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Its purpose is for division.

It is a non load bearing structures.
It can be constructed with different types of materials.
It can be temp. or permanent .


Gypsum board




Gypsum boards are manufactured by many different companies. Usgypsum is one such company. Usg makes a product that is
called 'sheetrock'. This is their version of gypsum board.
The term 'Sheetrock' is a proprietary term; that is, it is a proper name; the name of USG's gypsum board.
Nevertheless, you may hear people refer to 'sheetrock' as if this is the generic way of referring to gypsum board; it is not.
The generic term is 'gypsum board.'
gypsum boards are produced in many sizes and thicknesses:
4'x8', 4'x10', 4'x16'
thicknesses of: 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 3/4",5/8",
a special product called 'shaftwall' is 1" thick, and designed to be used to line elevator shafts.






Gypsum board is the generic name for the group of products comprised mainly of a noncombustible gypsum core and paper facings.
Gypsum board is commonly referred to as drywall, wallboard, plasterboard and sheetrock.
Gypsum is a mineral found in sedimentary rock formations.
This product is perfectly highly fire resistant.
Gypsum contains chemically combined water that is driven off as steam when subjected to high heat, effectively fighting fire.
Gypsum board is the most common interior finish used today in Canada and the United States
Types of Gypsum Board:Regular - is used as a surface layer for walls and ceilings, available in tapered and square edges.
Type X - is available in -inch or 5/8-inch thickness and has improved fire- resistance through the use of fibers mixed within the
gypsum core.
Type C or Improved X - Additional additives give this product improved fire-resistance. Required in some fire-tested assemblies.
Water Resistant Board - made with a water-resistant core and water-resistant face paper. Also known as "green" board. Designed as
a ceramic tile backer board..
Gypsum Liner board - available in - or 1-inch thickness and used primarily in area separation wall systems.
Soffit board - designed for exterior use under protected overhangs and walkways.
Gypsum sheathing - used as an underlayment in exterior walls for structural stability and fire-protection. Available in treated and
non-treated core for water-resistance.

Joint Treatment:- Gypsum wallboard produces a monolithic surface by taping the depression formed along the edges of gypsum board.
The procedure is to embed a tape with a taping or joint compound over the tapered joint. The depression is then filled with successive
layers of compound and sanded to produce a monolithic surface. The square edge of the gypsum panels that meet are often referred to
as "butt" joints and should be feathered out further than tapered joints.
There are two wood framing systems:-

1. Platform framing

2. Balloon framing

Platform framing: vertical studs are only one story tall. Each separate story is framed individually, one vertical level at a time. Most
wood frame buildings today are built this way.

Balloon framing: vertical studs run the full vertical height of the building. Floor joists are 'let in' to notches in the vertical studs.
Used mostly prior to 1940.



There are two basic brick types - Face and Paver.


Paver bricks are used for patios, driveways, et cetera. Paver bricks are usually 4" x 8" x 2"
Face bricks are typically used to build walls. Face bricks are made in a range of sizes, but the most common construction brick size is
3 5/8" x 2 1/4" x 7 5/8"
The most common brick wall used in building houses is a "veneered wall".
Facing brick is placed outside the frame of the house and the brick veneer is attached to the frame by metal ties or by grouting it to
mesh attached to studs.
STONE:Stone used in construction (of a building, or a garden wall) may be divided into three classes:





Rubble:1. Rubblework: consists of stones in which the adjoining sides are not required to be at right angles. It is used for rough
masonry, as in foundations, backing, etc., and frequently consists of common field stone, roughly dressed.
2. Field-Stone Walls. Walls of this kind are built of small, uncut stones, and are frequently employed for fences and rustichouse work. Such walls should be made quite thick on account of the round and unstable shape of the stones used in
their construction.
Ashlar:1. Stonework that is cut on four sides so that the adjoining sides will be at right angles to each other, is known as ashlar, no
matter whether the face is dressed or not.
2. Stone used to make facing, or panels, is cut using a saw
3. Stone blocks are carefully blasted apart, and dug out of the earth. The place where this is done is called a quarry.
4. Dry stone walls are called dry because no mortar or other bonding material such as clay is used to keep the stones
5. A typical wall consists of a foundation course, generally of larger stones or boulders known as footings, with two wall
faces of large stones. The cavity in between the faces is filled with smaller stones or hearting
Stone veneer:-


Stone Veneer Although stone is too expensive in general for structural purposes, because of its durability it can be effectively
used for surface applications.
Choice of stone is determined by color, texture, desired hardness, and weight, with a multitude of options available.
Applications of stone veneers:
1) Interior: as a wall or floor covering, generally for public area like lobbies, corridors.
2) Exterior: as a cladding, for the base, for spandrel panels, or for the entire building
Finish of stone masonry:1) Roughed: the outer surface of the stone may be cut in such a way that it looks uncut. This treatment is commonly found at
the base of a building (such as this one).
2) Rustication: grooves are left at the edges of the stones to provide extra definition of the joints. Traditionally this is used as a
transition between the roughed stone and the smooth stone.
3) Smooth: there are a number of finished that can be applied to relatively smooth stones, depending on the device used.