantage of evaporative cooling in
summer. When it is humid or very humid it is desirable to regulate the rate of air movement
either artificially with aid of electric fan or with help of prevailing winds.
4. Humidity design consideration
The comfort in relation to humidity becomes complex. In humid environment there is very warm
feeling when there is no breeze and air temperature is 30 0C. On the other hand if humidity is
low, one may feel cool even if the temperature rises up to 32 0C with little breeze. It will be
cooler at the same temperature if there is reduction in relative humidity. And if there is breeze in
high humidity area, the building should be designed in such a way as it has more natural air and

5. Prevailing winds
Prevailing winds help create natural ventilation in a building and give more comfort during high
humidity. During orientation of a building and designing doors and windows openings, the
direction of wind flow should be considered. Fix windows and ventilators at proper location in
building to provide maximum air and light. The height of windows has much concern about
ventilation. Maximum air and ventilation can be obtained if the level of opening is at the level of
Consider velocity and direction of wind for orientation
For the purpose of orientation, it is necessary to study velocity and direction of the wind at
particular place throughout the year. It is better if the flow of wind is more in building during
humid period than rest period of the year.
Close openings to avoid heat and glare in summer
One should take appropriate action during orientation of building so that the building provides
maximum comfort. Where there is extreme heat in summer and it becomes necessary to close
openings to avoid heat and glare, it would be helpful to orient buildings to face winds during
humid months instead of facing prevailing wind which comes from some other direction.
Note: Ideal or desirable orientation may not be possible in each individual case due to various
factors in every situation. In this age of advance technology in materials and mechanical aids,
the lighting and ventilation can be obtained for living and working after deciding on orientation of
Thermal comfort
Thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal
environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
55).[1] Maintaining this standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other
enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning)
design engineers.
Thermal neutrality is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed to
dissipate, thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. The main factors that
influence thermal comfort are those that determine heat gain and loss, namely metabolic
rate, clothing insulation, air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed and relative
humidity. Psychological parameters such as individual expectations also affect thermal
The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model stands among the most recognized thermal comfort
models. It was developed using principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a
controlled climate chamber under steady state conditions.[3] The adaptive model, on the other
hand, was developed based on hundreds of field studies with the idea that occupants
dynamically interact with their environment. Occupants control their thermal environment by
means of clothing, operable windows, fans, personal heaters, and sun shades.[2] [4]
The PMV model can be applied to air conditioned buildings, while the adaptive model can be
generally applied only to buildings where no mechanical systems have been installed.[1] There is

no consensus about which comfort model should be applied for buildings that are partially air
conditioned spatially or temporally.
Significance of thermal comfort
Satisfaction with the thermal environment is important for its own sake and because it influences
productivity and health. Office workers who are satisfied with their thermal environment are
more productive.[8] Thermal discomfort has also been known to lead to sick building
syndrome symptoms.[9] The combination of high temperature and high relative humidity serves
to reduce thermal comfort and indoor air quality.[10]
Although a single static temperature can be comfortable, thermal delight, alliesthesia is usually
caused by varying thermal sensations. Adaptive models of thermal comfort allow flexibility in
designing naturally ventilated buildings that have more varying indoor conditions.[11] Such
buildings may save energy and have the potential to create more satisfied occupants.[2]
Factors influencing thermal comfort
Since there are large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and
psychological satisfaction, it is hard to find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given
space. Laboratory and field data have been collected to define conditions that will be found
comfortable for a specified percentage of occupants.[1]
There are six primary factors that directly affect thermal comfort that can be grouped in two
categories: personal factors - because they are characteristics of the occupants and environmental factors - which are conditions of the thermal environment. The former are
metabolic rate and clothing level, the latter are air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air
speed and humidity. Even if all these factors may vary with time, standards usually refer to a
steady state to study thermal comfort, just allowing limited temperature variations.
Metabolic rate
People have different metabolic rates that can fluctuate due to activity level and environmental
conditions. The ASHRAE 55-2010 Standard defines metabolic rate as the level of
transformation of chemical energy into heat and mechanical work by metabolic activities within

an organism, usually expressed in terms of unit area of the total body surface. Metabolic rate is
expressed in met units, which are defined as follows:
1 met = 58.2 W/m (18.4 Btu/hft), which is equal to the energy produced per unit surface area
of an average person seated at rest. The surface area of an average person is 1.8 m (19 ft).
ASHRAE Standard 55 provides a table of met rates for a variety of activities. Some common
values are 0.7 met for sleeping, 1.0 met for a seated and quiet position, 1.2-1.4 met for light
activities standing, 2.0 met or more for activities that involve movement, walking, lifting heavy
loads or operating machinery. For intermittent activity, the Standard states that is permissible to
use a time-weighted average metabolic rate if individuals are performing activities that vary over
a period of one hour or less. For longer periods, different metabolic rates must be considered.
According to ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, estimating metabolic rates is complex, and
for levels above 2 or 3 met especially if there are various ways of performing such activities
the accuracy is low. Therefore, the Standard is not applicable for activities with an average level
higher than 2 met. Met values can also be determined more accurately than the tabulated ones,
using an empirical equation that takes into account the rate of respiratory oxygen consumption
and carbon dioxide production. Another physiological yet less accurate method is related to the
heart rate, since there is a relationship between the latter and oxygen production.
The Compendium of Physical Activities is used by physicians to record physical activities. It has
a different definition of met that is the ratio of the metabolic rate of the activity in question to a
resting metabolic rate.As the formulation of the concept is different from the one that ASHRAE
uses, these met values cannot be used directly in PMV calculations, but it opens up a new way
of quantifying physical activities.
Food and drink habits may have an influence on metabolic rates, which indirectly influences
thermal preferences. These effects may change depending on food and drink intake. Body
shape is another factor that affects thermal comfort. Heat dissipation depends on body surface
area. A tall and skinny person has a larger surface-to-volume ratio, can dissipate heat more
easily, and can tolerate higher temperatures more than a person with a rounded body shape.

Clothing insulation
The amount of thermal insulation worn by a person has a substantial impact on thermal comfort,
because it influences the heat loss and consequently the thermal balance. Layers of insulating
clothing prevent heat loss and can either help keep a person warm or lead to overheating.
Generally, the thicker the garment is, the greater insulating ability it has. Depending on the type
of material the clothing is made out of, air movement and relative humidity can decrease the
insulating ability of the material.
1 clo is equal to 0.155 mK/W (0.88 Ffth/Btu). This corresponds to trousers, a long sleeved
shirt, and a jacket. Clothing insulation values for other common ensembles or single garments
can be found in ASHRAE 55.
Air temperature
The air temperature is the average temperature of the air surrounding the occupant, with
respect to location and time. According to ASHRAE 55 standard, the spatial average takes into
account the ankle, waist and head levels, which vary for seated or standing occupants. The
temporal average is based on three-minutes intervals with at least 18 equally spaced points in
time. Air temperature is measured with a dry-bulb thermometer and for this reason it is also
known as dry-bulb temperature.
Mean radiant temperature
The radiant temperature is related to the amount of radiant heat transferred from a surface, and
it depends on the materials ability to absorb or emit heat, or its emissivity. The mean radiant
temperature, depends on the temperatures and emissivities of the surrounding surfaces as well
as the view factor, or the amount of the surface that is seen by the object. So the mean radiant
temperature experienced by a person in a room with the sunlight streaming in varies based on
how much of her body is in the sun.
Operative temperature
Operative temperature attempts to combine the effects of air and mean radiant temperatures
into one metric. It is often approximated as the average of the air dry-bulb temperature and of

the mean radiant temperature at the given place in a room. In buildings with low thermal mass,
the operative temperature is sometimes considered to be simply the air temperature.
Air speed
Air speed is defined as the rate of air movement at a point, without regard to direction.
According to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55, it is the average speed of the air to which the body is
exposed, with respect to location and time. The temporal average is the same as the air
temperature, while the spatial average is based on the assumption that the body is exposed to a
uniform air speed, according to the SET thermo-physiological model. However, some spaces
might provide strongly nonuniform air velocity fields and consequent skin heat losses that
cannot be considered uniform. Therefore, the designer shall decide the proper averaging,
especially including air speeds incident on unclothed body parts, that have greater cooling effect
and potential for local discomfort.
Relative humidity
Relative humidity is the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water
vapor that the air could hold at the specific temperature and pressure. While the human body
has sensors within the skin that are fairly efficient at feeling heat and cold, relative humidity (RH)
is detected indirectly. Sweating is an effective heat loss mechanism that relies on evaporation
from the skin. However at high RH, the air has close to the maximum water vapor that it can
hold, so evaporation, and therefore heat loss, is decreased. On the other hand, very dry
environments (RH < 20-30%) are also uncomfortable because of their effect on the mucous
membranes. The recommended level of indoor humidity is in the range of 30-60% in air
conditioned buildings, but new standards such as the adaptive model allow lower and higher
humidities, depending on the other factors involved in thermal comfort.
A way to measure the amount of relative humidity in the air is to use a system of dry-bulb and
wet-bulb thermometers. While the former measures the temperature with no regard to moisture
- such as in weather reports - the latter has a small wet cloth wrapped around the bulb at its
base, so the measurement takes into account water evaporation in the air. The wet-bulb reading
will thus always be at least slightly lower than the dry bulb one. The difference between these

two temperatures can be used to calculate the relative humidity: the larger the temperature
difference between the two thermometers, the lower the level of relative humidity.
The wetness of skin in different areas also affects perceived thermal comfort. Humidity can
increase wetness on different areas of the body, leading to a perception of discomfort. This is
usually localized in different parts of the body, and local thermal comfort limits for skin
wettedness differ by locations of the body. The extremities are much more sensitive to thermal
discomfort from wetness than the trunk of the body. Although local thermal discomfort can be
caused from wetness, the thermal comfort of the whole body will not be affected by the wetness
of certain parts.
Recently, the effects of low relative humidity and high air velocity were tested on humans after
bathing. Researchers found that low relative humidity engendered thermal discomfort as well as
the sensation of dryness and itching. It is recommended to keep relative humidity levels higher
in a bathroom than other rooms in the house for optimal conditions.
Thermal comfort models
When discussing thermal comfort, there are two main different models that can be used: the
static model (PMV/PPD) and the adaptive model.
PMV/PPD method

Psychrometric Chart

Temperature-relative humidity chart

Two alternative representations of thermal comfort for the PMV/PPD method
The PMV/PPD model was developed by P. O. Fanger using heat balance equations and
empirical studies about skin temperature to define comfort. Standard thermal comfort surveys
ask subjects about their thermal sensation on a seven point scale from cold (-3) to hot (+3).
Fangers equations are used to calculate the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) of a large group of
subjects for a particular combination of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative
humidity, air speed, metabolic rate, and clothing insulation. Zero is the ideal value, representing
thermal neutrality, and the comfort zone is defined by the combinations of the six parameters for
which the PMV is within the recommended limits (-0.5<PMV<+0.5). Although predicting the
thermal sensation of a population is an important step in determining what conditions are
comfortable, it is more useful to consider whether or not people will be satisfied. Fanger
developed another equation to relate the PMV to the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied
(PPD). This relation was based on studies that surveyed subjects in a chamber where the
indoor conditions can be precisely controlled.
This method treats all occupants the same and disregards location and adaptation to the
thermal environment. It basically states that the indoor temperature should not change as the
seasons do. Rather, there should be one set temperature year-round. This is taking a more
passive stand that humans do not have to adapt to different temperatures since it will always be

ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 uses the PMV model to set the requirements for indoor thermal
conditions. It requires that at least 80% of the occupants be satisfied.[1]
The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool for ASHRAE 55 allows users to input the six comfort
parameters to determine whether a certain combination complies with ASHRAE 55. The results
are displayed on a psychrometric or a temperature-relative humidity chart and indicate the
ranges of temperature and relative humidity that will be comfortable with the given the values
input for the remaining four parameters.
Elevated air speed method
ASHRAE 55 2013 accounts for air speeds above 0.2 m/s separately than the baseline model.
Because air movement can provide direct cooling to people, particularly if they are not wearing
too much clothing, higher temperatures can be more comfortable than the PMV model predicts.
Air speeds up to 0.8 m/s are allowed without local control, and 1.2 m/s is possible with local
control. This elevated air movement increases the maximum temperature for an office space in
the summer to 30 C from 27.5 C.[1]
Local thermal discomfort
Although thermal comfort is usually discussed for the body as a whole, thermal dissatisfaction
may also occur just for a particular part of the body, due to local sources of unwanted heating,
cooling or air movement. According to the ASHRAE 55-2010 standard, there are four main
causes of thermal discomfort to be considered. A section of the standard specifies the
requirements for these factors, that apply to a lightly clothed person engaged in near sedentary
physical activity. This is because people with higher metabolic rates and/or more clothing
insulation are less thermally sensitive, and consequently have less risk of thermal discomfort.
Radiant temperature asymmetry
Large differences in the thermal radiation of the surfaces surrounding a person may cause local
discomfort or reduce acceptance of the thermal conditions. ASHRAE Standard 55 sets limits on
the allowable temperature differences between various surfaces. Because people are more
sensitive to some asymmetries than others, for example that of a warm ceiling vs. that of hot

and cold vertical surfaces, the limits depend on which surfaces are involved. The ceiling is not
allowed to be more than 5 C (9.0 F) warmer, whereas a wall may be up to 23 C (41 F)
warmer than the other surfaces.
While air movement can be pleasant and provide comfort in some circumstances, it is
sometimes unwanted and causes discomfort. This unwanted air movement is called draft and is
most prevalent when the thermal sensation of the whole body is cool. People are most likely to
feel a draft on uncovered body parts such as their head, neck, shoulders, ankles, feet, and legs,
but the sensation also depends on the air speed, air temperature, activity, and clothing.
Vertical air temperature difference
Thermal stratification that results in the air temperature at the head level being higher than at
the ankle level may cause thermal discomfort. ASHRAE Standard 55 recommends that the
difference not be greater than 3 C (5.4 F).
Floor surface temperature
Floors that are too warm or too cool may cause discomfort. ASHRAE 55 recommends that floor
temperatures stay in the range of 1929 C (6684 F) in spaces where occupants will be
wearing lightweight shoes.
Adaptive comfort model

Adaptive chart according to ASHRAE Standard 55-2010

The adaptive model is based on the idea that outdoor climate influences indoor comfort
because humans can adapt to different temperatures during different times of the year. The
adaptive hypothesis predicts that contextual factors, such as having access to environmental
controls, and past thermal history influence building occupants' thermal expectations and
preferences. Numerous researchers have conducted field studies worldwide in which they
survey building occupants about their thermal comfort while taking simultaneous environmental
measurements. Analyzing a database of results from 160 of these buildings revealed that
occupants of naturally ventilated buildings accept and even prefer a wider range of
temperatures than their counterparts in sealed, air conditioned buildings because their preferred
temperature depends on outdoor conditions. These results were incorporated in the ASHRAE
55-2004 standard as the adaptive comfort model. The adaptive chart relates indoor comfort
temperature to prevailing outdoor temperature and defines zones of 80% and 90%
The ASHRAE-55 2010 Standard has introduced the prevailing mean outdoor temperature as
the input variable for the adaptive model. It is based on the arithmetic average of the mean daily
outdoor temperatures over no fewer than 7 and no more than 30 sequential days prior to the
day in question. It can also be calculated by weighting the temperatures with different
coefficients, assigning increasing importance to the most recent temperatures. In case this
weighting is used, there is no need to respect the upper limit for the subsequent days. In order
to apply the adaptive model, there should be no mechanical cooling system for the space,
occupants should be engaged in sedentary activities with metabolic rates of 1-1.3 met, and a
prevailing mean temperature greater than 10 C (50 F) and less than 33.5 C (92.3 F).
This model applies especially to occupant-controlled, natural conditioned spaces, where the
outdoor climate can actually affect the indoor conditions and so the comfort zone. In fact,
studies by de Dear and Brager showed that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings were
tolerant of a wider range of temperatures. This is due to both behavioral and physiological
adjustments, since there are different types of adaptive processes. ASHRAE Standard 55-2010

states that differences in recent thermal experiences, changes in clothing, availability of control
options and shifts in occupant expectations can change people thermal responses.
There are basically three categories of thermal adaptation, namely Behavioral, Physiological
and Psychological. The latter, that refers to an altered thermal perception and reaction due to
past experiences and expectations, is an important factor in explaining the difference between
field observations and PMV predictions (based on the static model) in naturally ventilated
buildings. In these buildings the relationship with the outdoor temperatures is twice as strong as
Adaptive models of thermal comfort are implemented in other standards such as European EN
15251 and ISO 7730 standard. While the exact derivation methods and results are slightly
different from the ASHRAE 55 adaptive standard, they are substantially the same. A larger
difference is in applicability. The ASHRAE adaptive standard only applies to buildings without
mechanical cooling installed, while EN15251 can be applied to mixed-modebuildings provided
the system is not running.
The body has several thermal adjustment mechanisms to survive in drastic temperature
environments. In a cold environment the body utilizes vasoconstriction; which reduces blood
flow to the skin, skin temperature and heat dissipation. In a warm environment, vasodilation will
increase blood flow to the skin, heat transport, and skin temperature and heat dissipation. If
there is an imbalance despite the vasomotor adjustments listed above, in a warm environment
sweat production will start and provide evaporative cooling. If this is
insufficient, hyperthermia will set in, body temperature may reach 40 C (104 F) and heat
stroke may occur. In a cold environment shivering will start, involuntarily forcing the muscles to
work and increasing the heat production by up to a factor of 10. If equilibrium is not
restored, hypothermia will set in, which can be fatal.[31] Long term adjustments to extreme
temperatures of a few days to six months may result in cardiovascular and endocrine
adjustments. A hot climate may create increased blood volume, improving the effectiveness of

vasodilation, enhanced performance of the sweat mechanism, and the readjustment of thermal
preferences. In cold or underheated conditions, vasoconstriction can become permanent
resulting in decreased blood volume, and increased body metabolic rate.
In naturally ventilated buildings occupants take numerous actions to keep themselves
comfortable when the indoor conditions drift towards discomfort. Operating windows and fans,
adjusting blinds/shades, changing clothing, consuming food and drinks are some of the
common adaptive strategies. Amongst these adjusting windows is the most common. Those
occupants who take these sorts of actions tend to feel cooler at warmer temperatures than
those who do not.
These behavioral actions significantly influence energy simulation inputs, and researchers are
developing behavior models to improve the accuracy of simulation results. For example, there
are many window opening models that have been developed till date but there is no consensus
over the factors that trigger window opening.
Effects of natural ventilation on thermal comfort
Many buildings use a HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioning) unit to control their thermal
environment. Other buildings are naturally ventilated and do not rely on such mechanical
systems to provide thermal comfort. Depending on the climate, this can drastically reduce
energy consumption. It is sometimes seen as a risk, though, since indoor temperatures can be
too extreme if the building is poorly designed. Properly designed naturally ventilated buildings
keep indoor conditions within the range where opening windows and using fans in the summer
and wearing extra clothing in the winter can keep people thermal comfortable.
Thermal sensitivity of individuals
The thermal sensitivity of an individual is quantified by the descriptor FS, which takes on higher
values for individuals with lower tolerance to non-ideal thermal conditions. This group includes
pregnant women, the disabled, as well as individuals whose age is below fourteen or above
sixty, which is considered the adult range. Existing literature provides consistent evidence that

sensitivity to hot and cold surfaces declines with age. There is also some evidence of a gradual
reduction in the effectiveness of the body in thermoregulation after the age of sixty. This is
mainly due to a more sluggish response of the counteraction mechanisms in lower part of the
body that are used to maintain the core temperature of the body at ideal values.
Situational factors include the health, psychological, sociological and vocational activities of the
Sex differences
While thermal comfort preferences between sexes seems to be small, there are some
differences. Studies have found men report discomfort due to rises in temperature much earlier
than women. Men also estimate higher levels of their sensation of discomfort than women. One
recent study tested men and women in the same cotton clothing, performing mental jobs while
using a dial vote to report their thermal comfort to the changing temperature. Many times,
females will prefer higher temperatures. But while females were more sensitive to temperatures,
males tend to be more sensitive to relative humidity levels.
An extensive field study was carried out in naturally ventilated residential buildings in Kota
Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. This investigation explored the gender thermal sensitivity to the
indoor environment in non air-conditioned residential buildings. Multiple hierarchical regression
for categorical moderator was selected for data analysis; the result showed that females were
slightly more sensitive than males to the indoor air temperatures. Whereas, under thermal
neutrality; it was found that males and females have similar thermal sensation.
Thermal comfort in different regions
In different areas of the world, thermal comfort needs may vary based on climate. In China there
are hot humid summers and cold winters causing a need for efficient thermal comfort. Energy
conservation in relation to thermal comfort has become a large issue in China in the last several
decades due to rapid economic and population growth. Researchers are now looking into ways
to heat and cool buildings in China for lower costs and also with less harm to the environment.

In tropical areas of Brazil, urbanization is causing a phenomenon called urban heat

islands (UHI). These are urban areas, which have risen over the thermal comfort limits due to a
large influx of people and only drop within the comfortable range during the rainy season. Urban
Heat Islands can occur over any urban city or built up area with the correct conditions. Urban
Heat Islands are caused by urban areas with few trees and vegetation to block solar radiation or
carry out evapotranspiration, many structures with a large proportion of roofs and sidewalks with
low reflectivity that absorb heat, high amounts of ground-level carbon dioxide pollution that
retains heat released by surfaces, great amounts of heat generated by air conditioning systems
of densely packed buildings and large amount of automobile traffic generating heat from
engines and exhaust.
In the hot humid region of Saudi Arabia, the issue of thermal comfort has been important
in mosques where Muslims go to pray. They are very large open buildings which are used only
intermittently (very busy for the noon prayer on Fridays) making it hard to ventilate them
properly. The large size requires a large amount of ventilation but this requires a lot of energy
since the buildings are used only for short periods of time. Some mosques have the issue of
being too cold from their HVAC systems running for too long and others remain too hot. The
stack effect also comes into play due to their large size and creates a large layer of hot air
above the people in the mosque. New designs have placed the ventilation systems lower in the
buildings to provide more temperature control at ground level.[43] Also new monitoring steps are
being taken to improve the efficiency.

Thermal stress
The concept of thermal comfort is closely related to thermal stress. This attempts to predict the
impact of solar radiation, air movement, and humidity for military personnel undergoing training
exercises or athletes during competitive events. Values are expressed as the Wet Bulb Globe
Temperature or Discomfort Index.[45] Generally, humans do not perform well under thermal
stress. Peoples performances under thermal stress is about 11% lower than their performance

at normal thermal conditions. Also, human performance in relation to thermal stress varies
greatly by the type of task you are completing. Some of the physiological effects of thermal heat
stress include increased blood flow to the skin, sweating, and increased ventilation.
Thermal comfort of livestock
Although thermal comfort of humans is the main focus of thermal comfort studies, the needs of
livestock must be met as well for better living and production. The Department of Animal
Production in Italy produced a study on ewes, which tested rumen function and diet digestibility
of ewes chronically exposed to a hot environment.[48] These two bodily functions were reduced
by the hot temperatures offering insight that thermal comfort levels are important to livestock
The factors affecting thermal comfort were explored experimentally in the 1970s. Many of these
studies led to the development and refinement of ASHRAE Standard 55 and were performed
at Kansas State University by Ole Fanger and others. Perceived comfort was found to be a
complex interaction of these variables. It was found that the majority of individuals would be
satisfied by an ideal set of values. As the range of values deviated progressively from the ideal,
fewer and fewer people were satisfied. This observation could be expressed statistically as
the % of individual who expressed satisfaction by comfort conditions and the predicted mean
vote(PMV). This approach was challenged by the adaptive comfort model developed from the
ASHRAE 884 project which revealed that occupants were comfortable in a broader range of
This research is applied to create Building Energy Simulation (BES) programs for residential
buildings. Residential buildings in particular can vary much more in thermal comfort than public
and commercial buildings. This is due to their smaller size, the variations in clothing worn, and
different uses of each room. The main rooms of concern are bathrooms and bedrooms.
Bathrooms need to be at a temperature comfortable for a human with or without clothing.
Bedrooms are of importance because they need to accommodate different levels of clothing and

also different metabolic rates of people asleep or awake. Discomfort hours is a common metric
used to evaluate the thermal performance of a space.
Thermal comfort research in clothing is currently being done by the military. New air-ventilated
garments are being researched to improve evaporative cooling in military settings. Some
models are being created and tested based on the amount of cooling they provide.
In the last twenty years, researchers have also developed advanced thermal comfort models
that divide the human body into many segments, and predict local thermal discomfort by
considering heat balance. This has opened up a new arena of thermal comfort modeling that
aims at heating/cooling selected body parts.
Thermal comfort for patients and hospital staff
Whenever the studies referenced tried to discuss the thermal conditions for different groups of
occupants in one room, the studies ended up simply presenting comparisons of thermal comfort
satisfaction based on the subjective studies. No study tried to reconcile the different thermal
comfort requirements of different types of occupants who compulsorily must stay in one room.
Therefore, it looks to be necessary to investigate the different thermal conditions required by
different groups of occupants in hospitals to reconcile their different requirements in this
concept. To reconcile the differences in the required thermal comfort conditions it is
recommended to test the possibility of using different ranges of local radiant temperature in one
room via a suitable mechanical system.
Although different researches are undertaken on thermal comfort for patients in hospitals, it is
also necessary to study the effects of thermal comfort conditions on the quality and the quantity
of healing for patients in hospitals. There are also original researches that show the link
between thermal comfort for staff and their levels of productivity, but no studies have been
produced individually in hospitals in this field. Therefore, researches for coverage and methods
individually for this subject are recommended. Also research in terms of cooling and heating
delivery systems for patients with low levels of immune system protection such as HIV patients,
burned patients, etc. are recommended. There are important areas, which still need to be

focused on including thermal comfort for staff and its relation with their productivity, using
different heating system to prevent hypothermia in the patient and to improve the thermal
comfort for hospital staff simultaneously.
Finally, the interaction between people, systems and architectural design in hospitals is a field in
which require further work needed to improve the knowledge of how to design buildings and
systems to reconcile many conflicting factors for the people occupying these buildings.
Thermal comfort calculations according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 can be freely performed
with the CBE Thermal Comfort Tool for ASHRAE 55.
Similar to ASHRAE Standard 55 there are other comfort standards like EN 15251[5] and the ISO
7730 standard.