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THE ANNALS OF DUNAREA DE JOS UNIVERSITY OF GALATI

FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620


2013

SEAKEEPING ANALYSIS: A KEY FOR THE FUTURE HIGH


TECH MEGAYACHTS
Adrian Caramatescu
Technical manager

Liviu Crudu

Plasma S.R.L.
Galati, Alexandru Moruzzi No 56A, 800223,
Romania,
E-mail:office@ambarcatiuni.ro

Senior Lecturer PHD eng.


University Dunarea de Jos of Galati,
Faculty of Naval Architecture, Galati, Domneasca
Street, No. 47, 800008, Romania,
E-mail:liviu.crudu@ugal.ro

ABSTRACT
Motion sickness aboard ships has always been a concerning issue for people
prone to this and to those seating next to them as well. The pleasure crafts as the
maritime yachts are presenting a particular combination of aggravating factors
because they mix a relatively small size, light weight and high speed, thus
resulting in higher values for vertical accelerations as compared to conventional
ship hulls.This paper presents a comparative preliminary study performed for
Black Sea area using three maxiyachts designed and built in Italy and a
completely new design that has been conceived for a new hull form. The starting
point of the new design comes from the already existing mega yacht "Yacht A"
designed by Philippe Starck and Martin Francis and built in Blohm & Voss
shipyard in Germany
Keywords: seakeeping, megayacht, comfort aboard, Yacht A

1. INTRODUCTION
Once comfort aboard improved, higher
passenger numbers are to be expected, this
resulting in higher operator's profit on charter
yachts, especially where this spare time
spending method competes with other
traditional methods.
Since the level of vertical acceleration
along the hull represents the most important
parameter in determining the percentage of
passengers who will become seasick during a
given length of a trip in this paper will carry
out the preliminary seakeeping computations
and comfort evaluations.
To this purpose, some previous
systematic evaluation have been taken into
consideration [Nabergoj, 2006]. The above
Galati University Press, 2013

mentioned reference presents systematic


evaluation of three different Italian yachts to
be used in the Caribbean Sea. We came to the
idea that this study has to be performed also
for Black Sea area and a completely new
design has been conceived for a new yacht
having its main characteristics similar to the
three existing maxi-yachts designed and built
in Italy. The starting point of the new design
comes from the already existing mega yacht
"Yacht A" designed by Philippe Starck and
Martin Francis and built in Blohm & Voss
shipyard in Germany.
The most important argument was to
find out a solution of completely new fashion
forms which allow a generous area and better
comfort on board suitable for the Black Sea.
Mention should be made that the present
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Adrian CARAMATESCU Liviu CRUDU


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work refers to some preliminary evaluation


going to be further developed in next stages.

2. DEFINITION OF HULLFORMS
The study of seakeeping performance
and related comfort evaluation which refer to
three different mono-hull vessels of same
displacement, i.e., three maxi yachts
designed for operating in the Caribbean Sea.
The main characteristics of the vessels are
summarized in Table 1, while in Figure 2, 3,
4 and 5 we show the hydrodynamic
modelling of the hulls as implemented for
seakeeping computations. Vessels Yacht C
and Yacht M have finer lines and similar
underwater volume distribution, except for
the large bulbous bow which is typical for a
destroyer. On the other hand, a fuller midship
section can be observed for Yacht Z as
well the characteristic skeg at stern. At
"Yacht A" we tried to replicate the design of
Plippe Starck and Martin Francis with
unusual inverted bow resembling to the
submarine design and the Zumwalt Class of
US Navy stealth destroyers.

Fig.1. Side elevation of yacht A

Fig.2. Modelling of the new "Yacht A"


under the Multisurf design software

Fig.3. Lines plan of new "Yacht A" hull

Fig.4. Lines plan of "Yacht C"

The hull of Yacht A has been modelled


using the trial version of Multisurf design
software and then rendered in Rhinoceros.
The "classic" hulls of Yacht C, Yacht M and
Yacht Z have been imported from Tribon M3
into Rhinoceros for the definition of the 8
points on each of the 20 sections needed for
hydrodynamic calcullations.
Fig.5. Lines plan of "Yacht M"

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FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
vessel could be optimised to minimise
motion on the helicopter deck. Each part of
the problem, environment, vessel response
and criteria, is of equal importance; however,
perhaps the third is the least well understood
and requires careful consideration
When observing the ocean's surface, one
sees a procession of seemingly random
waves. The variation in surface elevation
over time makes up what is referred to as a
Fig.5. Lines plan of "Yacht Z"
time series. For practical analysis it is usual
practice to convert this time series to a
frequency domain, or spectral, representation
of the same data.
The wave spectrum is much more useful
for assessing the vessel's performance than
the time series data. Naval architects have
developed mathematical expressions known
as idealised wave spectra. These describe the
distribution of wave energy with frequency
for a specified wave height and period. There
Fig.6. Modelling of the Yacht M in
are many different idealised wave spectrum
Rhinoceros for hydrodynamic calculations
formulations, two of the most commonly
used are the ITTC and JONSWAP spectra.
3. SEA STATE CONDITIONS
Additional wave spectra for particular routes
are under continuous development as the
Black Sea spectra used in this study. A
Evaluation
of
seakeeping
typical idealised wave spectrum is shown in
performance depends heavily on the
Figure 7.
environment (wave spectra) that the vessels
are being subjected to and the criteria which
are being used to compare the designs. This
is one of the reasons why comparing
seakeeping performance is much more
complicated than comparing calm water
resistance or power requirements to achieve a
specific speed. With appropriate analysis, it
is possible to optimise a hull form for
specific routes (and the sea conditions that
the vessel is likely to encounter on these
routes) and the characteristics which are
important to the successful completion of the
Fig.7. Typical Idealised Wave Spectrum
vessel's mission. For instance, a cargo vessel
might be optimised to reduce added
The wave spectrum and time series data
resistance; a passenger vessel should be
are two ways of describing the same ocean
optimised for passenger comfort and a navy
waves. Essentially the wave spectrum
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Adrian CARAMATESCU Liviu CRUDU


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implies that the "random" ocean waves can


be represented by very many regular wave
trains of different amplitude and period,
superimposed on one another.
The wave encountering period Te is
directly related to the absolute period of the
free wave, the ship's speed and the angle
between the wave direction and the ship's
direction.
The encountering period Te (or
encountering pulsation e = 2/Te) is
important in regard to the ship's movement
over the waves because it tells us the way the
ship gets into contact with the waves and the
effect of the waves onto the ship's
movements. All the calculations regarding
the ship's behaviour are directly related to the
encountering period and not to the absolute
period of the wave.
The encounter angle , is the angle
between the direction of the wave travel and
the ship's heading, measured clockwise from
the wave travel direction. Depending on the
angle between the ship and the wave we
can consider 3 situations:
- if the ship travels towards the wave and
up to =180 we call the head seas;
- if the ship travels in the same direction
as the wave, including = 0 we call the case
of following seas;
- in case the direction between the
direction of the waves and the ship is = 90
it is a case of transversal wave that should be
avoided.
Due to the ship's symmetry on the
surface of the sea, there must be considered
only encounter angles between 0 and 180.

4. CALCULATION OF
SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCE
The purpose of the hydrodynamic
analysis is to perform the calculations in
order to evaluate ship motions and
accelerations in several points defined for
fastening calculations as well as structural
calculations.
The evaluation has been performed
using a computer code based on the wellknown theory developed by Salvesen, Tuck
and Faltinsen. The program is able to
calculate the amplitudes and phases for all
six degrees of freedom, i.e. surge, sway,
heave, roll, pitch and yaw motions as well as
the dynamic loads for any heading angle in
regular waves; based on the first set of results
the calculation of the accelerations can be
performed in any defined point for different
sea states according to the clients
requirements. Stochastic analysis can be also
performed using different types of sea
spectra and statistic data can be obtained.
The main assumptions of the program
refers to the nature of the fluid, considered to
be inviscid, the ship geometry, considering
that the length is much larger than the beam
and draft and the displacements of the ship
and the waves are small. In other words, the
slender body theory is assumed and the three
dimensional hydrodynamic quantities are
expressed in terms of the solution to the
sectional two-dimensional problem of a
cylinder with the same shape as the
individual cross-sections oscillating on the
free surface. The program is using the close
fit source distribution technique developed
by Frank. The nonlinear roll damping is
introduced using Tanaka method.
Seakeeping analysis is essentially a three
part problem:
1. Estimation of the likely environmental
conditions to be encountered by the vessel.
2. Prediction of the response characteristics
of the vessel.
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FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
3. Specification of the criteria used to assess
information, the probability distribution of
the vessel's seakeeping behaviour.
different
combinations
of
vertical
The wave-induced motions of a vessel
acceleration levels and encounter frequencies
depend on the seakeeping performance as
is obtained.
well as on the actual sea state experienced by
The last step of the procedure needs to
the vessel. The three most important
specify the exposure time (estimated voyage
variables contributing to seasickness are:
duration) for the vessel and to calculate the
Vertical acceleration
comfort level at different points along the
Encounter frequency
hull. This is carried out by combining the
Exposure time
seasickness probabilities with the long term
A rational methodology for comfort
joint probability distribution of vertical
assessment should take into account all the
accelerations and encounter frequencies.
above three factors together with their
In its simplest form, the vessel may be
interdependencies, i.e., the acceleration level,
considered like an electronic filter. It takes an
at a certain encounter frequency for a certain
input signal (the ocean waves), filters it, and
exposure time, must be compared with
then produces an output (the vessel motions).
limiting values to give a standard indication
In most cases, this simple method is quite
on the comfort of people onboard. Due to the
valid, and produces useful results.
fact that seakeeping sea trials and/or model
The vessel's filter function or Response
tests are only seldom available, the
Amplitude Operators (RAOs) are different
evaluation of vertical accelerations as a
for the six, rigid-body, degrees of freedom
function of the encounter frequency is
(surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw).
usually carried out by means of a ship motion
Each motion has its own characteristics and
computer program. Nowadays, seakeeping
RAO. The vessel's response in each of the
programs are easily accessible on the market
degrees of freedom is simply obtained by
and therefore they represent a valid
passing the input signal (wave spectrum)
prediction tool for ship designers. Since
through the filter (RAO) to get the output
linear theory is used for standard seakeeping
motion spectrum.
predictions, the program is best suited to
In general all the motions influence all
describe the behaviour of the vessel in
the other motions, for example: consider the
moderate sea states, with wave amplitudes
vessel moving vertically up and down in
and wave induced responses small relative to
heave, if the centre of floatation is not
the wavelength and cross sectional
directly above the centre of buoyancy, then
dimensions.
the vertical heave motion will initiate a pitch
As a result, the seakeeping computations
motion and vice versa. This phenomenon is
will produce the hydrodynamic transfer
known as coupling. In practice, for
functions for vessel motions and related ship
symmetrical vessels, many of these coupling
kinematics at any point along the hull.
effects can be neglected (being zero or very
Alternatively, the transfer functions can be
small). It is generally considered normal
obtained from measurements. The long-term
practice to couple the vertical plane motions
weather conditions are described in terms of
of heave and pitch and then to consider
joint probability distribution of characteristic
separately the coupled motions of sway, roll
wave heights and periods in the area where
and yaw. Surge is normally neglected.
the ship operates. By combining the transfer
functions
with
the
environmental
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Adrian CARAMATESCU Liviu CRUDU


_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.8. Typical heave and pitch RAOs in head


seas
The RAOs shown in Figure 7 show the
typical shape: at low frequency (long
wavelength), the vessel follows the wave
profile, riding up and down on them like a
cork, hence the RAOs tend to unity. At the
high frequency end of the scale (very short
wavelength), there are so many waves along
the length of the hull that their net effects
cancel out and the vessel is unaffected by the
waves. Somewhere in between these
extremes, there is normally a resonant peak.
This peak occurs at the natural frequency of
the vessel.
At resonance, the vessel motion can be
several times that of the wave; the height of
the peak depends on the damping of that
motion. Motions such as heave and pitch are
relatively highly damped, especially when
compared with roll.
There are a number of ways of
estimating the vessel's RAOs: prior
experience, tank tests, numerical simulation.
The use of numerical models for predicting a
vessel's response is very useful, since it
provides a cheap means of assessing a large
number of design alternatives early in the
design spiral. Once the design has converged
to one or two alternatives, these can then be
tank tested if a higher degree of certainty is
required.
Numerical methods for predicting vessel
RAOs can be broken down into two main
groups: time domain and frequency domain.
-

Time domain methods model the wave


passing the hull. At small incremental steps
in time, the instantaneous net force on the
hull is computed by integrating the water
pressure and frictional forces on each part of
the hull. Using Newton's Second Law, the
acceleration on the hull is computed, this is
then integrated over the time step to compute
the new vessel velocity and position.
Although this procedure sounds relatively
straightforward, these methods are still under
development in universities and other
research establishments and are not routinely
used by commercial naval architects. The
main problems occur in being able to
accurately predict the hydrodynamic forces
acting on the hull and the fast computers
(even by today's standards) required to run
the programs.
Frequency domain methods are simpler
and less computationally intensive. Most of
these methods use strip theory (Salvesen et al
1970). Basically the vessel's motions are
treated as forced, damped, low amplitude
sinusoidal motions. Strip theory has many
simplifying assumptions, yet is fast and able
to produce good results for a wide variety of
seakeeping problems. The two main
limitations are that vessels must be
sufficiently slender (high length to beam
ratio) and that the Froude number must not
be too high.
Strip theory involves dividing the vessel
into a number of transverse sections. Then
the hydrodynamic properties of these
sections are computed, assuming 2D inviscid
flow, with no interference from upstream
sections. From these values, the coefficients
in the equations of motion may be found and
this, in turn, yields the vessel's response to
the waves.
The main difference between frequency
and time domain methods is that for
frequency domain methods, the response for
a particular frequency is calculated in one
step, whereas time domain methods require
many thousands of time steps before a
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FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
regular periodic response is achieved. Hence
represented graphically in a chart. We used
time domain methods require several orders
seven incidence angles to the waves ( 180,
of magnitude more computing resource than
150, 120, 90, 60, 30, 0 degrees) for the four
frequency domain methods. [Couser, 2001]
hulls, and then represented graphically the
The coordinates of the points obtained in
same motion on all four hulls as you can see
the steps before are arranged in a command
below in comparative charts.
file for computation of the RAO values for
each motion, the encounter frequency and the
phases. The resulting values can be ordered
in a table using Microsoft Excel as shown in
exemplification table 1

Chart1
1.
amplitudes for 150

Comparative

surge

5. SHIP COMFORT EVALUATION

Table 1. Yacht C results for 180


All the RAO values can be converted in
amplitudes by removing the square root and
Galati University Press, 2013

The success of future high-tech


passenger vessels will depend on the ability
of the designers to develop new vessels that
will be able to carry passengers safely and
comfortably both at high speeds and severe
weather conditions. While the safety aspects
are covered by ordinary classification rules
or regulations specified both by IMO and
national authorities, the comfort on board has
always been regarded as an important
property of a design, but has usually been
dealt with in a rather disordered and
provisional way.
When humans are aboard ships to
perform to perform a certain mission, to be
transported or for recreational purposes, the
hydrodynamic performance of the ship
should match their needs. If there is a
mismatch, a crew may perform badly, or to
be faced with health problems ( if we are
talking about a military vessel ), mission may
fail, passengers may not return or luxury
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yacht owners may turn to another naval


architect. Traditionally, however, ship owners
and naval architects find difficult to balance
the "soft" human factors against the "hard"
building issues like building costs and safety.
Fortunately for the people aboard, there is an
increasing interest in human factors at sea,
therefore we shall highlight some factors in
issue.
According to several authors, comfort
can be defined as "A State of Physical Well
Being". In this respect, the overall perception
of comfort on board of a passenger ship
depends on a large number of different
factors which are associated with the on
board environment, safety, facilities, design
and space, etc. From many studies it is
known that that all factors contributing to
discomfort at sea, seasickness is rated to be
the worst. From navy research it is known
that individual task performance is highly
dependant of the well being in terms of
motion sickness. Tasks were shown to fail in
more than 50 % of the cases when sickness
was severe, even though this concerned
highly adapted and experienced crew.
Because not all the motions are as
provocative, a thorough knowledge is
required about the motions that cause
seasickness. An analysis of the relative
importance of environmental factors among
seafarers has shown that a large number of
investigated subjects rated noise, vibration
and wave-induced motions as the most
troublesome ones. A substantially fewer
number of them considered as troublesome
other important factors such as the inboard
climate, air pollution, lighting, etc. Although
the investigations usually deal with able
seamen on board of large merchant ships,
one may assume that the same situation will
roughly apply to passengers on board of fast
ferries or other passenger vessels. Hence, it is
important for the designer to take particular
care of the above results while designing a
new vessel, which can be therefore classified
as a high-tech vessel.
-

Due to a general lack of accepted criteria


and inadequate knowledge in this field,
owners, shipyards and designers have often
had difficulties in communicating both their
results and technical specifications. In an
attempt to avoid this unsatisfactory situation
between
ships
operators,
several
Classification Societies started to seriously
consider the problem of comfort on board
and the subsequent development of rational
criteria for Comfort Evaluation, which, for
example [1], comprise the DNV "Comfort
Class" and the "Sea Comfort Index".
CRITERIA FOR ACCELERATION AND ROLL

DESCRIPT
ION
Light
Manual
Work
Heavy
Manual
Work
Intellectual
Work
Transit
Passengers
Cruise
Liner

NORDFORSK, 1987
RMS
RMS
VERTICA
LATERAL
L
ACCELER
ACCELER
ATION
ATION

RMS
ROLL
MOTI
ON

0.20 g

0.10 g

6.0

0.15 g

0.07 g

4.0

0.10 g

0.05 g

3.0

0.05 g

0.04 g

2.5

0.02 g

0.03 g

2.0

Table 2. Seakeeping performance criteria for


human effectiveness
In this context, the criteria for noise and
vibration traditionally apply to steady state
normal transit conditions, while the criteria
for sea induced motions refer to time
averaged exposures on the route. Since the
comfort criteria for noise, vibration and
indoor climate are not of our specific interest,
this paper will deal with the evaluation of
seakeeping performance of vessels in relation
to human comfort on board.It is well known
that the acceptability of a passenger vessel is
strongly related to its ride comfort, which can
be quantitatively expressed as a low
percentage of passengers seasick during
operation in rough sea. People unused to ship
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FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
motions easily get seasick and the
board of a vessel may cause seasickness
seasickness of passengers is usually a
which may range from slight discomfort
problem also in lower sea states. Seasickness
through dizziness and nausea to vomiting and
is especially important on high speed craft,
complete disability. These undesirable
where the combination of relatively small
symptoms vary from subject to subject in
size, light weight and high speed, results in
severity and duration and may change for the
higher vertical accelerations than for
same subject depending on circumstances
conventional ships. Thus, it can be rationally
and habitation. Tolerance varies considerably
assumed that by improving the ride qualities
with age, sex, vision, fear, head movement,
of a vessel a higher number of passengers
odours, activity and the ingestion of certain
would be expected, with a corresponding
foods and drinks. There is also a tendency to
increase in the operators profit. Therefore
adapt with frequent exposure. It must be
ride comfort has nowadays become an
noted that all these factors are related to the
important commercial issue, especially on
passenger and his particular status and thus
routes where ferries compete with other
they do not depend on the seakeeping
forms of transport, and seakeeping
qualities of the ship.
performance is one of the main factors
Several tests, carried out both in
determining the success and the potential
laboratory
and
sea,
have
clearly
profitability of a new high-tech design.
demonstrated that seasickness symptoms are
This paper presents the most common
a consequence of low frequency vertical
methods addressed to the analysis of
acceleration caused by ship motions.
degraded comfort by ship motions. The
Different regulations and methodologies
existing
criteria
and
calculation
exist to evaluate how vertical acceleration
methodologies
to
assess
seakeeping
affects passengers, setting the limits in which
performance are reviewed with particular
seasickness occurs. In the range from 0.01
attention to human factors and especially to
Hz to 1 Hz, that well represents the
motion sickness, passengers comfort and
frequency range of motions both for
crew working effectiveness. The outlined
conventional and fast ships, mainly two types
procedures can be used both for a fair
of recommended limits can be found in the
comparison between different vessels and for
giving an indication of the acceptability of a
vessel on a chosen route on the basis of its
ride qualities.
Technical analysis of accelerations
remains a work in progress, slowed by
current limitations in data gathering and
processing, not to mention disagreement on
data interpretation. In addition, the
accelerations picture is complicated by the
entry of the governing bodies including ISO (
International Standardization Organisation ),
NATO, ASTM International ( formerly the
American Society for Testing and Materials),
and marine classification societies into the
rule generation game. Vertical motions on
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Adrian CARAMATESCU Liviu CRUDU


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literature

(see

Figure

43):

The first guideline defines and gives


numerical values for limits of exposure for
vibrations transmitted to the human body.
The second one is a quantitative method to
evaluate the Motion Sickness Incidence
(MSI) which represents the average
percentage of people suffering from
seasickness after 2 hrs of exposition to a
given level of vertical acceleration.
It must be observed that available
seasickness criteria are based on the results
coming from experimental tests in motion
simulators with not acclimatised volunteers
and therefore they well represent the
prototype of passenger. Crew working
capability evaluation for a naval vessel or a
merchant ship based on the same criteria may
therefore result misleading and an allowance
for motions acclimation should be made.
Depending on the function/mission of
the ship, severe storm conditions affect the
ability of people on board to carry out a
particular job due to lower ship operability.
In people unused to ship motions such as
passengers on board of ferries the symptoms
of motion sickness may appear even after a
short exposure to waveinduced motions
-

when vertical acceleration exceeds a certain


level.
The seakeeping performance criteria
based on the safety and working
effectiveness of the crew and/or comfort of
the passengers on board have been defined in
terms of limiting values for vertical and
lateral acceleration and roll angle, see Table
1. Vertical acceleration constitutes the main
affecting factor as regards passenger comfort,
whilst roll and lateral acceleration are mostly
related to safety, habitability and working
effectiveness.
In order to calculate the acceleration
value in the z direction and to compare it to
the accepted standards existing to the date we
will use the same software and the values of
the RMS, amplitude of the motions, phase
and wave spectra. The sea state used in
simulation is quite severe: wind gusts of 15
meters per second, significant wave height
h1/3 = 2.7 m and hmax= 5 m.
There have been calculated the values of
the accelerations for two encounter angles,
180 and 150 degrees:
180
degrees

Yacht
C

Yacht A

UNIT

HEAVE

PITCH

ACCEL
DIR X

ACCEL
DIR. Z

Yacht
M

Yacht Z

Zm

0,439

0,495

0,488

0,548

Z1/3

0,701

0,789

0,779

0,875

ZRMS

0,369

0,414

0,408

0,46

qm

1,377

1,072

1,028

1,572

q1/3

2,198

1,711

1,64

2,509

qRMS

1,163

0,9

0,863

1,321

axm

0,02

0,015

0,014

0,02

ax 1/3

0,031

0,024

0,023

0,033

axRMS

0,017

0,013

0,012

0,017

azm

0,171

0,156

0,15

0,223

az 1/3

0,275

0,249

0,239

0,356

azRMS

0,145

0,132

0,126

0,187

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FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
Table 3: Accelerations for 180 heading
angle
At this stage, the evaluation was
performed according to the international
standards, defining a similar point on the fore
perpendicular at the deck level for all four
yachts versions. Mention should be made
that this reference point is not quite specific
for this kind of ships. Despite the higher
acceleration values expected in this area, this
criterion was still considered as a measure of
standard evaluation.
The determination point chosen to all the
vessels is at the fore perpendicular at Z 4,5 m
above the baseline. It is the point where
usually the accelerations and travel records
the highest values.

Table 5: RMS value of z acceleration and


accepted comfort criteria acording to DNV

6. CONCLUSIONS
150 degrees

Yacht
C

Yacht
M

Zm

0,587

0,629

0,605

0,772

Z1/3

0,937

1,003

0,966

1,232

ZRMS

0,492

0,52

0,501

0,635

qm

2,262

1,567

1,462

2,624

q1/3

3,61

2,501

2,333

4,188

qRMS

1,889

1,305

1,219

2,166

axm

0,035

0,023

0,021

0,032

ax 1/3

0,055

0,046

0,034

0,051

axRMS

0,029

0,019

0,018

0,027

azm

0,39

0,329

0,307

0,509

az 1/3

0,622

0,525

0,49

0,813

azRMS

0,325

0,275

0,257

0,422

UNIT
HEAV
E

PITCH

ACC
DIR X

ACC
DIR. Z

Yacht
Z

Yacht
A

Table 4: Accelerations for 150 heading


angle
Galati University Press, 2013

The idea to try to offer a bright new


fashion design in this very competitive
business is a challenge for any naval
architect and must be investigated carefully.
While all precautions must be taken into
consideration for the structural resistance of
the hull, the fine lines and the overall design
and modern accommodation solutions are of
paramount importance for such a pleasure
craft, luxury yachts class.
The evaluation of seakeeping qualities of
a vessel in relation to human comfort on
board can be carried out as a routine analysis
in any modern ship design office, but not
very often rightly considered as a design
constraint. Different design solutions can be
compared in short time and new high-tech
vessels with increased performance at sea
can be submitted to ship owners and ship
operators. Furthermore, the methodology
allows selecting the best vessel on a certain
route with the purpose to increase the
potential profitability of a new investment.
One of the most important things was to
be able to perform a first preliminary
-

226

Adrian CARAMATESCU Liviu CRUDU


_______________________________________________________________________________________________

comparative evaluation in order to find out if


the proposed hull forms, yacht A, has
comparable hydrodynamic performances
with the existing versions C, M and Z which
have been built and are operating in
Caribbean Sea.
From this point of view, the motions
analysis showed some very important
aspects:

For all investigated heading


angles surge and heave motions are
significantly lower for yacht A.

Sway motions of yacht A


displayed practically the same shape as
compared to the other three yachts and for
higher wave frequencies the amplitudes are
lower.

Roll motions are very similar to


all four yachts, the maximum being
displayed according to the natural
frequencies for each variant.

Pitch amplitudes are practically


located between yacht C and yacht M group
and yacht Z respectively.

The relative differences related


to yaw motions are practically linked to the
differences of aft configuration for the four
yachts.

An important observation is
related to some very big local values for
following sea and aft quartering sea area.
These values have no numerical significance
because are referring to the very low
frequencies, corresponding to the situation
when ship speed is very close to the wave
speed. It was decided to introduce the above
mentioned results for the sake of
completeness and, moreover, in order to
underline where this kind of phenomena
could happened in order to avoid unpleasant
possible loss of the ship. The stability in
following waves is a different approach to be
taken into account during next investigations.
As a general conclusion related to the
motions evaluation is that yacht A has a very

good behaviour within the range of this kind


of pleasure crafts.
However, a deeper investigation has to
be performed, taking into account a larger
number of heading angles and a number of
yacht speeds.
As related to the accelerations it was
previously mentioned that only two heading
angles and one Sea State have been
considered at this stage.
The results are compared with the
international recommendations but, as stated
above, the reference point would not be the
most appropriate for these ships.
The values presented in the tables1 to 28
and figures10 to 42 show that yacht A is very
close to C and M ones.
At this stage, one may say that several
value a higher as compared to some of the
recommended ones and probably, from this
point of view, the chosen sea state is too
high. However, a better investigation,
selecting appropriate points in the most
important areas for this kind of ship will be
necessary. Then, the necessary volume of
information will be gained and, more
accurate conclusion useful for next design
stage will be available.
A combination of ship speeds, sea states
and heading angles is envisaged to be
performed in the next stages as far as, as a
final conclusion, the proposed hull forms can
be a next candidate solution for new and
modern yacht solution.
REFERENCES
1.
Bhattacharyya, R., Dynamics of
Marine Vehicles, John Wiley & Sons Publishing
House, New York, 1982
2.
Bondar, C., .a., Studiul regimului
hidrologic al Mrii Negre n Zona Lebda,
Institutul de Meteorologie i Hidrologie, Raport
intern, Bucureti, Decembrie 1988
3.
Bzc, C., Studiul regimului vnturilor
n zona litoralului romnesc al Mrii Negre,
Institutul Naional de Meteorologie i Hidrologie,
Raport intern, Bucureti, Decembrie 1988
Galati University Press, 2013

THE ANNALS OF DUNAREA DE JOS UNIVERSITY OF GALATI


FASCICLE XI SHIPBUILDING. ISSN 1221-4620
2013
4.
Nabergoj, R., Passenger comfort and
seakeeping: a newchallenge for high-tech ship
design, Proceedings of SMALL CRAFT, An
International Conference on Small Craft Related
Sciences & Technology16 18 November 2006,
Bodrum / Turkey

Galati University Press, 2013

5.
Domnioru, L., Dinamica navei
oscilatii si vibratii ale corpului navei, EDITURA
TEHNIC Bucureti, 2001
6.
Obreja, D., Teoria navei. Concepte i
metode de analiz a performanelor de
navigaie,
Editura DidacticiPedagogic,
Bucureti, 2005.