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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014

ISSN 2091-2730

Table of Content
Topics

Page no

Chief Editor Board

3-4

Message From Associate Editor

Research Papers Collection

6-775

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
ISSN 2091-2730

CHIEF EDITOR BOARD


1. Dr Gokarna Shrestha, Professor, Tribhuwan University, Nepal
2. Dr Chandrasekhar Putcha, Outstanding Professor, University Of California, USA
3. Dr Shashi Kumar Gupta, , Professor, IIT Rurkee, India
4. Dr K R K Prasad, K.L.University, Professor Dean, India
5. Dr Kenneth Derucher, Professor and Former Dean, California State University,Chico, USA
6. Dr Azim Houshyar, Professor, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

7. Dr Sunil Saigal, Distinguished Professor, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA
8. Dr Hota GangaRao, Distinguished Professor and Director, Center for Integration of Composites into
Infrastructure, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
9. Dr Bilal M. Ayyub, professor and Director, Center for Technology and Systems Management,
University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA
10. Dr Sarh BENZIANE, University Of Oran, Associate Professor, Algeria
11. Dr Mohamed Syed Fofanah, Head, Department of Industrial Technology & Director of Studies, Njala
University, Sierra Leone
12. Dr Radhakrishna Gopala Pillai, Honorary professor, Institute of Medical Sciences, Kirghistan
13. Dr P.V.Chalapati, Professor, K.L.University, India
14. Dr Ajaya Bhattarai, Tribhuwan University, Professor, Nepal

ASSOCIATE EDITOR IN CHIEF


1. Er. Pragyan Bhattarai , Research Engineer and program co-ordinator, Nepal
ADVISORY EDITORS
1. Mr Leela Mani Poudyal, Chief Secretary, Nepal government, Nepal
2. Mr Sukdev Bhattarai Khatry, Secretary, Central Government, Nepal
3. Mr Janak shah, Secretary, Central Government, Nepal
3

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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4. Mr Mohodatta Timilsina, Executive Secretary, Central Government, Nepal


5. Dr. Manjusha Kulkarni, Asso. Professor, Pune University, India
6. Er. Ranipet Hafeez Basha (Phd Scholar), Vice President, Basha Research Corporation, Kumamoto, Japan
Technical Members
1. Miss Rekha Ghimire, Research Microbiologist, Nepal section representative, Nepal
2. Er. A.V. A Bharat Kumar, Research Engineer, India section representative and program co-ordinator, India
3. Er. Amir Juma, Research Engineer ,Uganda section representative, program co-ordinator, Uganda
4. Er. Maharshi Bhaswant, Research scholar( University of southern Queensland), Research Biologist, Australia

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
ISSN 2091-2730

Message from Associate Editor In Chief


Let me first of all take this opportunity to wish all our readers a very happy, peaceful and
prosperous year ahead.
This is the Sixth Issue of the Second Volume of International Journal of Engineering Research
and General Science. A total of 152 research articles are published and I sincerely hope that each
one of these provides some significant stimulation to a reasonable segment of our community of
readers.
In this issue, we have focused mainly on the Recent Technology and its challenging approach in Research. We also
welcome more research oriented ideas in our upcoming Issues.
Authors response for this issue was really inspiring for us. We received many papers from more than 17 countires in this
issue and we received many research papers but our technical team and editor members accepted very less number of
research papers for the publication. We have provided editors feedback for every rejected as well as accepted paper so that
authors can work out in the weakness more and we shall accept the paper in near future. We apologize for the
inconvenient caused for rejected Authors but I hope our editors feedback helps you discover more horizons for your
research work.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank each and every writer for their contribution and would like to thank entire
International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science (IJERGS) technical team and editor member for their
hard work for the development of research in the world through IJERGS.
Last, but not the least my special thanks and gratitude needs to go to all our fellow friends and supporters. Your help is
greatly appreciated. I hope our reader will find our papers educational and entertaining as well. Our team have done good
job however, this issue may possibly have some drawbacks, and therefore, constructive suggestions for further
improvement shall be warmly welcomed.

Er. Pragyan Bhattarai,


Assistant Editor-in-Chief, P&R,
International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science
E-mail -Pragyan@ijergs.org
Contact no- +9779841549341

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
ISSN 2091-2730

Heart Disease Prediction Using Classification with Different Decision Tree


Techniques
K. Thenmozhi 1, P.Deepika2
1

Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science, Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College, CBE

Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science and Applications, Sasurie College of Arts and Science, CBE

ABSTRACT: Data mining is one of the essential areas of research that is more popular in health organization. Data mining plays an
effective role for uncovering new trends in healthcare organization which is helpful for all the parties associated with this field. Heart
disease is the leading cause of death in the world over the past 10 years. Heart disease is a term that assigns to a large number of
medical conditions related to heart. These medical conditions describe the irregular health condition that directly affects the heart and
all its parts. The healthcare industry gathers enormous amount of heart disease data which are not mined to discover hidden
information for effective decision making. Data mining techniques are useful for analyzing the data from many different dimensions
and for identifying relationships. This paper explores the utility of various decision tree algorithms in classify and predict the disease.

KEYWORDS : Data mining, KDD, Classification, decision tree, ID3, C4.5,C5.0, J48
INTRODUCTION
Data mining is one of the most vital and motivating area of research with the objective of finding meaningful information
from huge data sets. Now a day, Data mining is becoming popular in healthcare field because there is a need of efficient analytical
methodology for detecting unknown and valuable information in health data. Data mining tools performs data analysis and may also
uncover important data patterns contributing greatly to Knowledge bases, Business strategies, Scientific and Medical Research. Data
mining is a more convenient tool to assists physicians in detecting the diseases by obtaining knowledge and information regarding the
disease from patients data.
Data mining and KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) are related terms and are used interchangeably. According to Fayyad et
al., the knowledge discovery process are structured in various stages whereas the first stage is data selection where data is collected
from various sources, the second stage is preprocessing of the selected data, the third stage is transformation of the data into
appropriate format for further processing, the fourth stage is Data mining where suitable Data mining technique is applied on the data
for extracting valuable information and evaluation is the last stage

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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CLASSIFICATION
Classification is a process that is used to find a model that describes and differentiate data classes or concepts, for the purpose of
using the model to predict the class of objects whose class label is unknown.

TOOLS FOR CLASSIFICATION


Some of the major tools used for constructing a classification model include Decision tree, Artificial Neural Network and Bayesian
Classifier.

DECISION TREE
Berry and Linoff defined decision tree as a structure that can be used to divide up a large collection of records into
successive smaller sets of records by applying a sequence of simple decision rules. With each successive division, the members of the
resulting sets become more and more similar to one another.
Decision tree is similar to the flowchart in which every non-leaf nodes denotes a test on a particular attribute and every
branch denotes an outcome of that test and every leaf node have a class label. The node at the top most labels in the tree is called root
node. Using Decision Tree, decision makers can choose best alternative and traversal from root to leaf indicates unique class
separation based on maximum information gain[4].
Decision trees are produced by algorithms that are used to identify various ways of splitting a data set into segments. These segments
form an inverted decision tree. That decision tree originates with a root node at the top of the tree

ID3
ID3 the word stands for Iterative Dichotomiser 3. ID3 is one of the decision tree model that builds a decision tree from a
fixed set of training instances. The resulting tree is used to classify the future samples.

C4.5
C4.5 is the latest version of ID3 induction algorithm. It is an extension of ID3 algotithm. This builds a decision tree like the
ID3. It builds a decision tree from training dataset using Information Entropy concept. So that C4.5 is often called as Statistical
Classifier. This C4.5 is a widely used free data mining tool.

C5.0
This model is an extension of C4.5 decision tree algorithm. Both C4.5 and C5.0 can produce classifiers expressed as either
decision tree or rulesets. In many applications, ruleset are preferred because they are simpler and easier to understand. The major
differences are tree sizes and computation time. C5.0 is used to produce smaller trees and very fast than C4.5.

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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J48
J48 decision tree is the implementation of ID3 algorithm developed by WEKA project team. J48 is a simple C4.5 decision
tree for classification. With this technique, a tree is constructed to model the classification process. Once the tree is build, it is applied
to each tuple in the database and the result in the classification for that tuple.

DECISION TREE TYPES


There are many types of Decision trees. The Difference between them is mathematical model that is used to select the
splitting attribute in extracting the Decision tree rules. Three most commonly used research tests types: 1) Information Gain, 2) Gini
index and 3) Gain ratio Decision Trees.

INFORMATION GAIN
The entropy word stands for the meaning of information gain. This approach selects the splitting attribute that minimizes the
value of entropy, thus maximizing the information gain. To identify the splitting attribute of decision tree, one must calculate the
information gain for each and every attribute. Then they select the attribute that maximizes the Information Gain. It is the difference
between the original information and the amount of information needed.

GINI INDEX
The Gini Index is used to measure the impurity of data. The Gini index is calculated for every attribute that is available in the dataset

GAIN RATIO
To reduce the effect of the bias resulting from the use of Information Gain, a variant known as Gain Ratio. The information
Gain measure is biased toward test with many outcomes. That means, it prefers to select the attributes having a large number of
values. Gain Ratio adjusts the Information Gain for each attribute to allow for the breadth and uniformity of the attribute values.
Gain Ratio = Information Gain / Split Information
Where the split information is a value based on the column sums of the frequency table.

PRUNING
After extracting the decision tree rules, reduced error pruning is pruning the extracted decision rules. Reduced error pruning
is one of the efficient and fastest pruning methods and it is used to produce both accurate and small decision rules. Applying reduced
error pruning provides more compact decision rules and reduces the number of extracted rules.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
To evaluate the performance of each combination the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. To measure the
stability of performance the data is divided into training and testing data with 10-fold cross validation.
Sensitivity = True Positive/ Positive
Specificity = True Negative/ Negative
Accuracy = (True Positive + True Negative) / (Positive + Negative)

FOCUS ON THE SURVEY:


Atul Kumar Pandey et al. proposed a Novel frequent feature selection method for heart disease prediction[7]. The Novel
feature selection method algorithm which is the Attribute Selected Classifier method including CFS subset evaluator and Best First
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search method followed by J48 Decision Tree then integrating the Repetitive Maximal Frequent Pattern Technique for giving better
accuracy.

Atul Kumar Pandey et al. proposed a prediction model with 14 attributes[8]. They developed that model using j48 Decision
Tree for classifying Heart Disease based on the Clinical features against unpruned, pruned and pruned with reduced error pruning
method. They shown the result that the accuracy of Pruned J48 pruned Decision Tree with Reduced Error Pruning Approach is more
better than the simple Pruned and Unpruned Approach. They proposed the prediction model to the clinical data of heart disease where
training instances 200 and testing instances 103 using split test mode.
Nidhi Bhatla et al. proposed that the observations reveal that the Neural Networks with 15 attributes has outperformed over all other
data mining techniques[2]. Another conclusion from the analysis is that Decision Tree has shown good accuracy with the help of
genetic algorithm and feature subset selection. This Research has developed a prototype Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction system
using data mining techniques namely Decision Tree, Nave Bayes and Neural Network. A total of 909 records were obtained from the
Cleveland Heart Disease database. These records were equally divided into two datasets. That are Training dataset with 455 records
and Testing dataset with 454 records. Various techniques and data mining classifiers are defined in this work which has emerged in
recent years for efficient and effective heart disease diagnosis. In this, Decision tree has performed well with 99.62% accuracy by
using 15 attributes. Moreover, in combination with genetic Algorithm and 6 attributes, Decision tree has shown 99.2% efficiency.
Classification Techniques

Accuracy with
13 attributes

15 attributes

Naive Bayes

94.44

90.74

Decision Tree

96.66

99.62

Neural Network

99.25

100

Chaitrali S. Dangare et al. analyzed prediction system for Heart disease using more number of attributes[3]. This paper added
two more attribute obesity and smoking. They expressed a number of factors that increase the risk of Heart disease. That are , High
Blood Cholesterol, Smoking, Family History, Poor Diet, Hyper Tension ,High Blood Pressure, Obesity and Physical inactivity. The
data mining classification techniques called Decision Tree, Nave Bayes and Neural Network are analyzed on Heart Disease database.
The performance of these techniques are compared based on their accuracy. They used J48 algorithm for this system. J48 algorithm
uses pruning method to built a tree. This technique gives maximum accuracy on training data. And also they used Nave Bayes
classifier and Neural Network for predicting the Heart Disease. They compared the accuracy for both 13 input attribute and 15 input
attribute values.
V.Manikandan et al. proposed that association rule mining are used to extract the item set relations[6]. The data classification is based
on MAFIA algorithms which result in accuracy, the data is evaluated using entropy based cross validation and partition techniques and
the results are compared. MAFIA stands for Maximal Frequent Itemset Algorithm. They used C4.5 algorithm to show the rank of
heart attack with Decision Tree. Finally, the Heart Disease database is clustered using K-means clustering algorithm, which will
remove the data applicable to heart attack from the database. They used a dataset with 19 attributes. And the goal was to have high
accuracy, igh precision and recall metrics

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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Techniques

Precision

Recall

Accuracy(%)

K-Mean based on MAFIA

0.78

0.67

74%

0.80

0.85

85%

0.82

0.92

92%

K-Mean based on MAFIA


with ID3
K-Mean based on MAFIA
with ID3 and C4.5

CONCLUSION
Heart Disease is a fatal disease by its nature. This disease makes a life threatening complexities such as heart attack and death. The
importance of Data Mining in the Medical Domain is realized and steps are taken to apply relevant techniques in the Disease
Prediction. The various research works with some effective techniques done by different people were studied. The observations from
the previous work have led to the deployment of the proposed system architecture for this work. Though, various classification
techniques are widely used for Disease Prediction, Decision Tree classifier is selected for its simplicity and accuracy. Different
attribute selection measures like Information Gain, Gain Ratio, Gini Index and Distance measure can be used.

REFERENCES:
[1] Bramer, M., Principles of data mining. 2007: Springer.
[2] Nidhi Bhatla, Kiran Jyoti, An Analysis of Heart Disease Prediction using Different Data Mining Techniques International
Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol.1 issue 8 2012.
[3] Chaitrali S. Dangare and Sulabha S. Apte, Improved Study Of Heart Disease Prediction Using Data Mining Classification
Techniques, International Journal Of Computer Applications, Vol. 47, No. 10, pp. 0975-888, 2012.
[4] Apte & S.M. Weiss, Data Mining with Decision Tree and Decision Rules, T.J. Watson Research Center,

http://www.research.ibm.com/dar/papers/pdf/fgcsap tewe issue_with_cover.pdf,(1997).


[5] Divya Tomar and Sonali Agarwal, A survey on Data Mining Approaches for Healthcare, International Journal of Bio-Science
and Bio-Technology, Vol. 5, No. 5(2013), pp. 241-266.
[6] V.Manikandan and S.Latha, Predicting the Analysis of Heart Disease Symptoms Using Medical Data Mining Methods
,International Journal of Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue. 2, 2013.
[7] Atul Kumar Pandey, Prabhat Pandey, K.L. Jaiswal and Ashok Kumar Sen, A Novel Frequent Feature Prediction Model For
Heart Disease Diagnosis, International Journal of Software & Hardware Research in Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, September 2013.
[8] Atul Kumar Pandey, Prabhat Pandey, K.L. Jaiswal and Ashok Kumar Sen, A Heart Disease Prediction Model using Decision
Tree, IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue.6, (Jul. Aug. 2013), pp. 83-86.

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[9] Dr. Neeraj Bhargava, Dr. Ritu Bhargava, Manish Mathuria, Decision tree analysis on j48 algorithm for data mining,
International journal of Advanced research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue. 6, June 2013.
[10] Tina R. Patil, Mrs. S.S. Sherekar, Performance Analysis of Nave Bayes and J48 Classification algorithm for Data
Classification , International Journal Of Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 6, No.2, Apr 2013.

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Survey on Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud Computing


#1

Backialakshmi.M,#2Sathya sofia .A,

#1

PG Scholar , PSNA College Of Engg and Tech, Dindigul

#2

Asst. Professor,Department of CSE, PSNA College OfEngg and Tech, Dindigul


#1

backialakshmidgl@gmail.com

Abstract: Cloud computing is a general term used to describe a new class of network based computing that takes place over the
internet. The primary benefit of moving to Clouds is application scalability. Cloud computing is very beneficial for the application
which are sharing their resources on different nodes. Scheduling the task is quite a challenging in cloud environment. Usually tasks are
scheduled by user requirements. New scheduling strategies need to be proposed to overcome the problems proposed by network
properties between user and resources. New scheduling strategies may use some of the conventional scheduling concepts to merge
them together with some network aware strategies to provide solutions for better and more efficient job scheduling. Scheduling
strategy is the key technology in cloud computing. This paper provides the survey on scheduling algorithms. There working with
respect to the resource sharing. We systemize the scheduling problem in cloud computing, and present a cloud scheduling hierarchy.

Keywords: Scheduling, Cloud computing, Resource allocation, Efficiency, Utility Computing, Performance.
1. INTRODUCTION
The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and
collaborative, similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. As consumers, we now expect that
the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time, and business applications in the cloud are
heading in that direction as well.
Cloud computing models are shifting. In the cloud/client architecture, the client is a rich application running on
an Internet-connected device, and the server is a set of application services hosted in an increasingly elastically
scalable cloud computing platform. The cloud is the control point and system or record and applications can
span multiple client devices. The client environment may be a native application or browser-based; the
increasing power of the browser is available to many client devices, mobile and desktop alike.
Robust capabilities in many mobile devices, the increased demand on networks, the cost of networks and the
need to manage bandwidth use creates incentives, in some cases, to minimize the cloud application computing
and storage footprint, and to exploit the intelligence and storage of the client device. However, the increasingly
complex demands of mobile users will drive apps to demand increasing amounts of server-side computing and
storage capacity.

1.1 Cloud Architecture


The Cloud Computing architecture comprises of many cloud components, each of them are loosely coupled. We
can broadly divide the cloud architecture into two parts:Front End refers to the client part of cloud computing
system. It consists of interfaces and applications that are required to access the cloud computing platforms, e.g.,
Web Browser.Secondly,Back End refers to the cloud itself. It consists of all the resources required to provide
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cloud computing services. It comprises of huge data storage, virtual machines, security mechanism, services,
deployment models, servers, etc.

Fig 1.Cloud Architecture

1.2 Resource Allocation


Resource Allocation is all about integrating cloud provider activities for utilizing and allocating scarce
resources within the limit of cloud environment so as to meet the needs of the cloud application. It requires the
type and amount of resources needed by each application in order to complete a user job. The order and time of
allocation of resources are also an input for an optimal resource allocation.
An important point when allocating resources for incoming requests is how the resources are modeled. There
are many levels of abstraction of the services that a cloud can provide for developers, and many

Fig 2. Schematic Representation

parameters that can be optimized during allocation. The modeling and description of the resources should
consider at least these requirements in order for the resource allocation works properly.Cloud resources can be
seen as any resource (physical or virtual) that developers may request from the Cloud. For example, developers
can have network requirements, such as bandwidth and delay, and computational requirements, such as CPU,
memory and storage.
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When developing a resource allocation system, one should think about how to describe the resources present in
the Cloud. The development of a suitable resource model and description is the first challenge that a resource
allocation must address. An resource allocation also faces the challenge of representing the applications
requirements, called resource offering and treatment. Also, an automatic and dynamic resource allocation must
be aware of the current status of the Cloud resources in real time. Thus, mechanisms for resource discovery and
monitoring are an essential part of this system. These two mechanisms are also the inputs for optimization
algorithms, since it is necessary to know the resources and their status in order to elect those that fulfill all the
requirements.
Modeling of
Resources
Cloud
Resource

Developer
Requirements

Resource
Allocation

Fig 3. Allocation of Resources

3.Scheduling Algorithms
3.1.A green energy-efficient scheduling algorithm using the DVFS technique for cloud datacenters:
Chia-Ming Wu et al, Ruay-Shiung Chang, Hsin-Yu Chan, 2014

The dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) technique can dynamically lower down thesupply voltage
and work frequency to reduce the energy consumption
while the performance can satisfy the requirement of a job.There are two processes in it. First is to provide
thefeasible combination or scheduling for a job. Second is to providethe appropriate voltage
and frequency supply for the servers viathe DVFS technique.
This technique can reduce the energy consumption of a server when itis in the idle mode or the light workload.It
satisfies the minimum resource requirement of a joband prevent the excess use of resources.The simulation
results show that this method can reduce the energy consumption by 5%25%.
3.2.A new multi-objective bi-level programming model for energy andlocality aware multi-job scheduling
in cloud computing:
Xiaoli Wang, Yuping Wang, Yue Cui, 2014

This programming model is based on MapReduce to improve energy efficiency of servers. First, the variation of
energy consumption with the performance of servers is taken into account. Second, data locality can be adjusted
dynamically according to current network state; last but not least,considering that task-scheduling strategies
depend directly on data placement policies.
This algorithm is proved much more effective thanthe Hadoop default scheduler and the Fair Scheduler in
improvingservers energy efficiency.
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3.3.Cost-efficient task scheduling for executing large programsin the cloud:


Sen Su a, Jian Li a, Qingjia Huang a, Xiao Huang a, Kai Shuanga, Jie Wang b,2013

The cost efficient task-scheduling algorithm using two heuristic strategies .The first strategy dynamically maps
tasks to the most cost-efficient VMs based on the concept of Pareto dominance. The second strategy, a
complement to the first strategy, reduces the monetary costs of non-critical tasks. This algorithm is evaluated
with extensive simulations on both randomly generated large DAGs and real-world applications. The further
improvements can be made using new optimization techniques and incorporating penalties for violating
consumer-provider contracts.
3.4.Priority Based Job Scheduling Techniques In Cloud Computing: A Systematic Review:
Swachil Patel, Upendra Bhoi,2013

Job scheduling in cloud computing mainly focuses to improve the efficient utilization of resource that is
bandwidth, memory and reduction in completion time .There are several multi-criteria decision-making
(MCDM) and multi-attribute decision-making (MCDM) which are based on mathematical modeling. This PJSC
is based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
A modified prioritized deadline based scheduling algorithm (MPDSA) is proposed using project management
algorithm for efficient job execution with deadline constraint of users jobs. MPDSA executes jobs with closest
deadline time delay in cyclic manner using dynamic time quantum.
There are several issues related toPriority based Job Scheduling Algorithm such as complexity, consistency and
finish time.
3.5. CLPS-GA: A CASE

LIBRARY AND PARETO SOLUTION-BASED HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR ENERGY


AWARE CLOUD SERVICE SCHEDULING

Ying Fengb, Lin Zhanga, T.W. Liao,2014.

On the basis of classic multi-objective genetic algorithm, a case library and Pareto solution based hybrid
Genetic Algorithm (CLPS-GA) is proposed to solve the model. The major components of CLPS-GA include a
multi-parent crossover operator (MPCO), a two-stage algorithm structure, and a case library. Experimental
results have verified the effectiveness of CLPS-GA in terms of convergence, stability, and solution diversity.
3.6.Scheduling ScientificWorkflows Elastically for Cloud Computing:
Cui Lin, Shiyong Lu, 2011

It proposes the SHEFT algorithm (Scalable-Heterogeneous-Earliest-Finish-Time algorithm)to schedule


workflows for a Cloud computing environment. SHEFT is an extension of the HEFT algorithm which is applied
for mapping a workflow application to a bounded number of processors.
We schedule these workflows by the HEFT and SHEFT algorithms,andcompare workflow makespan by the two
algorithms as the size of the workflows increases.
3.7. Job scheduling algorithm based on Berger model in cloud environment:
BaominXua, Chunyan Zhao b, EnzhaoHua, Bin Hu c,d, et al., 2011

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The Berger model of distributive justice is based on expectation states. It is a series of distribution theories of
social wealth. Based on the idea of Berger model, two-fairness constraints of job scheduling are established in
cloud computing. The job scheduling is implemented in a cloud Sim platform.
The proposed algorithm in this paper is effective implementation of user tasks,and with better fairness.In future
enhancement it deals with build a fuzzyneural network of QoS feature vector of task and parameter vectorof
resource based on the non-linear mapping relationship between QoS and resource.

3.8.Efficient dynamic task scheduling in virtualized data centers with fuzzy prediction:
Xiangzhen Kong a,n, ChuangLin a, YixinJiang a, WeiYan a, XiaowenChu et al.,2011

Thegeneralmodelofthetaskschedulingin
VDCisbuiltby
MSQMS-LQ,
andtheproblemisformulates
an
optimization
problemwithtwoobjectives:averageresponsetime
and
availabilitysatisfactionpercentage.Basedonthefuzzyprediction
systems,anonlinedynamictaskschedulingalgorithmnamed SALAF is proposed. The experimental results show that the
proposed algorithm could efficiently improve the total availability of VDCs while maintaining good
responsiveness performance.
Considering the cost of consolidation, there exists an optimal consolidation ratio in a VDC that may be related
to the hardware resource and the workload, which is an issue in it.
3.9.Policy based resource allocation in IaaS cloud:
AmitNathani a, Sanjay Chaudharya, GauravSomani et al.,2012

Haizea uses resource leases as resource


allocation abstraction and implements these leases by allocating Virtual Machines (VMs). An approximation
algorithmis proposed in which minimize the number of allocatedresources which need to be reserved for a batch
of tasks.When swappingand preemption both fails to schedule a lease, the proposedalgorithm applies the
concept of backfilling.
The results show that it maximizes resource utilization and acceptance of leases compared to the existing
algorithm of Haizea.Backfilling has a disadvantage of requiring more preemption, which increases overall
overhead of the system.
3.10.Honey bee behavior inspired load balancing of tasks in cloud computing environments:
DhineshBabu L.D. a*, P. VenkataKrishnab et al.,2013

HBB-LB aims to achieve well balanced load across virtual machines for maximizing the throughput. It proposes
a load balancing technique forcloud computing environments based on behavior of honey bee foraging strategy.
Honey bee behavior inspired load balancing improvesthe overall throughput of processing and priority based
balancingfocuses on reducing the waiting time for the task on a queue of VM.
A task removed from overloaded VM has to find a suitable under loaded.It has two possibilities, either it finds
the VM set which is a Positive signal or it may not find the suitable VM i.e a negative signal.
HBB-LB is more efficient with lesser number of task migrations when compared with DLB and HDLB
techniques. This algorithm can be extended further by considering the Qos factors in it.

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3.11.Morpho:A decoupled MapReduce framework for elasticCloud computing:


Lu Lu, XuanhuaShi ,Hai Jin, Qiuyue Wang, Daxing Yuan, Song Wu, 2014

To address the problems of frequently loading andrunning HDFS in virtual clusters and downloading and
uploading
data between virtual clusters and physical machines, Morphouniquely proposes a decoupled MapReduce
mechanism that
decouples the HDFS from computation in a virtual cluster andloads it onto physical machines
permanently.Morpho also achieves high performance by two complementary strategies for data placement and
VM placement, which can provide better map and reduce input locality.
Evaluation is done using two metrics, job
execution time and Cross-rack data transfer
amount .Nearly 62% speedup of job execution time and a significant reduction in network traffic is achieved by
this method.
3.12.CCBKE - Session key negotiation for fast and secure scheduling of scientific applications in cloud
computing:
Chang Liu et al., XuyunZhanga, Chi Yangb, Jinjun Chena,2013

Cloud Computing Background Key Exchange (CCBKE), a novel authenticated


key exchange scheme that aims at efficient security-aware scheduling of scientific applications. This scheme is
designed based
on the commonly-used Internet Key Exchange (IKE) scheme and randomness-reuse strategy. The data set
encryption technique used are block cipher, AES,in Galois Counter Mode (GCM) with 64 k tables, Salsa20/12
and stream cipher.
This scheme improve the efficiency by dramatically reducing time consumption and computation load without
sacrificing the level of security.This scheme canbe extended in future to improve the efficiency of symmetrickey encryption towards more efficient security-aware scheduling.
3.13.A Ranking Chaos Algorithm for dual scheduling of cloud service and computing resource in private
cloud:
YuanjunLailia, Fei Tao a, Lin Zhang a,*, Ying Cheng a, YongliangLuoa, Bhaba R. Sarkerb,2013

The combination of Service Composition


Optimal Selection (SCOS) and Optimal Allocation of Computing Resources (OACR) is known as dual
scheduling. For addressing large-scale Cloud Services and Computing Resources (DS-CSCR) problem, a new
Ranking Chaos Optimization (RCO)
is proposed.
In RCO algorithm ,individual chaos operator was designed, then a new adaptive ranking selection was
introduced for control the state of population in iteration. Moreover, dynamic heuristics were also defined and
introduced to guide the chaos optimization.
Performances in terms of searching ability, time complexity and stability in solving the DS-CSCR problem is
optimal with the use of RCO algorithm but the design of heuristic
function for specific problems in the dynamic heuristic operator iscomplex and hardthough.
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3.14.Analysis and Performance Assessment of CPU Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud using Cloud Sim:
Monica Gahlawat, Priyanka Sharma,2013

This paper analyzes and evaluates the performance of various CPU scheduling in cloud environment using
CloudSim. Shortest job first and priority scheduling algorithms are beneficial for the real time applications.
Because of these algorithms the clients can get precedence over other clients in cloud environment.
Here it deals only with the three algorithms such as FCFS, SJF and priority scheduling.This survey can also be
extended for other adaptive and dynamic algorithms suited the virtual environment of cloud.
3.15.An Algorithm to Optimize the Traditional Backfill Algorithm Using Priority of Jobs for Task

Scheduling Problems in Cloud Computing:


LalShriVratt Singh, Jawed Ahmed, Asif Khan,2014

This paper proposes an efficient algorithm P-Backfillwhich is based on the traditional Backfill algorithm using
prioritization of jobs for achieving the optimality of scheduling in cloud systems.The dynamicmeta scheduler
will deploy the arriving jobs using P-Backfill algorithm to utilize the cloud resourcesefficiently with less
waiting time.
P-Backfill starts the execution of the jobs according to their priority status. It also uses the pipelining
mechanism in order to execute multiple jobs at a time.The P-Backfill algorithm is more efficient than other
other traditional algorithms such as traditional Backfill, FCFS, SJF, LJF and Round Robin algorithms since it
selects the jobs according to their priority levels.
3.16.Efficient Optimal Algorithm of Task Scheduling in CloudComputing Environment:
Dr. AmitAgarwal, Saloni Jain,2014

An optimized algorithm for task scheduling based on genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed. Here
Qos and response time is achieved by executing the high priority jobs (deadline based jobs) first by estimating
job completion time and the priority jobs are spawned from the remaining job with the help ofTask Scheduler.
Three scheduling algorithm First come first serve, Round robin scheduling and is generalized priority algorithm.
In FCFS resource with the smallest waiting queue time and is selected for the incoming task. Round Robin (RR)
algorithm focuses on the fairness. the tasks are initially prioritized according to their size such that one having
highest size has highest rank in general prioritized algorithm. The experimental result shows that general
prioritized algorithm is more efficient than FCFS and
Round Robin algorithm.
3.17 Comparative Based Analysis of Scheduling Algorithms for ResourceManagement in Cloud
Computing Environment:
C T Lin et al.,2013.

The resource scheduling in this paper is based on the parameters like cost, performance, resource utilization,
time, priority, physical distances, throughput, bandwidth, resource availability.
The scheduling algorithm based on cost factor includes deadline distribution algorithm, backtracking, and
improved activity based cost algorithm, compromised time-cost. The algorithm based on the throughput
includes Extended Min-Min,modified ant colony optimization. Earliest deadline, FCFS, Round robin is time
based
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The advantage of this comparative study is that as per the requirements of the consumers and service providers
they can select the appropriate class of scheduling algorithms for different types of services required. This study
may further be used for optimization of different algorithms for better resource management in cloud computing
environment.

3.18Fairness As Justice Evaluator In Scheduling Cloud Resources - A survey:


Anuradha1, S. Rajasulochana,2013
Fairness in schedulingimproves the efficiency and provides optimal resource allocation. Fairness constraint
proposed by

Berger model plays an important role in determining the fair allocation of resources by means of justice
evaluation function. An efficient scheduler should provide fair allocation of resources in a way it ensures no
task is starving for resources.
The heuristic algorithms are present for both static mapping and dynamic mapping. QoS based heuristic
algorithms for static mapping are min-min algorithm, max-min algorithm, opportunistic load balancing, and
suffrage heuristics. dynamic scheduling includes immediate mode heuristic algorithms and batch mode heuristic
algorithms.
Backfilling algorithms are used to overcome the problem of starvation and waiting time. Backfilling strategy
may/may not schedule the jobs based on priority which is both its advantage as well as disadvantage.
3.19 A Survey Of Various Qos-Based Task Scheduling Algorithm In Cloud Computing Environment:
Ronak Patel, Hiren Mer,2013

QoS is the collective effort of services performance, which determines the degree of the satisfaction of a user
for the services.It is expressed in completion time, latency, execution price, packet loss rate, throughput and
reliability.
Task scheduling algorithm based on QoS-driven in cloud computing (TS-QoS) compute the priority of the task
according to the special attributes of the tasks, and then sort tasks based on priority.It solves the starvation
problem and follow FCFS principle.
3.20 Resourcemanagementfor allocation infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) in cloud computing: A survey
SunilkumarS.Manvi a, GopalKrishnaShyam et al.,

This paper focuses on some of the important resource management techniques such as resource provisioning,
resource allocation, resource mapping and resource adaptation.The common issues associated with IaaS in
cloud systems are virtualization and multi-tenancy, resource management, network management, data
management, APIs, interoperability.
The performance metrics are used to compare different works under resource management techniques. The
metrics considered are reliability, deployment ease, Quality of Service, delay and control overhead.
4. Experimental Results
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From these various scheduling techniques we choose the effective task scheduling algorithm. The algorithm is
implemented with the help of simulation tool (CloudSim) and the result obtained reduces the total turnaround
time and also increase the performance. This algorithm deals with the parameters like throughput, makespan
and cost.

Fig 4.MakespanVs Jobs

Fig 5. Throughput Vs Jobs

Fig 6. Cost Vs Jobs

Thus the experimental results show that the scheduling algorithms enhance the makespan as well as the
throughput of the resources in the cloud environment.
The cloud service providers are those who provide cloud service to the end users. Each CSP promote various
scheduling techniques based on their compatibility and availability. The comparison of various CSP and the
scheduling algorithm used by their organization is being comprised as below.

20

Cloud Service
Providers

Open
Source

Eucalyptus

Yes

Scheduling Algorithms
Greedy first fit and
Round robin

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Open Nebula

Yes

Amazon EC2

No

Rank matchmaker
scheduling, preemption
scheduling
round robin, weighted
round robin, least
connections,
weighted least
connections
Virtual machine
schedulers PBS and
SGE
Xen ,swam, genetic

Rackspace

Yes

Nimbus

Yes

RedHat

Yes

BFS ,DFS

lunacloud

Yes

Round robin

Fig 7. Comparison of CSPs

5. Conclusion
In this paper, we have studied about the problems in scheduling and also about various kinds of scheduling
algorithms.
The scheduling algorithm for the datacenter should be chosen based on the requirements of datacenter and the
kind of data they store in it. We have analyzed the relation between the data that hits the datacenter as well the
scheduling algorithm which is required to promote resource allocation in the cloud datacenters. This survey has
provided us a crystal clear idea about the wide dimensions of scheduling resources and their functions.
REFERENCES:
[1] Chia-Ming Wu et al, Ruay-Shiung Chang, Hsin-Yu Chan :A green energy-efficient scheduling algorithm using the DVFS
technique for cloud datacenters, Science Direct, Future Generation Computer Systems 37 (2014) 141147.
[2] Xiaoli Wang, Yuping Wang, Yue Cui: A new multi-objective bi-level programming model for energy and locality aware multijob scheduling in cloud computing, Science Direct, Future Generation Computer Systems 36 (2014) 91101.
[3] Sen Su a, Jian Li a, Qingjia Huang a, Xiao Huang a, Kai Shuang a, Jie Wang b: Cost-efficient task scheduling for executing large
programs in the cloud, Science Direct, Parallel Computing 39 (2013) 177188.
[4] Swachil Patel, UpendraBhoi:Priority Based Job Scheduling Techniques In Cloud Computing, International Journal of Scientific
and Technology Research, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2013, ISSN 2277-8616.
[5] YING FENG , LIN ZHANG , T.W. LIAO:CLPS-GA: A CASE LIBRARY AND PARETO SOLUTION-BASED HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM
FOR ENERGY AWARE CLOUD SERVICE SCHEDULING, SCIENCE DIRECT, APPLIED SOFT COMPUTING 19 (2014) 264279.
B

[6]Cui Lin, ShiyongLu:Scheduling Scientific Workflows Elastically for Cloud Computing, IEEE 4th International Conference on
Cloud Computing, 2011.
[7] BaominXu a, Chunyan Zhao b, EnzhaoHua, Bin Hu c,d, et al:Job scheduling algorithm based on Berger model in cloud
environment, Science Direct, Advances in Engineering Software 42 (2011) 419425.
[8] Xiangzhen Kong a,n, ChuangLin a, YixinJiang a, WeiYan a, XiaowenChu et al., :Efficient dynamic task scheduling in virtualized
data centers with fuzzy prediction, Journal of Network and Computer Applications 34 (2011) 10681077.
[9] AmitNathani a, Sanjay Chaudharya, GauravSomani et al.:Policy based resource allocation in IaaS cloud, Science Direct, Future
Generation Computer Systems 28 (2012) 94103
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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
ISSN 2091-2730

[10]DhineshBabu L.D. a*, P. Venkata Krishnab et al.,:Honey bee behavior inspired load balancing of tasks in cloud computing
environments,Science Direct, Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 22922303.
[11]Lu Lu, Xuanhua Shi , Hai Jin, Qiuyue Wang, Daxing Yuan, Song Wu:Morpho: A decoupled MapReduce framework for elastic
cloud computing, Science Direct, Future Generation Computer Systems 36 (2014) 8090.
[12] Chang Liu et al., XuyunZhanga, Chi Yangb, Jinjun Chena,2013:CCBKE - Session key negotiation for fast and secure
scheduling of scientific applications in cloud computing, Science Direct ,Future Generation Computer Systems 29 (2013) 1300
1308.
[13]YuanjunLaili a, Fei Tao a, Lin Zhang a,*, Ying Cheng a, YongliangLuo a, Bhaba R. Sarker b: A Ranking Chaos Algorithm for
dual scheduling of cloud service and computing resource in private cloud, Science Direct ,Computers in Industry 64 (2013) 448463.
[14] Monica Gahlawat, PriyankaSharma:Analysis and Performance Assessment of CPU Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud using
Cloud Sim, International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) ISSN : 2249-0868, Volume 5 No. 9, July 2013.

[15] LalShriVratt Singh, Jawed Ahmed, AsifKhan :An Algorithm to Optimize the Traditional Backfill Algorithm Using Priority of
Jobs for Task Scheduling Problems in Cloud Computing, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies,
Vol. 5 (2) , 2014, 1671-1674
[16] Dr. AmitAgarwal, SaloniJain :Efficient Optimal Algorithm of Task Scheduling in Cloud Computing Environment,
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 9 number 7 Mar 2014.
[17] C T Lin et al,.:Comparative Based Analysis of Scheduling Algorithms for Resource Management in Cloud Computing
Environment,International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Vol.-1(1), July (2013) PP(17-23).
[18] Anuradha1, S. Rajasulochana :Fairness As Justice Evaluator In Scheduling Cloud Resources - A survey, International Journal
of Computer Engineering & Science, ISSN: 22316590 ,Nov. 2013.

[19]Ronak Patel, HirenMer:A Survey Of Various Qos-Based Task Scheduling Algorithm In Cloud Computing
Environment,International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2013 ,ISSN 2277-8616 .
[20]SunilkumarS.Manvi a, GopalKrishnaShyam et al:Resource management for allocation infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) in cloud
computing: A survey, Journal ofNetworkandComputerApplications41(2014)424440

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Parameter Optimization and Evaluation of Hydrodynamic Functions in the


Wet Range of Water Availability in Different Soils
R. K.Malik

, Deepak Kumar2

Professor of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University
Gurgaon, Haryana, India

Assitant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Gurgaon, Haryana,
India
E-mail: rkmalik@ggn.amity.edu

Abstract - The knowledge of the soil hydrodynamic functions is essential for modeling the soil water dynamics and different
components of water balance. Major contribution of these components occurs during the wet range of water availability in the soil
profile. The functional form of the most commonly used theoretical hydrodynamic functions of Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten
coupled with Burdine and Mualem hydraulic conductivity models were developed for coarse, medium, and moderately fine-textured
soils. For developing these functional forms, parameterization and fitting performance of the corresponding soil water retention
functions were performed using RETC computer code employing non-linear least-squares optimization. It was observed that for the
wet range of water availability in the loam and silty clay loam soil, the best performance was given by the Brooks-Corey soil water
retention function followed by van Genuchten functions with m = 11/n and m = 12/n. However for this range of water availability,
the van Genuchten functions with m = 11/n gave a slight better performance in sand in comparison to other functions which gave
same performance. It was observed that as the sand content of these soils decreases, the hydraulic conductivity and soil water
diffusivity at particular soil water content also decreased. The hydraulic conductivity predicted by the Mualem-van Genuchten
function were observed to be less than predicted by Mualem-Brooks-Corey function and the same trend was observed for the soil
water diffusivity for these soils.
Key Words: Soil water retention functions-Brooks-Corey, van Genuchten, RETC code, parameterization, fitting performance,
Burdine and Mualem models, hydraulic conductivity, soil water diffusivity.
INTRODUCTION : The knowledge of hydrodynamic functions of soil water retention, hydraulic conductivity and soil water
diffusivity is essential for modeling the different components of the water balance i.e. internal drainage and evaporation from the soil
profile, capillary contribution to it and water storage changes within it as well as solute and contaminant transport to and from the
groundwater. These processes are affected mainly by the texture and degree of wetness of the soil profile. For in-situ estimation of
hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated soil, direct methods of plane of zero flux [1] constant flux vertical time domain reflectometry
[2] and instantaneous profile method [1] were used but Durner and Lipsius [3] reported that these methods are considerably more
difficult and less accurate and they further suggested the use of indirect method of estimation using soil water retention function
developed from the easily measured soil water retention data. Various soil water retention functions, relation between soil water
content and soil water suction head, have been proposed [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14] Some of these functions though provided better
predictions but are difficult to incorporate into the statistical pore-size distribution models for developing the analytical hydrodynamic
functions. Abrisqueta et al. [15] reported that there is a wide body of literature in which hydrodynamic behavior of the soils have been
described based on their water retention functions for the entire range of saturation. Leij et al. [16] and Assouline and Tartakovsky[17]
reported that among a variety of soil water retention functions which were evaluated for the entire range of soil water from saturation
to oven- dryness, the functions proposed by Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten are most popular for use in numerical modeling of
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water flow and solute transport within the unsaturated porous media. These two empirical retention functions of with specific number
of parameters fitting the observed soil water retention data to different extents can be embedded into the statistical pore-seize
distribution-based hydraulic conductivity models of either Burdine [18] or Mualem [19] for developing the corresponding predictive
theoretical unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions having the same parameters as in the corresponding soil water retention
functions and further developing the soil water diffusivity functions. Rossi and Nimmo [13] reported that these soil water retention
functions performed differently in the wet, middle and dry ranges of water content from saturation to oven-dryness in the soil profile.
Major contribution of these processes as stated above occur in the moist (wet) range of soil water and such moist conditions prevail for
most of the time during the periods immediately following each rainfall event and under drip irrigation. So in this study, the
hydrodynamic functions in the wet range of water availability in different soils were evaluated for developing the functional
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity functions for further use in modeling the soil water dynamics.
Materials and Methods
Soil water retention data
The soil water retention data Kalane et al., [20] at the soil water suction heads of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150 and 180 cm (taken as
positive) of different samples from the soil textural classes of sand (coarse texture), loam (medium texture ) and silty clay loam
(moderately fine texture ) collected from different locations in Haryana, India and the corresponding with the soil water contents were
utilized for optimizing the parameters of the soil water retention functions and for evaluating the hydrodynamic functions. According
to USDA textural classification of soils, the textural class of sand has proportions of sand, silt and clay ranging from 86 to 100, 0 to 14
and 0 to 10 percent, respectively while these constituents range from 23 to 52, 28 to 50 and 7 to 27 percent in soil, respectively and the
silty clay loam soil has these ranging from 0 to 20, 40 to 73 and 27 to 40 percent, respectively.
Soil water retention functions
The empirical soil water retention functions proposed by van Genuchten [7] with fixed (m = 11/n and m = 12/n) shape parameters
and Brooks-Corey [4] were used in this analysis. The van Genuchten proposed the empirical sigmoidal- shaped continuous (smooth)
four-parametric power-law function as:
Se = 1 + (VG h)n

(1)

Where Se [= ( h r )/(s r )] is the dimensionless effective saturation,,s and r are the water content at the soil water
suction head h, saturated and residual water contents, respectively. The parameter VG is an empirical constant L1 . In this function,
the four unknown parameters arer , s , VG and n. The dimensionless parameters n and m (fixed with each other) are the parameters
related to the pore-size distribution affecting the shape of the function. For developing the closed-form (analytical) function of the
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by coupling the van Genuchten soil water retention function with the hydraulic conductivity
models of either of Burdine or Mualem, the conditions of fixed shape parameters m = 1 2/n and m = 11/n need to be satisfied,
respectively. However, Durner [21] reported that these constraints of fixing the shape parameters eliminated some of the flexibility.
Brooks Corey proposed the empirical four-parametric power-law soil water retention function as:
Se = (BC h) B C (2)
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Where BC is an empirical parameter L1 representing desaturation rate of soil water is related to the pore-size distribution
and whose inverse is regarded as the reciprocal of the height of the capillary fringe. The parameter BC is the pore-size distribution
index affecting the slope of this function and characterizes the width of the pore-size distribution. In this function, the four unknown
parameters arer ,s ,BC and BC .
Estimation of hydraulic conductivity functions
Based on the statistical pore-size distribution in the soil medium, the relative hydraulic conductivity function is defined by a
mathematical expression [22] as:

Kr Se =

se

h () d

s h () d
r

(3)

The parameter l is the tortuosity factor which characterizes the combined effects of pore-connectivity and flow path and and
are the constants. Eq. (3) reduces to the Burdine model when = 2 and = 1 and to the Mualem model when = 1 and = 2. Kr
(Se) (= K (Se)/ Ks) is the dimensionless relative unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and K s LT 1 is the saturated hydraulic
conductivity.
Coupling of the Brooks-Corey soil water retention function with the Burdine and Mualem models yielded the corresponding
Se - based hydraulic conductivity functions, respectively as:
+1 +(2/ BC )

K(Se) = K s Se
K(Se) = K s

+2 +(2/ BC )

(4)

(5)

Van Genuchten coupled his soil water retention function Se (h) with the Mualem model and its integration led to the
derivation of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the form of an Incomplete Beta Function for a general case of independent
parameters m and n as:
2

K (Se ) = K s Se I (m + 1/n ,1 1/n) (6)


1/

Where I (m + 1/n ,1 1/n)) is the Incomplete Beta Function and = Se

. Under the condition m = 11/n, the Eq. (6) when

integrated, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity reduced to the closed-form as:


1

K (Se) = K s Se 1 (1 Sem )m (7)


The Burdine-based hydraulic conductivity function with independent m and n parameters is expressed as:
K (Se ) = K s Se I (m + 2/n ,1 2/n) (8)
1/

Where I (m + 2/n ,1 2/n) is the Incomplete Beta Function and = Se

. The integration of Eq. (8) under the constraint m =

12/n led to the analytical form of based unsaturated hydraulic conductivity as:
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1/m m

K(Se) = K s Se 1 (1 Se

(9)

Estimation of soil water diffusivity functions


The soil water diffusivity D (Se ) [L2 T 1 ] was derived by multiplying the K (Se ) by the inverse of the soil water capacity C (Se ) [L1 ].
The C (Se ) is the first derivative of the soil water retention function i.e. d/dh. For the Brooks-Corey soil water retention function, C
(Se ) was derived as:
BC +1 / BC

C (Se ) = BC BC (s r ) Se

(10)

Multiplying Eqs. (4) and (5) by the inverse of Eq. (10) resulted in the Burdine and the Mualem-based Brooks-Corey soil water
diffusivity functions, respectively as:
D (Se ) = K s BC BC (s r )
D (Se ) = K s BC BC (s r )

l+1/ BC

Se

(11)

l+1+1/ BC

Se

(12)

For the soil water retention function, the soil water capacity C (Se ) was derived as:
1/ m

C (Se ) = m n VG S r Se

1/m m

1 se

(13)

Multiplying Eqs. (7) and (9) by the inverse of Eq. (13) yielded the Mualem and Burdine- based van Genuchten soil water diffusivity
functions, respectively as:
D (Se ) =K s

(1m)
VG m( S r )

1/m

Se

1/m m

1 Se

D (Se ) =K s

1/m m

+ 1 Se
(1m)

VG 1+m ( s r

2 (14)
(1/m)

Se

1/m m

1 Se

1 (15)

For using the value of tortuosity factor (l), Wosten and van Genuchten [23] reported that this value where is from soil to soil
and fits may not be reasonable especially for medium and fine-textured soils. But in this analysis, the average values of tortuosity
factor (l) equal to 2.0 and 0.5 as proposed by Burdine and Mualem were used for Burdine and Mualem-based predictive unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity functions, respectively. The values of m for the Burdine and Mualem-based of
conductivity and diffusivity functions were calculated by fixing m = 12/n and m = 11/n, respectively. The saturated hydraulic
conductivity values as determined experimentally by Kalane et al. [20] for these soils were used.
Parameterization and evaluation of fitting performance
For estimation of unknown parameters of soil water retention functions, RETC (RETention Curve) computer code van Genuchten et
al. [24] was used by utilizing the observed soil water retention data only and these were represented by a vector b equal
tor , s , VG , n for van Genuchten function and equal to r , s , BC , BC , for Brooks-Corey function. In this code, these parameters
are optimized iteratively by minimizing the residual sum of squares (RSS) of the observed and fitted soil water retention data (h) by

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taking RSS as the objective function O (b) using weighted non-linear least-squares optimization approach based on the MarquardtLevenbergs maximum neighborhood method [25] as:
O (b) =

N
i=1

wi i i

(16)

Where i and i are the observed and the corresponding fitted soil water contents, respectively. N is the number of the soil
water retention data points and equal to 9 in this analysis. The weighting factors wi which reflects the reliability of the measured
individual data were set equal to unity in this analysis as the reliability of all the measured soil water retention data was considered
equal. A set of appropriate initial estimates of these unknown parameters was used so that the minimization process converges after
certain iterations to the optimized values of these parameters. For evaluating the fitting performance, goodness of fit of the observed
and fitted data was estimated by the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) characterizing the relative magnitude of the total sum of squares
associated with the fitted function as:
r2 =

i i

i i 2 (17)

Where i is the mean of observed soil water retention data.


Results and Discussion
The optimized values of saturated water contents (Table 1) were observed to be 0.40, 0.46 and 0.52 cm3 / cm3 for the sand, loam and
silty clay loam soils, respectively for both the soil water retention functions of Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten and on comparison
with the experimentally determined saturated water contents Kalane et al. [20] a complete perfect match was found. It was also
observed that as the fineness of the soil texture increases, the predicted residual soil water contents increased from 0.02 to 0.25 cm3 /
cm3 by Brooks-Corey function, from 0.04 to 0.35 cm3 / cm3 by van Genuchten function with constraint m = 11/n and from 0.03 to
0.33 cm3 / cm3 by van Genuchten with fixed shape parameter m = 12/n for these soils. The residual water contents predicted by
Brooks-Corey function were observed to be less in comparison to predicted by van Genuchten function. Among the van Genuchten
functions, the van Genuchten with fixed m = 12/n predicted less residual soil water contents in comparison with fixed m = 1 1/n.
The residual water contents predicted by these functions ranged from 0.02 to 0.04, 0.16 to 0.25 and 0.25 to 0.35 cm3 / cm3 for sand,
loam and silty clay loam soils, respectively.
It is seen from Table 1 that as the clay content of these soils increases, the values of BC and VG decreased and the Brooks-Corey
function predicted BC values of 0.1062, 0.0452 and 0.0321 for sand, loam and silty clay loam soils, respectively indicating more
height of the capillary fringe (inverse of BC ) in the silty clay loam followed by loam and sand soils. These BC values were
observed to be higher than the values of VG for these soils. Among the van Genuchten functions, VG values of 0.0712, 0.0254 and
0.0184 predicted with fixed m = 1 1/n were found to be lower than function with m = 12/n.
The values of BC were observed (Table 1) to be 0.5969, 0.4228 and 0.4225 for sand, loam and silty clay loam soils indicating that as
the sand content of these soils decreases, these values also decreased which indicated that the slope of the water retention function of
Brooks-Corey was observed to be more in sand in comparison to loam and silty clay loam soils. This showed that the porous medium
of sand has comparatively more uniform pore-size distribution. Kosugi et al. [26] also reported that theoretically C value approaches
infinity for a porous medium with a uniform pore-size distribution, whereas its value approaches a lower limit of zero for soils with a
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Table 1. Optimized values of the parameters of the soil water retention functions for different soils
Sand (Coarse texture)
Optimized values of parameters
Soil water retention function

( / )
Brooks-Corey

( / )

( 1/ cm )

n/
()

0.02

0.40

0.1062

0.5969

Van Genuchten
Fixed

m = 1- 1/n

0.04

0.40

0.0712

1.8595

Fixed

m = 1- 2/n

0.03

0.40

0.0936

2.6773

0.15

0.46

0.0452

0.4228

Loam (Medium texture)


Brooks-Corey
Van Genuchten
Fixed

m = 1- 1/n

0.25

0.46

0.0254

2.3899

Fixed

m = 1- 2/n

0.23

0.46

0.0450

2.2528

0.25

0.52

0.0321

0.4225

Silty clay loam (Moderately fine-texture)


Brooks-Corey
Van Genuchten
Fixed

m = 1- 1/n

0.35

0.52

0.0184

2.4185

Fixed

m = 1- 2/n

0.33

0.52

0.0309

2.1910

wide range of pore sizes. They reported C values in the range 0.3 to 10.0 while Szymkiewicz [27] reported that these values
generally ranged from 0.2 to 5.0. Zhu and Mohanty [28] also reported that the soil water retention of Brooks and Corey was
successfully used to describe the retention data for the relatively homogeneous soils, which have a narrow pore-size distribution with a
value for BC equal to 2. Nimmo [29] reported that a medium with many large pores will have a retention function (curve) that drops
rapidly to at low soil water content even at low suction head and conversely, a fine-pored medium will retain even at high suction so
will have a flatter retention curve. In these functions the hydrodynamic behavior of the soil media are described by the combined
effects of two parameters (BC , BC ) in the Brooks-Corey function and by three parameters (VG , n, m) in the van Genuchten function.
It was also observed (Table 1) that the values of the parameter n decreased as the sand content of these soils increases with constraint
m = 11/n while this trend was observed to be reverse for m = 12/n.

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It was observed (Table 2) that the van Genuchten soil water retention function with m = 1 1/n gave a slight better fitting in
comparison to Brooks-Corey function and van Genuchten function with m = 12/n for the wet range availability in the sand (coarse
texture) soil as the value of r 2 is slightly better for van Genuchten function with m = 11/n but the RSS values are same for all these
functions. For the loam (medium texture) and silty clay loam (moderately fine texture) soils, the best performance was given by the
Brooks-Corey function in these soils as indicated by the highest values of r 2 of 0.9973 and 0.9957 in loam and silty clay soils,
respectively with least RSS value of 9x 105 for both these soils. Among the van Genuchten function, the better fit was given by the
function with m = 11/n indicated by the corresponding higher r 2 values and lower RSS values for these soils. Mualem [30] reported
that there is no single function that fits every soil. Nimmo [31] and Ross et al. [32] also reported that the Brooks-Corey and van
Genuchten functions are successful at high and medium water contents but often gave poor results at the low water contents.
Mavimbela and van Rensburg [33] also parameterized the soil water retention functions of Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten using
RETC code and reported that these functions fitted the measured soil water retention data with r 2 of no less than 0.98.
Table 2. Residual sum of squares (RSS) and coefficient of determination ( ) of the fitting performance of soil water retention
functions
Sand

Loam

Soil water

(Coarse texture)

(Medium texture)

Silty clay loam


(Moderately fine texture)

retention function

RSS

RSS

RSS

Brooks-Corey

0.9997

0.9973

0.9957

0.9998

18

0.9951

10

0.9956

0.9997

37

0.9896

18

0.9916

Van Genuchten
Fixed m = 1- 1/n
Fixed m = 1- 2/n

Mace et al. [34] reported that. The function developed van Genuchten based on the theoretical expression of Mualem predicted
hydraulic conductivity more accurately than the van Genuchten function based on the theory of Burdine. So in this study, though both
the Burdine and Mualem-based hydrodynamics functions have been evaluated but only the Mualem-based hydrodynamic functions
have been shown in the form of graphs considering its preference for accuracy and use. The values of the optimized parameters of
these soil water retention functions were used in the corresponding unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity functions of
Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten for describing the hydrodynamic behavior of these soils. Figs. 1 and 2 depicted the behavior of the
hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity functions in relation to soil water content as derived by coupling the Brooks-Corey
and van Genuchten functions with Mualem model. It is evident from these Figs.1 and 2 that as the sand content of these soils
decreases, the hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity at particular soil water content also decreased. So at specific water
content, the hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity were observed to be more in sand and followed by in loam and silty clay
loam soils. The hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity based on the coupling of the van Genuchten function with the
Mualem model were predicted less in comparison to those predicted by Brook-Corey function when coupled with Mualem model.

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However, general case that for the analytical soil water dynamics, the use of Brooks-Corey function tends to be easier and on the other
hand numerical simulation of unsaturated flow, the use of van Genuchten function is mostly adopte d.

Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta

Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta


500

500

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.1

Water Content [-]

0.2

0.3

0.4

Water Content [-]

(a)

(b)
Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta

Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta

1.0

7
6

0.8

0.6

4
3

0.4

0.2

1
0
0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.0
0.30

0.35

0.40

Water Content [-]

0.45

0.50

0.55

Water Content [-]

(c)
(d)
Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta
Hydraulic Properties: K vs. Theta

1.0

0.8

6
5

0.6

0.4

3
2

0.2

0.0
0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

Water Content [-]

0.50

0.55

0
0.25

0.30

0.35

(e)

30

0.40

Water Content [-]

(f)

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0.50

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Fig. 1. Hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content based on (a) Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for sand, (b) Mualem-van
Genuchten function for sand, (c) Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for loam, (d) Mualem-van Genuchten function for loam, (e)
Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for silty clay loam, (f) Mualem-van Genuchten function for silty clay loam.

Hydraulic Properties: log D vs. Theta

Hydraulic Properties: log D vs. Theta

2
2

1
0

-2

-1

-4

-2
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.0

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Water Content [-]

Water Content [-]

(a)

(b)

Hydraulic Properties: log D vs. Theta

Hydraulic Properties: log D vs. Theta

2
2

1
0

0
-2

-1
-2
0.1

0.2

0.3
Water Content [-]

0.4

0.5

-4
0.25

0.30

0.35

Water Content [-]

(c)

31

0.40

(d)

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0.50

International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014

Hydraulic
Properties: log D vs. Theta
ISSN 2091-2730

Hydraulic Properties: log D vs. Theta

6
2

4
1

2
0

0
-1

-2
-2
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

-4
0.30

Water Content [-]

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

Water Content [-]

(e)

(f)

Fig. 2. The soil water diffusivity as a function of water content based on (a) Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for sand, (b) Mualem-van
Genuchten function for sand, (c) Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for loam, (d) Mualem-van Genuchten function for loam, (e)
Mualem-Brooks-Corey function for silty clay loam, (f) Mualem-van Genuchten function for silty clay loam.

Conclusion
For the wet range of water availability in the loam and silty clay loam soil, the best performance was given by the Brooks-Corey soil
water retention function followed by van Genuchten functions with m = 11/n and m = 12/n but van Genuchten function with m =
11/n gave slight better performance in sand in comparison to other functions. At a particular soil water content, Mualem-based
hydraulic conductivity and soil water diffusivity as predicted by the theoretical by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten functions
decreased with the decrease in sand content of these soils. The Mualem-van Genuchten function predicted less hydraulic conductivity
and water diffusivity in comparison to those predicted by the Mualem-Brooks-Corey function.

References
[1] Rose, C.W., Stern, W.R. and Drummond, J.E. Determination of hydraulic conductivity as function of depth and water content insitu Water Resour. Res. 3:1-9.1965.
[2] Parkin, G.W., Elrick, D.E., Kachanoski, R.G. and Gibson, R.G. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured by TDR under a
rainfall simulator Water Resour. Res. 31: 447-454. 1995.
[3] Durner, W. and Lipsius, K. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Science. (Ed. M G Anderson)John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005.
[4] Brooks, R.H., and Corey, A.T. Hydraulic properties of porous media Hydrology Paper, No.3,
Collins, Colorado. 1964.

Colorado State University, Fort

[5] Campbell, G.S. A simple method for determining unsaturated conductivity from moisture retention data Soil Sci. 117(6): 311314.1974.
[6] Haverkamp, R., Vauclin, M., Touma, J., Wierenga, P. and Vachaud, G. A comparison of numerical simulation models for onedimensional infiltration Soil Sci. Am. J. 41(2) : 285-294.1977.
[7] Van Genuchten, M.Th., A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
J., 44: 892-898.1988.
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[8] Hutson, J.L. and Cass, A. A retentivity function for use in soil-water simulation models J. Soil Sci. 38: 105-113.1987.
[9] Russo, D. 1988. Determining soil hydraulic properties by parameter estimation: On the selection of a model for the hydraulic
properties Water Resour. Res., 24(3):453-459.1988.
[10] Ross, P.J. and Smettem, K.R.J. Describing Soil hydraulic properties with sums of simple function Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.
57.26-29.1993.
[11] Zhang, R. and van Genuchten, M.Th. New models for unsaturated soil hydraulic properties Soil Sci. 158: 77-85. 1994.
[12] Fredlund, D.G., Xing, A. and Huang, S. Predicting the permeability function for unsaturated soils using the soil-water
characteristic curve Canadian Geotechnical J. 31(3): 521-532.1994.
[13] Rossi,C. and Nimmo, J.R. Modeling of soil water retention from saturation to oven dryness Water Resour.Res.30 (3): 701708.1994.
[14] Kosugi,K.Lognormal distribution model for unsaturated soil hydraulic properties Water Resour. Res.32 (9): 2697-2703.1996.
[15] Abrisqueta,J.M., Plana,V., Ruiz-Canales,A. and Ruiz-Sanchez,M.C.
undisturbed loam soil Spanish.J.Agri.Res. 4(1): 91-96.2006.

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of disturbed and

[16] Leij,F.J., Russell,W.B., and Lesch, S.M. Closed-form expressions for water retention and conductivity data Ground Water.
35(5): 848-858.1997.
[17] Assouline, S. and Tartakovskly, D. M. Unsatruated hydraulic conductivity function based on a soil
Water Resour. Res. 37(5): 1309-1312.2001.

fragmentation process

[18] Burdine, N.T. Relative permeability calculations from pore- size distribution data Trans. Amer. Inst. Mining Metallurgical, and
Petroleum Engrs. 198: 71-78. 1953.
[19] Mualem, Y. A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media Water Resour. Res. 12 (3):
513-522.1976.
[20] Kalane, R.L., Oswal, M.C. and Jagannath. Comparison of theoretically estimated flux and observed values under shallow water
table J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 42. (2): 169-172.1994.
[21] Durner,W.1994. Hydraulic conductivity estimation for soils with heterogeneous pore structure Water Resour. Res. 30 (2) : 211223.1994.
[22] Zhang, Z.F., Ward, A.L. and Gee,G.W. Describing the unsaturated hydraulic properties of anisotropic soils using a tensorial
connectivity-tortuosity concept Vadose Zone J.2(3):313-321.2003.
[23] Wosten,J.H.M. and van Genuchten, M.Th. Using texture and other soil properties to predict the unsaturated soil hydraulic
functions Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 52: 1762-1770.1988.
[24] Van Genuchten, M.Th.,Leij, F.J. and Yates, S.R.The RETC code for quantifying the hydraulic functions of unsaturated soils
Res. Rep. 600 2-91 065, USEPA, Ada.O.K. 1991.
[25] Marquardt, D.W.An algorithm for least-squares estimation of non-linear parameters J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11: 431-441.1963.
[26] Kosugi, K., Hopmans, J.W. and Dane, J.H. Water Retention and Storage-Parametric Models In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part
4.Physical Methods. (Eds. E.J.H. Dane and G.C. Topp) pp. 739-758. Book Series No.5. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, USA. 2002.
[27] Szymkiewicz, A. Chapter 2 :Mathmatical Models of Flow in Porous Media In Modeling Water Flow in Unsaturated Porous
Media Accounting for Nonlinear Permeability and Material Heterogeneity. Springer. 2013.
[28] Zhu, J. and Mohanty, B.P. Effective hydraulic parameter for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Water Resour.
Res. 39 (8) : 1-12.2003.
[29] Nimmo, J.R. Unsaturated zone flow processes In (Eds. Anderson, M.G. and Bear, J. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Science.
Part 13-Groundwater: vol4 : 2299-2322. Chichester, UK, Wiley.2005.
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[30] Mualem, Y. Hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils: predction and formulas. In Methods of soil analysis Part- 1.Physical
and mineralogical methods. (2nded.) (Eds. A. Klute). Amer. Soc Agronomy, Inc. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Inc Madison, WI, USA,
799-823.1986.
[31] Nimmo, J.R.Comment on the treatment of residual water content In A consistent set of parametric models for the two-phase
flow of immiscible fluids in the subsurface by Luckner, L. et al. Water Resour. Res. 27: 661-662.1991.
[32] Ross, P.J., William, J. and Bristow, K.L. Equations for extending water-retention curves to dryness Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 55:
923-927.1991.
[33] Mavimbela, S.S.W. and van Rensburg, L.D. 2013. Estimating hydraulic conductivity of internal drainage for layered soils in
situ Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 17: 4349-4366. 2013.
[34] Mace, A., Rudolph, D.L. and Kachanoski, R, G., Suitability of parametric models to describe the hydraulic properties of an
unsaturated coarse sand and gravel Ground Water. 36(3): 465-475.1998

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Seismic Behavior of soft Storey Building : A Critical Review


Devendra Dohare1, Dr.Savita Maru2
1P.G. student Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, M.P, India.
2 Professor & HOD of Civil Department Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, M.P, India

1Devhare@gmail.com
2Savitamaru@yahoo.com
Soft first storey is a typical feature in the modern multi-storey constructions in urban India. Though multi-storeyed
buildings with soft storey floor are inherently vulnerable to collapse due to earthquake, their construction is still widespread in the
developing like India. Functional and Social need to provide car parking space at ground level and for offices open stories at different
level of structure far out-weighs the warning against such buildings from engineering community. With the availability of fast
computers, so that software usage in civil engineering has greatly reduced the complexities of different aspects in the analysis and
design of projects. In this paper an investigation has been made to study the seismic behaviour of soft storey building with different
arrangement in soft storey building when subjected to static and dynamic earthquake loading. It is observed that , providing infill
improves resistant behaviour of the structure when compared to soft storey provided.
Abstract:-

Keywords: Soft storey, Static and dynamic analysis, Seismic loads.


I. INTRODUCTION
Due to increasing population since the past few years so that car parking space for residential apartments in populated cities is a matter
of major problem. So that constructions of multi-storeyed buildings with open first storey is a common practice in all world. Hence
the trend has been to utilize the ground storey of the building itself for parking or reception lobbies in the first storey. These types of
buildings having no infill masonry walls in ground storey, but all upper storeys infilled in masonry walls are called soft first storey or
open ground storey building. Experience of different nations with the poor and devastating performance of such buildings during
earthquakes always seriously discouraged construction of such a building with a soft ground floor This storey known as weak storey
because this storey stiffness is lower compare to above storey. So that easily collapses by earthquake.
Due to wrong construction practices and ignorance for earthquake resistant design of buildings in our country, most of the existing
buildings are vulnerable to future earthquakes. So, prime importance to be given for the earthquake resistant design. The Indian
seismic code IS 1893 (Part1): 2002 classifies a soft storey as one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the
storey above or less than 80 percent of the average lateral stiffness of the three storeys above
II. GENERAL BEHAVIOUR OF SOFT STOREY
Stability of earth is always disturbed due to internal forces and as a result of such disturbance, vibrations or jerks in earth's crust takes
place, which is known as an earthquake.

Earthquake produces low high waves which vibrate the base of structure in various manners and directions, so that lateral force is
developed on structure. In such buildings, the stiffness of the lateral load resisting systems at those stories is quite less than the stories
above or below.

Image source: EQTip21 NICEE


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Such building act as an Inverted Pendulum which swing back and forth producing high stresses in columns and if columns are
incapable of taking these stresses or do not posses enough ductility, they could get severely damaged and which can also lead to
collapse of the building. This is also known as inverted pendulum. Soft stories are subjected to larger lateral loads during earthquakes
and under lateral loading. This lateral force cannot be well distributed along the height of structure. This situation causes the lateral
forces to concentrate on the storey having large displacement. The lateral force distribution along the height of a building is directly
related to mass and stiffness of each storey. The collapse mechanism of structure with soft storey under both earthquake and gravity
loads. Therefore dynamic analysis procedure is accurate distribution of the earthquake and lateral forces along the building height,
determining modal effects and local ductility demands efficiently.
III. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A significant amount of research work on seismic behaviour of soft storey building has been done by many investigators research area
Such as
[1] Suchita Hirde and Ganga Tepugade(2014), Discussed the performance of a building with soft storey at different level along
with at ground level. The nonlinear static pushover analysis is carried out. Concluded it is observed that plastic hinges are developed
in columns of ground level soft storey which is not acceptable criteria for safe design. Displacement reduces when the soft storey is
provided at higher level.
[2] Hiten L. Kheni and Anuj K. Chandiwala (2014), Investigate many buildings that collapsed during the past earthquake
exhibited exactly the opposite strong beam weak column behaviour means columns failed before the beams yielded mainly due to soft
storey effect. For proper assessment of the storey stiffness of buildings with soft storey building, different models were analysed using
software. Concluded the displacement estimates of the codal lateral load patterns are observed to be smaller for the lower stories and
larger for the upper stories and are independent of the total number stories of the models.
[3] Dhadde Santosh(2014), Investigate nonlinear pushover analysis is conducted to the building models using ETABS and
evaluation is carried for non-retrofitted normal buildings and retrofitting methods are suggested like infill wall, increase of ground
story column stiffness and shear wall at central core. Concluded storey drift values for soft storey models maximum values compare
to other storeys and the values of storey drift decreases gradually up to the top.
[4] Rakshith Gowda K.R and Bhavani Shankar(2014), Investigate the soft storeys are provided at different level for different
load combinations and ETABS is used for modeling and analysis RC buildings. Concluded the inter storey drift was observed to be
maximum in vertically irregular structure when compared with that of regular structure.
[5] Mr.D.Dhandapany(2014), Investigate the seismic behaviour of RCC buildings with and without shear wall under different soil
conditions. Analyzed using ETABS software for different soil conditions (hard, medium, soft). The values of Base shear, Axial force
and Lateral displacement were compared between two frames. Concluded The design in STAAD is found to be almost equal results to
compare in ETABS for all structural member.
[6] Susanta Banerjee, Sanjaya K Patro and Praveena Rao(2014), Analysis response parameters such as floor displacement, storey
drift, and base shear. Modelling and analysis of the building are performed by nonlinear analysis program IDARC 2D. Concluded
lateral roof displacement and maximum storey drift is reduced by considering infill wall effect than a bare frame.
[7] D. B. Karwar and Dr. R. S. Londhe(2014), Investigate the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete framed structures by using
nonlinear static procedure (NSP) or pushover analysis in finite element software SAP2000.and the Comparative study made for
different models in terms of base shear, displacement, performance point. Concluded base shear is minimum for bare frame and
maximum for frame with infill for G+8 building.
[8] Miss Desai Pallavi T(2013), Investigate the behaviour of reinforced concrete framed structures by using Staad Pro. Modelling
four structure and compare stiffness this models. Concluded provide the stiffer column in first storey.
[9] Amit and S. Gawande(2013), Investigate the seismic performance and design of the masonry infill reinforced concrete structure
with the soft first storey under a strong ground motion.
[10] Nikhil Agrawal(2013), Analysis the performance of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames including open first
storey of with and without opening. The increase in the opening percentage leads to a decrease on the lateral stiffness of infilled frame.
Concluded Infill panels increase stiffness of the structure.
[11] A.S.Kasnale and Dr. S.S.Jamkar(2013), Investigate the behaviour of five reinforced RC frames with various arrangement of
infill when subjected to dynamic earthquake loading. Concluded providing infill wall in RC building controlled the displacement,
storey drift and lateral stiffness.
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[12] Dande P. S. and, Kodag P. B.(2013), Investigate the behaviour of RC frames with provided strength and stiffness to the
building frame by modified soft storey provision in two ways, (i) By providing stiff column & (ii) By providing adjacent infill wall
panel at each corner of building frame. Concluded the walls in upper storeys make them much stiffer than open ground storey.
Difficult to provide such capacities in the columns of the first storey.
[13] Narendra Pokar and Prof. B. J. Panchal(2013), Investigate the behaviour of RC frames with Testing of scaled models is
essential to arrive at optimal analytical model and special design provisions for such structures. Structure is modeled and analyzed
using SAP platform including seismic effect. Concluded both steel and RCC model gives nearest result for full scale model.
[14] N. Sivakumar and S. Karthik(2013), Investigate the behaviour of the columns at ground level of multi-storeyed buildings
with soft ground floor subjected to dynamic earthquake loading. ETABS used for modelling of the six and nine storey structure, line
element was used for columns and beams and concrete element was used for slabs. Concluded reducing the drift as well as the
strength demands on the first storey columns so that provides stiffer columns in the first storey.
[15] Dr. Saraswati Setia and Vineet Sharma(2012), Analysis seismic response of R.C.C building with soft storey. Equivalent static
analysis is performed for five different models by using the computer software such as STAA Pro. Concluded minimum displacement
for corner column is observed in the building in which a shear wall is introduced in X-direction as well as in Z-direction.
[16] P.B.Lamb and Dr R.S. Londhe(2012), Analysis multistoried building with soft first storey, located in seismic zone IV. It is
intended to describe the performance characteristics such as stiffness, shear force, bending moment, drift. Concluded shear wall and
cross bracings are found to be very effective in reducing the stiffness irregularity and bending moment in the columns.
[17] V. Indumathy and Dr.B.P. Annapurna (2012), Investigate the four storied one bay infilled frame with soft storey at ground
floor and window openings in higher floors. Shape of opening - square opening showed lower lateral deformation compared to
rectangular opening and on other hand rectangular opening oriented horizontally exhibit lower lateral deformation than vertical
orientation. Concluded square opening showed lower lateral deformation compared to rectangular opening and on other hand
rectangular opening oriented horizontally exhibit lower lateral deformation than vertical orientation.
[18] M.Z. Kabir and P. Shadan(2011), Investigate the effect of soft story on seismic performance of 3D-panel buildings. Results
verified numerically with finite element model using ABAQUS program and 3D-panel system has considerable resistance. Concluded
applying several ground motions final cracks is appeared at the end of columns and beam-column connections. However, upper stories
had no crack during shaking table test.
[19] G.V. Mulgund and D.M. Patil(2010), Investigate
the behaviour of RC frames with various arrangement of infill when
subjected to dynamic earthquake loading and result of bare and infill frame are compared. Concluded masonry infill panels in the
frame substantially reduce the overall damage.
[20] A. Wibowo and J.L. Wilson, (2009), Analysis an analytical model has been made to predict force-displacement relationship of
the tested frame. The experimental investigation the load deflection behaviour and collapse modelling of soft storey building with
lateral loading. Concluded the large drift capacity of the precast soft storey structure was attributed to the weak connections which
allowed the columns to rock at each end.
[21] Sharany Haque and Khan Mahmud Amanat (2009), Investigate the effect of masonry infill in the upper floors of a building
with an open ground floor subjected to seismic loading. The number of panels with infill is varied from bare frame condition (zero
percent infilled panels) and 10, 30, 50 and 70 percent of panels with infill on the upper floors and Comparison of base shear.
Concluded the design shear and moment calculated by equivalent static method may at least be doubled for the safer design of the
columns of soft ground floor.
[22] Seval Pinarbasi and Dimitrios Konstantinidis(2007), Investigate the hypothetical base-isolated building with a soft ground
story. Comparison is made with how soft-story flexibility affects the corresponding fixed-base building. Concluded performance of a
soft-story building, is also effective in particularly reducing the seismic demand (i.e., interstory drift) on the soft-story level, which is
the primary cause of catastrophic collapse in these types of buildings.
[23]s Dr. Mizan Dogan and Dr. Nevzat Kirac(2002), Investigate the quake results, it is observed that partitioning walls and beam
fillings enable buildings to gain great rigidity. Also solutions were Investigate d for making the soft storeys in the present
constructions and in the ones to be built resistant to quake.
[24] Jaswant N. Arlekar, Sudhir K. Jain and C.V.R. Murty(1997), Investigate the behaviour of reinforced concrete framed
structures by using ETABS . The nine models of building compare stiffness. Concluded such buildings will exhibit poor performance
during a strong shaking. solution to this problem is in increasing the stiffness of the first storey.

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IV. CONCLUSION
RC frame buildings with soft story are known to perform poorly during in strong earthquake shaking. Because the stiffness at lower
floor is 70% lesser than stiffness at storey above it causing the soft storey to happen. For a building that is not provided any lateral
load resistance component such as shear wall or bracing, the strength is consider very weak and easily fail during earthquake. In such
a situation, an investigation has been made to study the seismic behaviour of such buildings subjected to earthquake load so that some
guideline could be developed to minimize the risk involved in such type of buildings. It has been found earthquake forces by treating
them as ordinary frames results in an underestimation of base shear. Investigators analysis numerically and use various computer
programs such as Staad Pro, ETABS, SAP2000 etc. Calculation shows that, when RC framed buildings having brick masonry infill on
upper floor with soft ground floors subjected to earthquake loading, base shear can be more than twice to that predicted by equivalent
earthquake force method with or without infill or even by response spectrum method when no infill in the analysis model.
REFERENCES:
[1] Suchita Hirde and Ganga Tepugade(2014), Seismic Performance of Multistorey Building with Soft Storey at Different Level with RC Shear
Wall, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN 2277 4106, P-ISSN 2347 5161
[2] Hiten L. Kheni,and Anuj K. Chandiwala(2014), Seismic Response of RC Building with Soft Stories, International Journal of Engineering Trends
and Technology (IJETT) Volume 10 Number 12 - Apr 2014.
[3] Dhadde Santosh(2014), Evaluation and Strengthening of Soft Storey Building, International Journal of Ethics in Engineering & Management
Education.
[4] Rakshith Gowda K.R and Bhavani Shankar(2014), Seismic Analysis Comparison of Regular and Vertically Irregular RC Building with Soft
Storey at Different Level, International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE).
[5] Mr.D.Dhandapany(2014), Comparative Study of and Analysis of Earthquake G+5 Storey Building with RC Shear Wall, Int.J.Engineering
Research and Advanced Technology,Vol 2 (3),167-171.
[6] Susanta Banerjee, Sanjaya K Patro and Praveena Rao(2014),Inelastic Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame Building with Soft Storey,
International Journal of Civil Engineering Research. ISSN 2278-3652 Volume 5, Number 4 (2014),
[7] D. B. Karwar and Dr. R. S. Londhe(2014), Performance of RC Framed Structure by Using Pushover Analysis, International Journal of Emerging
Technology and Advanced Engineering
[8] Miss Desai Pallavi T(2013),, Seismic Performance of Soft Storey Composite Coloumn , International Journal of Scientific & Engineering
Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 ISSN 2229-5518.
[9] Amit and S. Gawande(2013), Seismic Analysis of Frame with Soft Ground Storey, IJPRET, 2013; Volume 1(8): 213-223
[10] Nikhil Agrawal(2013), Analysis of M asonry Infilled RC Frame with & without Opening Including Soft storey by using Equivalent Diagonal
Strut Method, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013 1 ISSN 2250-3153.
[11] A.S.Kasnale and Dr. S.S.Jamkar(2013), Study Of Seismic Performance For Soft Basement Of RC framed, International Jounral of Engineering
Sciences& Research Technology.
[12] Dande P. S. and, Kodag P. B.(2013), Influence of Provision of Soft Storey in RC Frame Building for Earthquake Resistance Design,
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
[13] Narendra Pokar and Prof. B. J. Panchal(2013),Small Scale Modlling on Effectof Soft Storey, International Journal of Advanced Engineering
Technology
[14] N. Sivakumar and S. Karthik(2013), Seismic Vulnerability of Open Ground Floor Columns in Multi Storey Buildings, International Journal of
Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER)
[15] Dr. Saraswati Setia and Vineet Sharma, Seismic Response of R.C.C Building with Soft Storey, International Journal of Applied Engineering
Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012).
[16] P.B.Lamb and Dr R.S. Londhe(2012), Seismic Behaviour of Soft First Storey, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684 Volume 4, Issue 5 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), PP 28-33
[17] V. Indumathy and Dr.B.P. Annapurna (2012), NonLinear Analysis of Multistoried Infilled Frame with Soft Storey and with Window Openings
of Different Mortar Ratios, Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering (AARCV 2012), 21st 23rd
June 2012
[18] M.Z. Kabir and P. Shadan(2011),Seismic Performance of 3D-Panel Wall on Piloti RC Frame Using Shaking Table Equipment, Proceedings of
the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 Leuven, Belgium, 4-6 July 2011
[20] G.V. Mulgund and D.M. Patil(2010), Seismic Assesement of Masonry Infill RC Framd Building with Soft Ground Floor, International
Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE-2010) Kandy, 13-14 December 2010.
[20] A. Wibowo and J.L. Wilson, (2009), Collapse Modelling Analysis of a Precast Soft-Storey Building in Melbourne, Australian Earthquake
Engineenring Society 2009 Conference Newcastle, New South Wales, 11-13 December 2009

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[21] Sharany Haque and Khan Mahmud Amanat(2009), Strength and Drift Demand of Columns of RC Framed Buildings with Soft Ground Story,
Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 37 (2) (2009) 99-110
[22] Seval Pinarbasi and Dimitrios Konstantinidis(2007),Seimic Isolation for Soft Storey Buildings, 10th World Conference on Seismic Isolation,
Energy Dissipation and Active Vibrations Control of Structures, Istanbul, Turkey, May 28-31, 2007
[23] Dr. Mizan Dogan and Dr. Nevzat Kirac(2002),, Soft Storey Behaviour in Earthquake and Samples of Izmit Duzce , ECAS 2002
Uluslarararas Yap ve Deprem Mhendislii Sempozyumu, 14 Ekim 2002, Orta Dou Teknik niversitesi, Ankara, Trkiye.
[24] Jaswant N. Arlekar, Sudhir K. Jain and C.V.R. Murty(1997), Seismic Response of RC Frame Buildings with Soft First Storeys, Proceedings of
the CBRI Golden Jubilee Conference on Natural Hazards in Urban Habitat, 1997, New Delhi

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Effect of water temperature during evaporative cooling on Refrigeration


system
Mohit Yadav, Prof. S.S Pawar
M.Tech (Thermal engineering)Bhabha Engineering & Research Institute, Bhopal, India

Professor (ME Deptt.), Bhabha Engineering & Research Institute, Bhopal, India
mohit.cseian@gmail.com

ABSTACT: Refrigerator is mainly a composition of four devices Compressor, Condenser, Expansion device and evaporator which
have some limitations [1]. Temperature range of working is also a limitation for Refrigerator which affects their performance. Here we
provide more effort to reduce the limitations related to working temperature range and try to modify the size of refrigerator with the
effect of evaporative cooling.Since condenser rejects latent heat of refrigerant to atmosphere due to higher temperature of refrigerant
at condenser. So due to this rejection of heat it provides the cooling in evaporator [2]. Co-efficient of performance of refrigeration
system mainly depends on temperature difference between the condenser and that medium where heat is to be rejected. More
temperature difference, more heat rejection so more cooling on account of same work to refrigeration system. But if the temperature
difference is less, less heat rejection will be there so less cooling by giving same amount of work which decreases the Co-efficient of
performance of the system. [3]
KEY-WORD- Co-efficient of performance (C.O.P), Evaporative cooling, Percentage increment in C.O.P
INTRODUCTION-

Refrigeration system is used to provide cooling by the use of mainly four components Compressor, Condenser, expansion device and
evaporator. These four components are operated with a refrigerant which works as heat carrier in this system. It extracts the heat from
evaporator in the form of latent heat and rejects that heat to atmosphere through the condenser [4]. Therefore heat rejection capacity
depends on difference between refrigerant temperature at condenser and atmospheric temperature [5]. Quantity of heat rejection also
affects the quantity of heat absorption through evaporator. It is clear that more heat rejection will result more heat absorption.
Atmospheric temperature varies according toEnvironmental condition i.e. during the summer atmospheric temperature becomes
higher which decreases the temperature difference between refrigerant and atmosphere, results less heat rejection whichdecreases the
overall performance of refrigeration system[6].
In this paper, by experiment on Ice plant test we proved that lower the condenser temperature means higher the performance of
refrigeration system. Performance of refrigeration system can be improved by provide the evaporative cooling effect on condenser by
spray of water on condenser which add the evaporative cooling effect on condenser. In last publication of December 2013 we have
proved that by evaporative cooling on condenser the C.O.P is increased. by 39.04% which is great achievement. Same if uses
evaporative cooling effect on air conditioning unit that will reduce the size and operating cost of air conditioning unit

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Fig.1. Refrigeration Test Rig

Methodology
If T1, T2 temperature of surrounding and temperature of evaporator in case of refrigerator than co-efficient of
performance is given byT2
(C.O.P)Ref. = -----------(A)
T1 T2
Equation (A) defines that C.O.P of refrigeration system depends on T1 and T2. It means C.O.P of refrigeration
system will be higher if T1 is lower or T2 is higher. Since lower temperature of evaporator is desirable so we
should not increase the temperature of evaporator i.e T2. On other hand, we can not reduce the temperature of
surrounding i.e T1.
So evaporative cooling of condenser is best option of reduce the temperature of water up to wet bulb
temperature of air.
For analyses the effect of evaporative cooling we have used following steps

Steps 1)

Fill the tank of ice plant with 10 kg of water and notedown the initial temperature of water and Wattmeter
reading .Then start the compressor for 50 minutes.
2) Note down the reading, temperatures after
compressor, after condenser, after expansion, and after evaporator water temperature, suction pressure
andexhaust pressure when test rig utilized the 0.1Kwh power.
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3) After that spray the water of temperature 18oC on condenser and again read the temperatures at previous
locations when test rig utilized the 0.1Kwh power.
4) Now repeat this procedure for spray water of temperature 23o C and 30o C.
Results Here Following abbreviations are used:
P1 = Discharge Pressure
P2 = Suction pressure
T1 = Temperature after compressor,oC
T2= Temperature after condenser,oC
T3 = Temperature after expansion device,oC
T4 = Temperature after evaporator,oC
T5 = Water temperature,oC
A) Refrigeration effect with spray water temperature of 18O C

P1
P2
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5

Before
133 psi
2.2 psi
65
43
6
24
19

After 10 Minutes
133 psi
2.2 psi
54
36
3
2
6

B) Refrigeration effect with spray water temperature of 23O C


Before
133.3 psi
2.2 psi
65
40
15
16
18

P1
P2
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5

After 10 Minutes
133.3 psi
2.2 psi
60
34
4
3
7

C) Refrigeration effect with spray water temperature of 30O C


Before

After 10 Minutes

P1

133.3 psi

133.3 psi

P2

2.2 psi
65
40
16
30

2.2 psi
60
35
9
16

T1
T2
T3
T4
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T5

23

15

TEMPERATURE VARIATION FOR DIFFERENT SPRAY WATER TEMP.


25

20

15

10

0
18 Deg. Celsius

23 Deg. Celsius

T1(Before)-T1(After)

T2(Before)-T2(After)

T4(Before)-T4(After)

T5(Before)-T5(After)

30 Deg. Celsius
T3(Before)-T3(After)

Fig2. Variation of temperature for different spray water temperature

REFERENCES:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

43

A text book of Refrigeration and air conditioning by R.S Khurmi and J.K Gupta, Edition 2006, Page 43
Engineering Thermodynamics, Fourth Edition by P.K Nag, Page 583
Air conditioning and refrigeration by Rex Miller and Mark R. Miller, Page 56
Refrigeration and air conditioning by G.F Hundy, Page 16
Engineering Thermodynamics, Fourth Edition by P.K Nag, Page 583
A text book of Refrigeration and air conditioning by R.S Khurmi and J.K Gupta, Edition 2006, Page 44
Ngenharia Trmica (Thermal Engineering), Vol. 5 No 02 December 2006 p. 09-15
Effect of evaporative cooling on refrigeration system by Mohit Yadav, IJESRT Dec; 2013

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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Review on Sensor parameter analysis for forward collision detection


system
Miss. Vaishali B.Gadekar1, Mrs. Savita R, Pawar2
1

M.E.Student, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi, Pune.
Asst. Professor, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi, Pune.
Email:vaishaligadekar17@gmail.com, srpawar@etx.mae.ac.in

Abstract Automobile crash safety is becoming one of the important criteria for customer vehicle selection. Today,
passive safety systems like seat belts, airbags restraints systems have become very popular for occupant protection during
collisions. Even the active safety systems like ABS, ESP, parking assist camera etc are becoming regular fitments on
many vehicle models. Also many technologies are evolving for collision detection, warning & avoidance as well.
Different sensors, which comprise of RADAR, LIDAR / LASER or Camera, are used in forward collision warning (FCW)
to avoid the accidents. In this project scope, study is carried out on sensing parameters for different types of sensors on
Indian road environment in context of collision avoidance systems to benefit the overall road safety in India. The
analyses of the parameters will support towards selection of best sensing configuration, to achieve optimal system
performance. Such a study would also provide insights into the functionality limitations of different types of sensing
systems.
KeywordsCollision avoidance System, forward collision warning System, Radar Sensor, LiDAR sensor, Camera
sensor, Azimuth Elevation Field of View.

INTRODUCTION: When early automobiles were involved in accidents, there was very little or no protection available
for the vehicles occupants. However, over a period of time automotive engineers designed safe vehicles to protect drivers
and passengers. Advances such as improved structural design, seat belts and air bags systems helped decrease the number
of injuries and deaths in road accidents. Recently collision avoidance systems (CAS) are evolving to avoid vehicle
collisions or mitigate the severity of vehicle accident. These systems assist drivers in avoiding potential collisions [1]. In
order for a CAS to provide a positive and beneficial influence towards the reduction of potential crashes, it is critical that
the CAS system has the ability to correctly identify the vehicle, pedestrian & object targets in the Host vehicles path [1].
The solution to this problem relies primarily on the CAS systems sensing system ability to estimate the detection range,
relative speed, radius-of-curvature,etc. between the Host vehicle and all other appropriate targets (i.e.: roadside objects,
pedestrians, vehicles, etc). The in-path target identification & discriminating them from out of path objects (deal with
nuisance object) is technically very complex and challenging task in collision avoidance system [1].
The range, range rate, and angular information of other vehicles and/or objects around the host vehicle can be measured
by sensors radar, lidar, and/or cameras in real time.CAS process all the information in real time to keep track of the most
current vehicle-to-vehicle kinematic conditions. When a potential collision threat is identified by the system, appropriate
warnings are issued to the driver to facilitate collision avoidance. If the driver fails to react in time to the warnings to
avoid the imminent collision, an overriding system can take over control to avoid or mitigate the collision in an
emergency situation. Therefore collision avoidance systems can assist drivers in two ways, warning and/or overriding,
according to the dynamic situation. In such situations some of critical sensing parameters are: [2]

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Azimuth field of view: The required range for the field of view of sensor.
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Elevation Field of View (FOV): By determining a suitable value for the elevation FOV parameter helps sensor to keep track of
objects which are within range and azimuth FOV and account for road tilt (5% grade), road variation, sensor misalignment, and
vehicle pitch.
Operating Range: Sensor is required to detect/track stopped objects at a range that provides time for driver reaction.
Range Rate: Needs to be large to avoid aliasing or dropping target tracks.

FORWARD COLLISION DETECTION SENSORS:


1.

RADAR SENSOR: RADAR which stands for Radio Detection and Ranging is a system that uses electromagnetic waves for
detecting, locating, tracking and identifying moving and fixed objects at considerable distances. In this technology the distance
from the object is calculated through the echoes that are sent back from the object. Radar transmitter transmits electro-magnetic
waves through a directional antenna in any given direction in a focused manner. A part of the transmitted energy is absorbed by
the atmosphere. Some of the energy travels further through the atmosphere and a fraction of it is scattered backward by the targets
and is received by the radar receiver. The amount of received power depends upon radar parameters like transmitted power, radar
wavelength, horizontal and vertical beam widths, scattering cross section of the target atmospheric characteristics etc.In the
Forward Collision Warning System, Doppler Effect based radar transmits and detects electromagnetic waves and the time taken
for detection after transmission helps to determine the distance from the lead vehicle or obstacle. Although the amount of signal
returned is tiny, radio signals can easily be detected and amplified [5]. Radar radio waves can be easily generated at any desired
strength, detected at even tiny powers, and then amplified many times. Thus radar is suited to detecting objects at very large
ranges where other reflections, like sound or visible light, would be too weak to detect. The determination of the position of an
object is done through the Time-of-flight and angle measurement. In process of Time-of-flight measurements, electromagnetic
energy is sent toward objects and the returning echoes are observed. The measured time difference and the speed of the signal
allow calculating the distance to the object. The Speed measurement is made through the Doppler Effect. The base of Doppler
Effect is change of wavelength due to the changing gap between waves. In the automobile industry there are two kinds of
RADAR: short range and long range RADAR. Short range RADAR (24 GHz) reaches approximately a range of 0.2-20 m, while
long range RADAR (76-77 GHz) reaches a distance between 1-200 m. The characteristics from RADAR change a lot depending
on short range or long range [6].

2.

LIDAR SENSOR: LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging; or Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging) is a technology that
determines distance to an object or surface using laser pulses. As in the similar radar technology, which uses radio wave instead
of light, determination of the range to an object is done by measuring the time delay between transmission of a pulse and
detection of the reflected signal. The main difference between lidar and radar is that much shorter wavelengths of the
electromagnetic spectrum are used, usually in the ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared. Lidars provide range, range rate, azimuth
and elevation measurements. Laser based ranging is a time-of-flight measurement of a light beam from a light source to a target
and back. In these systems, the laser scanner device encompasses a transmitter and receiver. When the beam hits an object, part of
the incident beam energy is reflected, indicated by the red arrows representing a hemispherical radiation pattern. The receiver is
located near the laser; it is an optical system that captures the energy radiated back from the target object. The received signal is
further processed to compute the distance from the Lidar to the object. In the path from the transmitter to the target object, the
beam is spreading with a small angle .This spreading causes a decrease in intensity as the distance increases and is referred to as
geometric loss. The medium through which the light travels might absorb or scatter the light which introduces a path loss that
increases with the distance to the target[6].

Figure 1 : Operating principle of Lidar

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3. CAMERA SENSOR: Vision systems use one or several cameras together with a microprocessor to perform image
processing. Since they operate in the visible light region, their capabilities are similar to that of our own eyes. In this
type of FCWS, a camera based sensor is used to detect car/obstacle in front of the host vehicle. Camera based FCWS
are typically used for medium range, medium field of view detection. The camera system can be charge coupled
device (CCD) based or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) based [5].
The two main types of system are:

Single camera systems - using either a monochrome or a color camera. One use in automotive applications for single
camera systems is to monitor the lane markings in lane-keeping aid systems.
Stereo camera systems - A stereo camera system provides a 3D image by combining the images from two (or more)
cameras. In such a system, range can be measured through triangulation. Because of the 3D information obstacle detection
is easier. Generally, shape or pattern recognition is not needed to the same extent as for a single camera system.

The performance of a vision system depends on among other thing the optics, the size of the sensor, number of pixels, and the dynamic
range. The update frequency of many vision sensors is 25 Hz
The most important measurements provided by the automotive sensor are range, range rate, azimuth angle, and elevation angle as
shown in following figure 2.

Figure 2: Measurements provided by the radar sensor are range, elevation angle and azimuth angle.

Commonly used Sensor Performance Comparison Matrix:

Performance Factors

Sensor
Radar

Lidar

Vision based

Rain
Snow
Fog
Environmental
Hail

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influence

Dust
Day-night
operation
Metallic
object

Object Type
Non-Metallic
object
Object Discrimination capability
Range

120-200 m

50-150 m

50-70m

Good Performance
Degradation with
condition
Poor Performance

Table 1: Sensor Performance Comparison Matrix

METHODOLOGY
The following methodology has been used to analysis the performance of the sensing parameter. The following flow
diagram describes the steps of analysis which is described in the methodology.

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Start

Objective

Sensor Study
(Advantages and limitation of different sensors )

Test Scenario

Test Object

Sensor Parameter Study (DOE)

Critical Sensor Parameter Identification

Robustness Study of critical parameter

Sensor configuration definition based on Robustness


Study

End

Figure 3: Flow chart -Project flow diagram

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Study of different sensor types:


The first task of this study is to get the knowledge about the different types of sensor i.e. RADAR, LiDAR and Camera/
Vision sensor. Hence studied has been carried out by considering key performance of sensing parameter with respect to
different Lighting Condition, Environmental condition i.e. weather factor affect and also with respect to different Road
types like concrete , asphalt, gravel , sand etc by considering different infrastructure types ( like curve road, straight
road ,U-turn, gradient type )
Selection criteria with possible combination:
The selection criteria is based on the range rate ,object discrimination capability of the sensor under different weather
condition (like dense fog, heavy rain, snow, sensitivity to light condition) and operating range.
CAE assessment using software tool: Evaluation of the different objects / vehicles detection data received from CAE or
testing for different types of sensor performance study: For CAE study the software will be used in which it will create
different type of load cases (traffic scenario) and by considering the typical traffic / accident scenario and object detection
in different environment conditions, it will be Identify the risks where sensing systems can fail to meet the performance
requirements and also Derive the specification for sensing configurations for forward collision avoidance systems.
Selection of sensing system configuration and design parameter based on CAE assessment.
Robustness Study of design parameter of chosen sensing system for parameter robustness.

CONCLUSION
[1] During this study different automotive sensors are studied with their advantages disadvantages and limitations.
[2] Performance assessment criteria for sensor configuration have been established in this study.
[3] CAE simulation has been carried out for doing assessment of sensor performance under different environment and working
condition..
[4] CAE simulation will be finalize for define application.
[5] For define sensor configuration robustness study will be carried out for various sensor parameter.

REFERENCES:
[1] Yizhen Zhang, Erik K. Antonsson and Karl Grote, A New Threat Assessment Measure for Collision Avoidance Systems, California Institute
of Technology2006, Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC), IEEE Conference Publication 17-20. pp-1 Sept. 2006.
[2] P.L.Zador, S.A. Krawchuk, R.B. Voas, Automotive Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Program, U.S Department of Transportation,
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTAS), and, pp 22-35, August 2005.
[3] Kristofer D. Kusano and Hampton C. Gabler,, Safety Benefits of Forward Collision Warning, Brake Assist, and Autonomous Braking Systems
in Rear-End Collisions IEEE transaction on intelligent transportation system , VOL. 13, NO. 4,, pp- 1547-50, DECEMBER 2012.
[4] Jonas Jansson Collision Avoidance Theory with Application to Automotive Collision Mitigation Department of Electrical Engineering
University, SE581 83,Sweden,pp27-32, 2005
[5] Steven H. Bayless; Adrian Guan; Patrick Son, P.E.; Sean Murphy; Anthony J. Shaw, Developments in Radar, LIDAR, and other Sensing
Technologies, and Impact on Vehicle Crash Avoidance/Automation and Active Traffic Management ,Intelligent Transportation Society of
America (ITS America) Technology Scan Series 2012-2014.
[6] R. H. Rasshofer and K. Gresser ,Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation DriverAssistance Functions, BMW Group
Research and Technology, Hanauer Str. 46, 80992 Munich, Germany, Advances in Radio Science, 3, 205209, 2005

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Analysis of Access Control Techniques: R3 and RBAC


Priyanka Jairath*, Rajneesh Talwar#
M.Tech Student *( Deptt. Of Computer Science), Principal CGC- COE # Punjab Technical University
prpjairath1@gmail.com * , rtmtechguidance@gmail.com # and +91 9780608772*

Abstract Cloud computing could be a new approach of computing that leverages the economical pooling of on-demand, self
managed, virtual infrastructure. Multicloud designs deploying and evolving our application to include new clouds. This paper provides
a survey regarding however multi cloud design will scale back the protection risks and by exploitation multiple distinct clouds at an
equivalent time helps in disaster recovery, geo-presence, and redundancy. Though respectable progress has been created, a lot of
analysis has to be done to deal with the multi-faceted security issues that exist among cloud computing.

Keywords Cloud Computing, Access Control, R3, RBAC, Algorithm, Comparison.


INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is that the evolution of associate existing IT infrastructure that has a long-dreamed vision of computing as a
utility. The emergence of cloud technologies over last many years had important impacts on several aspects of IT business. In step
with the survey conducted regarding cloud computing, most of medium and tiny firms use cloud computing services attributable to
varied reasons that embrace reduction of price in infrastructure and quick access to their application. Cloud computing has been
represented in terms of its delivery and preparation models. though cloud computing emerges from existing technologies, its
computing (delivery and deployment) models and characteristics raise new security challenges attributable to some incompatibility
problems with existing security solutions.

Figure 1: A cloud Environment


A multi-cloud strategy can even improve overall enterprise performance by avoiding "vendor lock-in" and mistreatment
completely different infrastructures to fulfil the requirements of various partners and customers. A multi-cloud approach offers not
solely the hardware, software system and infrastructure redundancy necessary to optimize fault tolerance, however it can even steer
traffic from completely different client bases or partners through the quickest doable components of the network. Some clouds are
higher suited than others
for a specific task. For instance, an explicit cloud would possibly handle massive numbers of requests per unit time requiring little
knowledge transfers on the typical, however a distinct cloud would possibly perform higher for smaller numbers of requests per unit
time involving massive knowledge transfers on the typical.
NIST defines 3 main service models for cloud computing:
1. Software package as a Service (SaaS) The cloud supplier provides the cloud shopper with the aptitude to deploy associate
degree application on a cloud infrastructure [1].
2. Platform as a Service (SaaS) The cloud supplier provides the cloud shopper with the aptitude to develop and deploy
applications on a cloud infrastructure victimization tools, runtimes, and services supported by the CSP [1].
3. Infrastructure as a Service (SaaS) The cloud supplier provides the cloud shopper with basically a virtual machine. The
cloud shopper has the power to provision process, storage, networks, etc., and to deploy and run discretional software
package supported by the software system pass by the virtual machine [1].
NIST conjointly defines four readying models for cloud computing: public, private, hybrid, and community clouds. Confer with
the agency definition of cloud computing for his or her descriptions [1].
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One of the foremost appealing factors of cloud computing is its pay-as-you-go model of computing as a resource. This
revolutionary model of computing has allowed businesses and organizations in would like of computing power to buy as several
resources as they have while not having to place forth an oversized capital investment within the IT infrastructure. Different blessings
of cloud computing are unit large measurability and accrued flexibility for a comparatively constant value. As an example, a cloud
user will provision a thousand hours of procedure power on one cloud instance for a similar value as one hour of procedure power on a
thousand cloud instances [2].
Despite the various blessings of cloud computing, several massive enterprises area unit hesitant to adopt cloud computing to
interchange their existing IT systems. Within the Cloud Computing Services Survey done by IDC IT cluster in 2009, over eighty
seven of these surveyed cited security because the best issue preventing adoption of the cloud [3]. For adoption of cloud computing to
become a lot of widespread, it's vital that the safety issue with cloud computing be analyzed and addressed, and projected solutions be
enforced in existing cloud offerings.
The organization of the remainder of this paper is as follows. The second section discusses the framework with that it will be able
to address the safety problems in cloud computing, and therefore the third section elaborates on every of the sections in my
framework. Finally, the fourth section of this paper discusses conclusions and future work to be worn out the realm of cloud
computing security.

Role based mostly Access management


In role-based access management (RBAC) model, roles are mapped to access permissions and users are mapped to applicable
roles. As an example, users are assigned membership to the roles supported their responsibilities and qualifications within the
organisation. Permissions are assigned to qualified roles rather than individual users. Moreover, in RBAC, a job will inherit
permissions from alternative roles; therefore there's a data structure of roles. In RBE theme, the owner of the info encrypts the info in
such how that solely the users with applicable roles as fixed by a RBAC policy will rewrite and look at the info. The role grants
permissions to users United Nations agency qualify the role and might conjointly revoke the permissions from existing users of the
role. The cloud supplier (who stores knowledge/ the info/the information}) won't be able to see the content of the data if the provider
isn't given the suitable role. RBE theme is in a position to upset role hierarchies, whereby roles inherit permissions type alternative
roles. A user is in a position to affix a job once the owner has encrypted the info for that role. The user will be able to access that
information from then on, and therefore the owner ought not to re-encrypt the info. A user is revoked at any time during which case;
the revoked user won't have access to any future encrypted information for this role. With our new RBE theme, revocation of a user
from a job doesn't have an effect on alternative users and roles within the system.
Security Analysis: We've got shown that our theme is semantically secure beneath the overall Decisional Diffie- dramatist Exponent
assumption (GDDHE) introduced in [15] by process a particular GDDHE drawback.

I.

BASIC R3
In the basic R3 theme, we have a tendency to think about ideal conditions, wherever the information owner and every one of the
cloud servers within the cloud share a synchronised clock, and there arent any transmissions and queuing delays once corporal
punishment scan and write commands.

A. Intuition
The data owner can initial generate a shared secret key to the CSP. Then, when the information owner encrypts every file
with the acceptable attribute structure and time slice, the information owner uploads the come in the cloud. The CSP can replicate the
file to numerous cloud servers. Every cloud server can have a replica of the shared secret key.
Let us assume that a cloud server stores Associate in Nursing encrypted file F with A and TSi. Once a user queries that cloud
server, the cloud server initial uses its own clock to work out this time slice. Presumptuous that this time slice is TSi+k, the cloud
server can mechanically re-encrypt F with TSi+k, without receiving any command from the information owner. Throughout the
method, the cloud server cannot gain the contents of the cipertext and also the new cryptography keys. Solely users with keys
satisfying A and TSi+k are going to be ready to rewrite F.
B. Protocol Description
We divide the outline of the fundamental R3 theme into 3 components: information owner formatting, information user scan
information and Data owner write information. Well deem the subsequent functions.
1) Setup() (PK;MK; s) : At TS0, the information owner publishes the system public key PK, keeps the system
Algorithm 1: Basic R3 (synchronized clock with no delays)
while Receive a write command W (F; seqnum) at TSi
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do
Commit the write command so as at the tip of TSi
while Receive a scan command R(F) at TSi do
Re-encrypt file with TSi
master key MK secret, and sends the shared secret key s to the cloud.[3]
2) GenKey(PK;MK; s; PKAlice;A; T ) (SKAlice; ) : Once {the information/the info/the information} owner desires to grant
data user Alice attributes A with valid fundamental measure T , the data owner generates SKAlice and mistreatment the
system public key, the system passkey, the shared secret key, Alices public key, Alices attributes and eligible time.
3) Encrypt(PK;A; s; TSt; F) (CtA) : At TSt, the information owner encrypts file F with access structure A, and produces
ciphertext CtA mistreatment the system public key, access structure, the system secret key, time slice, and plaintext file.
4) Decrypt(PK;CtA ; SKAlice; 1_j_ni ) F : At TSt, user U, United Nations agency possesses version t attribute secret keys on
all attributes in CCi, recovers F mistreatment the system public key, the user identity secret key, and also the user attribute
secret keys.
5) REncrypt(CtA ; s; TSt+k) Ct+k
A : once the cloud server needs to come back back a data user with the file at TSt+k, it updates the ciphertext from CtA to
Ct+kA victimisation the shared secret key.
1) Information owner initialization: the info owner runs the Setup operate to initiate the system. Once the info owner needs to
upload file F to the cloud server, it initial defines associate degree access management A for F, and so determines this time
slice TSi. Finally, it runs the write operate with A and TSi to output the ciphertext. once {the information|the info|the
information} owner needs to grant a collection of attributes in a very amount of your time to data user Alice, it runs the
GenKey operate with attributes and effective times to come up with keys for Alice.
2) Information user scan information: once data user Alice needs to access file F at TSi, she sends a scan command R(F) to the
cloud server, wherever F is that the file name. On receiving the scan command R(F), the cloud server runs the REncrypt
operate to re-encrypt the file with TSi. On receiving the ciphertext, Alice runs the decode operate victimisation keys
satisfying A and TSi to recover F.
3) Information owner write data: once the info owner needs to put in writing file F at TSi, it'll send a write command to the
cloud server within the kind of: W (F; seqnum), wherever seqnum is that the order of the write command. This seqnum is
critical for ordering once the info owner problems multiple write commands that got to happen in just once slice. On
receiving the write command, the cloud server can commit it at the top of TSi. Formula one shows the actions of the cloud
server.
Algorithm 2: Extended R3 (asynchronized clock with delays)
while Receive a write command W(F; ti+1; seqnum) do
if Current time is before ti+1 + nine then
Build Window i for file F
Commit the write command in Window i at ti+1 + nine
else
Reject the write command
Inform the info owner to send write command earlier
while Receive a scan request R(F; TSi) do
if Current time is later than ti+1 + prosecutor then
Re-encrypt the move into Window i with TSi
else
Hold on the scan command till ti+1 + prosecutor.[3]

II.

ROLE BASED ACCESS CONTROL

In role-based access control (RBAC) model, roles are mapped to access permissions and users are mapped to appropriate
roles. For instance, users are assigned membership to the roles based on their responsibilities and qualifications in the organization.
Permissions are assigned to qualified roles instead of individual users. Moreover, in RBAC, a role can inherit permissions from other
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roles; hence there is a hierarchical structure of roles. Since being first formalized in 1990s, RBAC has been widely used in many
systems to provide users with flexible access control management, as it allows access control to be managed at a level that
corresponds closely to the organizations policy and structure.
In traditional access control systems, enforcement is carried out by trusted parties which are usually the service providers. In
a public cloud, as data can be stored in distributed data centres, there may not be a single central authority which controls all the data
centres. Furthermore the administrators of the cloud provider themselves would be able to access the data if it is stored in plain format.
To protect the privacy of the data, data owners employ cryptographic techniques to encrypt the data in such a way that only users who
are allowed to access the data as specified by the access policies will be able to do so. We refer to this approach as a policy based
encrypted data access. The authorized users who satisfy the access policies will be able to decrypt the data using their private key, and
no one else will be able to reveal the data content. Therefore, the problem of managing access to data stored in the cloud is
transformed into the problem of management of keys which in turn is determined by the access policies.
The main review contributions of this paper are
(i) A new role-based encryption (RBE) scheme with efficient user revocation that combines RBAC policies with encryption
to secure large scale data storage in a public cloud,
(ii) A secure RBAC based hybrid cloud storage architecture which allows an organization to store data securely in a public
cloud, while maintaining the sensitive information related to the organizations structure in a private cloud,
(iii) A practical implementation of the proposed RBE scheme and description of its architecture and
(iv) Analysis of results demonstrating efficient performance characteristics such as efficient encryption and decryption
operations on the client side as well as superior characteristics of the proposed RBE scheme such as constant size cipher text and
decryption key as well as efficient user revocation. Given these characteristics, the proposed RBE system has the potential to be a
suitable candidate for developing practical commercial cloud data storage systems.

Figure 2: RBE Architecture


In the RBE scheme has the following four types of entities. SA is a system administrator that has the authority to generate the
keys for users and roles, and to define the role hierarchy. RM is a role manager 2 who manages the user membership of a role. Owners
are the parties who want to store their data securely in the cloud. Users are the parties who want to access and decrypt the stored data
in the cloud. Cloud is the place where data is stored and it provides interfaces so all the other entities can interact with it.
We can define the following algorithms for RBE scheme:
Setup () takes as input the security parameter and outputs a master secret key mk and a system public key pk. mk is kept secret by
the SA while pk is made public to all users of the system. Extract (mk, ID) is executed by the SA to generate the key associated with
the identity ID. If ID is the identity of a user, the generated key is returned to the user as the decryption key. If ID is the identity of a
role, the generated key is returned to the RM as the secret key of the role, and an empty user list RUL which will list all the users who
are the members of that role is also returned to the RM.
ManageRole (mk, IDR, PRR) is executed by the SA to manage a role with the identity ID R in the role hierarchy.
PRR is the set of roles which will be the ancestor roles of the role. This operation publishes a set of public parameters pub R to cloud.

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AddUser (pk, skR, RULR, IDU ) is executed by the role manager RM of a role R to grant the role membership to the user IDU , which
results in the role public parameters pubR and role user list RULR, being updated in cloud.
RevokeUser (pk, skR, RULR, IDU ) is executed by a role manager RM of a role R to revoke the role membership from a user ID U ,
which also results in the role public parameters pub R and role user list RULR, being updated in cloud.
Encrypt (pk, pubR) is executed by the owner of a message M. This algorithm takes as input the system public key pk, the role public
parameters pub R, and outputs a tuple_C, K_, where C will b a part of the ciphertext, and K K is the key that will be used to encrypt
the message M.(Note the ciphertext consists of C and the encrypted M).
We assume that the system uses a secure encryption scheme Enc, which takes K as the key space, to encrypt messages. The
ciphertext of the message M will be in the form of _C, EncK (M)_ which can only be decrypted by the users who are the members of
the role R. When this operation finishes, a ciphertext is output and uploaded to cloud by the owner.
Decrypt (pk, pubR, dk, C) is executed by a user who is a member of the role R. This algorithm takes as input the system public key pk,
the role public parameters pubR, the user decryption key dk, the part C from the ciphertext downloaded from cloud, and outputs the
message encryption key K K. The key K can then be used to decrypt the ciphertext part EncK (M) and obtain the message M [4].

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of CGC Landran College, for partial work reported in the paper.

CONCLUSION
In this paper, we analyzed and study the R3 scheme, a new method for managing access control based on the cloud servers
internal clock. Our technique does not rely on the cloud to reliably propagate re-encryption commands to all servers to ensure access
control correctness. Secondly, we studied a new RBAC scheme that achieves efficient user revocation and have more privacy and
security of Information stored in cloud. But all data remains in public cloud.
III.

FUTURE SCOPE

We review the two techniques namely R3 and RBAC of cloud based architecture. The future holds of this cloud storage
architecture which allows an organization to store data securely in a public cloud, while maintaining the sensitive information related
to the organizations structure in a private cloud. In future, we can construct an effective data access control scheme for multiauthority cloud storage systems. Where we can prove that existing scheme can be made more secure in the random oracle model. The
new scheme should be a promising technique, which can be applied in any remote storage systems and online social networks etc.
REFERENCES
[1] P. Samarati and S. D. C. di Vimercati, Data protection in outsourcing scenarios: Issues and directions, in Proc.
ASIACCS, Apr. 2010, pp. 114.
[2] Lan Zhou, Vijay Varadharajan, and Michael Hitchens, Achieving Secure Role-Based Access Control on Encrypted Data
in Cloud Storage, IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol. 8, no. 12, December 2013,pp. 1947-1960.
[3] Qin Liuyz, Chiu C. Tanz, Jie Wuz, and Guojun Wangy, Reliable Re-encryption in Unreliable Clouds,
conference/journal, pp. 1-5.
[4] C. Delerable, Identity-based broadcast encryption with constant size ciphertexts and private keys, in ASIACRYPT (Lecture
Notes in Computer Science), vol. 4833. New York, NY, USA: Springer-Verlag, 2007, pp. 200215

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An Investigative and Synoptic Review on Helium Liquefaction Using a


Commercial 4 K Gifford- McMahon Cryocooler
Mahesh N1, S A Mohan Krishna2
1

PG Student, Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering, Mysore, India

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering,


Mysore, Karnataka, India
1

maheshgowda360@gmail.com, 2mohankrishnasa@vvce.ac.in

Abstract: The review paper describes liquefaction of helium using a commercial cryocooler with 1.5 W cooling power
at 4.2 K, equipped with heat exchangers for precooling the incoming gas. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the
liquefaction rate are considered. Also liquefaction rate and temperature can be observed by placing resistors in series
inside the liquefaction container. There by taking voltage reading we will get liquefaction rate. The assembly of Gifford McMahon cryocooler with heat exchangers and helium liquefaction container is usually accomplished. The pressure
gauge has to be connected to the container in order to examine the oscillation which gives the liquefaction rate. Also
resistors are placed inside the container to measure the temperature and pressure of helium at different stages in container.
This paper furnishes detailed information about the methodology and experimental technique about the utility of GiffordMcMahon cryocooler for Helium liquefaction.

Key words: Cryocooler, Gifford-McMahon, Liquefaction, Heat Exchangers, Pressure Gague and Resistors.

1. INTRODUCTION
Liquefaction is the process of converting a compressed gas into a liquid under reliable conditions. Liquid
helium is required as a working medium in almost all low-temperature laboratories. Usually a large-scale
liquefier serves as a central facility for helium liquefaction, for distribution of liquid helium to many cryostats in
large transport dewars. With the availability of small closed-cycle cryocoolers a different scheme has become
possible, where helium liquefaction may be performed nearby or even in the cryostat, thus allowing operation
independent from cryogenic liquids support. Two variants of cryocoolers are available on the market, the pulse
tube and Gifford-McMahon (GM) types. Without the aid of cryoliquids and Joule-Thomson stages an effective
liquefaction rate of 542 ml/h has been achieved using GM cryocooler [1].

The work was motivated by a development of a versatile source for ultra-cold neutrons, which will employ
superthermal production in a converter of superfluid Helium. First tests will be performed with a converter few
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litres in volume, which might later be upgraded to tens of liters. This volume has to be filled with helium and
cooled down to 0.5 K. Liquefaction at the rate observed in the present study will enable us to do experiments
independent of cryoliquids and Joule-Thomson stages. Liquid helium is required as a working medium in any
low-temperature laboratory applications. Usually a large-scale liquefier serves as a central facility, for
distribution of liquid helium to many cryostats in large transport dewars. With the availability of small closedcycle cryocoolers a different scheme has become possible, where helium liquefaction may be performed nearby
or even in the cryostat, thus allowing operation independent from cryogenic liquids support. The main
application is a SQUID magnetometer.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
After the introduction of the pulse tube cooler by Gifford and Longsworth in the mid 1960s essential
improvements of this refrigerator type have been achieved in the past decade by two types of modifications:
adding a buffer volume via an orifice valve to the warm end of the pulse tube led to phase shift between
pressure and velocity with resulting improvements in cooling performance.
Thummes et al [2] reported a liquefaction rate of 127 ml/h obtained with a pulse tube cooler with 170
mW net cooling power at 4.2 K. A temperature of 3.6 K and a net cooling power of 30 mW at 4.2 K thus was
first obtained with a three-stage pulse tube cooler by Matsubara. A regenerative tube at the warm end of the
third stage pulse tube was used in their system. They obtained a lowest temperature of 2.75 K.Thummes
achieved the lowest temperature of 2.75K using two stage pulse tube cooler and the process and performance of
two configuration of 4K pulse tube coolers and GM cryocoolers are by C .wang in 1997.
C. Wang, G. Thummes et al [3] investigated a two-stage double-inlet pulse tube cooler in the year 1996 for
cooling below 4 K is designed and constructed by the aid of numerical analysis. The hot end of the second stage
pulse tube is connected to the phase shifting assembly at room temperature without the use of a regenerative
tube.

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3. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
Fig 3.1 shows a sketch of the setup. The helium gas is supplied by a standard helium gas cylinder equipped
with a pressure-reducing valve. The mass flow is controlled by a needle valve and monitored by a mass flow
meter calibrated for helium with accuracy better than 1.5% in the range of 0100 g/h. The helium flow can be
opened and closed with a valve. The cryocooler is integrated into a DN 320 top flange of a cylindrical vessel
from stainless steel. A cylindrical vessel with diameter 290 mm from silver-coated copper connected to the first
stage of the cooler serves as a heat screen to protect the colder parts of the liquefier from ambient temperature
radiation. The estimated total heat load to the first stage additional to the unknown flow along the cooler itself is
7.4 W.
The gas first passes through a cold trap, which is connected to the top flange of the heat screen and thus
kept at a temperature close to the first stage of the cold head. The cold trap consists of a copper cylinder filled
with copper mesh, which also serves to freeze out gas impurities. An additional heat exchanger assures
precooling to the temperature T1 of the first stage. It consists of a stainless steel capillary with outer diameter 2
mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm, soft soldered to a copper sheet on a length of 0.5 m and fixed to the first stage
with a hose clamp. The same capillary was chosen for the subsequent heat exchangers, ensuring turbulent flow
of the helium gas for good radial heat transfer across the capillary wall.

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Fig. 3.1 Schematic of helium liquefaction rig (not to scale). Fifty litre helium cylinder (C), pressure reducer
(PR), flow meter (FM), needle valve (NV), cut-off valve (V), inlet pressure gauge for measuring Pin (P1), top
flange of heat screen (HS), cold trap (1), heat exchanger on first stage of cryocooler (2), heat exchanger
between first and second stage of cryocooler (3), condenser spiral on second stage (4), storage volume (5),
pressure gauge (P2) for measuring the pressure bath above the bath.
The helium is finally liquefied in a condenser. It consists of a stainless steel capillary spiral, which is
hard soldered on a length of 1165 mm to a copper disk, screwed to the bottom plate of the second stage. Liquid
helium is collected in a copper bottle with volume 400 cm3, which is thermally connected to the second stage. A
2 - 0.25 stainless steel capillary soldered into the top flange of the bottle serves to measure the pressure P bath
above the liquid. The Pbath and input pressure Pin monitored with calibrated piezoelectric silicon membrane
pressure transducers. Different heat exchangers between the first and the second stage were investigated. Most
experiments were performed using a spiral made from the 2 0.25 stainless steel capillary, onto which pieces of
a 3 0.5 copper tube, with length 30 mm each, were hard soldered. Between each of these, a gap of 12 mm is
left. The longest spiral is equipped with 46 such pieces, the medium size spiral has 36 pieces and the shortest
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one 20. Thus the thermal contact length is 138, 108, and 60 cm, respectively. On the inner side of the spirals,
the copper pieces were milled to produce flat surfaces with width 1.8 mm. For good thermal contact with the
stainless steel tube of the cold head, the spirals were tightened by 9 hose clamps Care has to be taken not to
tighten the clamps too strongly, which may result in blocking the displacer in the cold head. Three spirals are
mounted simultaneously, only a single one being used at a time in the experiments described below. Two
Temperature measurements were performed with three calibrated Cernox resistance temperature sensors (Lake
Shore, model CX-1030-CU). They were attached to the heat screen (T1), the condenser (T2), and the bottom of
the bottle (Tbath).
Cooling down the copper heat screen to below 40 K took about 7.5 hours due to its large heat capacity.
After this time the temperature T2 of the condenser was 2.8 K. These values are close to the lowest temperatures
of T1 = 32 K and T2 = 2.4 K reached with this apparatus. Opening the cut-off valve commenced the filling of
the bottle with helium. At the beginning a large mass flow was set in order to attain quickly the desired pressure
Pin or Pbath. The mass flow was measured for different values of input pressure Pin in the range of 0.72.58 bar.
In most experiments the bottle was filled for a single value of pressure to a total mass m. A sudden rise in
pressure indicated that the bottle was full, at which moment the cut-off valve was closed. In several experiments
we let the cold head continue operation in order to measure the time for the subsequent cooling of the liquid to
4.2 K.

4. INVESTIGATIVE SUMMARY
The investigation of heat exchangers showed a monotonous increase of the liquefaction rates obtained as a
function of the length of thermal contact of the gas with the tube of the cold head. Using the longest spiral heat
exchanger, which has 28% more contact length than the second longest one, still increased the liquefaction rate
by just about 8%. The longer spiral can increase the performance in terms of liquefaction rate. Also the
commercial GM cryocooler can easily be converted into a most reliable and most powerful liquefier unit for
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application in low temperature laboratories without cryo liquids. This GM design exhibits a best higher
liquefaction efficiency than the pulse tube cryocooler. It is even competitive to most complex design by its
simple design and construction [4].
The technological differences of GM and pulse tube cryocoolers raised questions on the suitability of GM
cryocoolers for helium liquefaction. Due to high thermal resistance between the incoming gas and the
regenerative material, a typical GM type cooler with 1.5 W may provide at best a liquefaction rate of 2 litres per
day.
REFERENCES:
[1] P. Schmidt-Wellenburg , O. Zimmer, Helium liquefaction with a commercial 4K GM cryocooler, 10 August
2006.

[2] C. Wang, Numerical analysis of 4K pulse tube coolers, 10 January 1997.

[3] C. Wang, G. Thummes and C. Heiden, A two stage pulse tube cooler operating below 4K, 22 October 1996.

[4] Wang, C, Ju, Y and Zhou Y, Experimental investigation of a two stage pulse tube refrigerator. Cryogenics,
1996

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Structural Analysis on Unconventional Section of Air-Breathing Cruise


Vehicle
BASHETTY SRIKANTH1, K.DURGA RAO2, Dr.S.SRINIVAS PRASAD3
1

PG Scholar, MLR Institute of Technology, Hyderabad-500 043, India.


(Corresponding author, Email: srikanth.aeforu@gmail.com, 9052361566)
2

Associate Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Malla Reddy College of Engineering &Technology, Hyderabad-500
017, India. (Email: durgaraok9@gmail.com)
3
Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, MLR Institute of Technology, Hyderabad-500 043, India.
(Email:sanakaprasad@yahoo.com)

Abstract - High temperatures encountered during hypersonic flight lead to high thermal stresses and a significant reduction in
material strength and stiffness of airframe of air-breathing hypersonic cruise vehicle. Thermo-structural analysis on hypersonic vehicle
airframe is one of the challenging problems since the properties, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength varies with temperature.
Thermal analysis, structural analysis and coupled thermo-structural analysis has been carried out on an unconventional section of
hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle subjected to high temperatures and flight loads. The unconventional section having constant
cross section designed for housing the fuel tank and intake-cowl opening mechanism of cruise vehicle has been modeled using
commercial software CATIA V5. Analytical stresses have been calculated due to flight loads at control surface deflection of 0 and
15 at Mach 6, 590C temperature. Linear relation between E, G and K with temperatures has been considered in the computational
and analytical calculations. Computational analysis has been carried out using commercial software ANSYS Workbench in the present
study. Static analysis has been carried out on section subjected to maximum bending moment of 6900 N-m to verify the structural
integrity of the section. The results obtained from computational analysis are in good agreement with analytical results. This study
provides the material combination which ensures structural safety of airframe of cruise vehicle at all operating conditions.
Keywords: Hypersonic cruise vehicle, Airframe, Temperature, Flight loads, Thermal analysis, Structural analysis, Yield strength,
Ultimate tensile strength.

1. INTRODUCTION
The perceived advantages of hypersonic technology for space and missile applications have made many countries to initiate ambitious
programs in recent times. At present many advanced countries are pursuing the development of hypersonic cruising vehicles. India is
the second country to have planned an autonomous flight of the hypersonic air-breathing vehicle, the first being the USA which
demonstrated the flights through X-43 and X-51 programs. The main objective in every airborne vehicle is to have a structure which
can withstand various loads (i.e. both ground and air loads) in the lowest possible weight so that it functions effectively and efficiently.
For these reason, the aerospace field has become evolutionary in almost every field of technology including thermal, propulsion,
structural, metallurgical, aerodynamics, etc. The need to have the best possible configuration both aerodynamically and structurally
with the best suitable material along with the desired speed factor, efficiency, etc. has led to many innovations in terms of materials,
structural, aerodynamic configurations and propulsion efficiency etc.

2. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


To discretize the airframe of hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle into six sections and consider an unconventional section having
uniform cross section, designed for housing the fuel tank and intake-cowl opening mechanism of hypersonic air-breathing cruise
vehicle for the analysis. To calculate analytical stresses due to flight loads at control surface deflection of 0 and 15 at Mach 6, 590C
temperature. To carry out computational analysis for finding the deformation and stresses over the airframe of hypersonic cruise
vehicle with Al alloy and Ti alloy material combination subjected to flight loads and high temperatures. To prove the material
combination of Al alloy considered for Bulkheads, top panel, side panels and Ti alloy considered for bottom panel with suitable
thermal protection system ensures structural safety of airframe of cruise vehicle at all operating conditions.

3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
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The airframe of hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle has been discretized into six sections as shown in figure 1. An unconventional
section P4 having uniform cross section designed for housing the fuel tank and intake-cowl opening mechanism of hypersonic airbreathing cruise vehicle is considered for the analysis. The length of the cruise vehicle has been conceptualized as 5.6m. The
maximum width and height of the cruise vehicle is 0.8m and 0.4m respectively.

Figure 1: Design of hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle airframe


The fore body consists of two ramps, 11.86 and 13.75 and is designed for the cruise mach no.6 at 32km altitude. The configuration
cross-section is flat on the bottom with chamfer on the sides and elliptical curvature on the top. There are chamfers on the top and
bottom sides. The after body of length 1.035m consists of single expansion nozzle. The nose tip of the vehicle is blunt and spherical in
shape.
Section

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

Length (mm)

330

477

873

885

2000

1035

Table 1: Length of sections of cruise vehicle


3.1 DESIGN OF P4 SECTION OF CRUISE VEHICLE
Section P4 has constant cross section throughout its length is designed for housing the fuel tank, air bottles and intake cowl opening
mechanism. This section is 885mm long and lies between stations 1680mm and 2565mm as shown in figure 4.1. It has two end
bulkheads, four stringers and four panels. The two end bulkheads are initially joined together by four stringers with help of fasteners.
Then all four panels of thickness 3mm are placed over them and held by rivets/screws. The solid model of the section P4 is shown in
figure 4.3. The section has been modelled in CATIA V5 and imported to Ansys Workbench.

Figure 2: Section P4 of cruise vehicle


3.2 INPUT LOAD DATA
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The current project is design of unconventional section for structural and thermal loads. The bottom portion of the section experiences
high temperature as it acts as intake for Scramjet engine. The vehicle is cruised at free flight condition using the propulsion produced
by Scramjet engine. At this free flight condition, flight loads and thermal loads act on the cruise vehicle which are as discussed below.
FLIGHT LOADS
Flight load analysis of cruise vehicle has been done at 2 instances of flight i) Control surface is not deflected where Maximum bending
moment is 6300 N-m and ii) Control surface is deflected to 15 where Maximum bending moment is 6900 N-m.
THERMAL LOADS
As the total operational environment of the cruise vehicle is in high Mach regime which indicates that high temperatures are
inevitable. To withstand these high temperatures, proper material selections and design has to be done. The Table 2 shows the
temperatures applied at different panels of thickness 3mm each.
Panel

Top panel

Top slope panel

Vertical panel

Bottom slope

Bottom panel

Temperature ()

110

85

145

225

590

Table 2: Temperatures at different panels

4. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
A number of engineering materials have been studied for design. Following are two candidate materials with their limitation on
mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. Because of light weight and high specific strength at operating temperature of
airframe, Al alloy has been considered as material for Bulkheads, top panel, side panels and Ti alloy for bottom panel.
S.No

Properties

Al alloy

Ti alloy

1
2

Density
Temperature

2700 kg/m
300C

4560 kg/m3
700C

Thermal conductivity

239 W/m-K

17 W/m-K

Coeff. Of Thermal Expansion

Ultimate Tensile Strength, MPa

Youngs modulus, MPa

24e-6 K

-1

333 at 300C

9.4e-6 K-1
265 at 600C

407 at 250C

750 at 400C

53567 at 300C

84000 at 600C

60786 at 250C
122000 at 400C
Table 3: Mechanical properties of materials

5. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Modelling of the section P4 has been carried out using powerful tool CATIA V5. Section P4 has constant cross section throughout its
length is designed for housing the fuel tank, air bottles and intake cowl opening mechanism. This section is 885mm long and lies
between stations 1680mm and 2565mm as shown in figure 1. It has two end bulkheads, four stringers and four panels. The two end
bulkheads are initially joined together by four stringers with help of fasteners. Then all four panels of thickness 3mm are placed over
them and held by rivets/screws.
S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
63

Part

Width (mm)

Thickness (mm)

Length (mm)

Bulkhead
65
25
Around the cross section
Stringer
25
6.5
885
Top panel
586.42
3
885
Top slope panel
191
3
885
Vertical panel
100
3
885
Bottom slope panel
141.36
3
885
Bottom panel
600
3
885
Table 4: Dimension specifications of P4 section of cruise vehicle
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Geometrical configurations of bulkhead and stringer are given in figure 3. It shows the recess made on it to accommodate the panels
of thickness 3mm.

Figure 3: Geometrical configurations of bulkhead and stringer


The orthographical representation of section P4 of hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle is shown in figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Arrangement of bulkheads and stringers of section

6. ANALYTICAL METHOD
In this section of work, the stresses induced in the section due to bending moment load were found out. For this method the section is
approximated as free-free beam. Hence, the theory of symmetrical bending of beams can be applied to calculate the stresses and
deformation. In this flight load analysis, two cases are considered as discussed in the previous section.
ASSUMPTIONS
a) The section has been assumed as monocoque shell.
b) Thermal barrier coating (TBC) technology is available. A temperature reduction of 250C across coating is achieved.
6.1 SYMMETRICAL BENDING
Symmetrical bending arises in beams which have either singly or doubly symmetrical cross-sections as in our case the cross-section is
symmetrical about y-axis as shown in figure 5. The direct stress due to bending moment in the beam is given by the equation
z = M/Z [10]
Z = I/y
Where z is direct stress, M is bending moment, Z is section modulus, I is moment of inertia, y is the position of neutral axis,
Moment of Inertia

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For calculating the moment of inertia of the shelled section, it was divided into individual simple shells of standard geometry shapes.
The moment of inertia of all these individual entities about their centroids was computed and then transferred to the centroid of the
total section.

Figure 5: Geometrical configuration of cross section


Moment of inertia calculated for the panels is as shown below:
S.No
1
2
3
4
5

Panel
Top panel
Top slope panel
Vertical panel
Bottom slope panel
Bottom panel

I (mm4)
763541.67
10522462.22
2083333.33
1757281.14
781250

Ix (mm4)
742926041
74774862.22
2723333.33
37097581.14
338281250

Total moment of inertia of complete section is Ixx = 971590908.8mm4


Direct stress due to bending moment
For Control surface not deflected ( = 0), the calculated direct stress is z = 1.54 MPa.
For Control surface deflected ( = 15), the calculated direct stress is z = 1.68 MPa.
Factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength in both the cases is greater than 5.
6.2 THERMAL STRESS
Thermal stress is a decrease in the quality of a material that occurs due to excessive changes in temperature. It occurs as a result of a
non uniform distribution of temperature in different parts of the body and some restriction on the possibility of thermal expansion or
contraction.
Th = ET [11]
T = T Ta
Where Th = Stress due to temperature expansion (Pa), E = Youngs Modulus (N/m2), = Coefficient of thermal expansion (K-1)
T = Temperature difference (K), T = Max Temperature, Ta = Ambient Temperature.
Approximated thermal stress is calculated for the maximum temperature that is developed on the section. The maximum temperature
developed on the bottom panel of the section is 590C.
Case i: Without HiMAT (Highly maneuverable aircraft
technology) 1200 PLUS paint on bottom panel

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Case ii: With HiMAT (Highly maneuverable aircraft


technology) 1200 PLUS paint on bottom panel

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T = 590C = 863K
At 32km altitude Ta = -44.5C = 228.5K
T = 634.5K
= . MPa
FOS = 265/576.75 = 0.45

T = 340C = 613K
At 32km altitude Ta = -44.5C = 228.5K
T = 384.5K
= MPa
FOS = 750/442= 1.69

Case i: Factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength is 0.45 which is very much low hence it is suggested to use suitable thermal
protection system such as HiMAT (Highly maneuverable aircraft technology) 1200 PLUS paint on the bottom panel, which can
reduce the temperature, by 250C for 2mm coat. With the use HiMAT paint maximum temperature developed on the bottom panel of
the section is 340C. Hence, with this reduction in temperature, the strength available with the same material is 750MPa.
Case ii: For this case, factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength is > 1.5 which is within the limits. Hence, it is suggested to use
suitable thermal protection system for the bottom panel.

7. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS
Finite element analysis for the given section was dealt completely in FEM software ANSYS Workbench.
Importing the geometry and meshing
Start the ANSYS Workbench and select the required analysis system. Add the materials in the engineering data. Select the geometry
and import the P4 section model which was created using CATIA V5. Catia model has been saved as stp file before importing to the
Ansys Workbench. Select the model then it will be directed to the Ansys mechanical window where the problem will be solved.
Imported model can be as shown in figure 6. Select the geometry, enter the element size as 0.03 and give smoothing as high to get a
fine meshed model. Mesh has been created using the automatic meshing method. Meshed model can be as shown in figure 7.

Figure 6: Section P4 model of cruise vehicle

Figure 7: Meshed model

7.1 STATIC ANALYSIS


Static analysis of cruise vehicle has been done at 2 instances of flight i) Control surface is not deflected where Maximum bending
moment is 6300 N-m and ii) Control surface is deflected to 15 where Maximum bending moment is 6900 N-m. Apply the Al alloy
material to the bulkheads, top panel and side panel and Ti alloy material to the bottom panel of the model. Apply the fixed support on
both ends of cross section to constrain the model in ALL DOF. Select the Moment, M = 6300 N-m for the case i and M = 6900 N-m
for case ii and apply it on the model. Solve the problem to find the total deformation, von-Mises stress.

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Figure 8: Deformation of the model at = 0

Figure 9: Deformation of the model at = 15

Figure 10: Von-Mises stress of the model at = 0

Figure 11: Von-Mises stress of the model at = 15

7.2 STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS


Steady state thermal analysis has been performed for two cases: i) Without HiMAT (Highly maneuverable aircraft technology) 1200
PLUS paint on bottom panel and ii) With HiMAT (Highly maneuverable aircraft technology) 1200 PLUS paint on bottom panel.
Apply the Al alloy material to the bulkheads, top panel and side panel and Ti alloy material to the bottom panel of the model. Apply
the thermal loads on the panels as given in Table 2. For case ii change the temperature on bottom panel from 590C to 340C. Apply
the convection 1 on the model except bottom panel and enter the value of film coefficient as 25 W/m 2 C and ambient temperature as
44.5 C. Now apply the convection 2 on the bottom panel and enter the value of film coefficient as 22 W/m2 C and ambient
temperature as 44.5 C. Solve the model to find the temperature distribution over the unconventional section.

Figure 12: Temperature distributions for case i

Figure 13: Temperature distributions for case ii

Now static structural analysis system is selected to find the thermal stresses due to temperature distributions. Apply the All DOF
boundary condition to the cross section and solve the model to find the thermal stress and deformation of the unconventional section.

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Figure 7.14: Deformation of the model for case i

Figure 7.15 Deformation of the model for case ii

Figure 7.16 Von-Mises stress distribution for case i

Figure 7.17 Von-Mises stress distribution for case ii

7.3 COUPLED THERMO-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


Coupled thermo-structural analysis has been carried out for two cases: i) Control surface is not deflected where Maximum bending
moment is 6300 N-m and ii) Control surface is deflected to 15 where Maximum bending moment is 6900 N-m. After finding out the
temperature distribution over the unconventional section with HiMAT paint on bottom panel in thermal analysis switch to static
structural analysis system. Apply the All DOF boundary condition to the cross section and Select the Moment, M = 6300 N-m for the
case i and M = 6900 N-m for case ii and apply it on the model. Solve the problem to find the total deformation, von-Mises stress.

Figure 18: Deformation of the model at = 0

Figure 19: Deformation of the model at = 15

Figure 20: Von-Mises stress of the model at = 0


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Figure 21: Von-Mises stress of the model at = 15


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8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


8.1 STATIC ANALYSIS RESULTS
Load Case

Mass (kg)

Maximum
Deformation (m)

Maximum
Stress (MPa)

Ultimate Tensile
Strength (MPa)

Factor of
Safety

control surface not


deflected ( = 0)

31.56

8.35e-7

1.6

265 at 600C

165

control surface deflected


( = 15)

31.56

9.15e-7

1.75

265 at 600C

151

1800000
1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0

case i
case ii

10

12

Figure 22: Stress variation for both cases


Observation: Factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength for the model is greater than 5 in both the cases.
8.2 THERMAL ANALYSIS RESULTS
Case

Mass
(kg)

Maximum
Deformation (m)

Maximum
Stress (MPa)

Ultimate Tensile
Strength (MPa)

Factor of
Safety

Without HiMAT paint

31.56

0.0038

607

265 at 600C

0.436

With HiMAT paint

31.56

0.003

463

750 at 400C

1.61

70000000
60000000

50000000
40000000
Case i

30000000

Case ii

20000000
10000000
0
0
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Figure 23: Stress variation for both cases


Observation: Factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength for case-i is less than 1.5 and for case-ii is greater than 1.5.
8.3 COUPLED THERMO-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS RESULTS
Load Case

Mass
(kg)

Maximum
Deformation (m)

Maximum
Stress (MPa)

Ultimate Tensile
Strength (MPa)

Factor of
Safety

control surface not deflected ( = 0)

31.56

0.00307

485.2

750 at 400C

1.545

control surface deflected ( = 15)

31.56

0.0034

485.3

750 at 400C

1.54

Observation: Factor of safety on Ultimate tensile strength for the material in both the cases is greater than 1.5.
8.4 RESULT VALIDATION
FLIGHT LOAD ANALYSIS
Load case

Analytical Stress (MPa)

Computational Stress (MPa)

% Error

control surface not


deflected ( = 0)

1.54

1.6

4.28

control surface
deflected ( = 15)

1.68

1.76

4.76

Observation: In both the load cases there is a good agreement between Analytical and Computational results.
THERMAL LOAD ANALYSIS
Ti alloy

Analytical Stress
(MPa)

Computational Stress (MPa)

% Error

Without HIMAT
paint

577

607

5.19

With HIMAT paint

442

463

4.75

Observation: In both the cases there is a good agreement between Analytical and Computational results.

CONCLUSION
Because of light weight and high specific strength at operating temperature of airframe, Al alloy has been considered as material for
Bulkheads, top panel, side panels and Ti alloy for bottom panel with suitable thermal protection system. Mass of airframe of the
section of hypersonic air-breathing cruise vehicle is found to be 31.56 kg. Maximum deformation and von mises stress of
unconventional section of hypersonic cruise vehicle is 3.4 mm and 485.3 MPa which are in safe limit. Maximum deformation and
maximum obtained stresses of unconventional section are within the design limit so our model is safe at the given operating
conditions.

FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK


1.
2.
3.
70

The study can be extended by analyzing the other sections of Cruise vehicle.
The more accurate analysis of this section can be done by including the rivets at the intersection of joints.
Harmonic and modal analysis can be carried out to find natural frequency and mode shape of the component.
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REFERENCES
[1] K. P. J. Reddy, Hypersonic Flight and Ground Testing Activities in India 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Crown
Plaza, Gold Coast, Australia 2-7 December 2007.
[2] Randall T. Voland, Randall T. Voland, Lawrence D. Huebner, Charles R. McClinton, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton,
VA, USA, X-43A HYPERSONIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT.
[3] Shayan Sharifzadeh, Patrick Hendrick, Dries Verstraete, Francois Thirifay, 9th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics, Brussels, 9-10-11 May 2012, Structural Design and Optimisation of a Hypersonic Aircraft Based on Aero-Elastic
Deformations.
[4] William L. Ko and Leslie Gong Thermo structural Analysis of Unconventional Wing Structures of a Hyper-X Hypersonic Flight
Research Vehicle for the Mach 7 Mission NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.
[5] Maj Mirmirani, Chivey Wu Andrew Clark, Sangbum Choi Airbreathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Modeling and Control,
Review, Challenges, and a CFD-Based Example Multidisciplinary Flight Dynamics & Control Lab, California State University,
Los Angeles.
[6] Alexander Kopp, Parametric studies for the structural pre-design of hypersonic Aerospace vehicles. German Aerospace Center
DLR, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
[7] Dr. Paul A. Bartolotta from NASA Glenn Research centre at Lewis field PRATT & WHITNEY FAA William J.huges technical
centre: Metallic Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS).
[8] School of Aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering University College, university of New South Wales. Australian defence
force academy hypersonic literature review on Wave rider, May 2007.
[9] Configuration design of Air-breath hypersonic vehicles by J.umakanth, S.Panner Selvam, Defence research and development
laboratories, Hyderabad and K. Sudhakar, P.M Mujumdar, Department of aerospace engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
[10] Peery, D., Aircraft Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950.
[11] Megson, T., Aircraft structural for engineering students, 4th ed., Elsevier, UK, 2007.
[12] Raymer, D., Aircraft Design: A conceptual approach, 4th ed., AIAA Education Series, AIAA, Reston, VA, 2006.
[13] http://www.nasa.gov

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Minutiae Extraction and Variation of Fast Fourier Transform on Fingerprint


Recognition
Amandeep Kaur1, Ameeta2, Babita3
1

Department of ECE, PCET, Lalru Mandi. PTU Jalandhar, Punjab

Asst. Professor, Department of ECE, PCET, Lalru Mandi. PTU Jalandhar, Punjab

Asst. Professor,Department of Computer Science and Engineering , PCET, Lalru Mandi PTU Jalandhar, Punjab
Email:-amankaurpcet@gmail.com

AbstractA fingerprint is the feature pattern of one finger. It is believed with strong evidences that each fingerprint is unique. Each
person has his own fingerprints with the permanent uniqueness. So fingerprints have being used for identification and forensic
investigation for a long time. The fingerprint recognition problem can be grouped into two sub-domains: one is fingerprint verification
and the other is fingerprint identification In addition, different from the manual approach for fingerprint recognition by experts, the
fingerprint recognition here is referred as AFRS (Automatic Fingerprint Recognition System), which is program-based. This paper
presents the variation of Fast Fourier Transform on finger print recognition by fast fingerprint minutiae extraction and recognition
algorithm which improves the clarity of the ridge and valley structures of the input finger print images based on the frequency and
orientation of the local ridges and thereby extracting correct minutiae .This research work has combined many methods to build a
minutia extractor and a minutia matcher. Simulation results are obtained with MATLAB going through all the stages of the fingerprint
recognition is built. It is helpful to understand the procedures of fingerprint recognition. And demonstrate the key issues of fingerprint
recognition

Keywords Region of Interest (ROI); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).FFR, FAR , SMCBA ,OCR,FKP
I. INTRODUCTION
Biometric templates are unique to an individual. Unlike password, pin number, or smart card, they cannot be forgotten, misplaced lost
or stolen. The person trying to access is identified by his real id (represented by his unique biometric signature). Fingerprint scanning
has a high accuracy rate when users know how to use the system. Fingerprint authentication is a good choice for in house systems
where training can be provided to users and where the device is operated in a controlled environment. Small size of fingerprint
scanners, ease of integration can be easily adapted for appliances (keyboards, cell phones, etc). Relatively low costs make it an
affordable, simple choice for workplace access security. Fingerprint identification is the oldest method among all the biometric
techniques, and has been used in various applications. Every person has unique, fingerprints which can be used for identification.
Steps for fingerprint identification are: scanning (capture, acquisition), extraction (process), comparison, and final match/non-match
decision. A series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger made a fingerprint. We create pattern of ridges and furrows as
well as the minutiae points to get unique fingerprint. Fingerprint based identification has been one of the most successful biometric
techniques used for personal identification. Each individual has unique fingerprints. A fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys
on the finger tip. A fingerprint is thus defined by the uniqueness of the local ridge characteristics and their relationships. Minutiae
points are these local ridge characteristics that occur either at a ridge ending or a ridge bifurcation. A ridge ending is defined as the
point where the ridge ends abruptly and the ridge bifurcation is the point where the ridge splits into two or more branches. Automatic
minutiae detection becomes a difficult task in low quality fingerprint images where noise and contrast deficiency result in pixel
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configurations similar to that of minutiae. This is an important aspect that has been taken into consideration in this project for
extraction of the minutiae with a minimum error in a particular location.

Fig. 1: Ridge Endings and Bifurcations


II. LITERATURE REVIEW
I. Al Rassan, I et al. 2013. Securing Mobile Cloud Computing Using Biometric Authentication (SMCBA). This paper proposes and
implements a new user authentication mechanism of mobile cloud computing using fingerprint recognition system to enhance mobile
cloud computing resources
II. Baris Coskun et a.l 2014 Recognition of Hand-Printed Characters on Mobile Devices This paper explores the challenges of
performing this character identification and presents a novel scale/rotational invariant algorithm applied to the recognition of these
hand-drawn letters. The results of the algorithm are compared to those obtained using a popular Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
application, Tesseract, that is often integrated with iPhone Apps for this purpose
III R. Wildes I.et al. 2014 Biometric Authentication Using Kekre's Wavelet Transform
This paper proposes an enhanced method for personal authentication based on finger Knuckle Print using Kekre's wavelet transform
(KWT). Finger-knuckle-print (FKP) is the inherent skin patterns of the outer surface around the phalangeal joint of one's finger. It is
highly discriminable and unique which makes it an emerging promising biometric identifier. Kekre's wavelet transform is constructed
from Kekre's transform. The proposed system is evaluated on prepared FKP database that involves all categories of FKP. The total
database of 500 samples of FKP. This paper focuses the different image enhancement techniques for the pre-processing of the
captured images
IV J. G. Daugman.et al 2014 Finger-knuckle-print verification based on vector consistency of corresponding interest points
This paper proposes a novel finger-knuckle-print (FKP) verification method based on vector consistency among corresponding
interest points (CIPs) detected from aligned finger images.. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective in FKP
verification.
III. OBJECTIVE:- The objective of this Paper is to investigate the current techniques for fingerprint recognition. This target can be
mainly decomposed into image pre-processing, feature extraction and feature match. For each sub-task, some classical and up-to-date
methods in literatures are analyzed. Based on the analysis, an integrated solution for fingerprint recognition is developed for
demonstration. For the program, some optimization at coding level and algorithm level are proposed to improve the performance of
fingerprint recognition system with the variation of FFT on stored images. These performance enhancements with the variation of FFT
are analyzed and shown by experimental results conducted upon a variety of fingerprint images
IV. AN OVERVIEW OF THE METHOD/METHODOLOGY:73

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1.

System Design ( System Level Design & Algorithm Level Design )

2. Fingerprint Image Preprocessing ( Fingerprint Image Enhancement, Binarization & Image Segmentation)
3. Minutia Extraction

(Fingerprint Ridge Thinning & Minutia Marking)

4 .Minutia Post-processing (False Minutia Remove & Unify Minutia Representation Feature Vectors )
5. Minutia Match (Alignment Stage &Match Stage)
6. Experimentation Results
Evaluation Indexes
Experiment Analysis
1. System Design:System Level Design:-A fingerprint recognition system constitutes of fingerprint acquiring device, minutia extractor and minutia

matcher as shown in figure


Figure 2: Simplified Fingerprint Recognition System
Algorithm Level Design:-To implement a minutia extractor, a three-stage approach is widely used by researchers. They are preprocessing, minutia extraction and post-processing stage

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Figure 3:Minutia Extractor


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Figure 4: Minutia Matcher


The minutia matcher chooses any two minutia as a reference minutia pair and then match their associated ridges first. If the ridges
match well, two fingerprint images are aligned and matching is conducted for all remaining minutia.
Fingerprint Image Enhancement:- Fingerprint Image enhancement is to make the image clearer for easy further operations. Since
the fingerprint images acquired from sensors or other media are not assured with perfect quality, those enhancement methods, for
increasing the contrast between ridges and furrows and for connecting the false broken points of ridges due to insufficient amount of
ink, are very useful for keep a higher accuracy to fingerprint recognition .Two Methods are adopted in my fingerprint recognition
system: the first one is Histogram Equalization; the next one is Fourier Transform.
V. ANALYSING FINGERPRINT PARAMETERS AND RESULTS
1.Finger print Image Pre-processing 2.Fingerprint Image Binarization 3.Fingerprint Image Segmentation

Figure 5: Finger Print Loading

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Fingerprint scanning is the recognition and identification first step to record different characteristics for identification purposes. This
process identifies an individual person through quantifiable physiological characteristics. There are two types of finger-scanning
technology.
1. First is an optical method, which starts with a visual image of a finger.
2. The second uses a semiconductor generated electric field to image a finger.
Fingerprint image enhancement is done using histogram equalization.

Figure 6: Histogram Equalization


Fast Fourier Transform:- A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its
inverse. Fourier analysis converts time (or space) to frequency and vice versa; an FFT rapidly computes such transformations by
factorizing the DFT matrix into a product of sparse (mostly zero) factors. As a result, fast Fourier transforms are widely used for many
applications in engineering, science, and mathematics .FFT at different levels can be applied for 0.1 to 0.9.and percentage for finger
print matching will be calculated for each finger. Different tables are maintained for each finger with three images and applied FFT
from 0.1 to 0.9 levels.
Fingerprint Enhancement by Fourier Transform:We divide the image into small processing blocks (32 by 32 pixels) and perform
the Fourier transform according to:

(1)

for u = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and v = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31.


In order to enhance a specific block by its dominant frequencies, we multiply the FFT of the block by its magnitude a set of times.
Where the magnitude of the original FFT = abs(F(u,v)) = |F(u,v)|.
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Get the enhanced block according to

(2) ,
where F-1(F(u,v)) is done by:

(3)

for x = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and y = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31.


The k in formula (2) is an experimentally determined constant, which we choose k=0.45 to calculate. While having a higher "k"
improves the appearance of the ridges, filling up small holes in ridges, having too high a "k" can result in false joining of ridges. Thus
a termination might become a bifurcation. Figure 3.1.2.1 presents the image after FFT enhancement.

Figure 7:Binarization enhancement by histogram equalization of adaptive binarization after FFT.

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Figure 8:Enhancement by FFT

Figure 9: Orientation Flow Estimate


Direction calculates the local flow orientation in each local window with size (block size x block size) direction (gray scale
fingerprint image, block size, graphical show disable flag) return p ROI bound return z ROI area.

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Figure 10: Region of Interest


H breaks of adaptive binarization is done after FFT. Fingerprint shown in figure remove H breaks between curves and generate clear
fingerprint image after this step.

Figure 11: Minutie Extraction


The performance of minutiae extraction algorithm relies heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images. Fingerprint matching
techniques:-There are two categories for fingerprint matching techniques:
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Minutiae based: In this category first find minutiae points and then map their relative placement on the finger. It is difficult to extract
the minutiae points accurately when the fingerprint is of low quality .Also this method does not take into account the global pattern of
ridges and furrows and correlation based.

Figure 12: Remove spurious minutia


2. Correlation based: This technique affected by fingerprint image translation and rotation and require the precise location of a
registration point. This method is able to overcome some of the difficulties of the minutiae based approach.
FINGERPRINT MATCHING
Fingerprint algorithms consist of two main phases, enrolment and identification or verification. The enrolment phase, first determines
the global pattern of the print, so it can be categorized in a large bucket during improve matching performance, the minutia points are
then transformed by a, typically proprietary, algorithm into a template. The template is stored and used for future identification. An
additional step in the enrolment process could be to search for existing matches. This leads to an interesting advantage fingerprint
authentication has over password authentication. As well as being proof of being a particular person, fingerprint identification can also
be used prove somebody is not a particular person or persons, such as on a terrorist watch list, or previously having applied a benefit.
Finger Print sample recognition process:-The recognition process at real time application. In this figure left fingerprint is at real time
and right fingerprint is stored in database. This figure shows the different vector position at different points on finger. If the pattern
stored in database match with the real time pattern then it will recognize otherwise it will not recognize the person. The identification
phase, first determines a pattern bucket, and then submits the minutia or template, depending on the design, which can be compared to
the saved template. The comparison is done with a statistical analysis, since an exact match is not expected. Matches may be found by
rotating or translating the image, to compensate for the finger not being placed in an identical location on each use. Evaluation indexes
for fingerprint recognition:-Two indexes are well accepted to determine the performance of a fingerprint recognition system: one is
FRR (false rejection rate) and the other is FAR (false acceptance rate).
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Figure 13: Fingerprint matching


For an image database, each sample is matched against the remaining samples of the same finger to compute the False Rejection Rate.
If the matching g against h is performed, the symmetric one (i.e., h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation. All the scores for
such matches are composed into a series of Correct Score. Also the first sample of each finger in the database is matched against the
first sample of the remaining fingers to compute the False Acceptance Rate. If the matching g against h is performed, the symmetric
one (i.e., h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation. All the scores from such matches are composed into a series of Incorrect
Score.A fingerprint database is used to test the experiment performance. Here is the diagram for Correct Score and Incorrect Score
distribution:

Red line: Incorrect Score


Green line: Correct
Scores

Figure 14: Fingerprint matching

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It can be seen from the above figure that there exist two partially overlapped distributions. The Red curve whose peaks are mainly
located at the left part means the average incorrect match score is 25. The green curve whose peaks are mainly located on the right
side of red curve means the average correct match score is 35. This indicates the algorithm is capable of differentiate fingerprints at a
good correct rate by setting an appropriate threshold value .

Blue dot line: FRR curve


Red dot line: FAR curve

Figure 15: FAR and FRR curve


The above diagram shows the FRR and FAR curves. At the equal error rate 25%, the separating score 33 will falsely reject 25%
genuine minutia pairs and falsely accept 25% imposturous minutia pairs and has 75% verification rate. The high incorrect acceptance
and false rejection are due to some fingerprint images with bad quality and the vulnerable minutia match algorithm.
Fast Fourier Transform variation: Three samples of each finger are taken first. Each sample is passed through all the verification stage
and minutiae extraction with the variation of FFT.
Step 1:- FFT is set to 0.1 first and matching percentage results of all the first finger samples are calculated. Then again with FFT 0.1
matching percentage of second finger are calculated. This process is carried out for all the samples of ten finger and matching
percentage is calculated.
Step 2:- FFT is set to 0.2 and matching percentage is calculated. Similarly FFT is varied from 0.2 to 0.9 and results are calculated. It is
observed that with the variation of FFT on samples, more accurate results are obtained i.e more matching precision results are
obtained.
Few Sample percentage are shown in table and graph is also plotted for finger 1 with FFT 0.1to 0.9 .Some matching percentage is
selected for authentication of user. Same procedure is repeated for all fingers, matching percentage is calculated and corresponding
graphs are plotted.

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Table1. FFT and Percentage Matching Table for First Finger

FFT
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

F1F2(%) F1F3(%) F2F3(%) F1F1(%)


31.2
67.2
67.6
100
29.3
34.4
66.5
100
31.1
56.3
54.5
100
33
35.7
78.8
100
23.4
77.3
47.7
100
45.5
50.5
45.3
100
45
34.2
62.7
100
55.5
38.9
34.5
100
38.6
54.3
70.9
100

FFT: Fast Fourier Transform


F1,F2,F3: Samples of Finger

120
100
80

FFT
F1F2(%)

60

F1F3(%)
40

F2F3(%)
F1F1(%)

20
0
1

Figure 16: Matching Percentage of Finger First


Table2. FFT and Percentage Matching Table for Second Finger

FFT
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
83

F1F2(%) F1F3(%) F2F3(%) F1F1(%)


31.2
67.2
67.6
100
29.3
34.4
66.5
100
31.1
56.3
54.5
100
33
35.7
78.8
100
23.4
77.3
47.7
100
45.5
50.5
45.3
100
45
34.2
62.7
100
55.5
38.9
34.5
100
38.6
54.3
70.9
100

FFT: Fast Fourier Transform


F1,F2,F3: Samples of Finger

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120
100
80

FFT
F1F2(%)

60

F1F3(%)
40

F2F3(%)
F1F1(%)

20
0
1

Figure 17: Matching Percentage of Finger Second


VI. CONCLUSSION AND FUTUREWORK
We have presented the overview of the finger print technology which includes primarily the scanner, the classification of fingerprint
image in the database, the matching algorithms. Fingerprint recognition is used in various industries for its attendance and security
purposes. Variation of FFT value on samples produces more accurate results. This application can be implemented in any of security
concern areas. If done correctly it can be a very powerful method of identification.
REFERENCES
[1] Lin Hong, Yifei Wan and Anil Jain. Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm and Performance Evaluation. East Lansing,
Michigan.
[2] Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction, Department of Computer Science National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043
[3] Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition by David Maltoni (Editor), Dario Maio, Anil K. Jain, Salil Prabhakar
[4] L. Hong, A. Jain, S. Pankanti and R. Bolle, Fingerprint Enhancement, Pattern Recognition, 202-207, 1996 ICRTEDC-2014 246
[5] A. K. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pantanki and R. Bolle, An Identity Authentication System Using Fingerprints, Proc of the IEEE, vol, 85,
no.9,1365-1388, 1997
[6] A. Ross, & A. K. Jain, Information Fusion in Biometrics, Pattern Recognition Letters, 24(13), 2003, 2115-2125.
[7] W. Yunhong, T. Tan, & A. K. Jain, Combining Face and Iris Biometrics for Identity Verification, Proceedings of Fourth
International Conference on AVBPA, Guildford, UK, 2003, 805-813.
[8] S. C. Dass, K. Nandakumar, & A. K. Jain, A Principled Approach to Score Level Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Systems, Proc.
of Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA), Rye Brook, NY, 2005.
[9] G. Feng, K. Dong, D. Hu, & D. Zhang, When Faces Are Combined with Palmprints: A Novel Biometric Fusion Strategy,
International Conference on Bioinformatics and its
Applications, Hong Kong, China, 2004, 701-707.
[10] J. G. Daugman, High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence, IEEE Transactions on Pattern
Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 15(11), 1993, 11481161
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Quantitative Determination of Swertiamarin in Swertia chirayita by HPTLC


LAIQA ANJUM, ZAINUL A. ANSARI, ARADHNA YADAV, MOHD. MUGHEES, JAVED AHMAD & ALTAF AHMAD*

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
*Address for correspondence Email: ahmadaltaf@rediffmail.com
Abstract: A simple, rapid, and accurate High-Performance Thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for
the determination of Swertiamarin in aerial parts of Swertia chirayita procured from Nepal & collected from Gangtok and Kumaon
respectively. The methanolic extracts of Swertia chirayita samples were applied on TLC aluminum plate pre-coated with Silica gel 60
GF254 and developed using a solvent system containing Ethyl acetate : Methanol : Water (7.7 : 1.3 : 0.8, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The
densitometric detection of spots was carried out using a UV detector at 245 nm in absorbance mode. This system was found to give
compact spot for swertiamarin (Rf value = 0.530.02). The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 200 to 1000
ng/spot. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 50 and 200 ng/spot, respectively for swertiamarin. The highest and
lowest concentration of swertiamarin in Swertia chirayita was found to be present in sample from Nepal and Gangtok, Sikkim
respectively. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines.

Key words: Swertia chirayita, secoiridoid glycoside, Swertiamarin, HPTLC, Gentianaceae.

Introduction
Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. is an important medicinal plant, belongs to the family Gentianaceae [1]. Swertia chirayita
commonly known as Chirata/Chirayita is an erect annual or perennial herb, found in Himalaya and Meghalaya at an altitude of 12001300 m.The plant has been used in variety of health disorders, including asthma, colic, colon cancer, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia,
liver ailments, nausea
of metal disorders

[6]

[3-4]

, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, liver ailments, nausea

[4-5]

. This plant has also been reported to possess antidiabetic

, epilepsy, ulcer, melancholia and certain types


[7]

, anti-inflammatory

[8]

hepatoprotective

[9]

antibacterial [10], antioxidant [11] antimalarial, anthelmintics and antipyretic properties [12].

SWERTIAMARIN IS A SECOIRIDOID GLYCOSIDE

[13-14]

PRESENT IN MEMBERS OF GENTIANACEAE

[15]

. IT HAS CNS-

DEPRESSANT EFFECT AND ANTICHOLINERGIC ACTIVITY [16-17]. IT IS A REPRESENTATIVE CONSTITUENT OF MANY


CRUDE DRUGS MARKETED IN JAPAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES AND THESE CRUDE DRUGS ARE NORMALLY
EVALUATED BY THEIR SWERTIAMARIN CONTENT

[18].

ALTHOUGH HPTLC METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF

SWERTIAMARIN IN SWERTIA CHIRATA (WALL) CLARK, E. LITTORALE BLUME, AND MARKETED FORMULATIONS
CONTAINING ENICCOSTEMA LITTORALE BLUME HAVE BEEN REPORTED
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. PRESENT STUDY DEALS WITH THE

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QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SWERTIAMARIN IN SWERTIA CHIRAYITA (ROXB. EX FLEMING) H. KARST


COLLECTED FROM THREE DIFFERENT PLACES.

MATERIALS & METHODS:

Plants of Swertia chirayita were collected from three different regions of Himalayas they were procured from Nepal,
Gangtok, Sikkim and Kumaon, Uttarakhand respectively. These plant samples were identified by Prof. Javed Ahmad, Department of
Botany, Jamia Hamdard. The plant material was cleaned and dried in the shade for a week at room temperature it was then powdered
to 40 mesh and stored at 25 C.
Standard compound swertiamarin (99%) was purchased from Chromadex (Life Technologies, India). All the solvents and reagents
used in the experiments were of analytical grade.

Preparation of Mobile Phase & Standard Solutions


Mobile phase was prepared by mixing Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water in the ratio of

7.7:1.3:0.8 respectively. A stock

solution of swertiamarin (1 mg/mL) was prepared by dissolving 2.0 mg of the standard swertiamarin accurately weighed in 2 mL
methanol in a volumetric flask. Standard solution of 200 g /mL was prepared from the stock solution by transferring 200 L of stock
solution, and diluting to volume with methanol (800 L). Appropriate quantities of this standard solution were spotted to obtain
swertiamarin in the range of 200-1000 ng/spot.

Preparation of Sample Solutions


Powdered samples of S. chirayita aerial parts (1g, accurately weighed) were extracted with methanol (225mL) for 24h at
room temperature. The combined extracts were filtered through Whatman Filter paper No. 42. Extracts obtained were concentrated on
rotary evaporator (R-200/205/V (Buchi) in vacuum to 10 mL.

Instrumentation and chromatographic conditions


HPTLC was performed on 2010 mm aluminium backed plate coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F 254 (E-Merck,
Germany). Standard solutions of swertiamarin and the samples were applied to the plates as 5 mm wide band, 10 mm apart and 10 mm
from the bottom and sides using a CAMAG Linomat V sample applicator fitted with a CAMAG Microlitre syringe (CAMAG,
Germany). Linear ascending development of the plates to a distance of 80 mm was performed with Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water
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(7.7:1.3:0.8 ) v/v/v, as mobile phase in a 2020 twin-trough glass chamber previously saturated with mobile phase vapor for 15 min at
25 2C. The plate was dried completely and was scanned at 245nm using a CAMAG TLC scanner in absorbance mode, using the
deutiriium lamp. The slit dimensions were 4 mm0.1 mm and the scanning speed was 20 mm s -1. Visualization of the spots was
performed by spraying the plates with anisaldehyde reagent (anisaldehyde-glacial AcOH-MeOH-H2SO4 (0.5:10:85:5, v/v/v/v). After
spraying the plates with the reagent, under 366-nm UV light this standard emits green light. A calibration curve in this study was
plotted between the amount of analyte (swertiamarin) versus average response (peak area and regression equation was obtained Y=
8.349X+507.3 over the concentration range of 200-1000 ng/spot with respect to the peak area with a regression coefficient of 0.9961.

Method Validation
The developed method is validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines Q 2 (R1) [20].
By determining linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ) and recovery. Linearity of the
method was evaluated by constructing calibration curves at nine concentration levels. Calibration curves were plotted over a
concentration range of 200-1000 ng/spot. Aliquots of standard working solution of swertiamarin were applied onto the plate.
The calibration curves were developed by plotting peak area versus concentrations. The intraday and inter-day precisions of the
proposed method was determined by estimating the corresponding responses 3 times on the same day and on 3 different days over a
period of one week for chosen concentration of standard solution of swertiamarin for the proposed method. The results were reported
in terms of relative standard deviation (% RSD). The accuracy of the method was determined by calculating recovery of swertiamarin
by the standard addition method. Known amounts of standard solution of swertiamarin (50, 100 and 150 ng) were added to prequantified sample solution. Accuracy was expressed as percent recovery. The limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification
(LOQ) were calculated using the following equations as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines

[20].

LOD= 3.3 /S
LOQ= 10 /S
Where = Standard deviation of the response; S=Slope of calibration curve

The specificity of the method was ascertained by analyzing standard compound and sample. The spot for swertiamarin in the sample
was confirmed by comparing Rf and spectra of spot with that of standard. The peak purity of the swertiamarin was assessed by
comparing the spectra at three different levels i.e. peak start, peak apex and peak end positions of the spot.

Standard solution of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 L was applied to TLC plate in six replicates (n=6) to obtain final concentration
range of 200-1000 ng/spot. The data of peak versus standard concentration was treated by linearsquare regression samples chosen for
the study were 200, 400 and 800 ng/spot.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Initial trial experiments were conducted to select mobile phase for accurate analysis of the standards. Of the various mobile phases
tried, mobile phase consisting of Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water (7.7:1.3:0.8) v/v/v gave a sharp and well defined peak of
swertiamarin at Rf value of 0.53 in standard (Figure 1) and samples respectively(Figure 2). Well defined spots were obtained when the
chamber was saturated with the mobile phase for 15 min at room temperature. For determination of linearity curves of area vs
concentration, different amounts of stock solution of swertiamarin was applied for HPTLC plate analyses.

Figure 1: TLC densitogram showing swertiamarin standard

Figure 2: TLC densitogram resolution of swertiamarin in a sample


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This method was validated for linearity, precision, specificity and accuracy. Calibration was linear in the concentration range of 2001000 ng. The linear regression equation was found to be Y= 8.349X+507 for swertiamarin, while the correlation coefficient (r2) was
0.9961 with high reproducibility and accuracy (Table 1). The proposed method, when used for estimation of swertiamarin after
spiking with 50, 100 and 150% of additional standard afforded recovery ranging from 98.12-100.2% for swertiamarin was obtained as
listed in (Table 2). The RSD of recovery of swertiamarin of was ranged from 0.13-0.39 (Table 2). The intra and inter day precision, as
coefficient of variation (CV%) and accuracy of the assay determined at swertiamarin concentration of 200, 400 and 800 ng/spot has
been summarized in (Table 3). The intra day precision (n=3) was1.35 The inter day precision over three different days was 2.19
The intra-day and inter day accuracy were in the range of 99.37-100.48 and 98.72-99.51 respectively.
The repeatability of the method was studied by assaying six samples of swertiamarin at same concentration under the same
experimental conditions the values were within the acceptable range and so we concluded that the method was accurate, reliable and
reproducible.
The robustness of the method was established by introducing small changes in mobile phase composition and chromatograms
were run. The plates were prewashed by methanol and activated at 505C for 2,5,7 in prior to chromatography.

Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated by method as described in validation section and was found to be 50 ng
and 200 ng/spot respectively, which indicates the ample sensitivity of the method.
The specificity of the proposed method was determined by comparing the sample and standard peak for its R f and UV spectra. The
peak purity of swertiamarin was assessed by comparing the spectra at three different levels i.e. Peak start, peak apex and peak end
position.

A good resolved single spot of swertiamarin was observed at Rf value 0.530.02 in the chromatogram of the samples. the
swertiamarin content in different samples of Swertia chirayita was observed and calculated (Table 4)
This HPTLC method has been developed for the determination of swertiamarin in S. chirayita collected from from different locations
of Himalaya. The proposed method is simple, precise, specific accurate, less time consuming and cost effective. This method has been
developed with high precision and economic considerations. Statistical analysis showed that the method is suitable for the analysis of
swertiamarin. This method can be used for authentication of this plant and is also suitable for quality control and standardization of
drugs derived from S. chirayita. It was found that plant sample collected from Dora, Himachal Pradesh contained highest amount of
swertiamarin, so this region could be considered as a suitable region for the cultivation of S. chirayita.

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Table 1: Linear Regression Data for Calibration Plot


Parameters

Observation for swertiamarin

Linearity range (ng/spot)

200-1000
2

Correlation coefficient (r )

0.9961

Regression equation

Y= 8.349X+507.3

Slope SD

8.3490.156

Intercept SD

507.3 0.968

LOD ng/spot

50

LOQ ng/spot

200

Table 2: Recovery Studies of Swertiamarin

Excess drug
added to analyte

Theoretical
content (ng)

% Recovery

% RSD

100

99.53

0.39

100

150

98.12

0.13

150

200

100.2

0.21

200

250

99.59

0.31

Table 3: Precision Study of Swertiamarin


Amount Applied
ng/spot

Intraday Precision
% RSD, n=3

200
400
600

Interday Precision
% RSD, n=3

0.52
0.32
0.55

0.73
0.45
0.25

Table 4: Swertiamarin Content in Sample Extract (%w/w of sample) from different Locations

Compound
Swertiamarin

90

Place of
collection

% w/w of sample
mean SD

Nepal

1.420.006

Swertiamarin

Kumaon,
Uttarakhand

0.8590.027

Swertiamarin

Gangtok,
Sikkim

0.7040.009
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support by UGC under Special Assistance Programme (SAP), Government of India, New Delhi is thankfully acknowledged.
Honble Vice Chancellor of Jamia Hamdard is also thankfully acknowledged for his support.

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Chandrasekar B, Bajpai MB, Mukherjee SK , Hypoglycemic activity of Swertia chirayita (Roxb ex Flem) Karst. Indian J Exp Biol
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Chodhary NI, Bandyopadhyay SK, Banerjee SN, Dutta MK, Das PC, Preliminary studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of
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Karan M, vasisht K, Handa SS, Antihepatotoxic activity of Swertia chirata on paracetamol and galactosamine induced
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18. H. Takei, K.Y. Nakauchi. F. Yoshizaki, Anal. Sci. 17,885-888. 2001


19. Sawant, P. L. Prabhakar B. R.,Pandita, N. S., Journal of Planar Chromatography 24 A Validated Quantitative HPTLC Method for
Analysis of Biomarkers in Enicostemma littorale Blume , 6, 497-502. 2011
20. ICH, Q2 (R1), Harmonised Tripartite Guideline, Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and methodology, International
Conference on Harmonization (ICH), Geneva, 2005

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Simulation & Implementation Of Three Phase Induction Motor On


Single Phase By Using PWM Techniques
Ashwini Kadam1,A.N.Shaikh2
1

Student, Department of Electronics Engineering, BAMUniversity,akadam572@gmail.com,9960158714

AbstractThe main objective of this paper is to control the speed of an induction motor by changing the frequency using three level
diode clamped multilevel inverter. To obtain high quality sinusoidal output voltage with reduced harmonics distortion, multicarrier
PWM control scheme is proposed for diode clamped multilevel inverter. This method is implemented by changing the supply voltage
and frequency applied to the three phase induction motor at constant ratio. The proposed system is an effective replacement for the
conventional method which produces high switching losses, results in poor drive performance. The simulation & implementation
results reveal that the proposed circuit effectively controls the motor speed and enhances the drive performance through reduction in
total harmonic distortion (THD). The effectiveness of the system is checked by simulation using MATLAB 7.8 simulink package.
Keywords Clamped Diode, MOSFET, Induction motor, Multicarrier PWM technique, THD.

INTRODUCTION
Majority of industrial drives use ac induction motor because these motors are rugged, reliable, and relatively inexpensive.
Induction motors are mainly used for constant speed applications because of unavailability of the variable-frequency supply voltage
[1]. But many applications need variable speed operations. Historically, mechanical gear systems were used to obtain variable speed.
Recently, power electronics and control systems have matured to allow these components to be used for motor control in place of
mechanical gears. These electronics not only control the motors speed, but can improve the motors dynamic and steady state
characteristics. Adjustable speed ac machine system is equipped with an adjustable frequency drive that is a power electronic device
for speed control of an electric machine. It controls the speed of the electric machine by converting the fixed voltage and frequency to
adjustable values on the machine side. High power induction motor drives using classical three - phase converters have the
disadvantages of poor voltage and current qualities. To improve these values, the switching frequency has to be raised which causes
additional switching losses. Another possibility is to put a motor input filter
between the converter and motor, which causes additional weight. A further inconvenience is the limited voltage that can be applied to
the induction motor determined by inconvenience is the limited voltage that can be applied to the induction motor determined by the
blocking voltage of the semiconductor switches. The concept of multilevel inverter control has opened a new possibility that induction
motors can be controlled to achieve dynamic performance equally as that of dc motors [2].
Recently many schemes have been developed to achieve multilevel voltage profile, particularly suitable for induction motor
drive applications. The diode clamp method can be applied to higher level converters. As the number of level increases, the
synthesized output waveform adds more steps, producing a staircase waveform. A zero harmonic distortion of the output wave can be
obtained by an infinite number of levels [3]. Unfortunately, the number of the achievable levels is quite limited not only due to voltage
unbalance problems but also due to voltage clamping requirement, circuit layout and packaging constraints. In this paper, a threephase diode clamped multilevel inverter fed induction motor is described. The diode clamped inverter provides multiple voltage levels
from a series bank of capacitors [4]. The voltage across the switches has only half of the dc bus voltage. These features effectively
double the power rating of voltage source inverter for a given semiconductor device [5]. The proposed inverter can reduce the
harmonic contents by using multicarrier PWM technique. It generates motor currents of high quality. V/ is an efficient method for
speed control in open loop. In this scheme, the speed of induction machine is controlled by the adjustable magnitude of stator voltages
and its frequency in such a way that the air gap flux is always maintained at the desired value at the steady-state. Here the speed of an
induction motor is precisely controlled by using three level diode clamped multilevel inverter.

CONVENTIONAL METHOD
The voltage source inverter produces an output voltage or a current with levels either zero or Vdc. They are known as two
level inverter. To obtain a quality output voltage or a current waveform with a minimum amount of ripple content, they require high
switching frequency along with various pulse-width modulation strategies. In high power and high-voltage applications, these twolevel inverters have some limitations in operating at high frequency mainly due to switching losses and constraints of device rating.
The dc link voltage of a two-level inverter is limited by voltage ratings of switching devices, the problematic series connection of
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switching devices is required to raise the dc link voltage. By series connection, the maximum allowable switching frequency has to be
more lowered; hence the harmonic reduction becomes more difficult [6]. In addition, the two level inverters generate high frequency
common-mode voltage within the motor windings which may result in motor and drive application problems [7]. From the aspect of
harmonic reduction and high dc-link voltage level, three-level approach seems to be the most promising alternative. The harmonic
contents of a three-level inverter are less than that of a two-level inverter at the same switching frequency and the blocking voltage of
the switching device is half of the dc-link voltage [8]. A three level inverter will not generate common-mode voltages when the
inverter output voltages are limited within
certain of the available switching states [9]. So the three-level inverter topology is generally used in realizing the high performance,
high voltage ac drive systems [10].

DRIVE SYSYEM DESCRIPTION


In the conventional technique normal PWM method is used. So that the voltage and current is of poor qualities and the
switching frequency causes more amount of switching losses. Those drawbacks are rectified using three phase diode clamped
multilevel inverter. The voltage and current quality are better and the switching losses are reduced when compared to the conventional
technique. Also the THD is found to be better.

Fig. 2. Multilevel inverter based drive circuit

Structure of Three Level Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter


The three-level neutral point-clamped voltage source inverter is shown in Fig.2. It contains 12 unidirectional active switches
and 6 neutral point clamping diodes. The middle point of the two capacitors n can be defined as the neutral point [7]. The major
benefit of this configuration is each switch must block only one-half of the dc link voltage (Vdc/2). In order to produce three levels,
only two of the four switches in each phase leg should be turned on at any time. The dc-bus voltage is split into three levels by two
series-connected bulk capacitors, Ca and Cb, they are same in rating. The diodes are all same type to provide equal voltage sharing
and to clamp the same voltage level across the switch, when the switch is in off condition. Hence this structure provides less voltage
stress across the switch.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
To produce a staircase-output voltage, consider one leg of the three-level inverter, as shown in Fig.3. The steps to synthesize
the three-level voltages are as follows.
1. For an output voltage level Vao=Vdc, turn on all upper-half switches A1 and A2.
2. For an output voltage level Vao=Vdc, turn on one upper switch A2 and one lower switch A1.
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3. For an output voltage level Vao=0, turn on all lower half switches A1 and A2.

Fig.3. One leg of a bridge.


Table.1. shows the voltage levels and their corresponding switch states. State condition 1 means the switch is on, 0 means the
switch is off. There are two complementary switch pairs in each phase. These pairs for one leg of the inverter are (A1, A1), (A2,
A2). If one of the complementary switch pairs is turned on, the other of the same pair must be off.

TABLE 1 Output voltage levels and their Switching states.


Fig.4. shows the phase voltage waveform of the three-level inverter. The m-level converter has an m-level output phase-leg
voltage and a (2m-1)-level output line voltage.

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Fig.4. Three level inverter output voltage.


The most attractive features of multilevel inverters are as follows.
They can generate output voltages with extremely low distortion and lower dv/dt.
They draw input current with very low distortion [7].
They generate smaller common mode (CM) voltage, thus reducing the stress in the motor bearings.
They can operate with a lower switching frequency [7].

PROPOSED SCHEME
The block schematic of multilevel inverter fed three phase induction motor is as shown in Fig.5. The complete system will
consist of two sections; a power circuit and a control circuit. The power section consists of a power rectifier, filter capacitor, and three
phase diode clamped multilevel inverter. The motor is connected to the multilevel inverter.

Fig.5. Basic block diagram.


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The complete system will consist of two sections; a power circuit and a control circuit. The power section consists of a power
rectifier, filter capacitor, and three phase diode clamped multilevel inverter. The motor is connected to the multilevel inverter. Fig.6
shows an ac input voltage is fed to a three phase diode bridge rectifier with capacitor filter. A capacitor filter, removes the ripple
contents present in the dc output voltage.

Fig.6 Ac input voltage is fed to a three phase diode bridge rectifier with capacitor filter
The pure dc voltage is applied to the three phase multilevel inverter through capacitor filter. The multilevel inverter has 12
MOSFET switches that are controlled in order to generate an ac output voltage from the dc input voltage. The control circuit of the
proposed system consists of three blocks namely PWM opto-coupler and gate driver circuit. Fig.7. Shows circuit diagram of PWM

Fig.7 Circuit for PWM


The PWM is used four clocks reference clock, voltage control clock, frequency clock, output delay clock. For this clock we
used the VCO which generate frequency clock & Schmitt trigger which used for generating the reference clock, output delay clock,
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voltage control clock. The PWM is used for generating gating signals required to drive the power MOSFET switches present in the
multilevel inverter. The voltage magnitude of the gate pulses generated by the PWM is normally 5V. To drive the power switches
satisfactorily the opto-coupler and driver circuit are necessary in between the controller and multilevel inverter. The output ac voltage
is obtained from the multilevel inverter can be controlled in both magnitude and frequency (V/ open loop control). The controlled ac
output voltage is fed to the induction motor drive. When the power switches are on, current flows from the dc bus to the motor
winding. The motor windings are highly inductive in nature; they hold electric energy in the form of current. This current needs to be
dissipated while switches are off. Diodes are connected across the switches give a path for the current to dissipate when the switches
are off. These diodes are also called freewheeling diodes. The V/ control method permits the user to control the speed of an induction
motor at different rates. For continuously variable speed operation, the output frequency of multilevel inverter must be varied. The
applied voltage to the motor must also be varied in linear proportion to the supply frequency to maintain constant motor flux.

MODULATION STRATEGY
This Paper mainly focuses on multicarrier PWM method. This method is simple and more flexible than SVM methods. The
multicarrier PWM method uses several triangular carrier signals, keeping only one modulating sinusoidal signal. If an n-level inverter
is employed, n-1 carriers will be needed. The carriers have the same frequency WC and the same peak to peak amplitude Ac and are
disposed so that the bands they occupy are contiguous. The zero reference is placed in the middle of the carrier set. The modulating
signal is a sinusoid of frequency Wm and amplitude Am. At every instant each carrier is compared with the modulating signal. Each
comparison gives 1(-1) if the modulating signal is greater than (lower than) the triangular carrier in the first (second) half of the
fundamental period, 0 otherwise. The results are added to give the voltage level, which is required at the output terminal of the
inverter. Multicarrier PWM method can be categorized into two groups: 1) Carrier Disposition (CD) method 2) Phase shifted PWM
method.
Advantages of multicarrier PWM techniques:
Easily extensible to high number of levels.
Easy to implement.
To distribute the switching signals correctly in order to minimize the switching losses.
To compensate unbalanced dc sources.
Related to the way the carrier waves are placed in relation to the reference signal, three cases can be distinguished:
Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), where each carrier band is shifted by 180 from the adjacent
bands.
Phase Opposition Disposition (POD), where the carriers above the zero reference are in phase, but shifted by 180 from those
carriers below the zero reference.
In-Phase Disposition (PD), where all the carriers are in phase [8].
In this paper the gating pulses for MOSFET switches are generated by using In-phase disposition technique.

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Fig.8. In-phase disposition technique


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V/ CONTROL THEORY
Fig.7. shows the relation between the voltage and torque versus frequency. The voltage and frequency being increased up to
the base speed. At base speed, the voltage and frequency reach the rated values. We can drive the motor beyond base speed by
increasing the frequency further. But the voltage applied cannot be increased beyond the rated voltage. Therefore, only the frequency
can be increased, which results in the field weakening and the torque available being reduced. Above base speed, the factors
governing torque become complex, since friction and wind age losses increase significantly at higher speeds. Hence, the torque curve
becomes nonlinear with respect to speed or frequency.

Fig.9. Speed-Torque characteristics with V/ control.

SIMULATED CIRCUITS AND WAVEFORMS


Fig.8. shows the PWM circuit to generate the gating signals for the multilevel inverter switches. To control a three phase
multilevel inverter with an output voltage of three levels; two carriers are generated and compared at each time to a set of three
sinusoidal reference waveforms. One carrier wave above the zero reference and one carrier wave below the reference. These carriers
are same in frequency, amplitude and phases; but they are just different in dc offset to occupy contiguous bands. Phase disposition
technique has less harmonic distortion on line voltages.

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Fig.10. PWM simulation circuit.

Fig.11. Gate pulses for leg A switches.


Fig.11. shows the waveform of sine-triangle intersection. Two carriers together with modulation signal have been used to
obtain SPWM control. Simulated model for entire circuit is shown in Fig.12.
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Fig.12. Simulated circuit.


Output voltage and current waveforms for 50 Hz frequency are shown in below figures 13 and 14.

Fig.13. Output line-line voltage for 50Hz frequency.

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Fig.14. Output current waveform.


The FFT plot of the output voltage is shown in Fig.15. The plot shows that the harmonic content present in the output voltage is very
low.

Fig.15. FFT for output voltage.


Speed-Torque curves for 50 Hz and 45 Hz frequencies are shown in figures 16 and 18.

Fig.16. N-T curves for 50Hz frequency.


The frequency of reference signal determines the inverter output frequency; and its peak amplitude controls the modulation
index. The variation in modulation index changes the rms output voltage of the multilevel inverter. By varying the reference signal
frequency as well as modulation index, the speed of an induction motor gets controlled.

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Fig.17. Output line-line voltage for 45Hz frequency.

Frequency
(Hz)

Speed
(rpm)

THD(%)
Current
Voltage
(Ia)
(Vab)

Fig.18. N-T curves for 45Hz frequency.


The speed-torque curves conclude that the voltage and frequency applied to the motor gets decreased; then the speed of an induction
motor also decreased simultaneously.

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50
45
40
35

1479
1300
1275
1065

3.33%
3.09%
7.89%
10.76%

11.43%
10.97%
18.20%
27.30%

TABLE 2 Speed range for different frequency values.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The completion of this Dissertation-I would not have been possible without the support and guidance following people and
organization. With my deep sense of gratitude, I thank respected Principal Dr. G. S. Sable, respected H.O.D Prof. A. K. Pathrikar
and my respected teachers for supporting this topic of my Dissertation-I. I thereby take the privilege opportunity to thank my guide
Prof. A.N.Shaikh and other teachers whose help and guidance made this study possible.I would like to express my gratitude with a
word of thanks to all those who are directly or indirectly with this paper.

CONCLUSION
In this paper a diode clamped multilevel inverter has been presented for drive applications. The multicarrier PWM technique
can be implemented for producing low harmonic contents in the output, hence the high quality output voltage was obtained. The open
loop speed control was achieved by maintaining V/ ratio at constant value. The simulation results show that the proposed system
effectively controls the motor speed and enhances the drive performance through reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD). This
drive system can be used for variable speed applications like conveyors, rolling mills, printing machines etc.
REFERENCES:
[1] Jose, Steffen Sernet, Bin Wu, Jorge and SamirKouro, Multilevel Voltage Source - Converter Topologies for Industrial
Medium -Voltage Drives, IEEE Trans on Industrial Electronics, vol.54, no.6, Dec 2007.
[2] Dr.Rama Reddy and G.Pandian, Implementation of Multilevel inverter fed Induction motor Drive, Journal of Industrial
Technology, vol 24, no. 1 April 2008.
[3] Nikolaus P. Schibli, T. Nguyen, and Alfred C. Rufer, A Three-Phase Multilevel Converter for High - Power Induction
Motors, IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, vol.13, no.5, Sept 1998.
[4] N.Celanovic and D.Boroyevich, A Comprehensive study of neutral-point voltage balancing problem in three-level neutral point clamped voltage source PWM inverters, IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, vol.15, no. 2, pp. 242 249, March 2000.
[5] K.Yamanaka and A.M.hava, A novel neutral point potential stabilization technique using the information of output current
polarities and voltage ector, IEEE Trans on Ind. Appl, vol.38, no. 6, pp. 1572 1580 Nov/Dec 2002.
[6] Fang Zheng Peng, A Generalized Multilevel Inverter Topology with Self Voltage Balancing, IEEE Trans on Ind. Appl,
vol. 37, no. 2, pp 611-618 Mar/April 2001.
[7] J. Rodriguez, J.S. Lai, Fang Z. Peng, Multilevel Inverters: A Survey of Topologies, Controls and Applications, IEEE Trans
on Industrial Electronics, vol.49, no.4, pp 724-738 Aug 2002.
[8] L.M.Tolbert and T.G.Habetler, Novel Multilevel Inverter Carrier Based PWM methods, IEEE Trans on Ind. Appl, vol.35,
pp. 1098-1107, Sept.1999.
[9] Leon M.Tolbert, Fang Zheng Peng and Thomas G.Habetler, Multilevel PWM methods at Low modulation Indices, IEEE
Trans on Power Electronics, vol.15, no.4, July 2000.
[10] N.S. Choi, J.G.Cho, and G.H.Cho, A general Circuit topology of multilevel inverter, in Proc. IEEE PESC91, 1991, pp.96103

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Analysis of T-Source Inverter with Integrated Controller using PSO


Algorithm
Sathyasree.K1,Ragul.S2,Divya.P3,Manoj kumar.R4
Assistant Professor , Nandha Engineering College,Erode
2
PG Scholar , Nandha Engineering College,Erode
3
PG Scholar Nandha Engineering College,Erode
4
PG Scholar , Nandha Engineering College,Erode

E-mail- ragul.tetotteler@gmail.com, Contact no.7639651820

Abstract This paper deals with the design and simulation of integrated controller for T-source inverter (TSI) based photovoltaic
(PV) power conversion system. The TSI has less reactive component, high voltage gain and reduced voltage stress across the switches
compared to conventional inverter used in PV power conversion system. Integrated controller provides the maximum power point
tracking and DC link voltage control to the PV power conditioning system. Here the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in
achieved by PSO algorithm and DC link voltage is controlled by capacitor voltage controller algorithm. T-Source inverter
implemented with integrated control for PV system is simulated using MATLAB Simulink. The results are analyzed, compared with
DC link controller; the same has been verified with experimental setup.

Keywords : Photovoltaic(PV), DC link controller, Maximum Power Point Controller (MPPT), Space Vector Pulse Width
Modulation(SVPWM), T- source inverter(TSI), PSO algorithm

1.INTRODUCTION
The reduction of greenhouse gas emission has become a great issue among developed countries for example European Union
(EU) has targeted to utilize the renewable energy source among 20% of total energy consumption by 2020 [1]. In green source effect,
the photovoltaic plays an important role to generate electricity from the solar irradiation. In remote locations where there is no
electricity is available the photovoltaic cells are installed on roofs and deserts [2]. The latter type of installations is known as off-grid
facilities and sometimes they are the most economical alternative to provide electricity in isolated areas.
The three main factors which affect the efficiency of a PV plant are inverter efficiency, MPPT efficiency and photovoltaic
plant efficiency. The PV panel is commercially lies between 8-15%, the inverter efficiency is 95-98% and MPPT efficiency is over
98%. By the growth of Perturb & Observe (P&O) and the PSO algorithms are used to track the maximum power during different
irradiation conditions. Depending upon the temperature of the panel and irradiation conditions, the MPPT is determined. ZSI has
suffered due to high input inductor ripple and more switching stress on the switches. To overcome the previously mentioned
drawbacks Trans Z-Source Inverter it is also called T-source inverter (TSI) is proposed [8]. This T-Source Inverter (TSI) has reduced
number of passive component, high rate of input utilization, high voltage gain, total volume of system and cost is decreased . In this
paper, due to the above advantages the TSI with Modified Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (MSVPWM) is used. The
Photovoltaic is an intermittent source. Output voltage of PV highly depends on environmental condition like temperature and
irradiation. So it is necessary to maintain the output voltage of PV, controller is essential for PV power converter. There are lot of
authors discussed the controller for PV inverters .
In this context MPPT and DC link controllers is play very important role in input line balancing. The DC link controller is
used to sense the dc link voltage value and compares it with the reference value of capacitor voltage and changes the reference current
correspondingly. Here DC link controller and MPPT controller are unified and produce a shoot through ratio and improve the response
time of MPPT controller . Due to integrated controller the settling time and the oscillations are reduced. The control of T-source
capacitor voltage beyond the MPP voltage of a PV array is not facilitated in the traditional MPPT algorithm. This paper an integrated
control algorithm is proposed. The integrated control algorithm is combination of PSO MPPT algorithms and DC link capacitor
voltage control algorithm. The PSO algorithm is used which is used to reduce the oscillations in steady state, improve the tracking
accuracy, fast response speed. DC link control is used to reduce the harmonic distortion and to prevent high voltage stress on the
switching device. The proposed algorithm is investigated and compared with dc link controller is presented.

2. PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
Photovoltaic (PV) is used in application such as PV with generators, PV with batteries, solar water pumps etc., PV has
advantages such as of free pollution, low maintenance, and no noise and wear due to the absence of moving parts . Because of these
PV is used in power generation across the world.The environmental factors such as illumination and temperature depends on the
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output power of a photovoltaic cell so we get non-linear V-I characteristics. In order to match the solar cell power to environment
changes, MPPT controller is required. To track the MPP of a solar cell the P&O, fuzzy control and many algorithms have been
developed. It changes frequently by the surroundings, improving the speed of tracking the PV power system could obviously improve
the system performance and increase the PV cell efficiency. The PV cell output is both limited by the cell current and the cell voltage,
and it can only produce a power with any combinations of current and voltage on the I-V curve from fig1. It also shows that the cell
current is proportional to the irradiance. Due to the open circuit voltage and short circuit current, the maximum power is produced.A
single PV cell produces output voltage less than 0.6V for silicon cells. To get the desired output voltage number of photovoltaic cells
is connected in series. By placing the series connected cell in a frame forms a module [8]. In series connection, the output current is
same as the output current is same as the output voltage is sum of each cell voltage . Fig.2 shows the simulation of I-V and P-V
characteristics of a photovoltaic cell during the different irradiation condition. By using the open circuit voltage and short circuit
current, the maximum power is obtained.

Fig.1. I-V and P-V characteristics

Fig.2 PV cell a) I-V characteristicsb) P-V characteristics


Table 1: PV Module specification

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Photovoltaic Model Datasheet Sun Power E20/327W is chosen for MATLAB simulation model The module is made up of 96 mono
crystalline silicon solar cells and provides 327W of nominal of maximum power [11].

3. T SOURCE INVERTER
The New type T source inverter (TSI)overcome the limitation of traditional voltage source inverter and current source
inverter. With the use of TSI, the inversion and also the boost function are accomplished in a single stage [8]. TSI has fewer
components. Due to these reasons, the efficiency appreciably increases. Unlike the traditional inverter, TSI utilizes a unique
impedance network that links the inverter main circuit to the DC source. The TSI number of elements is reduced when compared to Zsource inverter; transformer and only capacitor are needed.
T-source inverter used to reduce the number of switching devices; inductor decreases the inrush current and harmonics in the
inrush current. TSI works on two modes of operation shoot-through mode and non shoot-through mode.

Fig.3 T-source inverter

3.1 SHOOT-THROUGH MODE


Fig.4 shows the equivalent circuit of T source inverter in shoot through mode operation. This shoot through zero state
prohibited in traditional voltage source inverter. It can be obtained in three different ways such as shoot through via any one phase leg
or combination of two phase leg. During this mode, diode is reverse biased, separating DC link from the AC line.

Fig.4 Shoot-through of TSI

The output of the shoot through state can be controlled by maintaining the desired voltage. Thus the T Source inverter
highly improves the reliability of the inverter since short circuit across any phase leg is allowed and it cannot destroy the switches in
the inverter.

3.2 NON SHOOT-THROUGH MODE


Fig.5 shows the equivalent circuit of TSI in non shoot through mode operation. In this mode, the inverter bridge operate in
one of traditional active states, thus acting as a current source when viewed from T source circuit. During active state, the voltage
impressed across load. The diode conduct and carry current difference between the inductor current and input DC current. Note that
both the inductors have an identical current because of coupled inductors.

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Fig.5 Non shoot-through mode of TSI

3.3 DESIGN OF T SOURCE INVERTER


During the design of TSI the most challenging is the estimation of values of the reactive components of the impedance
network. The component values should be evaluated for the minimum input voltage of the converter, where the boost factor and the
current stresses of the components become maximal. Calculation of the average current of an inductor

The maximum ripple current takes place due to the maximum shoot through states, 60% of peak to peak ripple current was selected to
design the T-source inductor. The ripple current is IL, and the maximum

The boost factor of the input voltage is:

Where DL is the shoot-through duty cycle:

Calculation of required inductance of Z-source inductors:

Where T0 - is the shoot-through period per switching Cycle Calculation of required capacitance of T source capacitors:

3.4 Modified Space Vector PWM


Space vector PWM (SVPWM) in three phase voltage source inverters offers improved DC link voltage and reduced
harmonic distortion, and has been therefore recognized as the preferred PWM method, especially in the case of digital
implementation. The output voltage control by SVPWM consists of switching between the two active and one zero voltage vector in
such a way that

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Table 2. Parameters and Values of T-Source Inverter

the time average within each switching cycle corresponds to the voltage command. In order to apply this concept for Z-source
inverter, a novel modified SVPWM is needed to introduce the shoot-through states into the zero vectors without compromising the
active states [15] and it is represented in Fig 6.The DC link voltage can be boosted by adding the new duration T to the switching time
T1,T2 and T0 of the Z source converter to produce the sinusoidal ac output voltage[16].

Tz = Ta+Tb Where Tz denotes the switching period, T is the total duration during the shoot through and non shoot through period, M
represents the modulation index, K is boost factor and V is the peak dc-link voltage. The shoot through zero vector takes place when
both switches turn on in a leg, when shoot through takes place the dc link voltage is boosted which depends on the total duration of Td
= 3T. By without changing the zero vector V0, V7 and T and non zero vectors V1-V6, one shoot through zero state T occurs for a one
period of switching cycle T by turning on and off switches in each phase. By adjusting the shoot through time interval, the DC link
voltage and the output voltage of the inverter is controlled. The modulation index M = a(4 / 3) is determined by the zero vector
duration T0/ 2.

Fig 6 Modified SVPWM implementation for sector1

4. Control algorithms
4.1 PSO methodology

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The general idea Control (PSO) is to create a closed loop controller with parameters that can be updated to change the
response of the system. The output of the system is compared to a desired response from a reference model. The control parameters
are update based on this error. The goal is for the parameters to converge to ideal values that cause the plant response to match the
response of the reference model.Each particle maintains its position, composed of the candidate solution and its evaluated tness, and
its velocity. Additionally, it remembers the best tness value it has achieved thus far during the operation of the algorithm, referred to
as the individual best tness, and the candidate solution that achieved this tness, referred to as the individual best position or
individual best candidate solution. Finally, the PSO algorithm maintains the best tness value achieved among all particles in the
swarm, called the global best tness, and the candidate solution that achieved this tness, called the global best position or global best
candidate solution.
The PSO algorithm consists of just three steps, which are repeated until some stopping condition is met:
1. Evaluate the tness of each particle
2. Update individual and global best tnesses and positions
3. Update velocity and position of each particle
The rst two steps are fairly trivial. Fitness evaluation is conducted by supplying the candidate solution to the objective
function. Individual and global best tnesses and positions are updated by comparing the newly evaluated tnesses against the
previous individual and global best tnesses, and replacing the best tnesses and positions as necessary.The velocity and position
update step is responsible for the optimization ability of the PSO algorithm. The velocity of each particle in the swarm is updated
using the following equation:

Apart from the canonical PSO algorithm it has many variations of the PSO algorithm exist. For instance, the inertia weight
coecient was originally not a part of the PSO algorithm, but was a later modication that became generally accepted. Additionally,
some variations of the PSO do not include a single global best aspect of the algorithm, and instead use multiple global best that are
shared by separate subpopulations of the particles.

4.2 Maximum power point control:


Many MPPT techniques are available, (i.e.) open circuit voltage, Short circuit current, Perturb and observe method (P&O),
PSO algorithm, fuzzy controller etc., An MPPT algorithm that provides high-performance tracking in steady state conditions can be
easily found [12]. A very popular PSO tracker, which has some important advantages as simplicity, applicability to almost any PV
system configuration, automatically adjusts the step size to track the MPP from PV array and does not change during the
environmental conditions.

5. PROPOSED CONTROLLER
The proposed system is represented in Fig.9. Controller processes the maximum power point tracking algorithm and DC link
control algorithm simultaneously it In capacitor voltage control algorithm capacitor voltage of T-network. is measured and given to
capacitor results reduction in response time For maximum power point tracking of PV array is done using PSO algorithm is used
because it has reduced oscillation in steady state.voltage controller. The output of capacitor voltage controller and MPPT controller is
integrated using integrator and is processed then generate the reference signal. The output of integrated controller is feed to pulse
width modulator to control the power switches

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Fig.9 Proposed block diagram

6.EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
The corresponding simulation results are represented in Fig.10. The Integrated controller gives more power output than DC
link controller because the integrated controller is incorporated with MPPT algorithm and DC link control algorithm and also it gives
good dynamic response.

Fig. 10 Power of integrated controller

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Fig.11% Total harmonic distortion


Table 4. Comparison of DC link and integrated controllers

7. CONCLUSION
In this paper, integrated controller for TSI based photovoltaic power conversion system has been proposed. The PSO
algorithm is used to track the maximum power during different irradiations and temperature condition. The proposed method is
simulated; investigated using MATLAB Simulink and the same has been implemented and verified using hardware setup. The
comparison between DC link and MPPT controller are presented. The proposed algorithm improves the tracking accuracy, reduce the
oscillations in steady state and the response time is reduced in the integrated controller than the DC link controller.

REFERENCES
[1] The European Union climate and energy package,http://ec.europa.eu/clime/policies/au/package_en.h tm.
[2] D. JC. MacKay, Sustainable Energy Without theHotAir,UITCambridge,2009.[Online].Available:http://
www.ierence.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/book/tex/cft.pdf.
[3] J. Anderson, F.Z. Pang, Four Quasi-Z-Source Inverters Proc. of IEEE PESC 2008,15-19 June 2008, pp.2743 2749.
[4]J.Anderson,F.Z.Peng,AClassofQuasi-Z-Source Inverters in Proc. of 43rd IAS Annual Meeting, 2008, pp.1-7.
[5] F.Z.Peng, Z-Source Inverter, Proc. of the 37th IAS Annual Meeting, 2002, p.775-781.
[6] F.Z Pang, Z-Source Inverter, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, No.2, Vol.39, 2003, pp.504-510.
[7] J. Anderson, F.Z Pang, Four Quasi-Z-Source Inverters,Proc. of IEEE PESC 2008, 15-19 June 2008, pp . 2743 2749.

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[8] Ryszard Strzelecki, Marek Adamowicz and Natalia Strzelecka , New Type T-Source Inverter in Proceedings on Compatibility
and Power Electronics 6th International Conference-Workshop,2009.
[9] J. Surya Kumari and Ch. Sai Babu , Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell using Matlab-Simulink
Environment in International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE) Vol. 2, No. 1,2012.
[10] Tarak Salmi, Mounir Bouzguenda, Adel Gastli, Ahmed Masmoudi, MATLAB/Simulink Based Modelling of Solar Photovoltaic
Cell in International Journal of Renewable Energy Research Vol.2, No.2, 2012.
[11] Seok-Il Go, Seon-Ju Ahn, Joon-Ho Choi, Simulation and Analysis of Existing MPPT Control Methods in a PV Generation
System, Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 446~451, 2011.
[12] Mingwei Shan, Liying Liu, and Josep M. Guerrero, A Novel Improved Variable Step-Size Incremental Resistance MPPT
Method for PV Systems, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, VOL. 58, NO.6,2011.
[13] Fangrui liu, Shanxu duan, Fei liu, Bangyin liu, and Yong kang , A Variable Step Size INC MPPT method for PV systems in
IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7,2008.
[14] S. Thangaprakash and A. Krishnan, Modified Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Z-Source Inverters, in International
Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol 2, No. 6, 2009

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Experimental study of different operating temperatures and pressure in PEM


fuel cell
Sudhir Kumar Singh
M Tech, Bhabha Engineering and Research Institute Bhopal (M.P.)
Prof. S.S Pawar
Head. Department of mech engg. Bhabha Engineering and Research Institute, Bhopal (M.P.)
Email id: Narayan.sudhirsingh@gmail.com

Abstract :- This Paper also give the Various range parameter of temperature of using fuel cell and including current voltage power
characteristic , uniformity of cell unit voltage, Gas, pressure impact and air flux impact operating temperature of fuel cell has been
change in anode and cathode side. This paper also give the experimental approach of the fuel cell.
The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell have been
studied experimentally using pure hydrogen on the anode side and air on the cathode side.

Key words : PEM fuel cell, anode material Cathode Material, Pressure Range,
Introduction : - Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have been widely recognized as the most
promising candidates for future power generating devices in the automotive, distributed power generation and
portable electronic applications. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is of great interest in
energy research field because of its potential application for direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical
energy with high efficiency, high power density, low pollution and low operating temperature .
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell Reactions
A stream of hydrogen is delivered to the anode side of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). At the anode
side it is catalytically split into protons and electrons. This oxidation half-cell reaction or Hydrogen Oxidation
Reaction

(HOR)

is

represented

by:

At the Anode:

SHE

The newly formed protons permeate through the polymer electrolyte membrane to the cathode side. The
electrons travel along an external load circuit to the cathode side of the MEA, thus creating the current output of
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the fuel cell. Meanwhile, a stream of oxygen is delivered to the cathode side of the MEA. At the cathode side
oxygen molecules react with the protons permeating through the polymer electrolyte membrane and the
electrons arriving through the external circuit to form water molecules. This reduction half-cell reaction or
oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is represented by:
At the cathode:

SHE

Overall reaction:

SHE

The reversible reaction is expressed in the equation and shows the reincorporation of the hydrogen protons and
electrons together with the oxygen molecule and the formation of one water molecule.
Polymer electrolyte membrane
To function, the membrane must conduct hydrogen ions (protons) but not electrons as this would in effect
"short circuit" the fuel cell. The membrane must also not allow either gas to pass to the other side of the cell, a
problem known as gas crossover. Finally, the membrane must be resistant to the reducing environment at the
cathode as well as the harsh oxidative environment at the anode.
Splitting of the hydrogen molecule is relatively easy by using a platinum catalyst. Unfortunately however,
splitting the oxygen molecule is more difficult, and this causes significant electric losses. An appropriate
catalyst material for this process has not been discovered, and platinum is the best option. One promising
catalyst that uses far less expensive materialsiron, nitrogen, and carbonhas long been known to promote the
necessary reactions, but at rates that are far too slow to be practical. Recently, a Canadian research institute has
dramatically increased the performance of this type of iron-based catalyst. Their material produces 99 amperes
per cubic centimeter at 0.8 volts, a key measurement of catalytic activity. That is 35 times better than the best
no precious metal catalyst so far, and close to the Department of Energy's goal for fuel-cell catalysts: 130
A/cm3. It also matches the performance of typical platinum catalysts. The only problem at the moment is its
durability because after only 100 hours of testing the reaction rate dropped to half. Another significant source of
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losses is the resistance of the membrane to proton flow, which is minimized by making it as thin as possible, on
the order of 50 m.
Fuel cell applications
1 Transportation
2 Distributed power generation
2.1 Grid-connect applications
2.2 Non-grid connect applications
3 Residential Power.
4 Portable Power
4.1 Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power

Fuel cell systems operate without pollution when run on pure hydrogen, the only by-products being pure water
and heat. When run on hydrogen-rich reformate gas mixtures, some harmful emissions result although they are
less than those emitted by an internal combustion engine using conventional fossil fuels. To be fair, internal
combustion engines that combust lean mixtures of hydrogen and air also result in extremely low pollution levels
that derive mainly from the incidental burning of lubricating oil.

A PEM fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that is fed hydrogen, which is oxidized at the anode, and oxygen that
is reduced at the cathode. The protons released during the oxidation of hydrogen are conducted through the
proton exchange membrane to the cathode. Since the membrane is not electrically conductive, the electrons
released from the hydrogen travel along the electrical detour provided and an electrical current is generated.
These reactions and pathways are shown schematically in Fig..1

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Fig.1.

Experimental setup- Experimental setup are the combination of two major plates such as , anode plates and
cathode plates , which has been well design and construction with using parameter. A single unit cell with
active surface aria of 7.4 x 7.4 c.m. was used for experiment in this study. The membrane electrode assembly
(MEA) consists of a Nafion in combination with platinum loadings of 0:4 mg/cm2 per electrode. The gas
diffusion layers are made of carbon fiber cloth. The MEA positioned between two graphite plates is pressed
between two gold-plated copper plates. The graphite plates are grooved with serpentine gas channels. In the
test station, reactant gases are humidified by passing through external water tanks. Regulating the water
temperature controls the humidification of the reactant gases.

Experimental procedure
The procedure for each experiment is as follows:
1. Power on the Fuel Cell Test Station and open the valves of the gas cylinders of hydrogen, oxygen.
2. Before starting experiments, purge the anode side with hydrogen to ensure no oxygen is present.
3. Set the experimental parameters of mass flow rate of the gas cylinders of hydrogen, oxygen.
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4. Set the maximum voltage, minimum voltage and voltage increment step of the fuel cell polarization data by
A meter and voltmeter
5. Set the delay between every two voltage and current data points

Fig.2. Control pane

Fig.3. Pressure gauge

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Fig.4. Connection pipe

Fig.5. Experimental zone

Result and discussionEffect of the humidification in plates


When the anode humidification temperature is at 40C, the current density of the fuel cell is the lowest at a
given voltage. graph shows that the linear portion of the polarization curve for different anode humidification
temperatures are almost parallel to each other, which indicates that the electrical resistance of the fuel cell
causing the ohmic losses does not vary significantly.

At low current densities, the lower the anode humidi1cation temperature, the lower the cell voltage. This
phenomenon could be explained by the decrease of the active catalyst surface area caused by lack of water in
the catalyst layers. When the anode is dry, the water transfer through the membrane from the cathode side to the

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anode side due to back-diffusion is dominant. This is even more pronounced at low current densities, when
water transfer due to electro-osmosis is low.

The result of the combined effect is water de1ciency in the cathode catalyst layer. At higher current densities,
the cell voltages at different anode humidification temperatures come closer. This, again, could be explained by
hydration of the catalyst layer. At high current densities, water generation rate is high and water transfer due to
electro-osmosis is high. Thus the cathode catalyst layer is better hydrated even though the anode humidification
is low
Table .1.humidification temperature , hydrogen flow rates are 1.0 M3/Min. and Oxygen flow rates 2.0
M3/Min.

120

Sr. No.

Current
density
(A/cm2)

Voltage at
Voltage at
Voltage at
humidification humidification humidification
temperature
temperature
temperature
40 Degree C
50 Degree C
60 Degree C

0.2

0.91

0.92

0.96

0.4

0.79

0.81

0.85

0.6

0.72

0.75

0.77

0.8

0.70

0.72

0.73

1.0

0.68

0.70

0.71

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1.2
1

VOLTAGE

0.8
0.6

40 degree. C.

0.4

50 degree. C.
60 degree. C.

0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

AMP.

Fig.6.
Table .2.humidification temperature , cathode sides and and hydrogen flow rates are 2.0 M3/Min. and
Oxygen flow rates 4.0 M3/Min.

121

Sr. No.

Current
density
(A/cm2)

Voltage at
Voltage at
Voltage at
humidification humidification humidification
temperature
temperature
temperature
40 Degree C
50 Degree C
60 Degree C

0.2

1.11

1.13

1.20

0.4

0.96

0.98

0.99

0.6

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.8

0.92

0.93

0.94

1.0

0.90

0.91

0.92

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1.4
1.2

VOLTAGE

1
0.8
40 degree. C.

0.6

50 degree. C.
0.4

60 degree. C.

0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

AMP.

Fig.7.
Table .3.humidification temperature, hydrogen flow rates are 3.0 M3/Min.and Oxygen flow rates 6.0
M3/Min.

122

Sr. No.

Current
density
(A/cm2)

Voltage at
Voltage at
Voltage at
humidification humidification humidification
temperature
temperature
temperature
40 Degree C
50 Degree C
60 Degree C

0.2

1.08

1.12

1.14

0.4

0.99

1.08

1.09

0.6

1.02

1.04

1.05

0.8

0.96

0.97

0.98

1.0

0.82

0.90

0.93

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1.2
1

VOLTAGE

0.8
0.6

40 degree. C.

0.4

50 degree. C.
60 degree. C.

0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

AMP.

Fig.8.

Conclusion
1. The anode humidification temperature has considerable effects on fuel cell performances. In the low current
density region, the lower the degree of humidification, the lower the fuel cell performances. At high current
densities, the effect of anode humidi1cation temperature is not significant.
2. The cathode humidification temperature has no significant effects on fuel cell performances, especially at
high current densities.
REFERENCES:
1-On-line fault diagnostic system for proton exchange membrane fuel cells Luis Alberto M. Et.al,Paper from science direct
2- Effects of operating conditions on cell performance of PEM fuel cells with conventional or interdigitated flow field Wei-Mon Yan
Et.al Paper from science direct
3- A review of water flooding issues in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell Hui Li Et.al,Paper from science direct
4- Increasing the efficiency of a portable PEM fuel cell by altering the cathode channel geometry: A numerical and experimental study
T. Henriques, Et.al,Paper from science direct
5- Development of a fast empirical design model for PEM stacks Xiao-guang Lia Et.al,Paper from science direct
6- Parametric analysis of a hybrid power system using organic Rankine cycle to recover waste heat from proton exchange membrane
fuel cell Pan Zhao, Et.al Paper from science direct
7- A parametric study of PEM fuel cell performances Lin Wang, Et.al,Paper from science direct
8-Performance studies of PEM fuel cells with interdigitated flow fields Lin Wang Et.al,Paper from science direct
9-An improved model for predicting electrical contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer in proton exchange
membrane fuel cells ZhiliangWua Et.al,Paper from science direct

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Engineering and Sustainable Environment


1.

Er. Amit Bijon Dutta 1, Dr. Ipshita Sengupta 2


Senior Manager, Mecgale Pneumatics Private Limited, N65, Hingna MIDC, Nagpur 440 016
dutta.ab@gmail.com
2
Lecturer, Dept. of Environmental Science, Institute of Science, Nagpur,
ipshita_sengupta@hotmail.com

Abstract India is one of the promising universal business giant with a second fastest fiscal escalation rate (8.9%) and a fourth
largest GDP in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (US$ 3.6 trillion). Every industry faces the threat of failure in business. Construction
companies are predominantly susceptible to fiscal risk owing to the nature of the industry, intense rivalry, reasonably low access
barrier, soaring uncertainty and risk involved, and fanciful rise and falls in construction volume. We need to encompass a closer
perceptive of the correlation involving the two inter-related matters of risk management and funding on construction projects. It is
becoming progressively more essential to attain the goals of the patron, the proprietor and the constructor and its supply chain,
particularly when the interest in PFI and PPP arrangements are incessantly budding all around globally.
Engineers carry on their shoulders the responsibility of endorsing the principles of sustainable growth. Sustainable development
deals with meeting existing individual needs from naturally accessible reserves, while preserving and enhancing the surrounding
environmental quality. This paper deals with the various issues involved in the process of engineering while taking in view the
environmental considerations for future generations, the prospective responsibility industrial engineers can have in putting a stop to
pollution caused by industrialized processes and accentuate how both disciplines can be pooled to craft well-organized and competent
resolutions.

Keywords Engineering, Environment, Sustainability, Pollution, Growth, Development, Economy

INTRODUCTION
Engineering plays a vital role in human life, with respect to economic, social and cultural development. This is
necessary in order to achieve United Nation (UN) millennium progressive objectives, principally ecological sustainable
growth. Sustainable development confronts to meeting current human needs from naturally available reserves, engineering
merchandises, energy, foodstuff, transportation, shelter and efficient ravage management while conserving and enhancing
earths environmental quality. This challenging issue is trying to be met by engineering knowledge and modern expertise.
Sustainable development is the need of the hour not only for the current world but also a necessity for the next generation
that can be achieved by certified engineers. Engineers ought to make every effort in order to augment the eminence of
biophysical and socioeconomic urban environment and also to promote the principles of sustainable development.
Engineers have an obligation towards the general public in order to seek the various available opportunities to work for
the enrichment of wellbeing, security and the communal welfare of local and global community equally through the
practice of sustainable development. In view of the fact that community wellbeing and safety is entirely dependent on
engineering judgments, assessments of risk, decisions and practices incorporated into structures, machinery, produce,
practices and strategies, engineers have to be conscientious and answerable to their assigned duty. Thus, engineers should
follow the rules and regulation imposed by local and global community.

ENGINEERING AND SUSTAINABILITY:


Engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles for practical purposes such as the design,
manufacture, operations of products and processes, at the same time, accounting for constraints invoked by economics,
and the environmental and sociological factors. Engineering have brought through many technical. Engineering has
always been a significant contributor to economical development, standard of living, well being of the society and its
impact on the cultural development and environment. Engineering is constantly evolving as a profession, and engineering
education is correspondingly changing continually.
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Sustainability is the ability to make development as sustainable by ensuring the needs of the present demands without
compromising any power or ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It was also recognized that many of the
practices and lifestyles of present social order, predominantly but not entirely developed society, simply cannot be
maintained for the foreseeable future without letting up. We are way beyond the competence and potential of the earth to
provide many of the resources that we use and to accommodate our emissions, while many of the planets inhabitants
cannot meet even their basic needs. Recognizing the needs for living within constraints and ensuring more fairness in
access to inadequate resources, are the key predicaments lying at the core of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable
development. It is something new in human history that the planet is full and we have no new geographical sphere to shift
to. Unswerving with societal, economical and ecological aspects of sustainability, sustainable edifice is one of the
speedily growing practices in new construction and development area in the world as the movement of green development
has been acquired and adopted by engineers, designers and builders.
Life -cycle analysis shows evidence that sustainable design and building makes good economical sense with regard to
environmental impact. It is anticipated that this kind of trend will continue to propel and pick up the pace, owing to the
fact that as a rule most of the countries are scheduling to shift to green technology. Furthermore, individual owners are
intent upon raising the standards of existing buildings and structures with the green renovation to lift them up to the
sustainable state of specifications.
Sustainable development is the process of moving human activities to a pattern that can be sustained in time without
end. It is a positive move towards the environmental and growth issues that seek to reconcile human needs with the
capacity of the planet to cope with the consequences of human activities. Sustainable development consists of the three
broad subject matters of social, ecological and financial responsibility which is said as the Triple Bottom Line concept. It
is useful to represent the constraints of the sustainable development, in the form of a simple Venn diagram shown in the
figure 1.

Figure 1. Components of a sustainable environment


Society, environment and economy are the three basic essential parts for human beings for survival. In order to lead a
vigorous life in the social order fine quality environment is needed. Figure 1 indicates the interrelationship of a vigorous
social order, financial system, and environment. It is apparently comprehensible that sustainable state is thriftily wellorganized, environmentally fit and justified in social context in all aspects.
Law and Ethics are the fundamental way dealing with the meaningfulness of life. So this term can be included as
another component of the sustainable environment. Inspiring with the Triple Bottom Line perception, an innovative
thought can be created where the Law and Ethics is considered as another and valuable component of the sustainable
environment. This reflection is envisaged through an additional Venn diagram as shown in the Figure 2.
There is no conflict with the state named as Healthy and Efficient as stated in the Triple Bottom Line notion. A
civilization can be considered an ethical society only when the ethical values are established and they are more acceptable
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and trustworthy. A financial system encompassing the ethical values is prudent which means the state is intellectually and
intuitively perceived through sound judgment. The position of a social order having interface with only Environment and
their Ethical values can be defined as unstable state because if economy falls down, society will collapse. The capability
of performing what is correct and dynamic while avoiding the wrong is the virtue which can be established with the
combination of Economy and Ethics having the proper knowledge and understanding to the Environment. Society and
their Environment with efficient Economy make a state which can be defined as Sound State. But in a comprehensive
matter the Sustainable Environment is a state which is environmentally healthy, economically efficient, socially moral and
ethically sensible.

Figure 2. Sustainable environment and its relation with four components


PROFESSIONAL ETHICS OF ENGINEERS
In the discipline of philosophy, moral principles envelop the study of the accomplishments that a responsible individual
ought to select, the values that an honourable individual ought to espouse and the character that a virtuous individual must
encompass. For example, every person must be candid, reasonable, kind, social, courteous and responsible. Above and
beyond these familiar obligations, the skilled professionals have added commitments. These obligations arise from the
responsibilities of their professional work and their relationships with employers, patrons, erstwhile professionals and the
general community. Owing to the specialization, acquaintance and expertise they are endowed licenses by the public to
use their knowledge and skills to affect the lives of their clients significantly.
Codes of ethics for engineers state that they should hold paramount for the wellbeing, healthiness, and benefit of the
community, more than other commitments to patrons and employers. Engineering and engineering societies have
provided little guidance on prioritizing the community goods, with the exception in intense cases such as whistle-blowing.
When an engineer finds an immediate threat to the safety of the community, the engineer ought to give notice to the
concerned authorities. If this intimidation is not handled and run through within the concerned association, the engineers
are expected either to raise the flag or blow the whistle.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF ENGINEERS
Engineers are the valuable part of the society. This necessitates them to put together the determined efforts in
discovering all of the relevant facts pertaining to the design, development, operation and all achievable outcome of the
choices available that may positively and negatively affect the society and the public. Citizens are entirely reliant on their
premeditated products and goods that should be robust, safe, reliable, economically feasible and environmentally
sustainable. Some principles of Engineering for Sustainable Development are:

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Be cautious to the cost reductions that masquerade as value engineering.


Being creative and innovational.
Being sure about the knowledge of needs and wants.
Commitment of risk assessment experts to safety assessments or ethical risk.
Contributing ones services to worthy, non profit groups and projects
Declining work on a particular project or for a particular company.
Right things been done with the right decisions.
Valuable and competent, scheduling and administration.
Engineering schools commitment for educating future engineers about their social and moral responsibilities.
Commitment of engineers in designing and developing sustainable technologies
Explicit care and concern about technologys impact on nature and the environment.
Principles of sustainable development followed, while thinking about any technical and engineering designs.
Guarantee the safety and wellbeing to the public.
Guarantee the societys fund and resources concerning technology are well used.
Honoring the precautionary principles to take any steps in engineering designs
Individual and organizational apprehension about any engineering projects and its impact on the society.
Looking for a balanced solution.
On the lookout for engagement from all stakeholders.
Participating in democratic procedures for technology decision making and policy management.
Practicing the engineers preach.
Promoting the principled development enthusiastically and use of technologies.
Provide expert advice to non experts.
Offer security measures for whistleblowers.
Remonstrate the illegality or wrong-doing.
Social activities by engineers in public interest.
Speaking out publicly in disparity to a proposed project.
Thinking beyond the locality and the immediate future.
Voluntarily assume the job of education to the public about valuable consequences of different technical and
scientific developments.

THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS IN SUSTAINABILITY


The group of people that maintains, enhances, or improves its environmental, social, cultural, and economic resources
in such a way that support current and future community members in pursuing the healthy, productive and happy lives can
very well be termed as Sustainable Community.
Professional engineers play an important and significant role to meet the sustainability. They work to improve the
welfare, health and safety, with the minimal use of natural resources and paying attention with regard to the environment
and the sustainability of resources. The sustainability is influenced by the challenges and opportunities. To provide an
options and solutions to maximize social value and minimize environmental impacts are to be provided by Engineers.
There are some grave challenges because of the undesirable effects of exhaustion of resources, rapid population growth
and damage the ecosystems and environmental pollution. Only an environmentally sociable advancement is not sufficient
and increasingly engineers are required to take a wider perspective including societal integrity and local and universal
associations and poverty mitigation. Comprehensiveness brings crucial prospects for engineers to promote change through
sharing experiences and through good quality practice. The authoritative responsibility and guidance of engineers in
achieving sustainability should not be underestimated. Increasingly this will be as part of multidisciplinary teams that
include non-engineers and through work that crosses national boundaries.
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The main goal of the sustainable development is to enable the people throughout the world to meet and satisfy their
basic needs and enjoy an improved and better quality of life without compromising the quality of life for generations to
come. Sustainable development has largely being categorized in two perceptions, requirements and precincts imposed by
the state of technology and the social organisation on the environments ability to meet present and future demands.
Following principles have been agreed upon to achieve sustainable development

Living within the environmental goals,


Ensuring a strong , healthy and justified society,
Promotion of good governance,
Achieving a sustainable with an efficient economy, using science responsibly.
Engineers have a responsibility to maximize the value of their activity to build a sustainable planet. In order
perceive attainable goal and recognition of the changes over time and demand of the society.
Empathies the important potential role for engineering
Empathies about the environmental limits and finite resources
Reduce the demand of resources
Reduction of waste production by using effectively the resources that are used
Make use of systems and products which reduce embedded carbon, energy and water use, waste and pollution, etc.
Adoption of full life cycle assessment as normal practice including the supply chain,
Adopt strategies such as salvaging, reprocessing, decommissioning and discarding of components and materials,
During Design stage itself minimization of any adverse impacts on sustainability .
Carrying out a comprehensive risk assessment prior to starting of the project.
Risk assessment should ensure and includes the potential environmental, economical and societal impacts, way
ahead of the natural life of the engineering venture.
Monitoring systems to measure any environmental, social and economical impacts of engineering projects so it can
be identified at an early stage.

ENGINEERS RESPONSIBILITIES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENT:


Scientific research continues to provide in-format ion about the links between human health and environmental quality.
Essential components of life are air, water and food, which provide potential pathways for contaminants to have an effect
on our health. Air, water and soil pollutions exposure has been linked to various diseases/disorders to name few cancer,
lupus, immune diseases, allergies, and asthma, problems in reproduction and birth defects, allergic reactions, nervous
system disorders, hypersensitivity and decreased diseases resistance.
a) AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution is a great threat to our sustainable environment. Engineers in every country of the world should try to,

Cut down the release of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and mercury through regulatory programs
according to established targets and time frames.
Involve yourself in national and international initiatives to address trans-boundary air issues.
Work to meet standards for two primary components of smog(formed mainly above urban centres, is composed
mainly of tropospheric ozone (O3) ground level ozone and particulate matter.
Build up air-shed management plans and team-up with large industrial facilities to monitor transport and
deposition from major sources.

b)

WATER POLLUTION
Safe drinking water is another challenge for many developing countries where engineers in the world can
contribute a good deal on this issue. So, engineers should do the followings,

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Resolve quality and quantity issues of water for agriculture and fisheries sectors,
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Develop a scaffold for safeguard water resources and aquatic habitat that builds on the drinking water strategy,
Consult with the Municipal/Public Works Association of relevant region while developing guidelines, standards
and regulations for issues related to municipal water and wastewater ,

Employ a government-wide approach to water problems through the Interdepartmental Drinking Water
Management Committee,

Develop, modify and upgrade the ambient water monitoring system with proper maintenance,

Team-up with the Department of Health to tackle issues related to contaminants in drinking water,

Wastewater issues to be addresses by working with municipal and domestic partners,

Be a support system to municipalities for their water and wastewater infrastructure programs, and for land use
planning in water supply areas.
c) LAND POLLUTION
Hazardous substances in water, air, and soil cause noteworthy health perils. The concerned government is devoted to
minimize the environmental impacts of such materials and protecting countrys health. In this regards engineers will

Promote pollution prevention in efficient way,


Validate risk-based administrative approaches to spotlight efforts where they are most needed,
Bring up to date existing directives controlling perilous substances and eliminating regulatory duplication,
Promote effective utilization, storage, handling, and discarding of harmful substances,
Apply the "polluter pays" principle to users of hazardous substances,
Encourage stewardship by manufacturers to promote proper lifecycle management of hazardous substances,
Make joint efforts with other authorities to perk up treatment of contaminated sites and promote sustainable
redevelopment,
Promote early detection and response to land quality issues through legislated requirements for mandatory
reporting of site contamination.

IMPORTANT AREAS OF SUSTAINABILITY


i)
Construction area
To make this planet sustainable certain areas should be given highest priority. Development in construction is one such
most important issue, as it is related to everyones daily life. Construction engineers need to be careful while designing a
buildings, industries, roads and highways efficiently, considering greening technology. Concept of sustainability to build
and construct any structure must focus not only to the limited resources but also to the energy and on the procedure to
reduce the impacts on the environment and methodological issues, structural modules, materials, erection technologies
and concepts of design related to the energy but and also ethics, values and humanity for the occupants of buildings
ii)
Education area
A novel instructional arrangement for engineers, up-and-coming engineers or general students must be developed
introducing sustainable development into the curriculum both for undergraduate and graduate level and also for the
professional skill levels.
CONCLUSION
Sustainable development has become as an accepted orthodoxy for the global economic development and
environmental protection since the ending of the twentieth century where engineers play an important role for this
sustainable development and fortification. Our environment is made up of intermingling systems of air, water, land,
organic and inorganic substance and living organisms. Maintaining a healthy environment for current and future
generations requires the group effort of the general public, organizations and companies and each and every echelon of
government. Using a balanced, coordinated approach, we can protect the health, prosperity, and environmental integrity of
our society. Individuals can safeguard energy, opt for environmentally accountable products, and modify their behaviour.
Organizations can develop environmental supervision strategies, cut down emissions and squander from their operations,
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and adopt environmentally responsible practices. The government can continue to lead by administering legislation,
establishing public policy, delivering programs and services, participating in local, countrywide, and worldwide
environmental proposals, and managing its own operations conscientiously.
Nevertheless, each and every above mentioned strategy are tackled by different rank of engineers. Engineers and
scientists are required to protect our environment in terms of inventing safe elemental substances, sustainable
environment, and recyclable and renewable energy resources and so on to ensure a better life for us and our future
generation.

REFERENCES:
[1] Parkin, Sustainable development: the concept and practical challenge, in Sustainable development: Making it happen.
Special Issue of Civil Engineering. Journal of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Special Issue two of Volume 138,
2000, pp 38.
[2] Guidance
on
sustainability
for
the
Engineering
Profession.
Published
on
may
2009,
http://www.engc.org.uk/ecukdocuments/internet/document%20library/Engineering%20Council%20Sustainability%2
0Guide.pdf (last visited on 12th May, 2011).
[3] A conference paper jointly organized by The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Institute for
Energy Technology (IFE) and The Foundation for Scientific and
[4] Edmond Byrne, Cheryl Desha, John Fitzpatrick and Karlson HragorvesEngineering Education for for Sustainable
development A review of international progress, proceedins of 3rd International Symposium for Engineering
Education, 2010, University College Cork, Ireland.
[5] Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability By Marc A. Rosen,
www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability, Pg No. - 2270 2292

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Analysis of Cancer Gene Expression Profiling in DNA Microarray Data using


Clustering Technique
1

C. Premalatha, 2 D. Devikanniga
1, 2
Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
1
premalathajck@gmail.com
Abstract DNA microarray technology has been extremely used in the field of bioinformatics for exploring genomic organization. It
enables to analyze expression of many genes in a single reaction. The techniques currently employed to do analysis of microarray
expression data is clustering and classification. In this paper, the cancer gene expression is analyzed using hierarchical clustering that
identifies a group of genes sharing similar expression profiles and dendrograms are employed that provides an efficient means of
prediction over the expression.
Keywords Hierarchical clustering, Microarray data, Gene expression, Dendrograms.
INTRODUCTION
Molecular Biology research evolves through the development of the technologies used for carrying them out. In the past, only
genetic analyses on a few genes had been conducted and it is not possible to research on a large number of genes using traditional
methods. DNA Microarray [4] is one such technology which enables the researchers to investigate how active thousands of genes at
any given time and address issues which were once thought to be non traceable. One can analyze the expression of many genes in a
single reaction quickly and in an efficient manner. DNA Microarray technology has empowered the scientific community to
understand the fundamental aspects underlining the growth and development of life as well as to explore the genetic causes of
anomalies occurring in the functioning of the human body.
Microarray technology will help researchers to learn more about many different diseases, including heart disease, mental
illness and infectious diseases, to name only a few. One intense area of microarray research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
[1] is the study of cancer. In the past, scientists have classified different types of cancers based on the organs in which the tumors
develop. With the help of microarray technology, however, they will be able to further classify these types of cancers based on the
patternsof gene activity in the tumor cells. Researchers will then be able to design treatment strategies targeted directly to each
specific type of cancer. Additionally, by examining the differences in gene activity between untreated and treated tumor cells - for
example those that are radiated or oxygen-starved - scientists will understand exactly how different therapies affect tumors and be able
to develop more effective treatments.
In addition, data mining clustering technique having an appealing property is employed, such that the nested sequence of
clusters can be graphically represented with a tree, called a dendogram. It simplifies the identification of gene expression over the
microarray thus provides an efficient means of prediction over the expression.
GEO DATABASE
Microarray technology has been extensively used by the scientific community. Consequently, over the years, there has been a
lot of generation of data related to gene expression. This data is scattered and is not easily available for public use. For easing the
accessibility to this data, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has formulated the Gene Expression
Omnibus or GEO. It is a data repository facility which includes data on gene expression [6] from varied sources. GEO currently
stores approximately a billion individual gene expression measurements, derived from over 100 organisms, addressing a wide range of
biological issues.
MICROARRAY TECHNIQUE
An array is an orderly arrangement of samples where matching of known and unknown DNA samples is done. An array
experiment makes use of common assay systems such as micro plates or standard blotting membranes. The sample spot sizes are
typically less than 200 microns in diameter usually contain thousands of spots.
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WORKING OF DNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY


DNA microarrays are created by robotic machines that arrange minuscule amounts of hundreds or thousands of gene
sequences on a single microscope slide. When a gene is activated, cellular machinery begins to copy certain segments of that gene.
The resulting product is known as messenger RNA (mRNA), which is the body's template for creating proteins. The mRNA produced
by the cell is complementary, and therefore will bind to the original portion of the DNA strand from which it was copied. To
determine which genes are turned on and which are turned off in a given cell, first the messenger RNA molecules present in that cell
are collected then they are labelled by using a reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) that generates a complementary cDNA to the mRNA.
During that process fluorescent nucleotides are attached to the cDNA.
The tumor and the normal samples are labeled with different fluorescent
dyes[7]. Next, the researcher places the labeled cDNAs onto a DNA microarray
slide. The labeled cDNAs that represent mRNAs in the cell will then hybridize or
bind to their synthetic complementary DNAs attached on the microarray slide,
leaving its fluorescent tag. A special scanner is used to measure the fluorescent
intensity for each spot/areas on the microarray slide.If a particular gene is very
active, it produces many molecules of messenger RNA, thus, more labeled cDNAs,
which hybridize to the DNA on the microarray slide and generate a very bright
fluorescent area.
Fig.1. Microarray Technology
Genes that are less active produce fewer mRNAs, thus, less labeled cDNAs, which results in dimmer fluorescent spots. If
there is no fluorescence, none of the messenger molecules have hybridized to the DNA, indicating that the gene is inactive.
Researchers frequently use this technique to examine the activity of various genes at different times. When co-hybridizing Tumor
samples (Red Dye) and Normal sample (Green dye) together, they will compete for the synthetic complementary DNAs on the
microarray slide. As a result, if the spot is red, this means that that specific gene is more expressed in tumor than in normal (upregulated in cancer). If a spot is Green, it means that the gene is more expressed in the Normal tissue (Down regulated in cancer). If a
spot is yellow that means that the specific gene is equally expressed in normal and tumor.
Thousands of spotted samples known as probes (with known identity) are immobilized on a solid support (a microscope glass
slides or silicon chips or nylon membrane). The spots can be DNA, cDNA, or oligonucleotides. These are used to determine
complementary binding of the unknown sequences thus allowing parallel analysis for gene expression and gene discovery. An
experiment with a single DNA chip can provide information on thousands of genes simultaneously. An orderly arrangement of the
probes on the support is important as the location of each spot on the array is used for the identification of a gene.
INTERPRETING MICROARRAY DATA
Microarray data for a simple dataset having five samples and four genes, represented in dots of different color indicating the
intensity of tumor have been interpreted. The different colors of the spots have to be converted to numbers before analysis in order to
obtain the intensity of tumor. There are many approaches but here a simplified version of common techniques is employed.
First, each spot is converted to a number that represents the intensity of the red dye and green dye. In this example, arbitrary
light units are used.
Next, we calculate the ratio of red to green (red/green).

a
Red (tumor)
400
00

200
400

Green (normal)
100
300

Ratio (Red/Green)
200
400

4
0.33

1
1

Fig.2. Ratio between tumor and normal gene

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TABLE I CELL INTENSITY RATIO

A
C

Genes
Cell intensity
Red(tumor)
Green(normal)
Ratio

B
D

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

400
100
4

200
200
1

100
300
0.33

400
400
1

TABLE II INTENSITY RATIO FOR FIVE SAMPLES


Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

4
2
3.5
1.5
0.8

1
0.8
2
0.5
1

0.33
1
0.25
0.25
1.2

1
1.3
3
1
0.8

When, Ratio >1: Indicates the gene was induced by tumor formation.
Gene A induced four fold.
Ratio <1: Indicates the gene was repressed by tumor formation.
Gene C repressed 3 fold.
Gene B and D not affected by tumor formation.
PROCESSING MICROARRAY DATA
To analyze large amount of expression data, its necessary to use statistical analysis. Unfortunately, fractions are not suitable
for statistics. For this reason, the expression ratios are usually transformed by log2 function, in which, for every increase or decrease
of 1, there are 2 fold changes.
In our example, log10 is used, since it is easier for efficient outcome. In log10, for every increase or decrease of 1, there are
10 fold changes. The table below shows the relationships between log2 and log10.
Numbers are often converted to colored scale i.e., red and green fluorescents, to make it easier to see the patterns. Results are
often reported in this way of representation.
TABLE III PROCESSING MICROARRAY DATA
Genes

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

4
2
0.602
2
1
0.301
3.5
1.807
0.544
1.5
0.584
0.176
0.8
-0.321
-0.096

1
0
0
0.8
-0.321
-0.096
2
1
0.301
0.5
-1
-0.301
1
0
0

0.33
-1.599
-0.481
1
0
0
0.25
-2
-0.602
0.25
-2
-0.602
1.2
0.263
0.079

1
0
0
1.3
0.378
0.114
3
1.584
0.477
1
0
0
0.8
-0.321
-0.096

Samples
Sample1

Sample2

Sample3

Sample4

Sample5

Ratio
Log 2
Log 10
Ratio
Log 2
Log 10
Ratio
Log 2
Log 10
Ratio
Log 2
Log 10
Ratio
Log 2
Log 10

Numbers are often converted to colored scale i.e., red and green fluorescents, to make it easier to see the patterns. Results are often
reported in this way of representation.
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Repressed

Induced

10*
3*
1:1
3*
10*
Fig.3. Color conversion for repressed and induced cell
TABLE IV CELL PATTERNS (TUMOR vs. NORMAL)
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

0.602
0.301
0.544
0.176
-0.096

0
-0.096
0.301
-0.301
0

-0.481
0
-0.602
-0.602
0.0792

0
0.114
0.477
0
-0.096

CALCULATING SIMILARITIES
To calculate similarity score, mean and standard deviation of each genes expression values are calculated.
TABLE V SIMILARITY CALCULATION USING MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5
Mean
Std dev

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

0.602
0.301
0.544
0.176
-0.096
0.305
0.254

0
-0.096
0.301
-0.301
0
-0.0194
0.194

-0.481
0
-0.602
-0.602
0.0792
-0.321
0.299

0
0.114
0.477
0
-0.096
0.0988
0.200

Next, normalize the values subtracting the mean for that gene and dividing it by standard deviation.
For Ex, Gene A - sample1 becomes
(0.602-0.305)/0.254=1.167
TABLE VI NORMALIZED DATA
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

1.166744
-0.01659
0.938726
-0.50801
-1.58087

0.099756
-0.39902
1.649106
-1.4496
0.099756

-0.53475
1.074453
-0.93956
-0.93956
1.339419

-0.49276
0.075694
1.885779
-0.49276
-0.97595

Next for each pair of gene, multiply the values from each sample, add up the products and divide by the number of sample (5). The
result is similarity score. For example, for Gene A and Gene B,
TABLE VII SIMILARITY SCORE FOR GENE (AB) AND (CD) USING DOT PRODUCT
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5
134

Gene A

Gene B

1.166744
-0.01659
0.938726
-0.50801
-1.58087
SUM

0.099756
-0.39902
1.649106
-1.4496
0.099756

Product
(A and B)
0.116389
0.00662
1.548059
0.736406
-0.1577
2.249774

Gene C

Gene D

-0.53475
1.074453
-0.93956
-0.93956
1.339419
SUM

-0.49276
0.075694
1.885779
-0.49276
-0.97595

www.ijergs.org

Product
(C and D)
0.26350341
0.081329645
-1.771802517
0.462977586
-1.307205973
-2.271197849

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ISSN 2091-2730

SIMILARITY SCORE

0.449955

SIMILARITY SCORE

-0.45423957

TABLE VIII SIMILARITY SCORE FOR GENE (AC) AND (AD) USING DOT PRODUCT
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene A

Gene C

1.166744
-0.53475
-0.01659
1.074453
0.938726
-0.93956
-0.50801
-0.93956
-1.58087
1.339419
SUM
SIMILARITY SCORE

Product
(A and C)
-0.62391635
-0.01782518
-0.8819894
0.477305876
-2.11744731
-3.16387237
-0.63277447

Gene A

Gene D

1.166744
-0.49276
-0.01659
0.075694
0.938726
1.885779
-0.50801
-0.49276
-1.58087
-0.97595
SUM
SIMILARITY SCORE

Product
(A and D)
-0.574924773
-0.001255763
1.770229778
0.250327008
1.542850077
2.987226325
0.597445265

TABLE IX SIMILARITY SCORE FOR GENE (BC) AND (BD) USING DOT PRODUCT
Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene B

Gene C

0.099756
-0.53475
-0.39902
1.074453
1.649106
-0.93956
-1.4496
-0.93956
0.099756
1.339419
SUM
SIMILARITY SCORE

Product
(B and C)
-0.05334452
-0.42872824
-1.54943403
1.361986176
0.133615082
-0.53590553
-0.10718111

Gene B

Gene D

0.099756
-0.49276
-0.39902
0.075694
1.649106
1.885779
-1.4496
-0.49276
0.099756
-0.97595
SUM
SIMILARITY SCORE

Product
(B and D)
-0.04915577
-0.03020342
3.109849464
0.714304896
-0.09735687
3.647438305
0.729487661

TABLE X SIMILARITY SCORE FOR ALL GENES

Gene A
Gene B
Gene C
Gene D

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene D

1
0.450
-0.633
0.597

0.450
1
-0.107
0.729

-0.633
0.107
1
0.454

0.597
0.729
-0.454
1

When, Similarity score = + ve, two genes behave similarly i.e., when one is induced, so is the other. Larger the
similar they are.
Similarity score = 1, two genes behave identically. Gene A obviously behaves exactly like Gene A.
Similarity score = 0, two genes behave in unrelated manner.
Similarity score = ve, two genes behave in opposite ways i.e., when one is induced other is suppressed.
By casual inspection, we could summarize that:
Gene Cs behavior is opposite to that of Gene A, B, and D
Gene B and Gene D have the most similar behaviors.

number, the more

HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING
To analyze 1000 of genes, hierarchical clustering [3] is used which works by taking the most similar genes and joining them
in a cluster. The nested sequence of clusters produced by hierarchical methods makes them appealing, when different levels of detail
are of interest, because small clusters are nested inside larger ones. In microarray applications, interest may focus on both small
groups of similar observations and a few large clusters. The former might occur when individuals provide multiple samples or a few
samples have special meaning, such as the four samples in the carcinoma example that are normal tissue. The latter would occur when
larger groups exist, such as samples from two different sources, or different stages of carcinoma, or from different experiments.
Gene B and D are the most similar at 0.729, so they are joined to become [BD]. Next, the log-transformed expression levels
are averaged for the clustered genes and the similarity scores are recalculated:

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TABLE XI SIMILARITY SCORE FOR CLUSTERED GENE

Gene A
Gene C
Gene [BD]

Gene A

Gene C

Gene [BD]

1
-0.633
0.564

-0.633
1
-0.305

0.564
-0.305
1

Next highest score is chosen i.e., A and [BD], to form the cluster [ABD]. Since only 4 genes are processed it terminates with
simple process. But this is an iterative process until a single pair is formed. The end product is a dendrogram, a graphic representation
of clusters:

TABLE XII DENDROGRAM REPRESENTATION OF GENE

Gene B
Gene D
Gene A
Gene C

Genes
Samples
Sample1
Sample2
Sample3
Sample4
Sample5

Gene B

Gene D

Gene A

Gene C

0
-0.096
0.301
-0.301
0

0
0.114
0.477
0
-0.096

0.602
0.301
0.544
0.176
-0.096

-0.481
0
-0.602
-0.602
0.0792

Many hierarchical clustering methods have an appealing property that the nested sequence of clusters can be graphically
represented with a tree, called a dendogram[7]. Usually, each join in a dendogram is plotted at a height equal to the dissimilarity
between the two clusters which are joined. Selection of K clusters from a hierarchical clustering corresponds to cutting the dendogram
with a horizontal line at an appropriate height. Each branch cut by the horizontal line corresponds to a cluster. The result of the
expression level analysis is usually presented as a dendrogram with an accompanying expression level table that has been reordered
according to the clusters.
The picture emerging from our analysis is not simple one such as Gene A is active in the tumor. The true power of
microarray technology is the possibility of assaying thousands of genes and hundreds of samples in the same experiment. Consider a
slightly more complicated example. This experiment has 13 genes with 12 samples. They
are ready to be stored by hierarchical cluster. The trees two major branches reveal two
major groups of genes and samples as well:
Genes: C, J, H, F, B and G
Genes: L, K, E, M, D, I and A
Samples: 9, 8, 12, 4, and 10
Samples: 2, 7, 5, 6, 3, 11, and 1
Fig.4.Microarray data with 13 genes and 12 samples
CONCLUSION
Microarray technology has been extensively used by the scientific community. Advances in computer technology have made
powerful analytical tools readily available. Even modest PC can analyze a dataset of 3,000 genes with 100 samples in minutes. In real
situations, additional complications need to be taken into account, such as making sure that comparing fluorescence from different
microarrays does not introduces additional variability. Other microarray may use different detection and analytical techniques that
dont use fluorescence. The clustering techniques have been widely used to identify group of genes sharing similar expression profiles
and the results obtained so far have been extremely valuable. However, the metrics adopted in these clustering techniques have
discovered only a subset of relationships among gene expression. Clustering can work well when there is already a wealth of
knowledge about the pathway in question, but it works less well when this knowledge is sparse. The inherent nature of clustering and
classification methodologies makes it less suited for mining previously unknown rules and pathways.

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REFERENCES:
[1] Holter, N.S., Mitra, M., Maritan, A. 2000 Fundamental patterns underlying gene expression profiles: Simplicity from Complexity,
Proc.Natl.Acad. Sci., 97(15): 8409-8414
[2] Alizadeh, A.A., Eisen, M.B., Davis, R.E. 2000 Distinct Types of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Identified by Gene Expression
Profiling, Nature, 403:503-511
[3] C.B., Spellman, P.T., Brown, P.O., Botstein, D. 1998 Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns, Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci., 95(25): 14863-14868
[4] Schena, M., Shalon, D., Davis, R.W., Brown, P.O. 1995 Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a
complementary DNA microarray, Science, 270:467-470
[5] Lashkari, D.A., DeRisi, J.L., McCusker, J.H., Namath, A.F., Gentile, C., Hwang, S.Y., Brown, P.O., Davis, R.W. 1997 Yeast
microarrays for genome wide parallel genetic and gene expression analysis, Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA. 94(24):13057-13062
[6] Brazma, A., Vilo, J. 2000 Gene expression data analysis, FEBS Letters, 480: 17-24

[7] Alon, U., Barakai, N., Notterman, D.A., Gish, K., Ybarra, S., Mack, D., Levine, A.J. 1999 Broad patterns of gene
expression revealed by clustering analysis of tumor and normal colon tissues probed by oligonucleotide arrays, Proc. Natl
Acad Sci USA. 96(12): 6745-6750

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Dynamic Book Search Using RFID Technology


A.Ankit Kumar Jain, T. Rama Krishna
Email : ankitbhansali110@gmail.com, contact no: 9492405110

Abstract--- In view of the problems existed in library management; we designed a RFID Intelligent Book Conveyor using Radio
Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. This book conveyor is portable equipment with complete functions, friendly interface
and convenient operation. It can greatly improve the work efficiency of librarians and the service quality of the library. This project
contains one server and multi slave microcontrollers here we are using system (PC) as a server and slave is an LPc2148
microcontroller, each slave microcontroller contains one RFID and each one communicates with master microcontroller.

Keywords--- Radio frequency identification technology, shelf management, RFID tags, active tags, passive tags, black box testing,
white box testing, GUI.

INTRODUCTION
Library management system is a planning system for a library that used to track items, orders made, bill paid and patrons
who have borrowed. Library management is essential because library housing thousands of books, pamphlets, CDs and others. Library
needs a good coordination of information of the entire item above in addition to library management. Shelf management is system that
classified all of the books on the shelf in the library. The position of the books on the shelf need to be appropriate or the books will be
difficult to be found.

Figure 1: RFID Library Management System


Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, which can store and remotely retrieve data
using devices called RFID tags. The technology requires cooperation of RFID reader and RFID tag. The RFID based LMS facilitates
the fast issuing, reissuing and returning of books with the help of RFID enabled modules. It directly provides the book information
and library member information to the library management system. This technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional
barcodes on library items and has advantages as well as disadvantages over existing barcodes [4]. The RFID tag can contain
identifying information, such as a books title or code, without having to be pointed to a separate database. The information is read by
an RFID reader, which replaces the standard barcode reader commonly found at a librarys circulation desk. For which utmost care
has been taken to remove manual book keeping of records, reduce time consumption as line of sight and manual interaction are not
needed for RFID-tag reading and improve utilization of resources like manpower, infrastructure etc.

COMPONENTS OF RFID SYSTEM


RFID Technology:
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless automatic identification technology that utilizes the Radio Frequency as
the medium of communication. With the capability of carrying and retrieving data, RFID offers a wide application in the automatic
identification areas. Figure 1 above illustrates the basic RFID system. The system consists of tag, reader and host pc. Reader will
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energize the tag to transmit data it carries and an application in the host pc will manipulate the data. Here the library contains multi
racks each rack contains slave microcontroller if any person keep any book in the rack the slave microcontroller will detect the book
with the help of RFID then it will add the rack address along with book id, now if any person type the book id in the server then
system will display the books information by collecting data from slave microcontrollers.

RFID Tag:
The ATA5570 is a contactless R/W Identification IC for applications in the 125KHZ frequency range. A single coil,
connected to chip serves as the ICs power supply and bi-directional communication interface. The antenna and chip together form a
transponder or tag.

Figure 2: RFID tag

Active and Passive tags:


First basic choice when considering a tag is either passive or semi-passive or active [1]. Passive tags can be read at a distance of
up to 4 5 m using UHF frequency band, whilst the other types of tags (semi-passive and active) can achieve much greater distance of
up to 100m for semi-passive, and several KM for active. This large difference in communication performance can be explained by the
following,
(I) Passive tags use the reader field as a source of energy for the chip and for the communication from and to the reader. The
available power from the reader field, not only reduce very rapidly with distance but is also controlled by the strict regulations,
resulting in a limited communication distance of 4 -5 m when using UHF frequency band (860 MHz 930 MHz) [3].
(II) Semi-passive (battery assisted back scatter) tags have build in batteries and therefore do not require energy from the reader
field to power the chip. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels, resulting in greater distance of up to
100meters. Distance is limited mainly due to the fact that tag does not have an integrated transmitter, and is still obliged to use the
reader field to communicate back to the reader.
(III) Active tags are battery powered devices that have an active transmitter onboard. Unlike passive tags, active tags generate RF
energy and apply to the antenna. This autonomy from the reader means that they can communicate at the distance of over several
KMs.

GUI Development
Figure below displays the GUI (Flash Terminal).Com Port is referred to the serial communication port on a computer. RFID
reader is connected to the host PC through serial port. Therefore, correct com port number must be selected to establish the
connection. There are two blocks in the GUI namely, transmit and receive with the help of which we send and receive the information
respectively. Transmit block has a field through which we deliver the commands to the slave microcontroller. Consequently, we
receive the information back from the slave microcontroller in the receive block.

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Figure 3: Flash Terminal

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Implementation is the stage where the theoretical design is turned into a working system. The implementation phase
constructs, installs and operates the new system. The intention of the research is to develop a shelf management system. The system
will assist the librarian to carry out the shelf management process thus reducing human intervention. The RFID reader will scan each
book on the shelf. The data acquired will be sent to the host PC to process the data. There will be a LCD output mechanism to alert the
librarian if there is a misplace book. Database and RFID chip will be used as storage.
A graphical user interface (GUI) is the backbone of the system. Librarian will interact with the system through GUI. RFID tag
will be attached to each book on the library. The tag will carry the specific information of the book. A reader will interrogate each
book and check which book is misplaced and notice the user to remove the book from the shelf. The aim of the research is to develop
a Graphical User Interface (GUI) as an Application Programmable Interface (API) for shelf management system using RFID, to create
database that will store crucial information of the books to the RFID tag and to create shelf identification (ID) code [7]. Subsequently
in the shelf management process, the software will retrieve the shelf information from the tag to find any misplaced books so that the
librarian can position the book back at the right shelf.
The present work was developed in integrating the RFID system and the creation of Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the
host PC. The scope of work of the research is to develop an RFID based library management system to assist the librarians for more
efficient management of books in the library. GUI for the system was developed using Flash Terminal. To store the details
information of the book to the database. Subsequently all the book information is loaded in the RFID tag. This covers the database
related to books and student based on UID.
Following tasks have to be done:
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Write the book/student information on to the tag


Read the book/student information from the tag
Add the new books to the library/department
Issuing and returning of books
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5.
6.

Status of the book


Database management

When books are issued to student, the books are deleted from the department book database and added to the student data
base, and also record the issued date and return date of the book on to student database along with student and book information. In
the same way to return the books, books are add to department book database and deleted from student data base along with due date
fine. Searching of books using UID will search the information of Book UID, Book Title, Book Author and Book Publisher. Similarly
using Student search Book UID, student UID, student Name. All will process and analyzed using RFID Read/Writer by implementing
GUI for Library Management System easily and efficiently.

TESTING AND ANALYSIS


The testing process focuses on the logical intervals of the software ensuring that all statements have been tested and on
functional interval is conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the
required results. Program level testing, modules level testing integrated and carried out. There are 2 major types of testing [8]. They
are:

White Box testing:


White box sometimes called Glass Box testing is a test case design uses the control structure of the procedural design to drive
test case. Using white box testing methods, the following test were made on the system,
a.
b.

all individual paths within a module have been exercised once.


all logical decisions were checked for the truth and falsity of the values.

Black Box testing:


Black box testing focuses on the functional requirements of the software i.e., black box testing enables the software
engineering to derive a set of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program.
a. Interface errors.
b. Performance in date structure.
c. Performance errors.
d. Initializing and termination errors.

CONCLUSION
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems have been in use in libraries for book identification, for self checkout, for
anti-theft control, for inventory control, and for the sorting and conveying of library books. These applications can lead to significant
savings in labor costs, enhance customer service, lower book theft and provide a constant record update of new collections of books. It
also speeds up book borrowing, returning and monitoring, and thus frees staff from doing manual work so that they could be used to
enhance user-services task. The efficiency of the system depends upon the information to be written in tag. To yield best performance,
RFID readers and RFID tags to be used must be of good quality.
ACKNOWLEGMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. C. V Narashimhulu, HOD of Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering, Mr. D. Rama Krishna Associate professor of Department of Electronics and Communication
Engineering in Geethanjali College of Engineering for the immense support and guidance for the successful completion of the work.

REFERENCES:
[1] Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Vs Barcodes, Electro-Com (Australia) Pty Ltd.
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[2] Karen Coyle, Management of RFID in Libraries ,Preprint version of article published in the Journal of Academic Librarianship,
v. 31, n. 5, pp. 486-489
[3] Chawla, V. and H. Dong Sam, An overview of passive RFID. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 2007. 45(9): p. 11-17.
[4] RFID Technology: A Revolution in Library Management, By Dr. Indira Koneru.
[5] Shamsudin, T.M.W., M.J.E. Salami, and W. Martono. RFID-Based Intelligent Books Shelving System. In RFID Eurasia, 2007 1st
Annual. 2007.
[6] Jung-Wook, C., O. Dong-Ik, and S. Il-Yeol. R-LIM: an Affordable Library Search System Based on RFID. In Hybrid Information
Technology, 2006. ICHIT '06. International Conference on. 2006.
[7] Kuen-Liang, S. and L. Yi-Min. BLOCS: A Smart Book- Locating System Based on RFID in Libraries. in Service Systems and
Service Management, 2007 International Conference on. 2007.
[8]http://www.slideshare.net/TauszfJamal/library-management-systemlms

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Air Entrapment Analysis of Casting (Turbine Housing) for Shell Moulding


Process using Simulation Technique
Mr. Prasad P Lagad1
1 M.E (Mechanical-Design) Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management
Studies, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
Mail: - Prasad.lagad8@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Casting simulation plays a very important role in predicting defect before going to actual trials in shell moulding process. Air
entrapment analysis, fluid flow analysis & solidification analysis generally performed in shell moulding. Fluid flow analysis to be
done to see Temperature distribution for molten metal during pouring, Air entrapment, Flow related defects cold shut, misrun.
Solidification/Thermal analysis to be done to simulate progressive solidification, Predict the solidification defects (porosity), Degree
of soundness of casting.
This paper describes the benefits of casting simulation for air entrapment analysis to understand the possibility of area where air
might be entrapped during solidification & give us solution to provide the flow off to avoid air entrapment related defect such as blow
holes in the foundries.

Key Words: Air entrapment, Blow Hole, Casting simulation, Flow off, Fluid flow, Shell moulding, Solidification.
1. INTRODUCTION
Shell molding is the process in which resin coated sand is allowed to come in contact with the heated pattern (cope &drag) so that
shell of mould is formed around the pattern & removed it with the help of ejector pins then both shell kept in a flask with necessary
back up material & then molten metal is poured. Some of the advantages of shell moulding process is close degree of tolerance can be
achieved intricate shaped casting can be easily manufactured. Some of the application of shell moulding is turbocharger parts such as
turbine housing,center housing, water cooled bearing housing can easily manufactured from shell moulding process.
Casting simulation is a process of designing a model of real system & performs number of experiment (Iterations) with this model for
the purpose of either understanding the behaviour of the system and/or evaluating various strategies for the operation of the system.
casting simulation is necessary for quality improvement by finding & minimising internal defects or external defects in the casting.
Casting simulation in shell moulding process play an very important role in reducing casting defects, optimize gating system &
finalizing casting design, casting simulation performs solidification analysis, air entrapment analysis, temperature distribution
analysis, fluid flow analysis etc. casting design simulation plays an important role in predicting output of the design.

1.1. Benefits of casting simulation:

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1.

Increased productivity by reducing number of actual foundry trials.

2.

Improved product quality by minimising casting defects related to fluid flow & solidification.

3.

Less remelting and refinishing.

4.

Shortened lead time & increased production.

5.

First Time Right (casting free from defects).

6.

Predicting Metallurgy.

7.

Yield improvement by performing number of iteration in simulation.


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8.

Less development time.

1.2. General process flow of shell moulding process

Raw Material

Inspection

Core making

Shell making

Melting

Pouring

Knocking
Metallurgy Inspection
External shot blasting

Internal shot blasting

Visual Inspection

Oiling

Packing
Dispatch

Figure 1. Entire general Process flow of shell moulding process

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1.3. Steps involve in casting simulation for shell moulding:

Generation of casting model from 2D drawing

Core extraction from casting model

Selection of parting line of casting & core

Gating system

Casting bunch

Convert the 3D CAD model to STL format

Import the STL CAD data to simulation Software

Setup the meshing parameters for auto mesh generation

Set the analysis type (Fluid flow, Solidification, etc)

Specify the material properties for the mould and Casting

Analysis of the casting process

Post processing (involves various result extraction and viewing)


1.4. Gating system & its element for shell moulding process:
Gating system to be designed in a way that there should not be any turbulence in casting cavity while metal entering from gating
passage to the casting cavities. The main objective of gating system is too feed the material ensuring uniform, smooth &complete
filling.
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The importance element of gating system are down sprue, sprue well, runner bar, riser & ingate.

Figure 2. Major elements of gating system

i) Down Sprue - It is a circular cross-section minimizing turbulence and heat loss and its area is quantified from choke area and gating
ratio. Ideally it should be large at top and small at bottom.
ii) Sprue well: It is designed to restrict the free fall of molten metal by directing it in a right angle towards the runner. It aids in
reducing turbulence and air aspiration. Ideally it should be shaped cylindrically having diameter twice as that of sprue exit and depth
twice of runner.
iii) Runner - Mainly slows down the molten metal that speeds during the free fall from sprue to the ingate. The cross section are of a
runner should be greater than the sprue exit. It should also be able to fill completely before allowing the metal to enter the ingates. In
systems where more than one ingate is present, it is recommended that the runner cross section area must be lowered after each ingate
connection to ensure smooth flow.
iv) Ingate: It directs the molten metal from the gating system to the mold cavity. It is recommended that ingate should be designed to
reduce the metal velocity; they must be easy to fettle, must not lead to a hot spot and the flow of molten metal from the ingate should
be proportional to the volume of casting region.

As shown in red circle


area subjected to the
air entrapment related
defect (Blow hole)

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Figure 3. Final stage of air entrapment analysis


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Figure .4 Blow Holes in cast component

Figure 5. Gating system for 2nd run simulation (Casting, Runner bar, Riser &Down sprue)

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The possibility of
air entrapment
defect (blow holes)
can be avoided by
providing proper
flow off also called
vent pin.

Figure 6. Final stage of Air Entrapment analysis (simulation) after flow off addition.

2. CONCLUSION:
Upper part of the product parts is more likely to have air bubble entrapment defects (Blow hole) because it is filled last, this predictable
defect can be avoided by providing proper vents also called flow off. Casting Simulation tool permits foundry development engineers to fill
gap between design & manufacturing, improve quality, increase productivity by minimizing number of foundry trials and also analyse
prediction of defects & experimenting different gating arrangements. Casting simulation helpful for rapid design & development of castings
by significant reduction in development time which is a need of todays foundry industry.

3.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

The authors wish to thank BPTL (Foundry Division) for permission to use their foundry. The authors also wish to thank Mr.D.U
Gopekar, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies,
Aurangabad, Maharashtra for their valuable guidance.

REFERENCES:
[1] Tresna Priyana Soemardi, Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono, Rianti Dewi Sulamet-Ariobimo, The role of casting flow & solidification
simulation for the improvement of thin wall ductile iron quality, Indonesia.
[2] Marco Aloe, Dominique Lefebvre, ESI Group, France, Adi sholapurwalla, Sam Scott ESI NA USA. Advanced casting
simulation.
[3] Kimatsuka akihiko, Mould filling simulation for predicting gas porosity, Vol.40 No. 2 August 2007.
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[4] Introducing castings simulation in industry: The steps towards success, Marco Gremaud,Matthias Gaummann,calcom ESI SA,
Parc scientifique EPFL,CH -1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
[6] http://www.metalwebnews.com/howto/shell-mzulding/shell-moulding.html.
[7] Rahul Bhedasgaonkar, Uday Dabade, Analysis of casting defects by design of experiments and casting simulation techniques,
Walchand Collage of engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.416415.
[8] Introduction to simulation by Elena M. Joshi.The Pennsylvania State University

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Design and Implementation of Advanced ARM Based Surveillance System


using Wireless Communication
Ms. Jadhav Gauri J.
Department of E & TC (VLSI and Embedded),
G. H. Raisoni COE&M,
Ahmednagar, India
Gaurijadhav89@gmail.com

AbstractThis paper evaluates development of a low cost surveillance system using different sensors built around the
microcontroller with fingerprint sensor module. The low power PIR detectors take advantage of pyroelectrcity to detect the change in
environment temperature through human temperature in our experiment. Also we are using Ultrasonic sensors and vibration sensors.
Ultrasonic sensor (Obstacles detection) detects the intruder on their physical presence .Vibration sensors detect sound of breaking or
senses vibration signal. Fingerprint sensor module is based on taking fingerprint of the user with the help of fingerprint sensor module
and matching it with the database details corresponding to the user fingerprint and displays it on the computer screen. Detecting the
presence of any unauthorized person it triggers an alarm and send sms to a predefine number through a GSM modem. This
surveillance system has a better percentage of security with respect to other security system available. Apart from this it is fast
processing less expensive and better probability, alter and copy of information between source and database.
Keywords GSM, ARM, PIR Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor, Vibration Sensor, Fingerprint Module Sensor, RF Tx/Rx.

INTRODUCTION
In a situation where there is high level of theft, there is need for better security system. It is much safer to have a
system that monitors and communicates to the device owner without putting human life to risk in the name of
Watchman. This tends to utilize the availability of GSM network, mobile phone and electronics circuit to achieve an
automated system which is programmed to work as a thinking device to accomplish this purpose. To secure it against
theft, crime, etc a powerful security system is required not only to detect but also pre-emt hazards. Conventional security
systems use cameras and process large amounts of data to extract features with high cost and hence require significant
infrastructures. In this paper the alerting sensors with low-power consumption are placed near those home windows and
doors where an intruder must pass through. According to the sensors signals received by microcontroller, a call is
established to mobile station through a GSM modem and thus warns the presence of unauthorized user in the home to
owner-occupier. On the other hand, this security system remains in idle position and performs nothing if no one is in the
home. This paper is organized into eight sections, including this section. Section II discusses some related works and
section III presents a systems block diagram. Components of hardware and their operation details are in section IV and
section V shows software flowchart Advantages and applications are discussed in section VI and finally the conclusions
are presented in section VII.
RELATED WORKS
Now a days indoor security systems constructed with many and different sensors which included microwave detectors,
photoelectric detectors, infrared detectors, and many others. Every of these systems having their own limitations. As an
example, photo-electric beam systems detect the presence of an intruder by transmitting visible or infrared light beams
across an area, where these beams may be obstructed. But the drawback lies within it if the intruder is aware of the
presence of this system. Despite of having strong dependence on surrounding environmental status, pyroelectricity has
become a widely used detection parameter because of simplicity and privilege of interfacing to the digital systems. Also
ultrasonic sensors are widely use because of their good and relatively fast response. Vibration sensors are also use as they
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senses any noise of breaking or sound of vibration. Now, it is extensively used for intruder detection, smart environment
sensing, and power management applications. Several works have been conducted in various applications. Intelligent
fireproof and theft-proof alarm system [1], GSM (Global System for Mobile) network based home safeguard system [2],
human tracking system [3] and intruder detection systems [4] are some notable works done previously based on
pyroelectricity and ultrasonic sensing technique. Our work introduces a low-cost security system solution. Utilization of
existing cellular network to alert and inform the system owner about the security breach is made to cope up with ever
increasing demand for cheap but reliable security system. Also we are using the fingerprint module sensor in combination
with other sensors which plays major role. Also using wireless communication this system provides very fast response as
compared to the traditional surveillance system.
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Figure 1. System block diagram

The Fig. 1 shows block diagram of the system. It consist of fingerprint sensor module, PIR sensor, ultrasonic sensor,
vibration sensor, ARM processor, RF Tx/Rx Module, GSM Module and liquid crystal display.

COMPONENTS OF HARDWARE

MICROCONTROLLER
In this project the controller used is ARM7 LPC2138. LPC2138 CPU module is based on LPC2138 SOC from NXP is an
ideal platform for applications which such as Industrial control and monitoring device and any such application which
needs migration from 8 bit to 32 bit. This CPU module board supports peripherals such as ADC, SPI, I2C, RTC etc.
Board Specification:
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1. CPU: ARM7:
a) 65 MIPS at 60 MHz
b) Embedded ICE, Debug Communication Channel Support
2. Communication interface
a) SPI
b) I2C
c) UART
3. General peripherals:
a) 40 GPIO
b) 10bit ADCs
c) Timer/Counter
d) RTC
e) Programmable Vector Interrupt Controller
4. RAM:
a) 32 KB Internal SRAM
b) Flash:
c) 512 KB Internal Flash
Add on peripherals for LPC2138 CPU module board
a) ZigBee module
b) RF communication module
c) Thermal printer module
d) GPS module
e) GSM/GPRS module
f) Motor control module
FINGERPRINT MODULE SENSOR
A Fingerprint, as the name suggests is the print or the impression made by our finger because of the patterns formed on the skin of
our palms and fingers. It is fully formed at about seven months of fetus development and finger ridge configurations do not change
throughout the life of an individual. Each of our ten fingerprints is different from one another and from those of every other person.
With age, these marks get prominent but the pattern and the structures present in those fine lines do not undergo any change. Database
storage contains the fingerprint templates of persons along with their all details information (e.g. photo, fingerprint, name, age, sex,
identification mark, permanent address etc.). A person can scan their finger on the fingerprint sensor module If their fingerprint
matched with the fingerprints of the database which has made for authorized person, then the person can enter otherwise they will be
denied. Database is designed in such a manner that it can be updated manually and automatically for a period of time and also we can
add new entry and remove previous information of a person when it needed.
In this system fingerprint sensor module R305 is used. This is module with TTL UART interface for direct connection to
microcontroller UART through MAX232 or USBserial adapter.
Steps involved in Finger print identification:
1. Finger Print enrollment through system.
2. Enrolled user places his/her Finger on the Finger sensor for checking IN/OUT (Authentication).
3. The terminal compares live finger with the finger stored on database and checks for a match.
4 .When a match is found the Authentication is successful and the user is given access.

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Figure 2. Fingerprint sensor module

Advantages of using fingerprints:


1. Prevents unauthorized use or access
2. Adds a higher level of security to an identification process
3. Eliminates the burden and bulk of carrying ID cards or remembering Pins
4. Heightens overall confidence of business processes dependent on personal identification.

PIR SENSOR
In this security system we are sensing human movements by means of PIR sensors and alerting the security and owner
simultaneously using GSM wireless network. PIR sensors are low cost, low power small components used to trigger alarm
in presence of human or moving objects by using concept of Pyroelectricity. Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain
materials to generate a temporary voltage when there is change in temperature. PIR is basically made of Pyroelectric
sensors to develop an electric signal in response to a change in the incident thermal radiation.

Figure 3. PIR sensor


ULTRASONIC SENSOR
Ultrasonic sensors work on the similar principle to the radar or sonar which evaluates attributes of a target by interpreting
the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate
the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensor calculates the time interval between sending the signal and
receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object and display it on the LCD.Fig.3 shows diagram of ultrasonic
sensor.

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Figure 4. Ultrasonic sensor

VIBRATION SENSOR
The ADXL335 is a small, thin, low power, complete 3-axis accel-erometer with signal conditioned voltage outputs.

The product measures acceleration with a minimum full-scale range of 3 g. It can measure the static acceleration of
gravity in tilt-sensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration. The user
selects the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the CX, CY, and CZ capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins.
Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0.5 Hz to 1600 Hz for the X and Y axes, and a range of
0.5 Hz to 550 Hz for the Z axis. The ADXL335 is available in a small, low profile, 4 mm 4 mm 1.45 mm, 16-lead,
plastic lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP_LQ).

Features

3-axis sensing

Small, low profile package

4 mm 4 mm 1.45 mm LFCSP

Low power : 350 A (typical)

Single-supply operation: 1.8 V to 3.6 V

10,000 g shock survival

Excellent temperature stability

BW adjustment with a single capacitor per axis

RoHS/WEEE lead-free compliant

Applications

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Cost sensitive, low power, motion- and tilt-sensing applications

Mobile devices

Gaming systems

Disk drive protection


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Image stabilization

Sports and health devices

RF Tx/Rx MODULE
An RF Module (Radio Frequency Module) is a (usually) small electronic circuit used to transmit and/or receive radio
signals on one of a number of carrier frequencies. RF Modules are widely used in electronic design owing to the difficulty
of designing radio circuitry. Good electronic radio design is notoriously complex because of the sensitivity of radio
circuits and the accuracy of components and layouts required achieving operation on a specific frequency. Design
engineers will design a circuit for an application which requires radio communication and then "drop in" a radio module
rather than attempt a discrete design, saving time and money on development. The RF Tx/Rx module will receive the
signal from microcontroller and send message to the predefined number through GSM module. Here we are using
CC2550 module which is lo cost 2.4 GHz transmitter designed for very low power wireless application. The RF
transmitter is integrated with a highly configurable baseband modulator. The modulator supports various modulation
formats and has a configurable data rate up to 500kBaud.

GSM MODULE
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system. With the help of GSM module
interfaced, we can send short text messages to the required authorities as per the application. GSM module is provided by
sim uses the mobile service provider and send sms to the respective authorities as per programmed. This technology
enables the system a wireless system with no specified range limits. When the intruder is detected by surveillance system
the sms is send to the predefined number through the GSM. In this system GSM SIM 300 module is used.

Figure 5. GSM Modem


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Features of GSM simcom300i.


Designed for global market, SIM300 is a Tri-band
GSM/GPRS engine.
ii.
Works on frequencies EGSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz and PCS 1900 MHz.
iii.
SIM100 features GPRS multi-slot class 10/ class 8 (optional) and supports the GPRS coding schemes
iv.
CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4.With a tiny configuration of 40mm x 33mm x 2.85mm
v.
SIM100 can fit almost all the space requirements in your applications.
vi.
Such as smart phone, PDA phone and other mobile devices.
Applications GSM simcom300i.
Wireless data transfer
ii.
Energy industry monitoring
iii.
Traffic system monitoring
iv.
SMS based Remote Control & Alerts
v.
Security Applications
vi.
Intelligent house monitoring
vii.
GPRS Mode Remote Data Logging
viii.
Sensor Monitoring
ix.
Agricultural feeding monitoring
x.
Parking monitoring
xi.
Telecom monitors
xii.
Meter reading
xiii.
Dial back-up for broadband connections
xiv.
Residential lighting controls
xv.
Messages/alerts
xvi.
Personnel management

Features of GSM modem


i.
This GSM modem is a highly flexible plug and play quad band GSM modem
ii.
Reset button, power can be started automatically or manually started.
iii.
For direct and asy integration to RS232.
iv.
Supports features like Voice, Data/Fax, SMS,GPRS and integrated TCP/IP stack.
v.
Control via AT commands(GSM 07.07,07.05 and enhanced AT commands)
vi.
Use AC DC Power Adaptor with following ratings DC Voltage : 12V /1A
vii.
Current Consumption in normal operation 250mA, can rise up to 1Amp while transmission.
Interfaces
i.
RS-232 through D-TYPE 9 pin connector,
ii.
Serial port baud rate adjustable 1200 to115200 bps (9600 default)
iii.
SIM card holder
iv.
Power supply through DC socket
v.
SMA antenna connector and Wire Antenna ( optional)
vi.
LED status of GSM / GPRS module
Package Contents
i.
GSM Modem With Rs232
ii.
Antenna Single stand Wire Antenna SMA Connecter and Stud Antenna 150/- extra

LCD
LCD is used in a project to visualize the output of the application. We have used 16x2 LCD which indicates 16 columns
and 2 rows. So, we can write 16 characters in each line. So, total 32 characters we can display on 16x2 LCD.LCD can also
used in a project to check the output of different modules interfaced with the microcontroller. Thus LCD plays a vital role
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in a project to see the output and to debug the system module wise in case of system failure in order to rectify the
problem.
SOFTWARE FLOWCHART

Figure 6. SOFTWARE FLOWCHART

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ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES
i.

Low cost.

ii.

Low power requirement.

iii.

Good response.

APPLICATIONS
It can be used anywhere like in home, shop,, mall bank and at any important places.

CONCULSION
The proposed approach uses the technique which combines the sensors along with fingerprint module and the concept of wireless
communication. Fingerprint provides a solution for protecting the privacy of the user; since the users true biometric feature is never
changed in the whole life. Fingerprint is used for the better security and accuracy. In the privacy and security domains, the proposed
method fulfils all requirements as to reject a forged person. Also if the unauthorized person tries to enter the sensitive area through
another way like by freaking window or door the another sensors will activate the surveillance system and the alerting message can be
send to the predefined number through GSM module. From the results obtained it is clear that the proposed approach provides very
high accuracy. Thus the approach is very much secured. This approach can be enhanced to higher level in order to further improve the
security. This common wireless security system can be extended in future by using several different types of required database that
will be very hard to break by the attackers , by using another advanced sensors and thus it can provide better security.

REFERANCES
[1] Mukesh Kumar Thakur, Ravi Shankar Kumar, Mohit
Kumar, Raju Kumar, Wireless Fingerprint Based
Security System Using ZigBee Technology. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES) ISSN:
23199598, Volume-1, Issue-5, April 2013
[2] Zamshed Iqbal Chowdhury, Masudul Haider Imtiaz, Muhammad Moinul Azam, Mst. Rumana Aktar Sumi ,

Nafisa Shahera Nur Design and Implementation of Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Based Security System Using
Microcontroller Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium ,14-16 January, 2011, lIT
Kharagpur
[3] Ying-Wen Bai, Zi-Li Xie and Zong-Han Li Design and Implementation of a Home Embedded Surveillance
System with Ultra-Low Alert Power, 0098 3063/11/$20.00 2011 IEEE
[4] Deepa Amarappa Hiregowda,
B.V.Meghana, Roopa Amarappa Hiregowda, Jayanth Design And
Implementation Of Home Embedded Surveillance System Using Pir, Piezo Sensor And Image Capturer.
Department,Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering
[5] D.NARESH,B.CHAKRADHAR, S.KRISHNAVENI Bluetooth Based Home Automation and Security System
Using ARM9 International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 9- Sep
2013
[6] Shinu N Yoannan, Vince T Vaipicherry , Don K Thankacha , Prof. Ram Prasad Tripathy Security System Based on
Ultrasonic Sensor Technology IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE) e-ISSN: 22782834,p- ISSN: 2278-8735. Volume 7, Issue 6 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 27-30 www.iosrjournals.org
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[7] S. Dharanya, V. Divya1, S. Shaheen1 and A. Umamakeswari Embedded Based 3G Security System for Prison
[8] Indian Journal of Science and Technology | Print ISSN: 0974-6846 | Online ISSN: 0974-5645 www.indjst.org | Vol 6 (5) |
May 2013
[9] Q. Qu, Z. Guohao, W. Baohua, "Design of Home Safeguard System Based on GSM Technique", Electronic

Engineer, vol. 32, no. I I, pp. 76-78, Nov. 2006.


[10] M. Shankar, Burchett, Q. Hao, B. Guenther, "Human-tracking systems using pyroelectric infrared detectors",

Optical Engineering, vol. 10, no. 45, pp. 106401 (01-10), Oct. 2006.
[11] M. Moghavvemi and C.S. Lu, "Pyroelectric infrared sensor for intruder detection," in Proc. TENCON 2004 Conf., pp. 656659

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Efficient Scheme for Data Transfer Using XOR Network Coding


Er. Anjali Gupta
Lecturer, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Universal Group Of Institutions. Lalru Mandi.
Punjab Technical University .Jalandhar
guptaanjali127@gmail.com
Abstract Compromised senders and pollution attacks are the key issues in designing and operating in any network either it is a
wired or wireless (especially in applications like sensor networks, lossy wireless networks etc.) XOR network coding, an extension of
Network coding is a new research area in information theory. It is a paradigm in which intermediate nodes are allowed to create new
packets by combining (XORing) the incoming packets which provides the possibility to maximize network throughput and reduce
number of transmissions. This paper explains the basic concept of network coding and XOR network coding, their applications and
related challenges
Keywords Network coding, XOR network coding, wireless sensor network, pollution attacks.
INTRODUCTION

Todays communication networks have the same operating principle as the data packets travelling over the internet, signals over the
mobile network, vehicle share the traffic highways in which resources used are same but information is different to individual.
In classical approach, information stream can be sent by breaking in data packets in a store-And-forward manner in which
intermediate nodes (router or relays) will duplicate the original message. With network coding (NC) intermediate nodes are allowed to
combine incoming packets with the help of opportunistic coding. Network coding is a generalization of routing and well suited for the
environments where the possibility of partial and uncertain information is high.
The remainder of paper is organized as follows: In section 2, we briefly describe the concept of XOR network coding and the related
work done. In section 3, we describe applications of XOR network coding such as throughput gain, packet latency etc. In section 4,
major issues and related approaches are described. In section 5 descriptions of various open challenges are given. In section 6, we
presents conclusion of this paper.

I.

OVERVIEW

A. XOR Network Coding


In XOR network coding, intermediate nodes are allowed to combine the incoming packets by applying the XOR operation not the
linear combination. The basic idea of XOR network coding is illustrated in Fig 1 where nodes A,B and C share the common wireless
medium as described by Ahlswede et al. [1]. Assume the capacity of network is 1 bit at a time. Due to capacity constraint, in fig 1(a)
node A will transmit data packet p1 to B which in turn transmit to node C. Similarly, node C will transmit data packet p2 to B which
in turn transmits p2 to node A. This whole process involves four transmissions.

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Fig. 1.(a) No coding

(b) Network coding.

Now, consider fig1 (b) nodes A and C can transmit data packets p1 and p2 sequentially to node B which in turn combine two packets
by XORing and transmit it on the shared medium. As, both nodes A and C know their own packets hence can easily detect another
packet by XORing the known packet with broadcast packet. This whole process takes three transmissions. Number os transmissions
used to send same amount of information is reduced resulting in 25% less energy consumption [2].
B. Related Work
Recently, network coding has gained much popularity as a potential way to increase the throughput in networking field. Zunnun and
Sanjay [2], showed better performance in wired, wireless networks, multicast and broadcast protocols.
Network coding was first considered in the pioneering work by Alswede et al [1], which showed that a sender can communicate
information to set of receivers at the broadcast capacity by using network coding resulting in capacity gain in wire line systems.
Alswedes example which is generally considered as butterfly network is shown in fig2 is a multicast network from a single source to
two destinations.

Fig..2 Multicast over communication network.


(a) Network coding

(b) No coding

Source S, multicast two data bits b1 and b2 to nodes Y and Z by acyclic graph as shown in fig(2). In fig.2(b), one channel is used
twice so that minimum usage at least 10. Now, in fig.2 (a) depicts network coding approach in which all the 9 channels are used
exactly once. Later Li et al [3], showed that linear codes are sufficient for multicast traffic to achieve optimal throughput.
At the same time, Koetter and Medard [4] developed an algebraic framework and showed that coding and decoding can be done in
polynomial time. Ho et al [5] used algebraic framework to present concept of random linear network coding, which makes network
coding more practical especially in wireless networks.
Recently network coding has been applied to wireless networks and received a significant attention for research as means of
improving network capacity and coping with unreliable wireless links [6]. Majid et al [7] presented reliability gain of network coding
in lossy wireless networks. Work on improving throughput of wireless networks by using XOR network coding [8] showed a practical
application and showed high benefits.
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C. Grid Networks
Consider a wireless ad hoc network with n nodes. Each node is placed on the vertices of a rectangular grid. Suppose each node wants
to broadcast the information to all other nodes. For this purpose, each node will transmit the information to their four neighbors as
shown in fig 3.

Fig 3 Square grid

II.

APPLICATIONS

Main applications of network coding technique are in the area of content-distribution networks, peer-to-peer networks and wireless
networks. Most of the work has been done to show the capacity gain and throughput but recently reliability gain is also a good
consideration in research area [7].
A. Throughput
The capacity gain in wired and wireless networks has made a spark for researchers in multicast networks. Suppose we have X sources
and Y receivers. Each source wants to send information to other at a given rate. All Y receivers are interested to receive the
information and share the common resources. This, XOR network coding can help to make better throughput and to better sharing of
resources.
Throughput gain [8] can be defined as:

Where,

and

are the throughput of network with and without network coding.

Fig.4 Throughput variations with and without network coding [8]


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B. Mean Latency and standard Deviation


One of the important concerns of performance evaluation in XOR networks is mean packet latency that coding and decoding
introduce. Amount of data to be aware of and processed by each node will increase with the increase of buffer size and producing high
decoding delay. And also if buffer size is not sufficiently large the node will in information required to perform coding. Borislava et
al. [9] presented packet latency aad standard deviation for XOR networks applied over 36 nodes. The results are shown in fig 5 for
both butterfly ang grid networks (described in section 2).

Fig.5 Mean latency and standard deviation for XOR coding (butterfly and grid networks) and no coding [9]
Mean latency and standard deviation is also dependent upon the channel parameters like data rate, delay etc. for fixed channel delay
added by XOR coding decreases with increase in transmission rate [9] as shown in fig.6.
.

Fig.6 Mean latency and deviation for XOR coding over different data rates [9]
III.

MAJOR ISSUES

In this paper we focus on challenges of XOR network coding in field of wireless networks.
A. Attacks

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XOR network coding technique poses various new challenges in security system e.g. applications developed using this technique are
vulnerable to pollution attacks
in which forged senders can pollute the data packets and also generate forged packets. These attacks not only prevent the sinks from
recovering the source messages but also drain out the energy of forwarders. A more severe problem is pollution propagation on
network. Therefore, polluted messages should be filtered as soon as possible.
Big threat of attacks is present in resource constrained networks such as wireless sensor networks, in which sensor nodes are equipped
with limited computation capacity, restricted memory space, limited power resources etc.
Another challenge also appeared when sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environment like Military applications. In hostile
environment, sensor nodes are vulnerable to be captured and compromised by the adversary one. Thus an adversary can inject false
data in original stream resulting in false data injection attacks.
B. Approaches
Traditional approaches like RSA or MD5 based on hash functions are not suitable for network coding because encoding process
carried out by each forwarder can destroy sources signatures.
Chrtos and Pablo introduced a cooperative security approach [10], in which users not only cooperate to distribute contents but to
inform each other about malicious blocks also. Zhen et al. presented a signature based scheme [11] to detect and filter pollution
attacks for applications using network coding. Ho et al. [12] proposed a simple polynomial hash function to detect pollution attacks.
Jaggi et al. [13] presented polynomial time network coding algorithm for multicast network against pollution attacks.
These algorithms can be divided into two groups [14]: 1) Filtering the polluted messages at forwarders and sinks, such as [10]. [11]. 2)
Filtering the polluted messages at sinks, such as [12], [13].
Several existing algorithms for filtering false data reports either cannot deal with the dynamic topology or have limited filtering
capacity. Zhen and Yong [15] used Hiil Climbing approach to filter false data injection attacks in wireless sensor networks.
C. Approach for XOR network coding
The schemes described in part B can protect only normal network coding but none of them is able to secure XOR networks. Zhen et
al. [14] presented an efficient scheme to secure XOR networks by using probabilistic pre key distribution and message authentication
codes (MACs).
IV.

OPEN CHALLENGES

Much work has been done on designing in various coding algorithms (for XOR network coding also) but most of them has not been
practically implemented to show the real gain of net throughput of algorithms should be investigated.
In flooding mechanisms, draining out the particular packet after being flooded is a challenging issue. It is even more difficult in XOR
networks where it can be a part of various encoded packets (unintentionally).
Also, work has been done by assuming that source will cooperate in network without being compromised. As [14] also assumed that
forwarders can be compromised but sources can never be compromised. In future, work should be done to detect the compromised
senders and protect network against them.
V.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we have presented a basic idea of network coding while focusing on XOR network coding. Applications of XOR
networks are described on account of throughput, mean latency and standard deviation. In addition, major issues are open challenges
are described.

REFERENCES:
[1] R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S. R. Li, and R. W. Yeung, Network information flow, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204
1216, Jul. 2000.
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[2] Zunnun Narmawala and Sanjay Srivastva, Survey of Applications of Network Coding in Wired and Wireless Networks,
[3] S. Li, R Yeung, and N.Cai, Linear Network Coding, in IEEE Transcations on Information Theory, Vol49, no.2, pp.371381,2003.
[4] [3] R. Koetter and M. Medard, An algebraic approach to network coding, IEEE/ACM transactions on networking, vol. 11, no. 5,
pp. 782795, 2003.
[5] T. Ho, M. Medard, R. Koetter, D. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, and B. Leong, A random linear network coding approach to
multicast, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 44134430, 2006
[7] Majid Ghaderi, Don Towsley and Jim Kurose, "Reliablity Gain of Network Coding in Lossy Wireless Networks," in IEEE
INFOCOM, 2008.
[8] Ihsan A. Qazi and Pratik Gandhi, "Performance Evaluation of Wireless Networ Coding under Practical Settings," in University of
Pittsburgh, PA 15260.

[9] Borislava Gjic, Janne Riihijarvi and Peti Mahonen, "Performance Evaluation of Network Coding: Effects of Topology and
Network Traffic for Linear and XOR Coding," in Journal of Communications, Vol.4, No.11, Dec-2009.
[10] Christos Gkan and Pablo Rodriguez, "Cooperative Security for Network Coding File Distribution," in IEEE 2006.
[11] Zhen Yu, Yawen Wei, Bhuvaneswari Ramkumar and Yong Guan, "An Efficient Signature Based Scheme for Securing Netwrok
Coding against Pollution Attacks," in IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[12] T.Ho, B. Leong, B. Koetteer, M. Meard, M. Effors and D. Karger, "Bynzantine Modification Detection in Multicast Networks
Using Randomized Network Coding," in ISIT, 2004.
[13] S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Kattabi and M. Meard, "Resillient Network Coding in the Presence of Bynzantine
Adversaries," in IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[14] Zhen Yu, Yawen Wei, Bhuvaneswari Ramkumar and Yong Guan, "An Efficient Scheme for Securing XOR Netwrok Coding
against Pollution Attacks," in IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[15] Zhen Yu and Yong Guan, "A Dynamic En-Route Scheme for Filtering False Data Injection in Wireless Sensor Networks," in
IEEE, 2006

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A novel POCl3 catalysed expeditious synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 5subtituted-2-arylbenzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole
Shalini Jaiswal*, Shailja Sigh
Dr. Shalini Jaiswal
Department of Chemistry, AMITY UNIVERSITY
Greater Noida Campus, U.P. 201308
Email: shaliniajaiswal@gmail.com and sjaiswal@gn.amity.edu
Telephone: 09953217151
ABSTRACT : There is a growing need for more environmentally acceptable processes in the chemical industry. The fields of
combinatorial and automated medicinal chemistry have emerged to meet the increasing requirement of new compounds for drug
discovery. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is an enabling technology for accelerating drug discovery and development
processes.
In the family of heterocyclic compounds nitrogen containing heterocycles are an important class of compounds in the medicinal
chemistry and also contributed to the society from biological and industrial point which helps to understand life processes.
Thiosemicarbazide belongs to thiourea group, whose biological activity is due to the presence of aldehyde or ketone moiety.
Thiosemicarbazide derivatives exhibit a great variety of biological activities, such as antitumor, antifungal , antibacterial , and
antiviral.
Here we developed a, novel, solvent free, microwave assisted synthesis of hitherto unknown 5-subtituted-2aryl benzalamino-1, 3, 4thiadiazole 4a-h with excellent yield.
KEY WORDS
5-subtituted-2aryl benzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole, green chemistry, microwave irradiation, antibacterial activity, gram positive and
gram negative bacteria.

INTRODUCTION
Conventional methods of organic synthesis are too slow to satisfy the demand for generation of such compounds. It is widely
acknowledged that there is a growing need for more environmentally acceptable processes in the chemical industry .The fields of
combinatorial and automated medicinal chemistry have emerged to meet the increasing requirement of new compounds for drug
discovery
The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between infrared and radio frequencies 1, 2. Microwave-assisted organic
synthesis is an enabling technology for accelerating drug discovery and development processes. Microwave instruments are used
principally in three areas of drug research: the screening of organic drug, peptide synthesis, and DNA amplification. Microwave
include following advantages, over the conventional heating.

Uniform heating occurs throughout the material

Process speed is increased

High efficiency of heating

Reduction in unwanted side reaction

Purity in final product,

Improve reproducibility

Environmental heat loss can be avoided

Reduce wastage of heating reaction vessel

Low operating cost


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Resistance to antimicrobial agents has become an increasingly important and pressing global problem. Heterocyclic compounds are
abundant in nature and are of great significance to life because their structural subunits exist in many natural products such as
vitamins, hormones, and antibiotics 1, 2.In the family of heterocyclic compounds nitrogen containing heterocycles are an important
class of compounds in the medicinal chemistry and also contributed to the society from biological and industrial point which helps to
understand life processes 3.
Thiosemicarbazide belongs to thiourea group, whose biological activity is due to the presence of aldehyde or ketone moiety.
Thiosemicarbazide derivatives exhibit a great variety of biological activities 4, 5 , such as antitumor , antifungal , antibacterial , and
antiviral. Thiosemicarbazide are potent intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceutical and bioactive materials and thus, they are
used extensively in the field of medicinal chemistry.
Thiadiazole is a 5-membered ring system containing two nitrogen and one sulphur atom. They occur in nature in four isomeric forms
viz. 1,2,3-thiadiazole; 1,2,5-thiadiazole; 1,2,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole. These different classes of thiadiazoles nucleus were
known to possess various biological and pharmacological properties6-9

N
N

(1)1,2,3-Thiadiazole

(2)1,2,4-Thiadiazole

N
S

(3)1,2,5-Thiadiazole

(4)1,3,4-Thiadiazole

1,3,4-thiadiazole exhibit diverse biological activities, possibly due the present of =N-C-S moiety10. 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles are very
interesting compounds due to their important applications in many pharmaceutical, biological and analytical field 11, 12. The naturally
occurring B6-vitamins pyridoxine, pyrodoxal, pyridoxamine, and codecarbaxylase also contains thiadiazole nucleus.

Literature survey revealed that the 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole moiety have been widely used by the medicinal chemist in the past to explore its
biological activities. 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole are very interesting compounds due to their important applications in many pharmaceutical
biological and analytical fields13, 14.
1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives have been of interest to the medicinal chemists for many years because of their
anticancer15,16,antitubercular17, antibacterial18, antifungal19,20, anticonvulsant, analgesic21 , antisecretory22 ,antitumor23 and antimicrobial24activities.
The solvent free reaction or dry media techniques under microwave irradiation are one of the main fields of our research. Encouraged
by above reports and as part of our research programme for development of eco-friendly synthetic protocol for biologically active
compounds as well as in pursuing of our work on new solvent-free synthesis we developed a, novel, solvent free, microwave
activated synthesis of hitherto unknown 5-subtituted-2aryl benzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole (Scheme 1).The reaction time, yield, and
1
HNMR spectra are summarized in Table-1 and Table-2.

EXPERIMENTAL SECTION
All chemicals used in this study were purchase from Aldrich Chemicals and were used without further purification. Melting points
were determined by open glass capillary method and are uncorrected. A Laboratory Microwave Oven (Model BP 310/50) operating at
2450 MHz and power output of 600 W was used for all the experiments. The completion of reactions was monitored by TLC (Merk
silica gel). IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu FTIR-420 spectrophotometer. 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra were recorded at
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400oC on a Bruker AVANCE DPX (400 MHz) FT spectrometer in CDCl3 using TMS as an internal reference (chemical shift in ,
ppm). Mass spectra were recorded on JEOL SX-303 (FAB) mass spectrophotometer at 70ev. Elemental analyses were carried out
using a Coleman automatic C, H, N analyser. The yield and melting point are given in Table-1.

Scheme-I
S
Cl

OCH 2
COOH

NH2

NH2.NH

Ar.CHO

(1)

(2)

(3)

Phosphrous oxychloride, M.W.


(3-5 Min.)
Cl
F
N

N
CH

OCH2

Ar

4(a-g)

GENERAL METHODS AND MATERIALS


Microwave assisted synthesis of 5-subtituted-2arylbenzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole 4a-h:
(3-Chloro-4-flurophenoxy) acetic acid 1 (0.010 mol), thiosemicarbazide 2 (0.012 mol), aromatic aldehyde 3 (0.02 mol) and catalytic
amount of POCl3 were mixed thoroughly in a beaker and the mixture was heated in household microwave oven, operating at medium
power (600W) for the specified period (3-5 min) given in Table-1.
The completion of reaction was checked by TLC at every 30 sec. and after completion of reaction, the reaction-mixture was allowed
to attain room temperature. The reaction-mixture was cooled and poured on crushed ice, cooled to 10 0C. The solid separated was
filtered, treated with dil. NaOH to adjust PH 9-10. Finally resulting solid was washed with water and crystallized from DMF to obtain
the crude product 4 a-h.

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Thermal synthesis of 5-subtituted-2arylbenzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole 4a-h:


A mixture of (3-Chloro-4-flurophenoxy) acetic acid 1 (0.010 mol), thiosemicarbazide 2 (0.012 mol), and aromatic aldehyde 3 (0.02
mol) in 30 ml of ethanol (95%) was
Refluxed on a water bath at 90 0C for 4-5 hour. The completion of reaction was checked by TLC at every 1.5 hours and after
completion of reaction, the reaction-mixture was allowed to attain room temperature. The reaction-mixture was cooled and poured on
crushed ice, cooled to 10 0C. The solid separated was filtered, treated with dil. NaOH to adjust Ph 9-10. Finally resulting solid was
washed with water and crystallized from DMF to obtain the crude product 4 a-h.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


After the experiment it is concluded that the compounds which are synthesized in the project having good yield .The identification and
characterization of the compound determined on the basis of their1 melting Point ,TLC, 1HNMR and mass Spectroscopy. The spectral
and elemental analysis of newly synthesized compound is elaborated in Table-2, which confirms the structure of synthesized
compounds.
The 5-subtituted-2arylbenzalamino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole derivatives were assayed for their antimicrobial activity against selected species
of gram-positive, gram negative bacteria .The antibacterial activity data reveals that the compounds 4c and 4d exhibited good
antibacterial activity against n gram positive (S.aureus and B.cereus) compared to standard drug. While all compound exhibited
lowest activity against gram negative bacteria as compared to standard drug Streptomycin.
Table-1
Melting point and Yield of Compound 4a-f
Compoun
d

Time

Yield (%)

M. P.
(0C)

Ar
MWI (min)
(hour)

Thermal

MWI
Thermal

4a

-C6H5

86

35

185

4b

2-HO- C6H4

80

37

225

4c

2-NO2- C6H4

85

35

215

4d

2-Cl-C6H4

88

36

180

4e

3-Cl,4-ClC6H3
3-MeO, 4HO-C6H3
3-NH2-C6H4

90

42

210

85

35

220

90

36

270

3-MeO,4MeO- C6H3

85

45

188

4f
4g
4h

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Table-2
Physical and 1HNMR Spectra data of Compound 4a-h
Compd

Mol.Formulla

1 H-NMR

Elemental Analysis
Found (Calculated)

(CDCl3, , ppm)

MS (EI,
m/z (M+)

4a
C16H11ClFN3OS

7.3-7.5(m,5H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H,-CH2),6.847.18(m.3H,ArH)

C, 55.25(54.95); H,
3.19(3.24); N,
12.08(12.12)

347

C16H11ClFN3O2S

6.8-7.5(m,4H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.867.18(m.3H,ArH),5.0(s,1H,OH).
7.6-8.2(m, 4H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.897.16(m.3H,ArH).
7.2-7.6(m,4H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.897.16(m.3H,ArH).
7.2-7.6(m, 4H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.897.16(m.3H,ArH).
6.7-7.2(m, 3H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.887.16(m.3H,ArH),3.73(s,3H,OCH3),5.0(s,1H,-OH)
6.5-7.1(m, 4H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H, -CH2),6.847.18(m.3H,ArH),5.0(s,1H,NH2
6.7-7.0(m,
3H,
ArH),8.1(s,1H,=CH),5.20(s,
2H,
-CH2),6.847.18(m.3H,ArH),3.73(s,6H,OCH3),

C, 52.82(52.85); H,
3.05(3.10); N,
11.55(11.60)

363.

C, 48.92(48.95); H,
2.57(2.60); N,
14.26(14.20)

392

C, 50.28(50.25); H,
2.64(2.50); N,
10.99(10.85)
C, 46.12(45.95); H,
2.18(2.10); N,
10.08(10.15)

380

C, 51.85(52.10); H,
3.33(3.45); N,
10.67(10.58)

393

C, 52.97(52.86); H,
3.33(3.26); N,
15.44(15.30)

362

C, 53.01(52.96); H,
3.71(3.80);
N,
10.30(10.28)

407

4b

4c
C16H10ClFN4O3S

4d
C16H10Cl2FN3OS

4e

C16H9Cl3FN3OS

4f

C17H13ClFN3O3S

4g

C16H12ClFN4OS

4h

C18H15ClFN3O3S

414

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
The compound were screened for their antibacterial activity against the gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus
aureus) and gram negative bacteria(Eschertia coli and Pseudomonas aeguginosa) by measuring inhibition of zone in mm.
Streptomycin (50g/ml) was used as a standard drug for antibacterial activity.
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All the compound exhibited significant to moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria as compared to standard
drug Streptomycin. The Compounds 4c and 4d has exhibited higher activity against gram positive (S.aureus and B.cereus) .The higher
antibacterial activity of 4c and 4d due to the presence of electron withdrawing group(Chloro and Nitro) at its ortho position .The
compounds 4a and 4e has exhibited moderate activity against gram positive (S.aureus and B.cereus).While all compound exhibited
lowest activity against gram negative bacteria as compared to standard drug Streptomycin.
Table-3
Antibacterial data of 5-subtituted-2arylbenzalamino-1, 3,4-thiadiazole derivatives
Compound

4a
4b
4c
4d
4e
4f
4g
4h
Streptomycin

Antibacterial data in MIC (g.ml)


Gram + Bacteria
S.aureus
B.cereus
8
7
7
6
9
8
9
8
8
7
7
6
7
6
7
6
10
9

Gram Bacteria
E.coli
5
7
7
6
7
7
6
7
10

P.aeruginosa
4
6
7
7
6
6
6
7
12

CONCLUSION
In the recent year microwave assisted organic reaction has emerged as new tool in organic synthesis and this is considered as an
important approach toward green chemistry. This growth of green chemistry holds significant potential for a reduction of the by
product & waste production and a lowering of the energy costs. So as part of our research programme for development of ecofriendly synthetic protocol for biologically active compounds as well as in pursuing of our work on new solvent-free cyclisation
process we developed a, novel, solvent free, microwave assisted synthesis of hitherto unknown 5-subtituted-2aryl benzalamino-1, 3,4thiadiazole derivative which possess antimicrobial activities like antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities etc. The entire
compound exhibited significant to moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria as compared to standard drug
Streptomycin. The Compounds 4c and 4d has exhibited higher activity against gram positive (S.aureus and B.cereus) .
The compounds 4a and 4e has exhibited moderate activity against gram positive (S.aureus and B.cereus).While all compound
exhibited lowest activity against gram negative bacteria as compared to standard drug Streptomycin. The possible improvements in the
activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituents on the basic thiadiazole nucleus. Although several method
are available for synthesis of thiadiazole but all these method have some disadvantage like long reaction period, low yield and use of
toxic organic solvents which pollute our environment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors would like to express their gratitude and thanks to Department of Chemistry, DIT, and School of Engineering (Part of
AMITY Education Group) Greater Noida for necessary facilities to carry out this research work and RSIC, CDRI Lucknow for
spectral analysis.

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(2006).
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2. Kumar YD, and Varma RS, Revisiting nucleophilic substitution reactions: microwave-assisted synthesis of azides, thiocyanates,
and sulfones in an aqueous medium, Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 71(17), 66976700, (2006).
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6. Cleric F, Pocar D, synthesis of 2-amino-5-sulfanyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole derivatives and evaluation of their antidepressant and
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9. Jitendra Kumar G, Rakesh Kumar Y,Rupesh D, Pramod Kumar S, Recent advancements in the synthesis and pharmacological
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11. Hadizadeh F and R Vosoogh. Synthesis of a-[5-(5-Amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2 imidazolylthio]-acetic acids. Journal of
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12. Lu S M and R Y Chen, Facial and efficient synthesis aminophosphate derivatives of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole and 1, 3, 4- thiadizaole,
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14. Ahmed M, Jahan J and Banco S, A simple spectrophotometric Methods for the determination of copper in Industrial,
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18. Gadad AK, Mahajanshetti CS, Nimbalkar S and Raichurkar A, Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some 5guanylhydrazone/thiocyanato-6-arylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide derivatives, Eur. J. Med. Chem, 35, 853-57,
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of some 6-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole-2-sulfonamides and their 5-bromo derivatives. Arzneim-Forsch. Drug. Res,46,
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derivatives, Eur. J. Med. Chem,39, 793804,(2004)

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Node Failure Recovery in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSAN) using
ALeDiR Algorithm
G Siva Kumar, Dr. I. SanthiPrabha
JNTUK, gsk797@gmail.com, +91-9494664964

AbstractWireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) refer to a group of sensors and actors linked by wireless medium to
perform distributed sensing and actuation tasks. In such a network, sensors gather information about physical world, whereas actor
takes decisions and perform appropriate actions upon the surroundings, that allows remote and machine-controlled interaction with the
surroundings. Since Actors have to coordinate their motion in order to keep approachable to every node, a strongly connected network
is needed all the time. However, a failure of an associated actor might cause the network to partition into disjoint blocks and would
therefore violate such a connectivity requirement. In this project, a new algorithmic rule is proposed. which is localized and distributed
algorithm that leverages existing route discovery activities within the network and imposes no extra pre-failure communication
overhead.

Keywords wireless sensor and actor networks(WSAN), Multiple node failure, Disjoint Blocks, Overhead Management, pre
failure, network recovery, Actor Movement.
INTRODUCTION

In recent years wireless sensor and actor networks gaining growing interest due to their suitableness for the applications in
remote and harsh areas where human intervention is risky. Samples of these applications includes disaster management, search and
rescue, fire observance, field intelligence operation, space exploration, coast and border protection, etc. WSANs comprised of varied
miniaturized stationary sensors and fewer mobile actors. The sensors acts as data acquisition devices for the powerful actor nodes that
analyses the sensor readings and gives an appropriate response to achieve predefined application mission.
For example, sensors could detect a high temperature and trigger a response from an actor that will activate air conditioner.
Robots and pilotless vehicles are example actors in observe. Actors work autonomously and collaboratively to attain the appliance
mission. For the cooperative actors operation, a powerfully connected inter-actor configuration would be needed at all times. Failure
of one or more nodes could partition the inter-actor network into disjoint blocks. Consequently, associate inter-actor interaction will
fail and the network would not be able to deliver a timely response to a significant event. Therefore, recovery from associate actor
failure have the most importance in this scenario.
The remote setup during which WSANs usually serve makes the readying of extra resources to switch failing actors
impractical, and emplacement of nodes becomes the simplest recovery possibility. Distributed recovery are going to be difficult since
nodes in separate partitions will not be ready to reach one another to coordinate the recovery method. Therefore, each node has to take
care of partial data of the network state. To avoid the excessive state-update overhead and to expedite the property restoration method,
previous work depends on maintaining one-hop or two-hop neighbour lists and predetermines some criteria for the node's involvement
within the recovery.
In contrast to previous work, this paper considers the property of restoration that subject to path length constraints. In some
applications, timely coordination among the actors is needed, and also lengthening the shortest path between two actors also would not
be acceptable.
Most of the existing approaches within the literature are strictly reactive with the recovery method initiated once the failure
F is detected. the most plan is to replace the unsuccessful node F with one in every of its neighbours or move those neighbours
inward to autonomously mend cut topology within the neighbourhood of F.

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Fig:1 An Example wireless sensor and actor network setup

SYSTEM MODEL AND PROBLEM STATEMENT


There are two types of nodes in WSANs: 1)sensors and 2)actors. actors are have more onboard energy when compared to
sensors and they are richer in computation and communication resources. Whereas sensors are highly constrained in energy and are
inexpensive. The transmission range of actors is finite. In this paper actor and node will be used interchangeably.
Based on the impact of the actors failure in the network, the nodes are classified into 2 types. The leaf node and critical
node. The leaf node is the one, on removal of the node there will be not much effect on the network. They are also regarded as
children nodes. Whereas the critical node is the one, on failure of that node the network will become into disjoint blocks. This critical
node is also called as cut vertex. For restoring network connectivity in partitioned off WSANs variety of schemes have recently been
proposed. All of those recovery methodologies have targeted on reestablishing cut links while not considering the impact on the length
of pre-failure knowledge ways. Some schemes recover the network by repositioning the existing nodes, whereas others fastidiously
place additional relay nodes. On the opposite hand, some work on device relocation focuses on metrics aside from property, e.g.,
coverage, network longevity, and quality safety, or to self-spread the nodes once non-uniform readying.
Existing recovery schemes either impose high node relocation overhead or extend a number of the inter-actor communication
path.

RELATED WORK
A number of schemes have recently been planned for restoring network connectivity in WSANs [1]. All of those schemes
have concentrated on reestablishing cut off links while not considering the impact on the length of pre-failure information methods.
Some schemes recover the network by placement the prevailing nodes, whereas others rigorously place extra relay nodes. Like our
planned DCR algorithmic program, DARA [6] strives to revive property lost as a result of failure of cut-vertex. However, DARA
needs additional network state in order to make sure convergence. Meanwhile, in PADRA [8], it determines a connected dominating
set (CDS) of the full network so as to discover cut-vertices. Although, they use a distributed algorithmic program, their resolution still
needs 2-hop neighbour's data that will increase electronic communication overhead.
Another work planned in [6] uses 2-hop data to discover cut-vertices. The planned DCR algorithmic program depends solely
on 1-hop data and reduces the communication overhead. Though RIM [13], C3R [7] and tape machine [15] use 1- hop neighbour data
to revive connectivity, they are strictly reactive and don't differentiate between critical and non-critical/children nodes. Whereas, DCR
could be a hybrid algorithmic program that proactively identifies crucial nodes and designates for them applicable backups. the
existing work on synchronic node failure recovery planned in [10] could be a mutual exclusion mechanism known as [14] so as to
handle multiple synchronic failures in a very localized manner.
The approach in this paper differs from MPADRA in multiple aspects. Whereas, it solely needs 1-hop data and every critical
node has just one backup to handle its failure.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
In this project, a new approach for the network recovery is proposed based on extra actor(Aggrandized Least Disruptive
topology Repair). Here the extra actor node will acts as a centralized node, which will control the node movements. This
methodologys main task is to overcome the multi-node failures. The performance of ALeDiR is simulated on NS2 tool.

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IMPLEMENTATION
1. Failure Detection
Actors continuously send heartbeat messages to their neighbors to make sure that they are functional and conjointly report
changes to the one-hop neighbors. Missing heartbeat messages will be used to observe the failure of actors.
After that it simply checks whether the failed node is critical node or not. If it is children node there will be not much effect
on the network. If it is Critical node, disjoint blocks will result within the network.

2. Smallest block identification


In this step the smallest disjoint block has to be taken. If it is small then it will scale back the recovery overhead within the
network.
- The smallest block is that the one with the smallest amount of nodes
- By finding the accessible set of nodes for each direct neighbor of the failing node then selecting the set with the fewest nodes.

3. Substitution of faulty node and children movement


Here in this step, the faulty node is to be substituted by extra actor and to restore the network quickly. When the node failure
is detected by heart beat message then extra actor node will move to that particular location and it will take care of the restoration, i.e.,
it will control the actor movements. It will find which nodes are affected by the failure and inform to that nodes to which position they
have to move. After restoration the extra actor will go back to its original position.

Fig: 2 Implementation Flow Chart


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RESULTS
Here the system performance analysis is done based on number of nodes involved in restoration, PDF(packet delivery
fraction),end to end delay and Overhead which are explained below.
The Fig.(3) shows the comparison of end to end delay in the network of the existing and proposed method. The X-axis
represents the protocol and Y-axis represents the delay in seconds. In the existing LeDiR method we have 1.5s delay where as in
proposed ALeDiR method we have only 0.2s delay.

Fig: 3DelayComparison between LeDiR&ALeDiR


The Fig.(4) represents number of nodes involved in the restoration of the network. Here X-axis represents protocol and Yaxis represents number of nodes. Here we can clearly observe that in LeDiR six nodes involved in restoration which will creates more
disturbances in the network but in ALeDiR only three nodes involved in the restoration.

Fig: 4 No. of nodes moved in LeDiR&ALeDiR

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Fig: 5 PDF Comparison between LeDiR&ALeDiR


The Fig.(5) represents packet delivery fraction of the network. In thisX-axis represents protocol and Y-axis represents
percentage of packets delivered. In multi node failure case LeDiR shown non-uniform packet delivery but in the proposed ALeDiR
method it shows maximum uniform packet delivery.
The Fig.(6) represents the Overhead of the network in LeDiR and ALeDiR. In this X-axis represents protocol and Y-axis
represents the number of overhead packets size. Compared to LeDiR the ALeDiR contains less Overhead .

Fig :6 OH Comparison between LeDiR&ALeDiR

CONCLUSION
Inter-actor network connectivity is essential in most of the WSAN applications to perform collaborative actions in an
efficient manner. Therefore, maintaining strong inter-actor connectivity throughout the network operation is crucial. This paper,
presents a local, distributed and movement efficient protocol which can handle the failure of any node in a connected WSAN.
Simulation results confirmed that the new approach performed very close to the optimal solution in terms of delay, PDF, overhead,
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nodes involved while keeping the approach local and thus minimizing the message complexity. In addition, this approach
outperformed LeDiR in terms of travel distance which requires the knowledge of 2-hops for each node.
In the future, the travel distance performance can be improved by adapting a distributed dynamic programming approach
when determining the closest dominatee.

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IEEE GLOBE-COM, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 2008, pp. 15.
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algorithms for wireless sensor and actor networks, Journal of Network and Computer Applications 35 (2012) 844856
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8th IEEE international conference on networks (ICN 2009), Cancun, Mexico; March 2009.
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Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks With Minimal Topology Changes. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY,
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Cognitive Radio Networks: Defense against PUEA


M.Mohamed Faisal
Asst.Prof /CSE,Anna University-chennai, faisalcsesrvec@gmail.coml ,9688110199.

Abstract A latest communication technology is Cognitive Radio Network that network in which an un-licensed user can use a
unbound channel in a spectrum band of approved user. Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA) is one of the major threats to the
spectrum sensing, which reductions the spectrum access probability. The primary user emulation attacks in cognitive radio networks
in an un-licensed digital TV band. A reliable AES-assisted DTV scheme, in which an AES-encrypted reference signal is generated at
the TV transmitter and used as the sync bits of the DTV data frames. By allowing a shared secret between the transmitter and the
receiver, the reference signal can be regenerated at the receiver and used to achieve accurate identification of the authorized primary
users. When combined with the analysis on the autocorrelation of the received signal, the presence of the malicious user can be
detected accurately whether or not the primary user is present. The AES-assisted DTV scheme, the primary user, as well as malicious
user, can be detected with high accuracy and low false alarm rate under PUEA.

Keywords Cognitive Radio Network, Primary User Emulation Attack, DTV, AES-encrypted, DSA, CR networks, HDTV.

1. Introduction
In a cognitive radio network, a licensed user is called the primary user, whereas an unlicensed user is named the secondary user
(1). If secondary users sense that primary users do not transmit, they can then use the spare spectrum for communications; otherwise,
secondary users detect the presence of primary users and will restrain from transmitting. In this way, secondary users can make use of
precious spectrum without interfering with the transmission of primary users. The existence of cognitive networks is justified by the
fact that many spectra are not fully used by their dedicated users, and therefore allowing secondary users access will give the
opportunity to fully use the bandwidths and provide more spectrums to users. This is particularly true when part of the bandwidth is
reserved for applications that have not yet been developed. The time necessary for such applications to come on to market may be
long or may simply never occur and precious bandwidth may simply be wasted for a substantially long period.
Cognitive networks are radio networks where each band of frequency is occupied by two groups of users: the primary users that
form the primary network and the secondary users that form the secondary network. The primary users are supposed to have priority
over the secondary users: i.e. the performance of the primary network should be protected against the traffic of the secondary network.
By protection we mean that the performance of the primary network should be guaranteed independently of the demand from the
secondary network(2). Besides, the throughput and possession of the secondary network should vanish when the traffic load of the
primary network increases. In other words the secondary users are only allowed to take the blank periods left by the primary users.
The problem is that the protocol used by the primary users, in short the primary protocol, often comes after a standardization
process that ignores the secondary users. The connotation is that the design of the secondary protocol is sometimes harder and more
costly than the design of the primary protocol because the secondary protocol must indeed embed the features of the primary protocol
in order to knowledgeably give priority to primary user.
The cognitive radio technology will enable the users to determine which portions of the spectrum is (1) available and detect the
presence of licensed users when a user operates in a licensed band (spectrum sensing), (2) select the best available channel (spectrum
management), (3) coordinate access to this channel with other users (spectrum sharing), and (4) vacate the channel when a approved
user is detected (spectrum mobility).

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The main functions of Cognitive Radios are:


(i) Spectrum Sensing:
It refers to detect the vacant spectrum and sharing it without harmful interference with other users. It is an
important requirement of the Cognitive Radio network to sense spectrum holes, detecting primary users is the most efficient way to
detect spectrum holes.
(ii) Spectrum Management:
It is the task of capturing the best available spectrum to meet user Communication requirements.
Cognitive radios should decide on the best spectrum band to meet the Quality of Service requirements over all available spectrum
bands, therefore spectrum management functions are required for Cognitive radios, these management functions can be classified as:
Spectrum analysis
Spectrum decision
(iii) Spectrum Mobility: It is defined as the process when a cognitive radio user exchanges its frequency of operation. Cognitive
radio networks target to use the spectrum in a dynamic manner by allowing the radio terminals to operate in the best available
frequency band, maintaining seamless communication requirements during the transition to better spectrum.
(iv) Spectrum Sharing: It refers to providing the fair spectrum scheduling method, one of the major challenges in open spectrum
usage is the spectrum sharing.

2. AES-assisted DTV scheme


AES-assisted DTV scheme: The primary user generates a AES-encrypted reference signal (pseudo-random). It is used as the sync
bits in the field sync segments remain unchanged for the channel estimation purposes. At the receiving end, the reference signal is
regenerated for the detection of the primary user and malicious user.

2.1 DTV Transmitter


The DTV transmitter obtains the reference signal as follow: first, generating a pseudo-random (PN) sequence, then encrypting
the sequence with the AES algorithm. Note that a pseudo-random sequence is first generated using a Linear Feedback Shift Register
(LFSR) with a secure initialization vector (IV). Once sequence is generated, it is used as an input to the AES encryption algorithm and
a 256-bit secret key is used for the AES encryption so that the maximum possible security is achieved(3).Denote the PN sequence by
x, then the output of the AES algorithm is used as the reference signal, which can be expressed as:
s = E (k, x) ..(1)
Here k is the key, and E( , ) denotes the AES encryption operation. The transmitter then places the reference signal s in the sync
bits of the DTV data segments.
The secret key can be generated and distributed to the DTV transmitter and receiver from a trusted 3rd party in addition to the
DTV and the CR user. The 3rd party serves as the authentication Centre for both the primary user and the CR user, and can carry out
key distribution. To prevent impersonation attack, the key should be time varying.

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IV

LFSR

KEY
S

AES

Fig. 1.DTV Transmitter.

2.2 DTV Receiver


The receiver regenerates the encrypted reference signal, with the secret key and IV that are shared between the transmitter and the
receiver(3). A correlation detector is employed, where for primary user detection, the receiver evaluates the cross correlation between
the received signal r and the regenerated reference signal s; for malicious user detection, the receiver further evaluates the autocorrelation of the received signal r.
The cross-correlation of two random variables x and y is defined as:
Rxy =< , >= E xy ..(2)
PUEA, the received signal can be modeled as :
r = s + m + n..(3)
Where s is the reference signal, m is the malicious signal, n is the noise, and are binary indicators for the presence of the
primary user and malicious user, respectively. More specifically, = 0 or 1 means the primary user is absent or present, respectively;
and = 0 or 1 means the malicious user is absent or present, respectively.
KEY

REGENERATE
REF SIGNAL S

IV
P

CORRELATION
DETECTOR

U
Fig. 2.DTV Receiver.

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1) Detection of the Primary User: To detect the presence of the primary user, the receiver evaluates the cross-correlation between the
received signal r and the reference signal s,
Rrs = < , >= < s, s > + < m, s > + < , > = 2s ..(4)
Where 2s is the primary users signal power, and s, m, n are assumed to be independent with each other and are of zero mean.
Depending on the value of in , the receiver decides whether the primary user is present or absent.
2) Detection of the Malicious User: For malicious user detection, the receiver further evaluates the auto-correlation of the received
signal r,
Rrr = < , >= 2 < , > +2 < , > + < , >= 22s + 22m + 2n..(5)
Where 2m and 2 n denote the malicious users signal power and the noise power.

3. Primary user emulation attack(PUEA):


One of the major technical challenges regarding spectrum sensing is the problem of accurately distinguishing primary user signals
from secondary user signals. In cognitive radio networks, primary users possess the priority to access the channel, while secondary
users must always relinquish access to the channel over to the primary user and ensure that no interference is generated. Consequently,
if a primary user begins to transmit across a frequency band occupied by a secondary user, the secondary user is required to leave that
specific spectral band immediately. Conversely, when there is no primary user activity present within a frequency range, all the
secondary users possess equal opportunity to the unoccupied frequency channel (5). Based on this principle, there exists the potential
for malicious secondary users to mimic the spectral characteristics of the primary users in order to gain priority access to the wireless
channels occupied by other secondary users. This scenario is referred to in the literature as primary user emulation (PUE).

3.1 PUE Example


In this network, there are three normal secondary users, named D1, D2 and D3. They are communicating with each other using
the white space channels. D1 and D2 are using Channel 1, D2 and D3 are using Channel 2, and D1 and D3 are using Channel 3. At
this time, a malicious secondary user, i.e., a primary user emulator appears on Channel 3. Since this malicious secondary user mimics
the spectral characteristics of the primary users, D1 and D3 think that there is a primary user transmitting on this channel. According
to the criteria of dynamic spectrum access network, D1 and D3 have to leave Channel 3 immediately. However, the other two
channels are both occupied by the other users right now, so they cannot find any other available channels to continue their
communication, making the connection terminated.

D2

D1

PUE

P
U
E

D3

Fig. 3. Primary user emulation attack functions


.
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3.2 Impact of PUE on DSA Networks:


There are several outcomes that can be incurred by PUE attacks in a dynamic spectrum access network:
Unstable Connections: A network is frequently attacked by a primary user emulator, the secondary users in this network always have
to leave their current channels and seek new channels. However, it is very likely that other channels are also occupied, so their
connections have to be terminated.
Spectrum Under-utilization: The original purpose of dynamic spectrum access is to address the problem of spectrum scarcity caused
by FCCs fixed spectrum allocation.
In DSA, the secondary users can temporarily borrow unoccupied licensed spectrum (6). However, if there are several primary
user emulators in the network; it is possible that all the available licensed channels are occupied by them, so the normal SU cannot
find any channels to borrow. If it is the case, then the problem of spectrum scarcity is not solved at all.
Denial of Service: When a secondary user wants to transmit some data, it has to go through a request and acknowledgement process.
However, if all the channels are occupied by the primary user emulators, the normal SU cannot even find a channel to send a request,
so their service will be denied.
Interference with Primary Users: Although the PUE attacks are solely aimed at secondary users, and the primary user emulators are
supposed to obey the rule that they will not cause any interferences with the primary users. However, in a dynamic spectrum access
network, the PU and SU exit in the same network, so any users activates would have some impact on the others. Especially since
primary user emulators mimic the spectral characteristics of the primary users, their transmission power is usually higher than that of
the normal secondary users, so it can cause an interference with the primary users.
It is noted that PUE is different from traditional jamming in wireless networks. The malicious users do not aim to cause
significant interference to the secondary users. The objective of the malicious users is to cause the secondary users to vacate the
spectrum by having them believe that primary transmission is in progress. Thus, when PUE is successfully detected, the secondary
users do not suffer degradation in the quality of their communication due to the transmission from the malicious users.

3.3 Classification of Attackers


Since the security problem caused by PUE attacks was identified, different types of PUE attacks have been studied (7).
We now introduce different types of PUE attackers associated with their classification criteria.

Selfish & Malicious Attackers: A selfish attacker aims at stealing bandwidth from legitimate SUs for its own transmissions.
Power-Fixed & Power-Adaptive Attackers: The ability to emulate the power levels of a primary signal is crucial for PUE
attackers, because most of the SUs employ an energy detection technique in spectrum sensing. A power fixed attacker uses
an invariable predefined power level regardless of the actual transmitting power of the Pus and the surrounding radio
environment.
Static & Mobile Attackers: The location of a signal source is also a key characteristic to verify the identity of an attacker. A
static attacker has a fixed location that would not change in all round of attacks.

3.3.1 Impact of PUE attacks on CR Networks


The presence of PUE attacks causes a number of troubles problems for CR networks. The list of potential consequences of PUE
attacks is:

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Bandwidth waste: The ultimate objective of deploying CR networks is to address the spectrum under-utilization that is caused by the
current fixed spectrum usage policy.
By dynamically accessing the spectrum holes are able to retrieve these otherwise wasted spectrum resources. However, PUE
attackers may steal the spectrum holes from the SUs, leading to spectrum bandwidth waste again.
QoS degradation: The appearance of a PUE attack may severely degrade the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of the CR network by
destroying the continuity of secondary services. For instance, a malicious attacker could disturb the on-going services and force the
SUs to constantly change their operating spectrum bands. Frequent spectrum handoff will induce unsatisfying delay and jitter for the
secondary services.
Connection unreliability: If a real time secondary service is attacked by a PUE attacker and finds no available channel when
performing spectrum handoff, the service has to be dropped. This real time service is then terminated due to the PUE attack. In
principle, the secondary services in CR networks inherently have no guarantee that they will have stable radio resource because of the
nature of dynamic spectrum access. The existence of PUE attacks significantly increases the connection unreliability of CR networks.
Denial of Service: Consider PUE attacks with high attacking frequency; then the attackers may occupy many of the spectrum
opportunities. The SUs will have insufficient bandwidth for their transmissions, and hence, some of the SU services will be
interrupted. In the worst case, the CR network may even find no channels to set up a common control channel for delivering the
control messages. As a consequence, the CR network will be suspended and unable to serve any SU. This is called Denial of Service
(DoS) in CR networks.
Interference with the primary network: Although a PUE attacker is motivated to steal the bandwidth from the SUs, there exists the
chance that the attacker generates additional interference with the primary network.

4. DEFENCE AGAINST PUE ATTACK:


A reliable AES-encrypted DTV scheme, in which an AES-encrypted reference signals, is produced. It is used as the sync bytes of
each DTV data frame. With the help of this a shared secret between the transmitter and the receiver, the reference signal can be
regenerated at the receiver. It can then be used to accomplish precise detection of authorized PUs. This proposal necessitates no
modification in hardware or system structure except of a plug-in AES chip. It can also be applied to todays DTV system directly to
diminish PUEA, and achieve efficient spectrum sharing.
In the DTV system, the generated AES encrypted reference signal is also used for synchronization purposes at the authorized
receivers. The proposed representation diminishes PUEA, enabling robust system operation, and guarantees resourceful spectrum
sharing. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified through both mathematical derivations. The PU generates a
pseudorandom AES-encrypted reference signal there by highlighting that synchronization is definite in the proposed model.
4.1.

EVALUATION FOR PRIMARY USER DETECTION

The system performance for primary user detection, under H0 and H1, through the evaluation of the false alarm rate Pf and the
miss detection probability Pm. The false alarm rate Pf is the conditional probability that the primary user is considered to be present,
when it is actually absent,
Pf = Pr H1 H0 (6)

The miss detection probability Pm is the conditional probability that the primary is considered to be absent, when it is present,
Pm = Pr(H0|H1)...(7)
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4.2

EVALUATION FOR MALICIOUS USER DETECTION

The system performance for primary user detection(6), under H0 and H1, through the evaluation of False Alarm Rate and Miss
Detection Probability for Malicious User Detection(7).Define P f,0 and P f,1 as the false alarm rate when = 0 or = 1, respectively,
Pf, 0 = Pr
( H01| H00).. (8)
Pf, 1 = Pr( H11| H10)..(9)
The overall false alarm rate is given by:
Pf = P0Pf, 0 + 1 P0 P f, 1 (10)
whereP0 is the probability that = 0, i.e.,
P0 = (1 Pf )P( = 0) + Pm P( = 1)... (11)
Similarly, the miss detection probabilities can be defined as Pm,0 and Pm,1, when the primary user is absent and present, respectively,
Pm,0= Pr(H00|H01). ..(12)
Pm, 1 = Pr(H10|H11)....(13)
The overall malicious node miss detection probability is defined as:
Pm = P0Pm, 0 + (1 P0) Pm, 1(14)

EVALUATION OF PUE ATTACK


14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

False alarm rate pf

Miss detection
probability pm

Fig. 4.Evaluation of primary user emulation attack.

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5. CONCLUSION
A reliable AES-assisted DTV scheme was proposed for robust primary and secondary system operations under primary user
emulation attacks. In the proposed scheme, an AES-encrypted reference signal is generated at the TV transmitter and used as the sync
bits of the DTV data frames. By allowing a shared secret between the transmitter and the receiver, the reference signal can be
regenerated at the receiver and be used to achieve accurate identification of authorized primary users. Moreover, when combined with
the analysis on the auto-correlation of the received signal, the presence of the malicious user can be detected accurately no matter the
primary user is present or not. The practically feasible in the sense that it can effectively combat PUEA with no change in hardware or
system structure except of a plug-in AES chip. Potentially, it can be applied directly to todays HDTV systems for more robust
spectrum sharing. It would be interesting to explore PUEA detection over each sub-band in multi-carrier DTV systems.

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[1] Ahmed Alahmadi, Mai Abdelhakim, JianRen, and Tongtong Li, Defense Against Primary UserEmulation Attacks inCognitive
Radio Networks Using AdvancedEncryptionStandardIEEE IFS,MAY2014,pp. 772-781.
[2] Deepa Das, Primary User Emulation Attack in CognitiveRadio Networks: A Survey, IRACST- IJCNWC,june 2013,pp. 312318.
[3] Ms. Shikha Jain, Emulation Attack in Cognitive Radio Networks: AStudy, IRACST- IJCNWC,apr 2014,pp. 169-172.
[4] FCC, Spectrum policy task force report, Federal Commun. Commission,Columbia, SC, USA, Tech. Rep. ET Docket No. 02135, Nov. 2002.
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networks:A survey, Comput. Netw., Int. J. Comput. Telecommun.Netw., vol. 50,no. 13, pp. 21272159, Sep. 2006
[6] M. Thanu, Detection of primary user emulation attacks in cognitiveradio networks, in Proc. Int. Conf. CTS, May 2012, pp. 605
608.
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Technol. Softw.Defined Radio Netw., Sep. 2006, pp. 110119.

IEEE Workshop Netw.

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AreasCommun., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 2537, Jan. 2008.
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Z. Yuan, D. Niyato, H. Li, and Z. Han, Defense against primaryuser emulation attacks using belief propagation of location
informationin cognitive radio networks, in Proc. IEEE WCNC, Mar. 2011,pp. 599604.
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Z. Jin, S. Anand, and K. P. Subbalakshmi, Detecting primary useremulation attacks in dynamic spectrum access networks,
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Harmonic Mitigation of a Solar FED Cascaded H-Bridge inverter using


Artificial Neutral Network
Priya.G, Ramani.G, Revathy.G
PG Scholar, Nandha Engineering College, Erode
Associate Professor, Nandha Engineering college, Erode
Assistant Professor, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode

Abstract- A concept of application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for estimating switching angle in an 11 level full bridge
cascaded multilevel inverter with optimal pulse width modulation , which was powered by five varying dc input sources. A solar panel
was connected to each cascaded inverter. For a given modulation index the optimal switching angles with lowest THD is generated
using trained neural network by replacing look-up table is proposed in this paper. The odd harmonics( 5,7,11) in the inverter is
eliminated by using the trained network. Theoretical concepts have been validated in simulation results using artificial neural network
technique which shows the high performance and technical advantages of the developed system.
keywords- Active power filter, distributed energy resources (DERs), harmonics injection, optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM),
selective harmonics compensation (SHC), Artificial Neural Network(ANN)
INTRODUCTION
For implementations of medium and high power inverters the development of different types of distributed generation, such
as fuel cells, photo voltaics, and wind turbines, have provided. The switching losses and electromagnetic interferences caused by
high dv/dt is problem arised in this type of system. Thus, to overcome these problems, selective harmonic elimination (SHE) based
optimal PWM (OPWM) are used in multilevel inverters to minimise the switching frequency and the total harmonic distortion (THD)
[1][14].
Nowadays, multilevel power inverters are widely used in AC motor drives, uninterruptible AC power supplies (UPS), high voltage
and high power applications due to their lower switching frequency, lower switching losses, high voltage rating and lower
electromagnetic interfaces (EMI) than conventional two level inverters [1]-[3]. In most cases, low distortion sinusoidal output voltage
waveforms are required with controllable magnitude and frequency. Numerous topologies and modulation strategies have been
introduced and studied extensively for utility and drive applications in the recent literatures. In the family of multilevel inverters,
topologies based on series connected H-bridges are particularly attractive because of their modularity and simplicity of control [1], [2].
Several switching algorithm such as pulse width modulation (PWM), Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), space-vector
modulation (SVM), selective harmonic eliminated pulse width modulation (SHEPWM) or programmed-waveform pulse width
modulation (PWPWM) are applied extensively to control and determine switching angles to achieve the desired output voltage [4]-[5].
Among the mentioned techniques only SHE method is able to eliminate low order harmonics completely. In the SHE method,
mathematical techniques such as iterative methods or mathematical theory of resultant can be applied to calculate the optimum
switching angels such that lower order dominant harmonics are eliminated [3], [4]. The application of ANN is recently growing in
power electronics and drives area. In the control of dcac inverters, ANNs have been used in the voltage control of inverters for ac
motor drives. A feed forward ANN basically implements nonlinear input-output mapping. For any chosen objective function, the
optimal switching pattern depends on the desired modulation index.
In this paper, a new training algorithm is developed which is used as an alternative for the switching angles look-up table to
generate the optimum switching angles of multilevel inverters. The advantages of this method are simple control circuit, controlling
the magnitude of output voltage continuously versus modulation indexes and there is no need to any lookup table after training the
ANN. Without using a real time solution of nonlinear harmonic elimination equation, an ANN is trained off-line using the desired
switching angles given by solving of the harmonic elimination equation by the classical method, i.e., the Newton Raphson method.
Back Propagation training Algorithm (BPA) is most commonly used in the training stage. After the termination of the training phase,
the obtained ANN can be used to generate the control sequence of the inverter. The simulation results are presented
MATLAB/Simulink software package for a single phase seven-level cascaded multilevel inverter to validate the accuracy of estimated
switching angles generated by proposed ANN system

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Fig 1-phase ML cascade inverter topology and ANN-based angle control


SELECTIVE HARMONIC ELIMINATION AND POWER GENERATION
A proposed model with the 11-level cascade H-bridge (CHB) inverter and control is shown in Fig. 1. It has a five-full-bridge seriesconnected with five solar panels as its input dc supply that may have different voltage levels.
A. Solar Cell Modeling
A suitable model was designed to simulate the PV module that reflects the curves of the solar panel with relative exactness. The
single-diode model is shown in Fig. 2 to simulate the PV module under different irradiance and temperature levels. The suitable
model becomes application dependent. The PV cell model used in this work is a more innate model based on the single-diode cell
(Fig. 2) .From the PV module data sheets the inputs are utilisied. This model greatly reduce the modeling task once the iterations and
nonlinear equations are solved. Equation (1) is the basic formula, and the solar panels data
sheet provides the parameters to solve for the unknowns
I = IPV I0[e( V +RsI Vta ) 1] V + RsI.
Rp

..........(1)

where,
I -PV module output current;
V -PV module output voltage;
IPV- PV current;
I0 -saturation current;
Vt -thermal voltage
B. SHE and Unequal DC Sources
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The contents of the output voltage at infinite frequencies is shown in equation 2. The module voltages VPV1VPV5 are associated to
their particular switching angles 15. This equation have only odd harmonics. The reason for that lies on the assumptions of wave
symmetry that cancels out the even components. The target harmonics can be capriciously set, a new data set can be found, and a new
ANN can be trained for the system. The selection of target harmonics is depend on the application requirements. Equation (2) is the
main equation and also the initial for SHE. The target harmonics in (2) will define the set of transcendental equations to be solved. It
is desired to solve (2) so

Fig. 2. PV cell single-diode model representation

maintained and the lowest harmonics (in this case, the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th) are cancel

Vab(wt) = [4 (VPV1 cos(n.1) + VPV2


n=1,5,7,11,. n

cos(n.2) + VPV3

cos(n.3) + VPV4 cos(n.4)+ VPV5 cos(n.5))]


Varying output voltages from many dc sources such as solar panel , fuel cells etc depends on varying sunlight intensity,
load, or other factors. Either a dcdc converter or the modulation index of the grid-interface inverter is used to regulate this dc voltage
in grid connection. For example, the solar panel output voltage may differ based on the amount of energy available during a day , and
the grid-interface system should be able to respond to this variation in the switching angles to keep the fundamental regulated at its
reference value and the low-order harmonics minimized. The approach in this work is to maintain the fundamental at the desired level
by means of choosing the low frequency switching angles in (2) as shown in Fig. 1. This paper uses a nondeterministic approach to
solve for the angles instead of using an analytic method to determine the angles offline. This method gives solution where analytical
solution cannot proceed .
ANN
ANNs are computational models that were motivated by the biological neurons. It has a series of nodes with interconnections, for
input/output mapping the mathematical functions are used. Due to its flexibility to lead in its domain and outside it, as well as work
with the nonlinear nature of the problem,the ANN is suitable. Although the data set presented to the ANN is not complete and not all
combinations were obtained by the GA, the ANN has flexibility enough to interpolate and extrapolate the results. Because of this
features, it make ANNs appropriate for problems commonly encountered in power electronics such as fault detection and harmonic
detection. If it is propoerly trained the time consuming will be fast to run and parallelized easily.
The fundamental network is shown in Fig. 3. The network is multilayer with one input stage, two hidden layers, and one output layer.
The computational model of a biological neuron is highlighted in Fig. 3, and the interconnections also shown in the network. Its
inputs are the five voltage magnitudes measured at the terminals, and its output is the input for all the neurons in the next layer. Each
neuron aj computes a weighted sum of its n inputs Vk, k = 1, 2, . . . , n, and generates an output as shown in
n
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aj = tgsig(wkVk + bias)
K=1

....(3)

The output can be given by the tangent sigmoid of the final weighted sum that usually has a bias associated to it that can be considered
as an additional input.
A. knowledge From Data:
A network has to be found the desired output for the trained data and also should have the ability to simplify for points inside the
hypercube space determined by the data. By updating the network weights according to given data will generalize data set so it
helpful in learning for the computational neuron.

Fig. 3. Multilayer feedforward perceptron neural network model.


Performance is measured by calculating the mean-square error (mse) as shown in
1 p
e = y(i) d(i)2
....(4)
p i=1
where
p- number of training data entries;
y - ANN output vector-current ANN output;
d - desired output vector-switching angles.
To minimize the error obtained in (4) ,the ANN back propogation training algorithm is used. A well-trained ANN would output
switching angles that are very close to the desired values, giving an error near zero in (4), for a given set of input voltages The desired
switching angles are those that minimize the harmonic components.

B. SHE Data Set:


Based on H- bridge topology, the possible number of data set for ANN training is desired. For a two-full-bridge case (five levels) a
data set of four voltage levels for training, would generate a table of 42 rows. In a five-H-bridge converter with ten points equally
spaced between 50 and 60 V, it may generate 105 different combinations. Instead of permutation the problem is faced as combination
problem for reduce the size of the data set. In this way, the data set can be greatly reduced.
C. ANN Training:
The new data set was divided into three subsets: training, validation, and test. By using the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm the
first subset of the ANN is trainned. A validation subset is used to stop the training to avoid generalization. If the validation error starts
to increase, then results in over fitting data. A third subset is used to verify that the data are not poorly divided. When this error gets a
low value in a different iteration than the validation and training subsets, it might be an indication of poor data division. The
proportions adopted in this work were 55% for training, 30% for validation, and 15% for test. All the 32 different networks were
trained 50 times each, and their performance values are shown in Fig. 5. The ANN that was implemented was shown in Figs. 1 and 4
which is a feed forward multilayer acuity with one hidden layer of 20 neurons .It is configured with single- and multiple-hidden layer
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ANNs. The two-hidden-layer performance is shown in Fig. 5. The two hidden layer was chosen because of better performance,
training time, memorization, and learning ability.

Fig. 5. ANN performance results for different numbers of hidden layer neurons
.
SIMULATION RESULTS:
The 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonics are strongly suppressed it is cleared from the simulation result. The obtained switching angles
for various values of modulation index using ANN for 11 level inverter is shown in Table I.

Modulation

Switching Angles

Index (M)

1 (rad.)

0.6

0.0330

0.65

2 (rad.)

3 (rad.)

4 (rad.)

0.0665

0.5189

0.6717

0.7935

0.0423

0.1094

0.4929

0.6686

0.8402

0.7

0.0510

0.1494

0.4686

0.6658

0.8840

0.75

0.0591

0.1868

0.4458

0.6635

0.9249

0.8

0.0668

0.2216

0.4246

0.6615

0.9631

0.85

0.0740

0.2539

0.4048

0.6599

0.9988

0.9

0.0807

0.2840

0.3864

0.6586

1.0320

0.95

0.0870

0.3118

0.3692

0.6576

1.0630

1.0

0.0929

0.3377

0.3532

0.6568

1.0919

Table I-Switching angles generated by ANN for 11-level

The FFT spectrum for 11- level inverters is shown in Fig. 6 respectively.

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Fig 6. FFT analysis of 11 level inverter


The THD analysis of 11-level inverter is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig.7. THD analysis of 11 level inverter.


CONCLUSION:
In this paper, the ANN is proposed to solve the selective harmonics elimination problem in inverters. The multilevel inverter used to
generate staircase waveform by estimating the optimum switching angle using feed forward neural network was successfully
demonstrated in this paper. The voltage control and harmonic suppression of selective set is successfully done by using this technique.
The switching angles for eleven-level inverter is calculated based on SHE strategy in order to call off the 5, 7,11 and 13 harmonics.
Then, an ANN is trained offline to reproduce these switching angles without constrain for any value of the modulation index. After the
training process it is enough to obtain the network for real time control. Simulation results for a eleven-level inverter to authenticate
the accuracy of proposed approach to calculated the optimum switching angles which produce the lowest THD.
REFERENCE
[1] Faete Filho, Leon M. Tolbert, and Burak Ozpineci," Real-Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters
Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural Network Angle Generation" ieee transactions on industry applications, vol. 47, no.
5, september2011.
[2] Mitali Shrivastava" Artificial Neural Network Based Harmonic Optimization of Multilevel Inverter to Reduce THD"2012.
[3] J. Rodriguez, J. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, Multilevel inverters: A survey of topologies, control and applications, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 49,
no. 4, pp. 724738, Aug. 2002.
[4] A. Pandey, B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, and D. P. Kothari, A review of multilevel power converters, Inst.
Eng. J. (India), vol. 86, pp. 220231, Mar. 2006.
[5] J. R. Wells, P. L. Chapman, and P. T. Krein, Generalization of selective harmonic control/elimination, in Proc. IEEE Power
Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2005, pp. 13581363.
[6] B. Ozpineci, L. M. Tolbert, and J. N. Chiasson, Harmonic optimization of multilevel converters using genetic algorithms, IEEE
Power Electron. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 9295, Sep. 2005.
[7] J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. McKenzie, and Z. Du, A unified approach to solving the harmonic elimination equations in
multilevel converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 478490, Mar. 2004.
[8] J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. McKenzie, and Z. Du, Elimination of harmonics in a multilevel converter using the theory of
symmetric
polynomials and resultants, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 216223, Mar. 2005.
[9] Z. Du, L. M. Tolbert, J. N. Chiasson, and H. Li, Low switching frequency active harmonic elimination in multilevel converters
with unequal DC voltages, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Oct. 2005, pp. 9298.
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[10] Z. Du, L. M. Tolbert, and J. N. Chiasson, Active harmonic elimination for multilevel converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 459469, Mar. 2006.
[11] D. Ahmadi and J. Wang, Selective harmonic elimination for multilevel inverters with unbalanced DC inputs, in Proc. IEEE
Veh. Power Propulsion Conf., Sep. 2009, pp. 773778.
[12] M. Dahidah and V. G. Agelidis, Selective harmonic elimination multilevel converter control with variant DC sources, in Proc.
IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl., May 2009, pp. 33513356.
[13] M. G. H. Aghdam, S. H. Fathi, and G. B. Gharehpetian, Elimination of harmonics in a multi-level inverter with unequal DC
sources using the homotopy algorithm, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Jun. 2007, pp. 578583.
[14] T. Tang, J. Han, and X. Tan, Selective harmonic elimination for a cascade multilevel inverter, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind.
Electron., Jul. 2006, pp. 977981

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Multiple Harmonics Elimination in Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Using Soft


Computing Technique
1

R.Ragunathan,1PG scholar, 2A.Rajeswari, 2Assistant Professor, Nandha Engineering Collage,


Email Id : ragunathanme@gmail.com,rajeswarianngappan@gmail.com

Abstract Multilevel inverters are extensively used in various voltage applications. Harmonic elimination in multilevel inverter
is a complex optimization problem. A fresh nine level hybrid multilevel inverter using harmonics elimination is presented in this
paper. This method involves less number of switches associated with more number of voltage levels. The stages with higher DC
link have more advantages like low commutation, reduced switching losses, increased efficiency and low input stages with more
number of output levels. In this method the bacterial foraging optimization technique (BFO) algorithm is used to determine the
switching angles of the inverter. The proposed method employs multicarrier pulse width modulation technique, this eliminated
harmonics component from inverter output. It can be easily implemented using a PIC micro controller. Simulation result reveals
the quality of feasible result.

Keywords Hybrid multilevel inverter, Harmonics elimination, MCPWM, Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO).
I.INTRODUCTION
The harmonics elimination is widely utilized on multilevel inverters. Multilevel inverters are applicable in average voltage
and high power applications because of their less switching losses and high efficiency than ordinary inverters. The desired output
voltage of this inverter is synthesized from several levels of dc voltages [1]. To control the output voltage and reduce the undesired
harmonics, different sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM)[8] and space-vector PWM schemes are suggested for multilevel
inverters; however, PWM techniques are not able to eliminate low-order harmonics completely. Another approach is to choose
switching angles [1] so that specific lower order dominant harmonics are suppressed. This method is known as harmonic elimination.
Multiple harmonic elimination methods are used by the harmonic elimination technique in high power inverters[3]; it offers
enhanced operations at low switching frequency while reducing cost and bulky size filters. They have been successful adopted in
different multilevel inverter topologies [6],[7]. Numerical iterative techniques, such as NewtonRap son method, are applied to
solve the harmonics problem; however, such techniques need a good initial guess that should be very close to the exact solution.
Although the NewtonRapson method works properly if a good initial guess is available, providing a good guess is very difficult
in most cases. This is because the search space of the harmonics problem is unknown, and one does not know the solution is there
or not, in case if exists; this is the good initial guess or not. A systematic approach to solve the harmonics problem based on
resultant theory method is proposed, where transcendental equations that describe the harmonics problem are transformed into a
corresponding set of polynomial equations [1],[2], [5]and then, resultant theory method is utilized to find all possible sets of
solutions for this equivalent problem.
Another approach to contract to the harmonics problem is based on modern stochastic search techniques such as genetic
algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)[8],[10], bacterial forage optimization (BFO)[9]. However, by increasing the
number of switching angles, the complexity of search space increases dramatically and both the methods trap the local optima of
search space. Of course, the exact solution for the no. of switching angles are cannot be calculated by evolutionary based algorithms;
however, it can be said that as the number of switching angles increases, also decrease the finding optimum switching angles.
Recently, a new active harmonic elimination method is also proposed to eliminate higher order harmonics in multilevel inverters. In
this method, first, the switching angles to eliminate the lower order harmonics of staircase voltage waveform are calculated, which is
called fundamental switching frequency method. Then, residual higher order harmonics are eliminated by additional PWM switching
patterns. Unfortunately, this method uses very high frequency switching to eliminate higher order harmonics; also, it needs a very
complicated control procedure to generate the gate signals for power switches. Harmonic elimination
The main drawbacks of existing harmonics methods are their mathematical complexity and the heavy computational loads,
resulting high cost of the hardware needed for real-time implementation. The last problem is commonly circumvented by preliminary
off-line computation of the switching angles and the subsequent creation [4] of lookup tables to be stored in the microcontrollers
internal memory for real-time fetching. In the following, Section II deals with hybrid multilevel inverter, Section III describes the
determination of bacterial forging algorithms, and Section IV multicarrier pulse width modulation describes the procedure for the
firing angle. Section V shows some simulation results and deals with some analysis, while Section VI reports experimental results and
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their conclusion. Good agreement is noted among experimental and simulation results, confirming the accuracy of the proposed
technique.

II.HYBRID MULTILEVEL INVERTER


There are several topologies such as neutral point clamped or diode clamped multilevel inverter, flying capacitor based
multilevel inverter, cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter and hybrid H-bridge multilevel inverter. The main disadvantage of diode
clamped multilevel inverter topology is restriction to the high power operation. The first topology introduced is the series H-bridge
design,[7],[12] in which several configurations have been obtained. This topology consists of series power conversion cells which
form the cascaded Hbridge multilevel inverter and power levels may be scaled easily. An apparent disadvantage of this topology is the
requirement of large number of isolated voltage sources. The proposed topology for multilevel inverter has high number of steps
associated with low number of power switches. In addition, for producing the levels at the output voltage, a procedure for calculating
the required dc voltage source is proposed. The advantage of the hybrid multilevel inverter is modularized structure
The multilevel inverter has a general structure of the hybrid multilevel inverter is shown in figure. 1. Each of the separate voltage
source (1Vs, 2Vs, 4Vs) is connected in series with other sources via a special circuit associated with it. Each stage of the circuit
consists of only one active switching element and one bypass diode that make the output voltage as positive one with several levels
[12]. The basic operation of modified hybrid multilevel inverter for producing the output voltage as +1Vdc is to turn on the switch S1
(S2 and S3 turn off) and turning on S2 (S1 and S3 turn off) for producing output voltage as +2Vdc. Similarly other levels can be
achieved by turning on the suitable switches at particular intervals; It can be inferred that only one Hbridge is connected to get both
positive and negative polarity. The main advantage of modified hybrid multilevel inverter is high number of levels with reduced
number of switches.
The Figure below shows the typical output voltage waveform of a Hybrid Multilevel Inverter with 3 separate dc sources.

Fig 1. Typical output waveform for Hybrid Multilevel


Inverter

III.BACTERIAL FORAGING OPTIMIZATION


Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) was planned by Passino is inspired by the social foraging behavior of Escherichia coli.
BFA has been widely accepted as a global optimization algorithm of current interest for distributed optimization. BFA has already
drawn the attention of researchers because of its efficiency in solving real-world optimization problems in several application
domains. This optimization technique is relatively new to the family of nature-inspired optimization algorithms [9]. Soft computing
tools like Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing have become standard procedures for designing optimized antennas where
analytical optimization becomes tough and does not provide satisfactory result. GA ruled several years for antenna optimization
problems. But search for new computationally efficient algorithms to handle computationally large and complex problems are
continuing. Apart from the modification of GA new paradigms have been developed. These are Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO),
Ant Colony Optimization and Bacteria Foraging Algorithm (BFA). Among them, BFA being the latest trend that is efficient in
optimizing parameters of the structures. Nowadays Bacteria Foraging technique is gaining importance in the optimization problems.
Because

Philosophy says, Biology provides highly automated, robust and effective organism
Search strategy of bacteria is salutary (like common fish) in nature
Bacteria can sense, decide and act so adopts social foraging (foraging in groups)

Above all Search and optimal foraging decision making of animals can be used for solving engineering problems. To perform
social foraging an animal needs communication capabilities and it gains advantages that can exploit essentially the sensing capabilities
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of the group, so that the group can gang-up on larger prey, individuals can obtain protection from predators while in a group, and in a
certain sense the group can forage a type of collective intelligence.

Working Principle
In this algorithm, the population comprises of a set of individuals, where each individual is called a bacterium. Bacteria
search for nutrients in a manner to maximize energy obtained per unit time[9]. Individual bacterium also communicates with others by
sending signals. The flow chart shows the working of BFA optimization algorithm.

Fig 2. Flow chart (BFA algorithm)


A bacterium passes through the following phases during its lifetime:
1. Chemotaxis
2. Swarming
3. Reproduction
4. Elimination-Dispersal
Chemotaxis:
The process, in which a bacterium moves by taking small steps while searching for nutrients, is called chemotaxis. The key
idea of BFOA is to mimic the chemotactic movement of virtual bacteria in the problem search space[9]. During chemotaxis, a
bacterium moves in one of the two different manners: swim, or tumble. If the bacterium changes its direction of motion, it is called
tumbling. If the bacterium moves ahead in the same direction, it is called swimming. Whereas, if it changes its direction of motion, it
is called tumbling. During movement, a bacterium aims at moving towards a nutrient gradient and tries to avoid noxious environment.
Generally a bacterium moves for a longer distance in a friendly environment. Let _i(j, k, l) represents ith bacterium at jth chemotactic,
kth reproduction and lth elimination-dispersal step. C(i) is the size of the step taken in a random direction specified by the tumble.
i(j + 1, k, l) = i(j, k, l) + C(i)(j)
(1)
Swarming:
An interesting group behavior has been observed for several species of bacteria including E. coli and S. typhimurium, where
intricate and stable spatio-temporal patterns (swarms) are formed by the cells in semisolid nutrient medium. A group of E. coli cells
arrange themselves in interesting patterns around the nutrient gradient. The cells release an attractant named aspertate, which helps
them to aggregate into groups and move as concentric patterns of swarms with high bacterial density. This cell-to-cell signaling in E.
coli is termed as swarming.

Reproduction
When the bacteria get enough food for growth, they increase in length and in presence of suitable temperature they break in
the middle to form an exact replica of itself. This phenomenon inspired Passino to introduce an event of reproduction in BFOA. In the
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algorithm, the least healthy bacteria eventually die while each of the healthier bacteria (i.e., those with better fitness value) split into
two bacteria, which are then placed in the same location. In this way, the population size is kept constant. Thus, the reproduction step
consists of sorting the bacteria in the population i(j, k, l), i, i = 1, ..., S based on their objective function value f(i(j, k, l)) and
eliminating half of them with the worst fitness. The remaining half will be duplicated as to maintain a fixed population size.

Elimination and Dispersal


Gradual or sudden changes in the local environment, where a bacterium population lives, may occur due to adverse situations
like rise in temperature [8],[9]. Events may take place in such a way that all the bacteria in a region may be killed or a group may be
dispersed into a new location. To simulate this phenomenon in BFOA, some bacteria are liquidated at random with a very small
probability while the new replacements are randomly initialized over the search space [13],[15].
IV.MULTICARRIER PWM TECHNIQUE
Multicarrier PWM technique is the widely adopted modulation strategy for multilevel inverter. It is similar to that of the
sinusoidal PWM strategy except for the fact that several carriers are used [11]. Multicarrier PWM is one in which several triangular
carrier signals are compared with one sinusoidal modulating signal. The number of carriers required to produce m level output is m 1.
The reference waveform has peak to peak amplitude of Am and a frequency fm .The reference is continuously compared with each of
the carrier signals and whenever the reference is greater than the carrier signal, pulse is generated[11],[14]. Frequency modulation
ratio is defined as the ratio of carrier frequency and modulating frequency. Amplitude modulation ratio is defined as the ratio of
amplitude of modulating signal and amplitude of carrier signals.

Types of Multicarrier PWM Method


1.
2.
3.

There are a few types of the multicarrier PWM method. There are,
Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD)
Phase Opposition Disposition (POD)
Phase Disposition (PD)

Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD)


The carrier waves have to be displaced from each other by 180 degrees alternately as shown in Figure 3. In this modulation,
the inverter switching frequency and the device switching frequency is given by and respectively. It was found and can be
implemented in all types of multilevel inverter, but it is best suitable for NPC. It is do because each carrier signal can be related to
each semiconductor devices. It is not suitable for CHB as there is an uneven disturbance of power because each vertical shift related to
each carrier and level to a particular bridge.

Fig 3. Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition PWM

Phase Opposition Disposition (POD)


The carrier waveform are in all phase above and below the zero reference value; however there is 180 degree phase shift
between the ones above and below zero respectively as shown in figure 4.

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Fig 4. Phase Opposition Disposition PWM

Phase Disposition (PD)


For the phase disposition technique, a zero point is set as the reference point. The carrier signals are set to be in phase for
above and below reference point (zero line). Figure 5 show that the phase disposition multicarrier PWM.

Fig 5. Phase Disposition PWM

V.SIMULATION RESULTS
The simulation model of proposed system is shown in the Figure 6. The nine level hybrid multilevel inverter to validate the
computational results for switching angles, a simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK software tool for a nine level hybrid
multilevel inverter. The proposed method is used to get sinusoidal waveform and reduced harmonics with minimum number of
components. The three different dc input are used, It is in the order of V1, 2V1, 3V1. Given input dc voltage are V1=60v, 2V1=120v,
3V1=180v. Therefore the efficiency of the multilevel inverter is increased. Soft computing method gives the switching angles. The
low order harmonics are reduced significantly.

Fig 6. Simulation Diagram of Proposed System


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Fig 7. Output waveform

Fig 8. FFT Analysis of a nine Level Hybrid Inverter

Fig 9. Percentage of Harmonics of a nine Level Hybrid Inverter

VI.CONCLUSION
In this paper, a nine level hybrid multilevel inverter is used to get sinusoidal waveform and also to increase the efficiency of
the inverter. The simulation results shows nine level hybrid multilevel inverter have been illustrated using MATLAB software.
Multilevel inverter is generally used to obtain a high resolution and produces near sinusoidal output waveform using reduced number
of switches and low switching losses. The harmonic reduction is achieved to a greater extent than the other conventional inverters. The
basic structure details and operating characteristics of hybrid multilevel inverter have been described by taking a nine level
configuration and also extend the design flexibility. These proposed control schemes have been demonstrated through simulation.

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[12] J. Kumar, B. Das, and P. Agarwal, Selective harmonic elimination technique for a multilevel inverter, in Proc. 15th NPSC,
Bombay, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 608613, IIT.
[13] L. Li, D. Czarkowski, Y. Liu, and P. Pillay, Multilevel selective harmonic elimination PWM technique in series-connected
voltage inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 160170, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[14] V. G. Agelidis, A. Balouktsis, and I. Balouktsis, On applying a minimization technique to the harmonic elimination PWM
control: The bipolar waveform, IEEE Power Electron. Lett., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 4144, Jun. 2004.
[15] V. G. Agelidis, A. Balouktsis, and C. Cosar, Multiple sets of solutions for harmonic elimination PWM bipolar waveforms:
Analysis and experimental verification, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 415421, Mar. 2006

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Implementation of Wireless Patient Body Monitoring System using RTOS


Gunalan .M.C1, Satheesh.A2
PG Scholar1, Prof. & DEAN/EEE2
M.E - Embedded System Technologies1, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Nandha Engineering College, Erode
guh1820@gmail.com1 ,asatheeshnec@rediffmail.com.com2

Abstract In the past decades, the requirement in the health care field is rising rapidly, and therefore we need a well-equipped
efficient monitoring systems for health care centers. In general, most of the hospitals, manual inspection is done in order to collect the
records of patients condition. Continuous and frequent monitoring of patients is required based on their health state. This leads to
disadvantages like long measurement time, low monitor precision, and deployment of more manpower, this paper provides a fully
automated and wireless monitoring system.
In this paper, a wireless network is created for remotely monitoring of patient's health parameters like Temperature, ECG, Heartbeat,
Coma recovery and saline level indication. All these parameters are continuously measured using appropriate efficient low cost
modules, which are designed for each parameter. The measured data from the patients are transferred to a central monitoring station
via a Zig-bee. In this a PC acts as a central monitoring station which runs LabVIEW for monitoring the parameters.
Terms RTOS, Wireless, Zig-bee, LabView, body monitoring, monitoring, patient monitoring
1. Introduction
In present scenario, patient health parameters are adopting rapidly. For implementing automated measurements each
patient is given a dedicated system and does not works on centralized mode of operation. If a patient is admitted in ICU a
regress monitoring of health parameters is done but consider if a patient is admitted in a normal ward there advance
measurement systems doesnt exist. In such cases nurse goes to ward and measures patients body parameters for every
certain interval of time, During this manual measurement there is chance of missing the accuracy during to inefficient
nurses, the measurement records which taken by nurses are can be analyzed by doctors as reference of disease diagnosis.
If the measurement goes wrong the diagnosis fails or misleads. This term of conventional not only wastes nurses massive
manpower, but also aggregation, query analysis to measurement result is miscellaneous, as well as cannot feedback in
time when patient appears special condition, which can cause delay of treatment time. Through analysis we can see, this
kind of style has bigger limitation, especially, to those patients with infectious diseases, monitoring personnel is
inconvenience to contact.
So, aiming to this problem, by sensor technology, single chip microprocessor technology, etc., we design a wireless
remote monitoring system. This system uses wireless communication (Zig-bee) technology, which eliminates the manual
measurements. Monitoring of each patient sub-system in real time, as well as communicating with central monitoring station, we can
increase work efficiency, and data reliability, etc
2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEMS
In this chapter we have mentioned the existing and proposed system as follows
2.1.1 In-Home Wireless Monitoring Of Physiological Data for Heart Failure Patients
This system proposes an integrated system (hardware and software) for real-time, wireless, remote acquisition of cardiac and other
physiologic information from HF patients while in the home environment. Transducers for measurement of electrocardiogram (ECG),
heart rate variability (HRV), acoustical data are embedded into patient clothing for unobtrusive monitoring for early, sensitive
detection of changes in physiologic status. Sampling rate for this system is 1 kHz per channel. Signal conditioning is performed in
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hardware by the patient wearable system, after which information is wirelessly transmitted to a central server located elsewhere in the
home for signal processing, data storage, and data trending. The dynamic frequency ranges for the ECG and heart sounds (HS) are
0.05-160 Hz and 35-1350 Hz, respectively. The range-of-operation for the current patient-wearable physiologic data capture design is
10010 feet with direct line-of-sight to the home server station. Weight measurements are obtained directly by the in-home medical
server using a digital scale. Physiologic information (ECG, HRV, HS, and weight) are dynamically analyzed using a combination of
the LabVIEW (National Instruments, Inc.; Austin, TX) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Inc.; Inc
Natick, MA) software strategies. Software-based algorithms detect out-of-normal or alarm conditions for HR and weight as defined by
the health care provider, information critical for HF patients. Health care professionals can remotely access vital data for improved
management of heart failure.
2.1.2 A wireless surface electromyography system
Surface electromyography (SEMG) systems are utilized throughout the medical industry to study abnormal electrical activity of the
human muscle. Historically, SEMG systems employ surface (skin) mounted sensors that transmit electrical muscle data to a computer
base via an umbilical cord. A typical SEMG analysis may exercise multiple sensors, each representing a unique data channel,
positioned about the patient's body. Data transmission cables are linked between the surface mounted sensor nodes and a backpack
worn by the patient. As the number of sensors increases, the patient's freedom of mobility decreases due to the lengthy data cables
linked between the surface sensors and the backpack. An N-channel wireless SEMG system has been developed based on the ZigBee
wireless standard. The system includes N-channels, each consisting of a wireless ZigBee transmitting modem, an 8-bit
microcontroller, a low-pass filter and a pre-amplifier. All channels stream data to a central computer via a wireless receiving modem
attached directly to the computer. The data is displayed to the user through graphical development software called LabView. The
wireless surface electromyography (WSEMG) system successfully transmits reliable electrical muscle data from the patient to a
central computer. The wireless EMG system offers an attractive alternative to traditional wired surface electromyography systems as
patient mobility is less compromised
2.1.3 Automatic Mental Health Assistant: Monitoring and Measuring Nonverbal Behavior of the Crew During Long-Term
Missions
This system presents a method for monitoring the mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space
mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc.) The research is done as a part of Automatic Mental
Health Assistant (AMHA) project which aims to develop set of techniques for automatic measuring of intra- and inter- personal states
in working groups. The method is focused on those aspects of psychological and sociological states that are crucial for the
performance of the crew. In particular, we focus on measuring of emotional stress, initial signs of conflicts, trust, and ability to
collaborate. The developed method is also currently tested by usage of a web-based platform.
2.1.4 DRAWBACKS
The above mentioned three systems were having some drawbacks as follows
Any one of the parameter is taken and measured
Long measurement time
Low monitor precision
Difficulty in monitoring patient
connection of many instruments are tedious process
difficulty in monitoring patient body temperature by thermometer
Heart beat is measured manually.
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Como patients should be monitored closely in person


No indication for saline level
2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM
This paper uses a wireless medium for communication between sub-system and main monitoring station. In this system five
parameters are measured.
Body temperature
Saline level indication
Comma level indication
Heartbeat counter
EMG (Electro Myo Gram)
ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)
These parameters will be measured for a specific interval of time continuously and these data will be collected by the monitoring subsystem. Now the data will be sent from sub-system to the main monitoring station via Zig-bee network. The data will be fetched by
the software (LABVIEW) and the data will be processed by software. If the parameter goes beyond the predefined values at once it
sends an SMS to the concerned doctor that the patient is in serious stage.
The block is as follows

Fig 2.1 System Block Diagram


2.2.1 ADVANTAGES
Eliminates the manual system measurements and monitoring processes
Temperature measurement has high accuracy as LM35 is used
The patient status is sent effectively to the doctor via SMS
Very instantly the status of the patient is monitored with high accuracy
All the parameters are embedded in to single system which easy to handle by a normal person
2.3 FEASIBILITY STUDY
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In our analysis the methodology we use is more feasible than the existing methods of measuring the patient body parameters
2.3.1

ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

The existing methods are not so cheaper because it has many disadvantages like all systems are being designed for measuring
a specific parameter only. The systems which are existing today are also so costly. And these systems must be stored in a certain
temperature for a perfect working. So, for the maintaining of these system air conditioners will be used this consumes much electricity
and we have to pay for electricity board a lot.
2.3.2

OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY

When compared with the existing methods the proposed system is not as complex as the existing methods because no manual
operations are carried out. All the equipment will be controlled from a pc by software. No manual attention is needed until the
emergency alarm rings. And an alert SMS is sent to the concerned doctor. For that we have to simply feed the mobile number of
doctor. And if anything badly occurs it will inform through a message to doctor.
2.3.3

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

The existing methods must have a trained person to operate that system any one cannot operate the easily. If problem comes to user
end it is not easy to solve. In our system it is very easy to operate and ordinary person who know to operate a pc can operate the
software very easily for monitoring purpose.
3 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION
We are using two software in our paper they are explained below as follows
3.1 NI LabVIEW
LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a platform and a development environment for a visual
programming language from National Instruments. The purpose of such programming is to automate the usage of decicision making
and measuring equipment in a laboratory setup. The graphical language named "G" was originally released for the Apple Mac
systems, LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, complex processing, instrument control, industrial automation etc.. on a
various platforms including Microsoft Windows, UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X. The recent versions of LabVIEW provides more
features and interface modules.
4. Paper Descriptions

4.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION

Long measurement time


Low monitor precision
Difficulty in automatic monitoring patient
connection of many instruments are tedious process
difficulty in monitoring patient body temperature by thermometer
Heart beat is measured manually
Como patients should be monitored closely in person
No indication for saline level

4.2 OVERVIEW OF THE PAPER


Now-a-days every instrument is automated. In medical field also the automation is developing very rapidly. Large hospital and
medical research centre are adopting towards automation. But the cost implementing automated systems is very huge. For each patient
an individual monitoring system should kept.
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This drastically increases the implementing cost and also the system occupied space. To overcome this problem this paper has been
framed with methodologies which can be used for this monitoring system.
This paper presents a wireless patient body monitoring system in which Zig-bee is used for wireless communication. The subsystems are integrated with main monitoring server with a mesh network formed using Zig-bee communication. 4.3 MSP430F5438
MSP430F4538 microcontroller comes under MSP430 family of ultralow-power microcontrollers which is a product of Texas
Instruments. This device consists of several different sets of peripherals targeted for various applications. The architecture supports five
modes. These are optimized to extended battery life in portable high precision monitoring and control applications. This microcontroller
has a powerful 16-bit RISC CPU and constant generators that can produce maximum code efficiency.
The digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) allows the microcontroller wake-up from low-power modes to active high performance
mode in milli-seconds. The MSP430F5438 microcontrollers are integrated with a high performance analog-to-digital (A/D) converter,
universal serial communication interfaces (USCI), three 16-bit timers, real-time clock module with alarm capabilities, hardware
multiplier, DMA and up to 87 I/O pins.

Applications includes analog and digital sensor systems,digital timers, digital motor control, thermostats,
hand-held meters, remote controls, etc.
4.4 GSM MODEM (900/1800 MHZ)
GSM Modem can accept any GSM network operator SIM card and act just like a mobile phone with its own unique mobile number.
The advantage of using this modem will be that you can use its RS232 port to communicate and develop embedded applications.
Applications includes SMS Control, data transfer, remote control and logging can be developed easily.
This modem can either be connected to PC serial port directly or to any microcontroller through RS232. It can be used for sending
and receiving SMS and calls. It can be used in GPRS mode to interface with internet and perform applications for data logging, decision
making and control. In GPRS mode you can also connect to any remote FTP server and upload files for data logging.
This modem is a plug and play highly flexible quad band SIM900A GSM modem for direct and easy integration to RS232
applications.
4.4.1 Applications
SMS based Remote Control & Alerts
Security Applications
Sensor Monitoring
GPRS Mode Remote Data Logging
4.4.2 Features
Status of Modem Indicated by LED
Simple to Use & Low Cost
On board switching type power supply regulator
RS232 output
4.5 MicroC/OS II (COS II)
C/OS-II is a completely real-time, portable, preemptive, ROMable, scalable, multitasking kernel. C/OS-II is written in ANSI C
and contains a small portion of assembly language code to adapt it to different processor architectures. To date, C/OS-II has been
ported to different processor architectures.
C/OS-II is based on C/OS, The Real-Time Kernel that was first created. Millions of people around the world are using C/OS and
C/OS-II in all kinds of applications, such as cameras, highway telephone call boxes, avionics, high-end audio equipment, medical
instruments, musical instruments, network adapters, ATM machines, industrial robots, engine controls, and more. Numerous colleges
and universities have also used C/OS and C/OS-II to teach students about real-time systems.
C/OS-II is upward compatible with C/OS v1.11 (the last released version of C/OS) but provides many improvements. If you
currently having an application that runs with C/OS, it should run virtually on C/OS-II. All of the services (i.e., function calls)
provided by C/OS have been saved for back . You may, however, have to change include files and product build files to point to the
new filenames.
4.5.1 Features
Portable
ROMable
Scalable
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Preemptive
Multitasking
Deterministic Execution times
Task Stacks
Interrupt Management
Robust and Reliable

4.4

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4.4.1

PATIENT SIDE CIRCUIT

4.4.2

PC SIDE CIRCUIT

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4.4.3

PC LABVIEW SNAP

5 CONCLUSION
The patient body monitoring system implemented with RTOS gives promising results than the other conventional methods. It
works effectively in term of automated systems compared to the existing method. However, it has room for improvement in this project.
In the future, the system will be intergrated with WWW (World Wide Web). so, that patient data can be accessed over internet from any
part of the world. As a result, medical prescriptions and precautions can be made easier. In a nutshell, this project is highly potential for
application purposes in ICU monitoring.

REFERENCES:
[1] Jain, N.P.; Jain, P.N.; Agarkar, T.P., "An embedded, GSM based, multiparameter, real-time patient monitoring system and
control an implementation for ICU patients," Information and Communication Technologies (WICT), 2012 World Congress on, vol.,
no., pp.987, 992, Oct. 30 2012-Nov. 2 2012
[2] Watrous, R.; Towell, G., "A patient-adaptive neural network ECG patient monitoring algorithm," Computers in Cardiology
1995, vol., no., pp.229, 232, 10-13 Sept. 1995 doi: 10.1109/CIC.1995.482614
[3] Varshney, U., "Enhancing Wireless Patient Monitoring by Integrating Stored and Live Patient Information," Computer-Based
Medical Systems, 2006. CBMS 2006. 19th IEEE International Symposium on, vol., no., pp.501, 506, 0-0 0 doi:
10.1109/CBMS.2006.84
[4] Niyato, D.; Hossain, E.; Camorlinga, S., "Remote patient monitoring service using heterogeneous wireless access networks:
architecture and optimization," Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on , vol.27, no.4, pp.412,423, May 2009 doi:
10.1109/JSAC.2009.090506

[5] Ping Wang, "The Real-Time Monitoring System for In-Patient Based on Zigbee," Intelligent Information Technology
Application, 2008. IITA '08. Second International Symposium on, vol.1, no., pp.587, 590, 20-22 Dec. 2008

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VLSI Implementation of Nakagami Variate Generator


Santhosh Kumar
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
University College of Engineering Kakinada, JNTUK, Kakinada
sanjntu@yahoo.co.in
Abstract The major Objective of simulating the radio propagation channels is to substantiate the design and performance of wireless

communication systems. In the early stage of analysis and performance of wireless transceiver design fading channel simulators plays
a vital role. The software simulators are painless to design, where as various hardware simulators have been proved that they offer
distinct speed over software based simulators. Rayleigh and Rician fading channels have been achieved by now using field
programmable gate arrays, hardware-based simulators of Nakagami fading channels have perceived distant less attention. Hence this
paper considers the implementation of Nakagami fading simulator on single field programmable gate array.
Keywords Field Programmable gate arrays, fading channels, channel simulators, Rayleigh fading, Rician fading, Nakagami fading,

software simulation, Hardware Simulation

INTRODUCTION

Wireless communication systems is used to operate over radio channels for a different types of environmental and different
states of weather , it is difficult to the prototype designing of a modern wireless communication system . Good voice quality and fault
less and eminent -rate data transmission are the basic prerequisites of good wireless communications system. In order to meet all these
system specifications, it must be able to yield better results in divergent environments where the radio propagation characteristics vary
considerably. In order to check the system performance we go for analysis simulation, prototyping and testing. But the testing process
a wireless communication system is a laborious process.
Simulation is a strikingly powerful tool widely adopted in virtually all fields of science to help develop a better understanding of
some phenomenon under investigation. In engineering, it is used, for instance, to successfully test equipment, Algorithms, and
techniques, and, to some extent and whenever applicable, to avoid or minimize time-consuming, costly, and inexhaustible field trials.
Wireless communications are no exception and in this challenging, lively, and unkind area, with systems becoming increasingly more
complex, both industry and academy engage themselves in developing simulators. Simulators for wireless communications almost
certainly include a block for the fading channel. The fading channel can be described by a number of models, and among those
available, the general models, namely the Gaussian, Rayleigh, Rician and Nakagami distributions have been applied to model and
simulate a variety of different[1].Henceforth we go for channel simulation. Simulation plays a prominent role in wireless
communication systems design and substantiation, in order to evaluate the prior verification and depiction of wireless transceiver
designs fading channel simulators are used [2].The advent of simulation is that it gives less expensive testing of designs. As the
software Simulation of fading channels is simple to evolve the hardware-based simulators have been. Exhibited distinct orders of
magnitude of speed-up over software- based fading channel simulators. The Speed is an especially important Factor at the time of
simulating different fading scenarios which were supported by recent Wireless standards Compared to a software compilation,
hardware compilation process is less stretchable, since each change of the system requires the synthesis of the design from a Register
Transfer Level (RTL) model and the place route operations on the FPGA [2]. But, once this is done, the simulation can run at a very
high speed and precise BER evaluation can be obtained. The testing, verification and evaluation of wireless systems is an important
but challenging endeavour. Such long-running simulations are an ideal target for FPGA. But the Hardware channel simulators are
desirable to test baseband processing units for performance analysis, and also for system design and verification [1]

IMPORTANCE OF NAKAGAMI FADING


The wireless environment is highly unstable and fading is due to multipath propagation. Multipath propagation leads to rapid
fluctuations of the phase and amplitude of the signal. The presence of reflectors in the environment surrounding a transmitter and
receiver create multiple paths that a transmitted signal can traverse. As a result, the receiver sees the superposition of multiple copies
of the transmitted signal, each traversing a different path. Each signal copy will experience differences in attenuation, delay and phase
shift while travelling from the source to the receiver [3]. Fading (small-scale signal power fluctuations) is a fundamental characteristic
of wireless channels. Due to the existence of a great variety of fading environments, several statistical distributions have been
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proposed for channel modelling of fading envelopes under short-term, long-term, and mixed fading conditions. Short-term fading
models include the well-known Rayleigh, Rice, Hoyt, and Nakagami [3] Among of these distributions exists that well describe the
statistics of the mobile radio signal the Nakagami- distribution has been given a special attention for its ease of manipulation and wide
range of applicability. More importantly, the Nakagami- distribution has been found to be a very good fitting for the mobile radio
channel [7]
The Nakagami-m distribution has founded many applications in technical sciences. It has been shown by extensive empirical
measurement that this distribution is an appropriate model for radio links this kind of distribution has been used in many engineering
applications statistical distribution which can accurately model a variety of fading environments. It has greater flexibility in matching
some empirical data than the Rayleigh, Lognormal or Rice distributions owing to its characterization of the received signal.The
Nakagami fading is known to be a special case of Rayleigh fading and it possesses good auto correlation properties. This is used to
study the moderate to severe fading channels using distinct values of parameter m. the Nakagami fading is similar to Rayleigh fading
when the value of m=1. The augmentation of numerous Rayleigh-fading signals which were independent and identically distributed
(i.i.d.) yields a signal with Nakagami distributed amplitude [3]. The Nakagami distribution matches some empirical data better than
other distributions. In order to analyze the stats and ability of fading channel environment in complicate media like urban
environment, we go for the Nakagami distribution [7].

DESIGN APPROACH OF NAKAGAMI FADING CHANNEL SIMULATOR


In order to generate Nakagami variates first we generates a correlated Rayleigh variates, and. The hardware model
first generates correlated Rayleigh fading variates and then a sequence of logarithmic and linear domain. [1]
Segmentations along with piece-wise linear approximations is used to precisely implement the nonlinear numerical
functions used to transform the correlated Rayleigh fading process into Nakagami- variates [1]. In order to generate the
Rayleigh Variates from Rayleigh variate generator. In distinct types of variate generators can be yielded from the uniform
random number generators. To hatch the random numbers we use LFSR (Linear feedback shift register).Here LFSR is
used as a Random number generator.
GENERATION OF RANDOM NUMBERS USING LFSR
Random numbers are generated by various methods. The two types of generators used for random number generation are
pseudo random number generator (PRNG) and True random number generator (TRNG). The numbers generated are random because
no polynomial time algorithm can describe the relation amongst the different numbers of the sequence. Numbers generated by true
random number generator (TRNG) or cryptographically secure pseudo random number generator (CSPRNG). The sources of
randomness in TRNG are physical phenomena like lightning, radioactive decay, thermal noise etc. The source of randomness in
CSPRNG is the algorithm on which it is based.
A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. The only linear
function of single bits is xor, thus it is a shift register whose input bit is driven by the exclusive-or (xor) of some bits of the overall
shift register value [5]

Fig.1. Schematic of 12-bit LFSR [4]

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Here we are using 12-bit LFSR hence the number of random variables generated =4k (i.e.4096 numbers) In order to generate the
LFSR with large sequence we have to opt appropriate feedback polynomial which was presented by Xilinx. The construction of 12-bit
LFSR using simple D flip flops is as shown in Fig.1.

GENERATION OF RAYLEIGH VARIABLES


The generation of different types of random number by using LFSRs is shown in Fig.2 In order to generate different random
variables from uniform random number generator Box Muller algorithm and Inverse transformation method plays a vital role. The
conclusion of Box Muller algorithm is as follows [6].If U1 and U2 are two random variables of interval(0,1) then consult the two
random variables X1,X2 such that [6]

X1= 21 cos 22

(1)

X2= 2 ln 1 sin 22

(2)

Then (X1, X2) were the duo of random variables which follows Normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance. Coming to the
architectural design uniform random numbers were generated by 12-bit LFSRs then look up table (LUT) is used to calculate and store
the values of X1 and X2. As the LFSR yachted 4096 random numbers [4]
The LUT uses 4 RAMs such that each RAM can accommodate 1024 states (i.e. 1K X 16-bit) for each expression [4]. The value of
sigma is the variance ( 2 ) of the Rayleigh distribution. The non restoring divider is used to divide the Value of X2 with the value of
lambda () to yield the exponential distribution. The Rayleigh distributed output is having only magnitude(r) and it is converted into a
complex number (ci + jcq) with two variates ci and cq having zero mean and Equal variance. Such that the value of r R2 is modulus of the
complex number [2]

Fig2. Architecture of distinct random number generators [4]

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DESIGN OF NAKAGAMI FADING CHANNEL SIMULATOR

Fig.3. Nakagami variate Generator [1]

A high-level block diagram of Nakagami variate generator is shown in above figure. First the Rayleigh Variate Generator block
generates a sequence of zero-mean unit-variance Complex Gaussian random variates c=ci + jcq and the Squared envelope rR2 from
the corresponding Rayleigh process is calculated as r R2 =ci2 +cq2 Then the transfer function g (rR2) is approximated in [1] and the inphase and quadrature components are found by multiplying the Transfer function by ci and cj respectively.

GENERATION OF NAKAGAMI VARIATES


A uniform random variable U can be transformed into a Nakagami- random variable nN using he nonlinear transformation of its
ICDF as in below equation [1].
nN= FN-1(U)

(3)

FN-1 is the inverse Nakagami-cdf in this process first Rayleigh RVs with the desired ACF are generated. A sequence of Rayleigh
random variates rR can be transformed into samples with a uniform distribution and the same ACF between samples using the inverse
CDF transformation [1].
2

U=FR(rR)= 1 e

r
R2
2

(4)

Then the uniform random variates transform into Nakagami variates using Eq.3. A useful rational proportional approximation for
FN-1(U) is proposed as follows [1]

FN-1(U) () +
where () =

1 + 2 () 2 + 3 ()3

(5)

1+1 + 2 ()2
1

(6)

For a given value of m, the five coefficients a1 ,a 2 ,a3 ,b1 and b2 are calculated to minimize the approximation error. Suitable
coefficient values for different values of m [7]. Now the generated Nakagami variates are
= g (rR2) * (ci + jcq)

(7)
r 2
R

Where the transfer function g (rR2) =

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rR 2

(8)

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RESULTS AND SIMULATIONS


This architecture of random number generator was implemented and Nakagami variate generators are practically in Xilinx ISE.
The following shows the practical results of various random number generators, LFSR and Nakagami Variate Generator. The
complete architecture design was implemented on Xilinx. The results of simulation for the values of sigma=2 are observed in Fig.4
and Fig.5 It is clear from the simulation results that all the numbers for all distributions are generated in every clock cycle.

Fig.4. Simulation Results of 12-bit LFSR

Fig5. Simulation results of Rayleigh and Nakagami random variate generators.

Comparision of Theoritical and Practical Nakagami PDF


1.4
software simulation
hardware simulation

1.2

Nakagami PDF

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2
r

2.5

3.5

Fig.6. the contrast between standard Nakagami pdf and simulated pdf

The Fig.6 shows the similarity between the Hardware simulated Nakagami pdf and the standard Nakagami pdf
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CONCLUSION
This discussion presents the study of the design approach of sophisticated and adequate performance of random variate generators
with accurate Nakagami distributions along with Nakagami fading channel simulator .In order to study and investigate the wireless
communications systems thoroughly we use these both Rayleigh and Nakagami distributions. The Rayleigh variates are generated
from the uniform Random number generator. Here we use LFSRs as a random number generator. And by processing the results of
Box Muller algorithm to the Look up Table (LUT) circuits and using the value of sigma and Rayleigh variates are generated. The
Nakagami simulator proposed here transforms the time correlated Rayleigh variates to Nakagami variates.

REFERENCES:
[1] A Alimohammad, M Saeed Fouladi Farad, S, and B.F. Cockburn, Hardware Implementation of Nakagami and Weibull Variate
Generators, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 7, JULY
2012
[2] A. Alimohammad and B. F. Cockburn, Modeling and hardware implementation of Rayleigh and Rician fading channel
simulators, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 20552069, Jul. 2012.
[3] Sarmad Fakhrulddin Ismael, Dr. Basil Shukr Mahmood Architectural Design of Random Number Generators and Their
Hardware Implementations, March 2014
[4] EfficientShiftRegisters,LFSRCounters,andLongPseudoRandomSequenceGenerators,http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentatio
n/application_notes/xapp052.pdf
[5] G. Box and M. Muller, A Note on the Generation of Random Normal Deviates, Annals Math. Statistics, Vol. 29, 1958, pp. 610611.
[6] Elina Pajala, Tero Isotalo, Abdelmonaem Lakhzouri,
Elena Simona Lohan, An improved simulation model for Nakagami-m
fading channels for satellite positioning applications, PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3rd WORKSHOP ON POSITIONING,
NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION (WPNC06)81
[7] A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
[8] Xilinx Inc., San Jose, CA, Xilinx UG190Virtex-5 FPGA User Guide,2009
[9]
J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2001.
[10]

.G. L. Stber, Principles of Mobile Communication. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001

[11] .David Bishop, "Fixed point package users guide", http://www.vhdl.org/vhdl-200x/vhdl-200x-ft/packages/files.html,2006


[12] W. C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications. Piscataway, NJ:Wiley-IEEE Press, 1994

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ISSN 2091-2730

Computer Aided Design of Power Transmission System


Dr. Mahmoud M. A. SAYED
Assist. Prof. - Mechanical Engineering Department,
Canadian International College, Cairo, Egypt.
Phone: +202/ 24728989
Mobile: +20 1001028826 / +201120664464
m_m_sayed@cic-cairo.com

ABSTRACT -It is widely recognized that todays demands in mechanical power transmission systems, (MPTS), are
characterized on the world wide basis by an increasing variety of system combinations . This calls for the development
and use of computer programs for designing such systems quickly and accuratelly .
An important reason for using computer - aided design, (CAD) of integrated in the design of MPTS is that, offers the
opportunity to develop components, units and drives, constructing the MPTS. It is goal of the CAD of MPTS, not only to
automated the design of these components and drive units individually, but also to automated the design of the integrated
MPTS as a whole. This work porposed expert system of CAD of MPTS should be designed in a modular way in order to
make it applicable both in an integrated form as in a stand alone mode . which is capable to choose the suitable units and
drives constructing the MPTS according to the prespecified design data and design them .

KEY WORDS
Computer - aided design (CAD), computer - aided manufacturing (CAM), integrated systems (IS), computer integrated
design, (CID), computer aided construction (CACON), computer - aided calculation (CACAL) , computer - aided data
program (CADA), speed ratio (SR), machine design, and mechanical power transmission system, (MPTS).

INTRODUCTION
In general, the Mechanical Power Transmission System, MPTS, is used in many fields to fulfill the requirements offered
by the industrial as well as civilian or military applications as to transmit the mechanical power from the prime mover
(PM), as the power source to the load, as the power consumer, see Fig . (1).
To Load
Mechanical
Power
From PM
Transmission
System
Fig . (1) Functional location
of the mechanical power transmission system

MPTS
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The
mechanical
power
transmission
system
may
be
a
single
unit;
Belt,
Chain, Gear Drive, or as a combination from these different types of drives and others . Gears are the essential
components in the general area of power transmission in spite of using Belts, Chains or sometimes Couplings to transmit
the power according to the prespecified design data, namely the center distance, the speed ratio and the angle between the
input and output shafts . One should carefully evaluate the merits and disadvantages of gear drives as compared to belt
and chain drives before incorporating either into a mechanical power transmission system .
Design work is a process of translating the original description of yet non - existing equipment into a form defining how
this can be built. The design process involving man - machine interaction is referred to as Computer - Aided Design.
CAD/CAM has been uitilized in engineering practice in many ways including drafting, design, simulation, analysis and
manufacturig [1]. Generally, CAD is the use of the computer to do the following jobs :
- Designing of machine and structural elements,
- Optimizing the design and modifying it in a relatively very small time with an easy way, and
- Modeling and simulation of a system.

For many people, the words Computer - Aided Design confuse up an image of an engineer sitting at a graphic display
terminal creating and analyzing the physical behaviour of new designs, or performing their corresponding calculations,
while this is certainly an important or even indespensible application, this type of activity represents a relatively small
fraction of all computer related work in mechanical design and in fact does little to impact the most critical problem
facing most designers; namely the synthesis, analysis, construction and design of the MPTS feeding multi - loads with
mechanical power from a PM. It has been asserted that engineering systems may be modeled as modular subsystems with
identifiable inputs and outputs to be interconnected in network fashion. Mathematical concepts of this type are studied as
graph - theory . It is not surprising therefore, to see substantial use of graph - theoretical concepts as computer aided
design of integrated systems, CAD of IS, and it seems natural to use graph - theoretical concepts as basis for
understanding the data structure of any MPTS. It is the goal of the CAD of MPTS not only to automate the design of these
components and drive units individually, but also to automate the design of the integrated MPTS.
This system should not only enable the user to solve special design problems, but also include data and algorithms
necessary for different purposes . CAD of MPTS should, therefore, be designed in a modular way in order to make it
applicable both in an integrated form as in a stand alone mode .
For this reason, a CAD program has been developed as an expert system, ES. The developed expert system to design
mechanical power transmission systems is capable to choose the suitable units or drives, which are necessary to be used in
a mechanical power transmission system according to the prespecified design data, namely the power to be transmitted,
single, or multi speed ratios, center distance and the angle between the input and output shafts in the drive, see Fig. (2).
Also, the presented expert system solves the design problem of gear boxes through power - pathes, speed stage analysis
and finally through geometrical analysis and check calculations for tooth root and surface strength against bending and
wear failure respectively for each gear stage in the gear box under investigation .

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Design data

Power to be

Analysis and design

transmitted

of MPTS

Suitable units or
drives included in
the MPTS

Layout of input
and output
shafts

Constant or
variable speed

Speed of the
input shafts

GB

An expert system
for the
Speed or speeds of
the output shaft

Center distance
between input
and output shafts

design of MPTS

No. of design
data for the
necessary stages
in the GB

Specifications for
each gear stage

Operating
conditions

Fig . (2) An Expert System for Design of Mechanical Power Transmission System ES-D-MPTS

AUTOMATION OF THE DESIGN PROCESS


An important reason for using CAD of multi - loads MPTS is that it offers the opportunity to develop the components,
units, and drives necessary for this respective MPTS . In the conventional design of such transmission systems, the
synthesis and analysis as well as the MPTS construction were carried out by the designer . And as we know, this was both
time consuming and involved duplication of effort by design personnel . The most effective way to improve the synthesis,
analysis, construction and design of the suitable components particularly for the multi - loads MPTS is to completely
eliminate the interactive component-selection from the CAD of the multi - loads MPTS by selecting these components
suitably and entirely by the computer using an overall program aimed at atomizing the requisition cycle of the multi loads MPTS. The maximum benefit of CAD of multi - loads MPTS is only possible by an integration of the synthesis,
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analysis, construction and design of the suitable components necessary for this MPTS . This work presents a methodology
for automatically performing the complete design process for multi - loads MPTS from the loads data Matrix, which can
select, construct and design the suitable mechanical components in this MPTS satisfying both loads layout and speed
requirements without any human intervention . Computer Integrated Design, CID, systems have emerged as a means of
upgrading the complete design process; synthesis, analysis, construction and design calculations, to assist the design
personnel to improve the overall design process . CACON / CACAL implies an integrated process where the computer
technology is incorporated in the construction and design of multi - loads MPTS .

The system should not only enable the user to solve special design, but also include data and algorithms for different
purposes . CAD of IS should therefore be designed in a modular way in order to make it applicable both in an integrated
form as in a stand alone one . Any component should be programmed as an independent unit and used whenever it is
required . In an integrated CAD system, direct links are established between the different components and drive units
constructing the transmission system as well as between the different design phases . It is the goal of CAD of IS not only
to automate the design of the components and drive units individually, but also to automate the design of the integrated
system as a whole .
Expert systems are software abilities used to display the modules-modular subsystems with identifiable inputs and
outputs-interconnected in a network fashion describing the engineering system. MPTS, by virtue of such nature, are good
candidates for Expert System applications . An Expert System combines the designer experience-gained in selection and
design of MPTS, with the computer facilities (speed ) memory and computational ability, which reduces the required skill,
improves the overall efficiency as compared to manual or even semi-automated design process, eliminate the duplication
of data and save a great effort and cost.

DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER PROGRAM


The strategy for automated design of MPTS, or Computer Integrated Design CID systems, illustrated in Fig . (3), shows
the following three systems :
-The first system is a computer aided construction, CACON, which is aimed at developing subprograms for the
selection of the mechanical components in the MPTS,
-The intermediate system is a computer aided data program, CADA, which proposes a technique aimed to fill the gap
between the foregoing CACON and the next CACAL .
-The last system is a computer aided calculation system, CACAL, which proposes a technique aimed at providing
computed aided calculation sequence planning applied to the components in the MPTS, which reduces the skill, hence
improves the overall efficiency as compared to the human activity .
Such selection procedure is repeated if multi-loads are to be fed with power from a prime mover, using the same
setup . This work is incorporated within a computer program .

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Selection
CACON
Of necessary
components

system

CID
system
s

in the MPTS
Generation Of
the design data
for each
component in
the MPTS

CADA
system

Design of
CACAL

necessary
components in
the suitable
MPTS

system

Fig . (3) Computer Integrated Design, CID, systems for MPTS

CASE STUDY
Based on the input data given for MPTS, output speeds 500, 200, 20, rpm and 3000 rpm as an input one, as shown in table
1.
Table 1. Iutput data
Center distance

Angle between

(m)

input &output shafts

Number of out put speed

The speed ratio for the power pathes, SR(J) and these for the gear stages in each path U(I,J) as well as the input speed for
each stage are displayed in table 2..

Table 2. Output data from the program


Pathes, J

Speed ratio, SR

15

150

Speed ratio

4.9

4.9

Max. Speed

3000

3000

3000

Stage No.=1

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Stage No.=2

Stage No.=3

Speed ratio

3.06

7.5

Max. Speed

612.2

612.24

Speed ratio

4.08

Max. Speed

81.6

CONCLUSIONS
An important reason for using CAD of integrated systems in the design of MPTS is that, it offers the opportunity to
develop components, units and drives etc. constructing the MPTS . It is the goal of the CAD of MPTS, not only to
automate the design of these components and drive units individually, but also to automate the design of the integrated
MPTS as a whole . CAD of MPTS should, therefore, be designed in a modular way in order to make it applicable both in
an integrated form as in a stand alone mode . For this reason, a CAD program has been developed as an Expert system,
which is capable to choose the suitable units and drives constructing the MPTS according to the prespecified design data
as well as to design them .

The structure of the problem under investigation; the design of the MPTS feeding multi-loads with mechanical power
from a prime mover, could be now thought to be formulated and then treated in 3-dimensions :
-One dimension would contain the necessary components, units and drives constructing the MPTS for a certain load arranged in the power flow direction.
-2nd dimension is introduced to spread those for the rest of the loads fed from the same prime mover.
-The 3rd dimension would be dealing with the depth of the design process to include the synthesis, analysis and
construction as well as the calculations as applied to the multi-loads MPTS as a whole.

This work presents a methodology for automatically performing the complete design process for multi-loads MPTS,
which can select, construct and design the suitable mechanical components in the MPTS satisfying both load layout and
speed requirements without any human intervention . Computer Integrated Design, CID, systems have emerged as a
means of upgrading the complete design process; synthesis, analysis, construction and design calculations .
CACON/CACAL implies an integrated process, where the computer technology is incorporated in the construction and
calculations of multi-loads MPTS.
The strategy for automated design of MPTS or computer Integrated Design, CID, systems contains 3-system as :
-The 1st system is a computer aided construction, CACON, which is aimed at developing two subprograms for the
selection of the mechanical components in the MPTS,
-The intermediate system is a computer aided data program, CADA, which proposes a technique aimed to fill the gap
between the foregoing CACON system and the next CACAL one .

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-The 3rd system is a computer aided calculation, CACAL, system which proposes a technique aimed at providing a
computer aided calculations sequence planning applied to the components in the MPTS, which reduces the skill, hence
improves the overall efficiency as compared to the human activity .

REFERANCES
[1] Ibrahim Zeid, Mastering CAD/CAM. Mc Graw - Hill NEW YORK, 2005.
[2] V. DOBROVOLSKY, Machine elements . Mir publ., MOSCOW, K . 1968 .
[3] FERDRICK E.BRICKER . Automobile guide . D. B.Taraporevale Sons & Co. Private Ltd. INDIA, 1976.
[4] ROBERT H.CREAMAR, Machine design. ADDISON - WESLEY Publishing company, INC.1976 .
[5] GUSTAV NIEMANN, Machine elements SPRINGER-VERLAG Berlin. Heidelberg. NEW YORK, 1978.
[6] FRANKLIN D. JONES, Machinery handbook . Industrial press INC. NEW YORK, 1979.
[7] M . SAVAGE,

Optimal tooth numbers for compact standard spur and gear sets . ASME journal of mechanical

design D.P.TOWNSEND. vol. 104, No. 3 oct. 1982 .


[8] N .E .ANDERSON, Design of spur gears for improved efficiency. S.H.LOEWENTHAL ASME journal of
mechanical design vol. 104, No. 3, oct. 1982 .
[9] T.BBAUMEISTER,Standard handbook for mechanical engineers. E A.AVALLONE,

Mc GRAW - Hill NEW

YORK, 1983 .
[10] KIYOHIKO UMEZAWA,Influence of gear error on rotational and TAICHI SATO,
of JSME,vol.28,

1985.

[11] J. E. SHIGLEY, Mechanical engineering design. Mc Graw - Hill NEW YORK, 1986

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vibration. Bulletin

International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
ISSN 2091-2730

The Vibrational Spectroscopic (FT-IR & FT Raman, NMR, UV) study


and HOMO& LUMO analysis of Phthalazine by DFT and HF Studies
C. C. Sangeetha 1, R. Madivanane 2, V. Pouchaname 3
1

Department of Physics, Manonmaniyam Sundaranar University,Tirunelveli,Tmail nadu,India.

Department of Physics, Bharathidasan Government College for Women, Puducherry, India.

Department of Chemistry, Bharathidasan Government College for Women, Puducherry, India.


E.Mail : carosangee@gmail.com
Mobile number: 09994313341

Abstract :In this work the FT-IR FT-Raman, UV-Visible absorption and 1H NMR spectra of Phthalazine were registered, assigned
and analyzed. The spectra were interpreted with aid of normal coordinate analysis based on DFT/B3LYP and HF methods using
standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. After scaling there is good agreement between the observed and the calculated frequencies. Bond
lengths, angles and dipole moments for the optimized structures of Phthalazine were also calculated. The calculated first order
hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non linear optics. The calculated
Homo-Lumo energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Mullikan population analysis on atomic charges is also
calculated. The study is extended to study the thermodynamic properties of Phthalazine. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and
compared with experimental results. UVVis spectrum of the compound was recorded and electronic properties were
performed. Finally, the calculated results were applied to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which
show good agreement with observed spectra.

Keywords :Phthalazine, Vibrational analysis, FTIR, FT-Raman, DFT calculation, Homo-Lumo analysis, thermodynamical
properties,GIAO,UVvis spectrum,Gaussian 09.

INTRODUCTION

Phthalazine is a diazanaphthalene with two adjacent N atoms. Phthalazines are examples of nitrogen heterocycles that possess
exciting biological properties.[1-3].The numerous studies published on their applicability in different areas, especially as Drugs[4,5].
Phthalazines have been reported to possess, anticonvulsant, [6] cardiotonic, [7] antimicrobial, [8] antitumor, [9-12] antihypertensive,
[13,14]

antithrombotic,[15]

antidiabetic,

[16,17]

antitrypanosomal,[18]

anti-inflammatory,[18-22]

and

vasorelaxant

activities[23].Additionally, Phthalazines have recently been reported to potentially inhibit serotonin reuptake and are considered antidepression agents.[24].This compound have wide range of applications as therapeutic agents. Phthalazine and its derivatives
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possessing triazines nucleus has attracted great attention in recent years due to extensive variety of biological activity, particularly
anticonvulsant activity. They are used as an intermediate in the synthesis of antimalarial drugs and its derivatives are used as
antimicrobial agents.phthalazine shows anti tumor activity. The new Phthalazine substituted urea and thiourea derivatives inhibited the
hcAs I AND II enzyme activity.Therefore, our results suggested that the compounds are likely to be adopted as candidates to treat
Glaucoma. Amio derivatives of 2,3 dihydrophthalazine -1,4-dione were used in the treatment of various diseases in humans, in
particular ,anti inflammatory immuno correcting activity in the treatment of ulcer. The 4-Arylphthalazones bearing
benzenesulfonamide is used as anti-inflammatory and anti cancer agents. Thus, owing to the industrial and biological importance
extensive spectroscopic studies on Phthalazine were carried out by recording the FTIR and FT-Raman spectra, NMR and UV-Visible
and subjecting them to normal coordinate analysis. Literature survey reveals that, to the best of our knowledge no HF and B3LYP
level calculations of Phthalazine have been reported so far. In the present work, the experimental and theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman
spectra of Phthalazine have been studied. The HF and B3LYP level with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set have been performed to obtain the
ground state optimized geometries and the vibrational wave numbers of the different normal modes as well as to predict the
corresponding intensities for the different modes of the molecule.The present research work was undertaken to study the vibrational
modes and also to carry out HOMO-LUMO, Polarizability, Hyper polarizability, Mullikans charge density and thermodynamical
properties for the title molecule.

2.

Experimental setup and measurements:


2.1 Spectral details:
The fine sample of Phthalazine provided by the Sigma Aldrich Chemical Co.(USA), with a stated purity of greater than 98%,

was used as such for the spectral measurements. At the room temperature a Fourier Transform IR spectrum of the title compound was
measured in 3500-0 cm-1 region at a resolution of 2 cm-1 using Bruker IFS -66V Fourier transform spectrometer. The FT-Raman
spectrum of Phthalazine was recorded on the same instrument equipped with an FRA -106 FT Raman accessory. The spectrum was
recorded in the 3500-0 cm-1 with Nd: YAG laser operating at 200 mW power. The reported wave numbers are expected to be accurate
within 2 cm-1. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (400 MHz;CDCl3) spectra were recorded on a Bruker HC400
instrument. Chemical shifts for protons are reported in parts per million scale downeld from tetramethylsilane. NMR spectra
are recorded using 2BRUKER 500 MHz AVANCE III instruments using CDCl3 as solvent, with TMS as an internal standard. Proton
(1H) spectrum at 500 MHz is recorded at room temperature. The Ultra- violet absorption spectrum of Phthalazine, dissolved in CdCl 3
solution, was recorded in the range 200.00 to 400.00 nm using SHIMADZU UV-1601 PC, UV-1700 Series spectrometer. The

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theoretically predicted FT-IR and Raman spectra at three parameter hybrid functional Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) using 6-311++G(d,p)
basis set level of calculations along with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are shown in Figures.
2.2 Computational Details
Using the version of Gaussian 09 W (revision B.01) program, the DFT and HF calculations of the title compound were
carried out on Intel core2 duo /2.20 GH processor. Becke-3-lee-yang-parr (B3LYP) functions were used to carry out Ab-initio analysis
with the standard 6-311++G(d.p) basis sets. The normal coordinate analysis of the compound Phthalazine has been computed at the
fully optimized geometry. For the simulated IR and Raman spectra pure Lorentzian band shapes with the band width of 10 cm-1 was
employed using the Gabedit version 2.3.2. In order to improve the calculated values in agreement with the experimental values, it is
necessary to scale down the calculated harmonic frequencies. Hence, the vibrational frequencies calculated at DFT level are scaled by
0.98 and at HF level the frequencies are scaled by 0.96 [25, 26]. After scaled with the scaling factor, the deviation from the
experiments is less than 10 cm-1 with a few exceptions.The animation option of the Gauss view 05 graphical interface for Gaussian
program was employed for the proper assignment of the title compound and to check whether the mode was pure or mixed. The idea
of using multiple scale factors in the recent literature [28] has been adapted for this study and it minimized the deviation between the
computed and the experimental frequencies. Most of the scale factors are much closer to the unity for DFT and HF studies which
implies that B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) computations yield results much closer to the experimental values. UVVis spectra electronic
transitions vertical excitation energies, absorbance and oscillator strength were computed with TD-DFT method. Finally the Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) chemical shifts were performed using Gauge induced Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method [29,30].
Prediction of Raman intensities:
The Raman activities (SRa) calculated with GAUSSIAN 03 program [31] converted to relative Raman intensities (IRa) using
the following relationship derived from the intensity theory of Raman scattering [32,33],
Ii = f (0-i)4 Si / i[1-exp (-hc i/kT)]
Where, 0 is the laser exciting wave number in cm-1.(here 0 = 9398.5 cm-1).
i vibrational wavenumber of the ith normal mode.(cm-1)
Si Raman scattering activity of the normal mode i.

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fi is a constant.(equal to 1012) It is a suitably chosen common normalization factor for all peak intensities,h,k,c and T
are Planck and Boltzmann constants and speed of light and temperature in Kelvin, respectively.
3.

Result and Discussions:

3.1 Molecular Structure:

Figure 1: Optimized molecular structure of Phthalazine.

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HF
Parameters
International Journal of Engineering Research and General
Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014

HF/6-311++G(d,p)

ISSN 2091-2730

DFT(B3LYP)

DFT(B3LYP)
6-

6-311++G(d,p)

Parameters

311++G(d,p)

6-311++G(d,p)
DIHEDREL
ANGLE ( 0 )

BOND LENGTH
N1-N2

1.3657

1.3471

C10- N1-C2- C3

N1-C10

1.3101

1.2818

C2- N1-C10-C9

N2-C3

1.3101

1.2818

C2- N1-C10-16

180

-180

C3-C4

1.423

1.4278

N1- N2- C3-C4

C3-H11

1.0875

1.0771

N1- N2-C3-H11

-180

180

C4-C5

1.4137

1.4113

N2-C3-C4-C5

180

-180

C4-C9

1.4148

1.39

N2-C3-C4-C9

C5-C6

1.377

1.3627

H11-C3-C4,C5

C5-12H

1.0846

1.0755

H11-C3-C4-C9

180

180

C6-C7

1.4147

1.4136

C3-C4-C5-C6

180

180

C6-H13

1.084

1.0751

C3-C4-C5-H12

C7-C8

1.377

1.3627

C9-C4-C5-C6

C7-H14

1.084

1.0751

C9-C4-C5-H12

180

180

C8-C9

1.4137

1.4113

C3-C4-C9-C8

180

180

C8-H15

1.0846

1.0755

C3-C4-C9-C10

C9-C10

1.423

1.4278

C5-C4-C9-C8

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C10-H16

1.0875

1.0771

BOND ANGLE ( 0 )

C5-C4-C9-C10

-180

180

C4-C5-C6-C7

N2- N1-10C

119.5093

120.1254

C4-C5-C6-H13

180

-180

N1- N2- C3

119.5093

120.1254

H12-C5-C6-C7

180

180

N2-C3-C4

124.6255

124.0542

H12-C5-C6-H13

N2-C3-11H

115.4224

116.0187

C5-C6-C7-C8

C4- C3-H11

119.952

119.9271

C5-C6-C7-H14

180

180

C3-C4-C5

124.3686

124.1785

H13-C6-C7-C8

180

180

C3-C4-C9

115.8652

115.8205

H13-C6-C7-H14

C5-C4-C9

119.7663

120.001

C6-C7-C8-C9

C4-C5-C6

119.5889

119.3888

C6-C7-C8-H15

180

180

C4-C5-12H

119.577

119.7767

H14-C7-C8-C9

180

180

C6-C5-H12

120.834

120.8345

H14-C7-C8-H15

C5C-C6-C7

120.6448

120.6101

C7-C8-C9-C4

C5-C6-H13

120.0181

120.1084

C7-C8-C9-C10

180

180

C7-6C-H13

119.3371

119.2815

H15-C8-C9-C4

-180

180

C6-C7-C8

120.6448

120.6101

H15-C8-C9-C10

C6-C7-H14

119.3371

119.2815

C4-C9-C10- N1

C8-C7-H14

120.0181

120.1084

C4-C9-C10-H16

180

180

C7C-C8-C9

119.5889

119.3888

C8-C9-C10- N1

180

-180

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C7-C8-H15

120.834

120.8345

C9-C8-H15

119.577

119.7767

C4-C9-C8

119.7663

120.001

C4-C9-C10

115.8652

115.8205

C8-C9-C10

124.3686

124.1785

N1-C10-C9

124.6255

124.0542

N1-C10-H16

115.4224

116.0187

C9-C10-H16

119.952

119.9271

C8-C9-C10-H16

Table 1: Comparison of the geometrical parameters of Phthalazine from DFT and HF studies.

The general molecular structure and atom numbering of Phthalazine molecule, under investigation is represented in Figure
1.The geometry of Phthalazine under investigation possessing C1 point group symmetry. The 42 fundamental modes of vibrations are
present in Phthalazine molecule. Determining the optimized molecular structure is the first task of the computational work. The
numbering schemes of the atoms were obtained from Gauss view programs[34].The optimized structural parameters such as bond
length ,bond angles and dihedral angles of Phthalazine molecule are determined by B3LYP and HF level with 6-311++G (d,p) as basis
set. Geometric properties of structure were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) and HF/6-311++G (d,p) levels of calculation and
depicted in Table 1.The bond lengths of C-C are greater than C-H bond lengths. The bond lengths related to Nitrogen atoms are with
the values as 1.31. The density functional calculation gives almost same bond angles. The dihedral angles of our title molecule shows
that our tested molecule was planar. The optimized bond length and bond angles are slightly smaller than the experimental values.
This is due to the fact that all the theoretical calculations belongs to isolated molecule were done in gaseous state and the experimental
results were belongs to molecule is in solid state.
3.2 Vibrational Assignments:
The harmonic vibrational frequencies (unscaled and scaled) calculated at HF and B3LYP levels using the triple split valence basis set
along with the diffuse and polarization functions, 6-311++G(d,p) and observed FT-IR and FT-Raman frequencies for various modes
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of vibrations have been presented in Table 2. The experimental and theoretical FTIR and FT-Raman spectra are shown in Figures. 2
and 3.The functional group frequencies of various bonds are discussed below.

Figure 2: Experimental (top) and theoretical (bottom) FTIR spectra of Phthalazine.

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Figure 3: Experimental (top) and theoretical (bottom) FT-Raman spectra of Phthalazine.

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S.no

Experimental

B3LYP/6311++G**

IR

Raman

intensity

Activity

HF/6-311++G**
Calculated
wavenumber

IR

RamanA
ctivity

Assignment

intensity

Calculated
wavenumber
IR

Rama

unscaled

scaled

unscale

n
1

scale
d

178

168

157

2.197

0.314

186

178

1.960

0.319

Ring deformation

181

198

173

173

0.001

195

195

0.012

CC+ C-C-C

353

350

354

354

0.397

0.017

378

359

0.383

0.013

N-C-C

360

382

386

382

5.975

0.335

450

451

451

0.004

435

435

4.295

1.037

C-C-C + NCC

476

480

480

18.290

0.043

493

478

0.228

C-C-C

516

516

0.393

14.144

534

517

26.657

0.001

CCC+ CCH +
NCC

528

522

0.653

8.098

546

524

0.511

9.362

C-C-C + CNC
+ NCC

564

564

0.718

7.315

CCC+ CC+
CCH+ CN

652

0.132

C-C-C

8.845

1.426

C-C-C + CH

0.623

C-C-C + S CH
+RING
BREATHING

0.132

CH +CCC RING
BREATHING+HN
CC

5
6

473

515

522

570

10

622

11

645

12

13

761

791

14

15

816

651

761

646

626

0.247

694

668

654

6.570

1.586

710

765

781

781

797

810

811

822

765

781

57.251

0.038

0.252

793

0.797

37.781

813

1.546

0.227

231

16

C-C-C and C-N-C

811

842

667

770

791

70.903

S CH + S CN

867

814

1.841

29.745

CH S +CC RING
BREATHING

0.316

CCC RING
BREATHING +
CH

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868

878

879

879

0.006

872

837

3.626

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17

953

18

969

19

1017

20

1008

21

1034

22

23

1095

24

1137

25

946
972

1013

0.186

CH + CN

1010

2.229

0.073

CCC+ CH

1024

1013

17.728

0.923

CH

0.005

1048

1006

0.060

CH

0.207

1040

1040

19.595

4.329

CCC + S CH

921

912

18.380

0.105

964

954

946

946

0.349

1042

964

964

13.912

0.073

971

971

1.885

983

973

3.432

1089

1008

1008

0.071

1102

1090

0.041

17.317

CCC + CC
+RING
DEFORMATION

1135

1038

1038

2.294

23.807

1097

1094

3.216

0.857

N-N +CCC
TRIGONAL BEND

1160

1136

0.957

2.674

1118

1097

0.668

CH + CCC

1156

1177

1153

4.227

1.510

S C=C + S CN

26

1208

1213

1232

1207

6.252

13.246

1221

1221

8.448

1.691

CH + S CN

27

1244

1229

1278

1239

4.815

4.149

1243

1243

0.552

3.550

CH + S C=C

28

1237

1259

1289

1237

16.075

2.356

S C-C

29

1277

1294

1328

1258

0.909

0.821

S CC

30

1302

1339

1301

0.001

17.275

CC+ CN+ CCN

31

1322

1318

1301

1318

1.889

9.909

CN

32

1370

1351

1367

1367

15.703

2.199

S CC

33

1400

1378

1378

1378

4.427

2.865

CN+ S CC

34

1432

1396

35

1451

36

1437
1483

1403

1403

12.938

113.464

1444

1429

11.479

55.260

S CC

1453

1438

5.656

69.15

1461

1431

2.974

3.279

S CC + S CN

1464

1464

0.595

2.732

1519

1488

3.306

10.866

37

1487

38

1532

39

1555

1575

1598

40

1601

1610

1613

41

1646

1618

1659

42

1740

232

S CC
1498

1483

7.121

147.524

S C=C

1587

1539

11.276

95.543

CC

5.356

0.510

1587

1555

0.322

0.193

C=C S + CC

1613

2.648

20.773

1646

1613

7.441

19.379

S C=C

1642

1.326

9.664

1582

S C=C + S C-C
1775

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1739

11.458

0.831

CC+ HCC

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43

1788

44

1869

45

2968

46
47

3026

48
49

1.901

35.034

RING+ CC+
HCC

1829

1829

0.431

3.150

RING

3143

2985

23.505

18.465

as CH

3014

3145

3019

0.420

204.529

s CH

3090

3167

3090

0.674

25.707

s CH

3143

3172

3162

0.774

135.782

s CH

3183

3055

16.728

59.697

3193

3129

11.877

305.432

3068
3123

51

3227
3230

53

1783

2784

50

52

1783

3300

3320

3120

20.448

9.837

as CH
as CH

3322

3211

0.855

123.563

as CH

3325

3222

1.795

43.672

as CH

3333

3227

2.714

146.144

as CH

54

3470

3345

3233

22.447

38.157

as CH

55

3674

3355

3355

13.568

263.702

as CH

Table 2: Experimental and calculated (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and HF/6-311++G(d,p) levels) vibrational frequencies (cm-1) ,
IR Intensity (KM Mol-1) , Raman Activity (amu-1) of Phthalazine.
N- N vibrations:
The NN stretching mode is reported at 1093 cm-1 experimentally for Phthalazine derivatives [35]. In our present study the N-N
stretching vibrations are observed at 1095 cm-1 in FTIR and the theoretically computed N-N vibrations in the region 1098 cm-1 by HF
method show good agreement with experimental value.
C-N Vibrations:
The identification of CN vibrations is a very difficult task since mixing of several bands is possible in this region. However, from
the help theoretical calculations, the CN vibrations are identified and assigned in this study. Silverstein et al., assigned the CN
stretching vibrations in the region 13821266 cm-1 for aromatic amines [36]. The frequencies 1598- 1411 cm-1 in both FT-IR and FTRaman spectra have been assigned to C-N, C=N stretching vibration, respectively [37].Referring the previous reference the band at
1598-1468 cm-1,has been designed to C-N stretching mode. Hence in the present investigation, the symmetric CN vibrations are
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observed FTIR in 1208,1322,1400 and 1451 cm-1 and in Raman it is observed at 797,1156,1213,1318,1378 and 1437 cm -1 Whereas its
corresponding calculated scaled values are 793,1153,1207 and 1438 in DFT method and 1221,1318 and 1378 cm-1 in HF method. The
in plane bending vibrations of C-N bending in found in 953 cm-1 in IR and 946 cm-1 in raman spectrum.
C-C /C=C vibrations:
The ring carboncarbon stretching vibrations usually occur in the region 16001400 cm-1[38,39]. The ring carbon- carbon stretching
vibrations in benzene ring occur in the region 1625-1430 cm-1.For aromatic six-membered rings,e.g., benzene and pyridines, there are
two or three bands in this region due to skeletal vibrations, the strongest usually being at about 1500 cm-1. In the case where the ring is
conjugated further a band at about 1580 cm-1 is also observed [38].The symmetric C-C stretching vibrations are observed at Socrates

[38] mentioned that the presence of conjugate substituent such as C=C causes a heavy doublet formation around the region 1625-1575
cm-1.In the present work the symmetric C-C stretching vibrations are found in
1244,1237,1277,1370,1400,1432,1451,1535,1555,1740cm-1inFTIR.In
1259,1294,1351,1396,1351,1396,1351,1396,1437,1483,1575,1788 cm-1 in Raman spectrum.Likewise the symmetric C=C stretching
vibrations are found in 1244,1601 in FTIR and in 1156,1229,1610 cm-1 in Raman spectrum. Out of plane bending vibrations of C-C
are observed at 1089 cm-1 in Raman and at 1302 cm-1 in FTIR spectrum. The bands occurring at 515,622,645,761,969,1034 and 1137
cm-1 in the infrared and at 522,570,651,761,781,878,972 and 1089 cm-1 in Raman spectrum are assigned to the in plane bending CCC
in-plane bending modes of Phthalazine.

C-H vibrations:
Aromatic compounds commonly exhibit multiple weak bands in the region 31003000 cm-1 [40] due to aromatic C-H stretching
vibrations. All the C-H stretching vibrations are very weak in intensity.The bands due to C-H in-plane bending vibrations are observed
in the region 1390990 cm-1 [41]. The bands due to the C-H in-plane deformation vibrations, which usually occurs in this region are
very useful for characterization and are very strong indeed [42]. When there is in-plane interaction above 1200 cm-1, a carbon and its
hydrogen usually move in opposite direction [43]. The out of plane CH vibrations are strongly coupled and occur in the region of
1000700 cm-1 [44].In our present Phthalazine molecule the symmetric and asymmetric C-H stretching vibrations are found in
between 3026- 3674 cm-1in FTIR spectrum and also it appears in Raman spectrum it is in between 3014-3300 cm-1 which shows the
correlation with the literature survey. The in plane bending vibrations of C-H are verified at 1008,1095,1137,1208,1244 cm-1 in FTIR
and at 1013,1135,1213 and 1229 cm-1 in Raman spectrum. The out of plane bending vibrations are found in 645,761,791and 969 cm -1
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in FTIR and at 651,761,781,878 and 972 cm-1 in Raman spectrum. For most of the remaining ring vibrations, the overall assignments
are satisfactory. Small changes in frequencies observed for these modes are due to the changes in force constants or reduced mass ratio
resulting mainly due to the extent of mixing between ring and substituent.
3.3 Non linear optical effects:
NLO effects arise from the interactions of electromagnetic fields in various media to produce new fields altered in phase, frequency,
amplitude or other propagation characteristics from the incident fields [45]. NLO is at the forefront of current research because of its
importance in providing the key functions of frequency shifting, optical modulation, optical switching, optical logic, and optical
memory for the emerging technologies in areas such as telecommunications, signal processing, and optical interconnections [46-49].
Dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules are important response properties. There has
been an intense investigation for molecules with large non-zero hyperpolarizabilities, since these substances have potential as the
constituents of non-linear optical materials. In presence of an applied electric field, the energy of a system is a function of the electric
field. The first hyper polarizability is a third-rank tensor that can be described by a 3 3 3 matrix. The 27 components of the 30
matrix can be reduced to 10 components due to the Kleinman symmetry[50]. The components of 0 are defined as the coefficients in
the Taylor series exponents the energy in the external electric field. When the external electric field is weak and homogeneous, this
expansion becomes
E=E0-F - 1/2FF - 1/6FFF+.
where E0 is the energy of the unperturbed molecules, F is the field at the origin and , and are the components of
dipole moment, polarizability and the first-order hyperpolarizabilities respectively.
In present study, the electronic dipole moment, molecular polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and molecular first
hyperpolarizabiliy of present compound were investigated. The polarizability and hyperpolarizability tensors [xx ,xy, yy, xz, yz, zz
and xxx, xxy, xyy, yyy, xxz, xyz, yyz, xzz, yzz, zzz) can be obtained by a frequency job output file of Gaussian. The total static dipole
moment (), the mean polarizability(0), the anisotropy of the polarizability ( ) and the mean first-order hyperpolarizability (0),
using the x, y, z components they are defined as follows:
total = 0 = 1/3 (xx+yy+zz)
= [(xx - yy)2 + (yy - zz)2 +(zz - xx)2 + 6 2xz+6 2xy+6 2yz]1/2

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0 = (x2 + x2+ x2)1/2


=

[(xxx + xyy + xzz) 2+ (yyy + xxy + yzz ) 2+( zzz + xxz+ yyz )2]1/2

=[(xx-yy)2+(yy-zz)2+(zz-xx)2/2]1/2
The and values of the Gaussian 05 output are in atomic units (a.u) and these calculated values converted into
electrostatic unit (e.s.u) ( : 1 a.u = 0.148210

-24

esu; for : 1 a.u =8.63910

-33

esu; ) and these above polarizability values of

Phthalazine are listed in Table (3). The total dipole moment can be calculated using the following equation.
= (x2 + y2 + z2)1/2
To study the NLO properties of molecule the value of urea which is prototypical molecule is used as threshold value for the purpose
of comparison. Urea is the prototypical molecule used in the study of the NLO properties of the molecular systems.
The total molecular dipole moment and first order hyperpolarizability are 5.3032Debye and 0.249683130510 -30 cm5/esu,
respectively and are depicted in Table 3. Total dipole moment of title molecule is approximately four times greater than that of urea
and first order hyperpolarizability is 0.1 times lesser than that of urea ( and of urea are 1.3732 Debye and 0.3728 x10 -30 cm5/esu
obtained by HF/6-311G(d,p) method [51]. These results indicate that the title compound is a good candidate of NLO material.
DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)

HF /6-311++G(d,p)

xx

54.7857473

131.520057

xy

-0.000000489249679

0.00000000759618116

yy

145.958031

103.675498

xz

0.0000000000379414449

-0.0000000549565194

yz

0.0000000217153642

0.0000000266667497

zz

111.953395

53.9545493

104.2323911

96.3833681

Parameters (a.u)

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79.80161726

68.0577788

xxx

-0.00000248429697

-41.8501250

xxy

52.0398273

-0.000000430891865

xyy

0.00000357237014

15.2046515

yyy

-82.2554657

0.000000224286613

xxz

0.0000000197723763

-0.00000154879012

xyz

-0.000000163513452

0.000000761285762

yyz

0.00000170415196

-0.00000227357450

xzz

0.00000381123329

55.5473291

yzz

-4.10579237

-0.0000000703065283

zzz

0.00000000865477438

-0.000000886088144

34.32143077 a.u

28.9018556a.u

2.96502840410-31

2.49683130510-31

-5.3032

5.4630

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

total (Debye)

5.3032

5.4630

Table 3:The electric dipole moment, polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of
Phthalazine.

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The theoretical calculation of components is very useful as this clearly indicates the direction of charge delocalization. In xzz
direction, the biggest values of hyperpolarizability are noticed and subsequently delocalization of electron cloud is more in that
direction. The maximum value may be due to electron cloud movement from donor to acceptor which makes the molecule highly
polarized and the intra molecular charge transfer possible.
3.4 Frontier molecular orbital analysis:
To understand this phenomenon in the context of molecular orbital theory, we examined the molecular HOMOs and
molecular LUMOs of the title compound. When we see the first hyperpolarizability value, there is an inverse relationship between
first hyperpolarizability and HOMOLUMO gap, allowing the molecular orbitals to overlap to have a proper electronic
communication conjugation, which is a marker of the intra molecular charge transfer from the electron donating group through the pconjugation system to the electron accepting group [52,53].
The total energy, energy gap and dipole moment affect the stability of a molecule. Surfaces for the frontier orbital were
drawn to understand the bonding scheme of present compound and it is shown in Figure 4. The Frontier orbital gap helps to
characterize the chemical reactivity kinetic stability, chemical reactivity, optical polarizability, chemical hardness, softness of a
molecule [54].

Figure 4: Patterns of the principle highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular
orbitals of Phthalazine.

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The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are known as frontier
molecular orbitals (FMOs). The HOMO is the orbital that primarily acts as an electron donor and the LUMO is the orbital that largely
acts as the electron acceptor, and the gap between HOMO and LUMO characterizes the molecular chemical stability. The energy gap
between the HOMO and the LUMO molecular orbitals is a critical parameter in determining molecular electrical transport properties
because it is a measure of electron conductivity. The chemical activity of the molecule is also observed from eigen values of LUMO
and HOMO and from the energy gap value calculated from them. (HOMOLUMO) separation, which is the result of a significant
degree of intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) from the endcapping electron-donor to the efficient electron acceptor group through pconjugated path. [55, 56].
The computed energy values of HOMO and LUMO in gas phase are -0.31251 eV and -0.19726 eV respectively. The energy
gap value is -0.11525 eV for Phthalazine molecule. The energy values of the frontier orbitals are presented in Table 4. By using
HOMO and LUMO energy values for a molecule, the ionization potential and chemical hardness of the molecule were calculated
using Koopmans theorem [57] and are given by = (IP EA)/2 where IP~E(HOMO), EA~E(LUMO), IP = Ionization potential (eV), EA
= electron affinity (eV)

= ( LUMO - HOMO).

The hardness has been associated with the stability of chemical system. Considering the chemical hardness, large HOMOLUMO gap
means a hard molecule and small HOMOLUMO gap means a soft molecule. One can also relate the stability of molecule to
hardness, which means that the molecule with least HOMOLUMO gap means it is more reactive. The electron affinity can be used in
combination with ionization energy to give electronic chemical potential, = ( LUMO + HOMO). Chemical softness(S) = 1/ describes
the capacity of an atom or group of atoms to receive electrons and is the inverse of the global hardness [58]. The soft molecules are
more polarizable than the hard ones because they need small energy to excitation. A molecule with a low energy gap is more
polarizable and is generally associated with the high chemical activity and low kinetic stability and is termed soft molecule [59]. A
hard molecule has a large energy gap and a soft molecule has a small energy gap [60]. It is shown from the calculations that
Phthalazine has the least value of global hardness (0.057625eV) and the highest value of global softness (17.353579 eV) is expected to
have the highest inhibition efficiency. The global electrophilicity index, = 2/2 is also calculated and these values are listed in
Table 4.

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DFT-B3LYP/6Molecular properties

311++G(d,p)

ELUMO+1 (eV)

-0.17640

ELUMO (eV)

-0.19726

EHOMO (eV)

-0.31251

EHOMO-1 (eV)

-0.33801

EHOMO-LUMO (eV)

-0.11525

EHOMO-LUMO+1 (eV)

-0.13611

EHOMO-1 LUMO (eV)

-0.14075

EHOMO-1 LUMO+1 (eV)

-0.16161

Global hardness()

0.057625

Chemical softness(S)

17.353579

Electronic chemical potential()

0.254885

Global electrophilicity index()

0.5636994

Table 4: Calculated energy values of Phthalazine in its ground state.


3.5 Mullikan analysis:
In the application of quantum mechanical calculations to molecular system, the calculation of effective atomic charges plays
an important role. The results are given in Table 5.The magnitude of two nitrogen atoms is 0.The carbon atomic charges found to be
either positive or negative, were noted to change from -0.1 to 1.11. All the hydrogen atoms have positive values.
S.NO

ATOMS

HF
B3LYP/6-

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311++G(d,p)
1

1N

0.000758

-0.02334

2N

0.000758

-0.02334

3C

-0.5852

-0.60769

4C

1.118006

1.115744

5C

-0.8961

-0.96304

6C

-0.1654

-0.143

7C

-0.1654

-0.143

8C

-0.8961

-0.96304

9C

1.118006

1.115744

10

10C

-0.5852

-0.60769

11

11H

0.20307

0.228608

12

12H

0.150086

0.181445

13

13H

0.17478

0.211277

14

14H

0.17478

0.211277

15

15H

0.150086

0.181445

16

16H

0.20307

0.228608

Table 5: Mulliken atomic charges of Phthalazine for B3LYP and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets.
3.6 Thermodynamic properties:

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The values of some thermodynamic parameters (such as zero point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity,
rotational constants, rotational temperature) of title molecule by DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and HF/ B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)
methods are listed in Table 6. On the basis of vibrational analysis, These parameters are listed out based on the statistically
thermodynamic functions : heat capacity(C), enthalpy changes(H) and entropy (S) for the title compound. Here, all thermodynamic
calculations were done in gas phase and listed in Table 6.
Parameters

B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)

Dipole moment (Debye)

5.3032

Zero point energy

HF
5.4630

321641.8

(Joules/Mol)

76.87424 (Kcal/Mol)

345011.5
82.45973 (Kcal/Mol)

Entropy (Cal/Mol-Kelvin)
Total

81.877

80.108

Translational

40.501

40.501

Rotational

28.871

28.826

Vibrational

12.504

10.781

0.15705

0.15963

0.05938

0.06024

0.04309

0.04374

Rotational temperature (Kelvin)

Rotational constants (GHZ)

242

3.27233

3.32623

1.23722

1.25524

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0.89778

0.91133

Total

81.081

86.358

Translational

0.889

0.889

Rotational

0.889

Vibrational

79.304

Thermal Energy (KCal/Mol)

0.889
84.581

Molar capacity at constant volume


(Cal/Mol-Kelvin)
Total

27.391

25.057

Translational

2.981

2.981

Rotational

2.981

2.981

Vibrational

21.430

19.096

Table 6 : Theoretically computed Dipole moment(Debye), energy(au), zero point vibrational energy(kcal mol-1), entropy(cal
mol-1k-1), rotational temperature(Kelvin), rotational constant(GHz), thermal energy(Kcal/Mol) and Molar capacity at constant
volume(Cal/Mol-Kelvin)of Phthalazine.
3.7

H NMR analysis

The NMR experimental and theoretical chemical shifts are used to identify the organic compounds and ionic species. It is recognized
that accurate predictions of optimized molecular geometrics are essential for reliable calculations of magnetic properties [61].
GIAO(Gauge Including Atomic Orbital) procedure is somewhat superior since it exhibits a faster convergence of the calculated
properties upon extension of the basis set used. Taking into account the computational cost and the effectiveness of calculation, the
GIAO method seems to be preferable from many aspects at the present state of this subject. On the other hand, the density functional

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methodologies offer an effective alternative to the conventional correlated methods, due to their significantly lower computational
cost.
Application of the GIAO [62] approach to molecular systems was significantly improved by an efficient application of the method to
the ab initio SCF calculations, using techniques borrowed from analytic derivative methodologies. GIAO method is one of the most
common approaches for calculating isotropic nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. [63] .1H NMR chemical shifts calculations of the
title compounds have been carried out by using B3LYP functional with 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. The NMR spectra calculations were
performed by using the Gaussian03 program package. Experimental and theoretical chemical shifts of Phthalazine in 1H NMR spectra
were recorded and the obtained data are presented in Table 7. The combined use of Experimental NMR and computer simulation
methods offers a powerful way to interpret and predict the structure of large biomolecules.
1

H and NMR spectra are shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Experimental (upper) and Theoretical(bottom) 1H NMR spectrum of Phthalazine.

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Experimental

Calculated chemical shift

S.NO

ATOMS

Chemical shift)

by B3LYP method

11H

9.562

9.696

12H

7.966

7.953

13H

7.956

7.953

14H

7.950

7.953

15H

7.945

7.953

16H

9.549

9.696

Table 7: The observed (in CDCl3) and predicted 1H NMR isotropic chemical shifts (with respect to TMS, all values in ppm)
for Phthalazine.
3.8 UV spectrum and electronic properties:
The lowest singlet- singlet spin-allowed excited states were taken into account for the TD-DFT calculation in order to
investigate the properties of electronic absorption of Phthalazine molecule. The energies of four important molecular orbitals of
Phthalazine : the second highest and highest occupied MOs (HOMO and HOMO1), the lowest and the second lowest unoccupied
MOs (LUMO and LUMO + 1) were calculated and are presented in Table 4.The experimental max values are obtained from the
UV/Visible spectra recorded in CHCl3. The Figure.6. depicts the observed and the theoretical UVVisible spectra of Phthalazine. The
calculations were also performed with CHCl3 solvent effect. The calculated absorption wavelengths (max) and the experimental
wavelengths are also given in Table 8.

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Figure 6: Experimental UV spectra of Phthalazine.


In the electronic absorption spectrum of Phthalazine, there are three absorption bands with a maximum 390.60,357.20,291.00
nm. The strong absorption band 357.20 nm is caused by the n* [64,65] and the other two moderately intense bands are due to
* transitions [66,67]. The * transitions are expected to occur relatively at lower wavelength, due to the consequence of the
extended aromaticity of the ring and high energy transitions.
Then in Phthalazine molecule the n* transition is more significant due to the presence of lone pair of electrons in the
nitrogen atoms. The 3D plots of important molecular orbitals are shown in Figure. 4. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is a
critical parameter in determining molecular electrical transport properties [68].The energy gap of HOMOLUMO explains the
eventual charge transfer interaction within the molecule, and the frontier orbital energy gap in case of Phthalazine is found to be
0.11525 eV obtained at TD-DFT method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

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Experimental

STATES

(nm)

Log ()

390.60

0.005

357.20

291.00

Calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)

(nm)

E (eV)

(f)

34 -> 35

475.01

2.6101

0.0000

0.011

34 -> 36

352.63

3.5160

0.0029

0.328

34 -> 35

271.77

4.5620

0.0000

34 -> 37

Table 8: Theoretical electronic absorption spectra of Phthalazine (absorption wavelength (nm), excitation energies E (eV)
and oscillator strengths (f) using TDDFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method in gas phase.

4. CONCLUSION
In this study, we attempted to clarify the characterization of Phthalazine by means of both experimental and
computational methods. Bond lengths and angles were calculated by using DFT and HF methods and compared with each
other. All compared data were shown to have in a good agreement with each other. The non linear optical property of the
compound also calculated with the hyperpolarizability values. Moreover, after frontier molecular orbitals and electronic
structure, energy band gap and Mullikan charges of the title molecule were investigated and interpreted. Atomic charges,
thermodynamic properties, NMR spectra and UVVis spectra were also determined for the identification of the molecule.
Theoretical 1H chemical shifts were found to be in good agreement with the experimental determines. In conclusion, all the
calculated data and simulations not only show the way to the characterization of the molecule but also help for the application
in Pharmaceutical industries and fundamental researches in chemistry and biology in the future.

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Operation and control of Hybrid Microgrid


1

V.Yamuna Parkavi (PG Scholar), 2R.Vijayalakshmi (Assistant Professor/EEE)


Nandha Engineering College, Email id: parkavi.yamuna@gmail.com

Abstract In recent years, hybrid microgrid comprises of dc and ac subgrids interconnected by power electronic interfaces unlike in
existing microgrids which are purely ac or dc. The main objective is to manage the power flow among all sources distributed
throughout the different types of subgrids. The hybrid grid reduces the process of multiple dc-ac-dc or ac-dc-ac conversions in an
individual grid and reduces the number of converter stations for converting ac to dc or dc to ac power. This hybrid can operate in both
grid connected and standalone mode. The proposed grid can operate in both standalone and grid connected mode. Proportional integral
controller is used for smooth power transfer.
Keywords hybrid microgrid, proportional integral controller, converter station, standalone, grid connected mode.

I. INTRODUCTION
The increasing number of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation (DG) requires new technique for the
operation and management of the electricity grid to enhance proper power sharing. In the present power scenarios, when distributed
generations are mentioned for small scale generations to meet the various customer demand. The coordination of these small scale
generations may consist of photovoltaic, batteries, wind and fuel cells which are formed as Micro-grid [1],[2]. Interest on microgrid
is rapidly increasing as it is based on the renewable energy sources, which connects to utility grid and various types of loads. In the
grid tied mode, it is connected with utility whereas in case of autonomous mode it is totally disconnected. In case of autonomous mode
it becomes totally independent and fulfills the demands of customers from the renewable energy sources [3],[4]. By using renewable
energy sources we can get pollution less environment and it is available enormously in nature. The distributed generation and in
integration of Renewable Energy Sources into the grid provides power quality problems.
AC Microgrid

Interfaces between ac and dc bus

PV

DC/AC

AC/DC

Battery

DC/AC

AC/DC

DC Microgrid

DC/DC

DC/DC

PV

Battery

DC
Load

AC
Load

External
AC grid

External
DC grid

AC/DC

AC bus

DC bus

Fig. 1 Representation of ac dc hybrid microgrid


The main objective of constructing a micro grid is to provide reliable, high quality electric power to digit a societies with an
environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Recently the most important and advanced futures of a smart grid is the advanced
structure which can smooth the progress of the connections of various ac and dc generation systems, energy storage options, and
various ac and dc loads with the most advantageous and benefit utilization and operation efficiency [5]. In microgrid the power
electronics technology plays a most important role for interfacing different sources and loads to a grid to achieve the goal.
AC micro grids have been proposed to assist to tie the renewable power sources to conventional ac systems. On the other
hand, dc output power from photovoltaic (PV) panels must be converted into ac for using ac loads. This can be made using dc/dc
boosters and dc/ac inverters. In an ac grid, for various home and office facilities embedded ac/dc and dc/dc converters are necessary
for supplying different dc voltages. AC/DC/AC [6],[7] converters are commonly used as drives for speed control of ac motors in
various industrial plants. In recent times, dc grids are resurging due to the development of renewable dc power sources and their
inbuilt benefit for dc loads in industrial, commercial, and residential applications. The dc micro-grid has been proposed to integrate
various distributed generators [8]. Conversely, ac sources have to be converted into dc before connecting it to a dc grid. For
conventional ac loads dc/ac inverters are mandatory. [9].

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In individual AC or DC grids, multiple reverse conversions AC to DC and then DC to AC, and/or vice versa are essential,
which may add extra loss to the system operation and it will make the system more complex. In proposed hybrid AC/DC microgrid
multiple reverse conversions are reduced
by various AC and DC distributed generators (DGs) and loads than in an individual AC or DC microgrid. In micro-grids the voltage
and frequency control is also one of the most significant issues. The control schemes are considered in order to manage the voltage
and frequency of the microgrid.

2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND


DESIGN
A simple hybrid microgrid as shown in Fig.4 is modeled using the Simulink in the MATLAB to simulate system operations
and controls. Forty kW PV arrays are associated to dc bus through a dc/dc boost converter to simulate dc sources. A capacitor C is to
smother high frequency ripples of the PV output voltage.

DC Bus
PV

AC Bus

Boost
Converter

DC/AC

PV

Bidirectional
Converter

PI
Controller

To DC load

Utility Grid

To AC load

Fig. 2 Block diagram for proposed system


A hybrid microgrid system arrangement consist a mixture of ac and dc sources and loads which are connected to the
equivalent dc and ac networks. The dc and ac links are connected together through bi-directional converters and two transformers. The
dc loads are connected to dc bus and ac loads are connected to ac bus. The utility grid is connected to ac network of hybrid microgrid
system. The hybrid microgrid can operate in two different modes standalone mode and grid connected mode.

Grid connected mode


In grid connected mode, the main converter is to afford stable dc bus voltage and to switch over power between the ac and dc
buses which also provide the required reactive power. The maximum power is maintained by a boost converter. When the total load at
dc side is greater than a power generation at the dc side, the converter injects power from the ac to dc side. When the output power of
the dc loads is less than the dc source, the converter acts as an inverter and injects power from dc to ac side. When the total load is
less than the total power generation in the hybrid grid, power is injected into the utility grid. Or else, the hybrid grid will receive
power from the utility grid. In the grid tied mode, the battery converter is not essential in system operation as the power is balanced by
the utility grid. In standalone mode, both power balance and voltage stability mainly depend on battery. According to different
operating conditions battery converter or boost converter maintains the DC bus voltage stable. The main converter is controlled to
provide a stable and high quality ac bus voltage. Based on system operating necessities, PV can operate in both on MPPT or offMPPT mode. Variable solar irradiation is applied to the arrays correspondingly to simulate variation of power of ac and dc sources
and test the MPPT control algorithm.

Standalone mode
In autonomous mode, hybrid microgrid becomes electrically cut off from the rest of the utility grid. The battery plays a very
vital role for balancing the power and to obtain the voltage stability. Battery or boost converter is implemented to maintain DC bus
voltage stable, according to different operating conditions. By controlling the main converter a stable and high quality ac bus voltage
is provided.

3. MODELING OF SOLAR PANEL


In a grid-connected PV system, PV power varies with operational conditions such as irradiance, temperature, light incident
angle, reduction of sunlight transmittance on glass of module, and shading. A photovoltaic array is an interconnection of modules
which in turn is made up of many PV cells in series or parallel. The power produced by single module is not enough hence the
modules in a PV array are generally first connected in series to attain the desired voltages then the individual modules are connected in
parallel to allow the system to produce more current.
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Fig. 3 Equivalent circuit of pv cell


Generally the equivalent circuit of a general PV model consists of a photocurrent, a diode, a parallel resistor which expresses
a leakage current, and a series resistor which describes an internal resistance to the current flow [10]. The current output equation of a
solar cell is given as
= [exp
((/)(/ + ) ) 1]
= + .
=

3 exp

1000

1 1
.

4. MODELING OF BOOST CONVERTER


The dc-dc boost converter is a step up converter that steps up the input voltage by storing energy in an inductor for a certain
time period, and then uses this energy to boost the input voltage to a higher value.

Fig. 4 Circuit diagram of Boost Converter


The relationship between the input and output voltages is given by
Vinton + (Vin Vout) toff = 0

The boost converter is average model type meaning that switching action is absent. This model uses controlled current and
voltage sources, whose input is reference signals, instead of power electronic devices to generate boosted voltage across output
terminal. The output of boost converter is the input to the dc/ac inverter.

5. MODELING OF BATTERY
Terminal voltage Vb and state of charge (SOC) are the two important factors to describe the state of a battery.

= + . .
+ . exp
+
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= 100 (1 +

6. PI CONTROLLER
In various industrial applications, proportional integral (PI) controller is one of the
famous controllers used in a wide range. The PI controller output is in time domain and is defined by the following equation:

= +

()
0

Fig 5: Block diagram of PI control system


Adding the integral part to the proportional controller is one of the major advantages to eradicate the steady state error in the
controller variable. On the other hand, one of the main drawback of the integral controller is if the error does not change its direction
subsequently it gets saturated after a while. By introducing a limiter in the circuit this incident can be avoided at the integral part of the
controller ahead of adding its output to the output of the proportional controller. The input to the PI controller is the speed error (e),
while the output of the PI controller is used as the input of reference current block as shown in fig 5.

7. THE CONTROL STRATEGY


The different sources and converters have to be coordinately controlled with the utility grid to obtain a continuous, high
efficiency, and high quality power to variable ac and dc loads under variable solar irradiation when the hybrid grid operates in both
grid tied and standalone modes. This section presents the various control algorithms for those converters.

A. Grid-Connected Mode
When the hybrid microgrid operates in grid connected mode, the main purpose of the boost converter is to track the MPPT of
the PV array by regulating its terminal voltage. The bidirectional converter is controlled to regulate flow of current to achieve MPPT
and to coordinate with ac grid. The excess energy of the hybrid grid can be sent to the utility system. The excess energy is stored in
battery but the utility grid balances the excess power hence battery is less sufficient in this hybrid microgrid. The main purpose of
battery is to eradicate regular power transfer between the ac and dc link. The dc/dc converter of the battery can be controlled as the
energy buffer using the technique. The main converter is designed to operate as bidirectional converter to integrate harmonizing
characteristic of solar sources. The main control objectives of the bidirectional converter is for variable load conditions a stable dc-link
voltage must be maintained and to synchronize with the ac link and utility system [11],[12].
The power flow equations at the dc and ac links are,
Ppv + Pac = PdcL + Pb
Ps = Pw PacL - Pac

B. Standalone mode
In isolated mode, the bidirectional dc to dc converter operates either in charging or discharging mode based on power balance
in the system [13]. By using either battery or boost converter the dc-link voltage is maintained based on different system operating
conditions.
Ppv + Pw = PdcL + Ploss + Pb

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Fig.6 Control diagram for boost and main converter

Fig.7 Equivalent circuit representation for the three converters.


The time average equivalent circuit representation of the booster and main converter is shown in Fig. 6 based on the basic
principles and descriptions for booster and inverter respectively [16].

8. SIMULATION RESULT
This section presents the simulation results of the conventional and the proposed methods in order to certify the performance of
the control scheme. Software simulation has been done using MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation package. The full diagram of the
control methodology and the modulation is shown.
The Fig. 8 shows the terminal voltage of solar panel. The Fig. 9 shows that the voltage drops at 0.25 s and recovers quickly
by the controller. Fig.11 shows the voltage (voltage times 0.2 for comparison) and current responses at the ac side of the main
converter under variable solar radiation. Fig12. Shows the voltage and current response when the dc load increases from 20 kW to 40
kW at 0.25 s with a xed irradiation level 750 W/m2 . It can be seen from the current direction that power is injected from dc to ac
grid before 0.25s and reversed after 0.25 s. Fig. 13 shows the voltage response at dc side of the bidirectional converter under the same
conditions.

Fig.8 The terminal voltage of the solar panel

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Fig.9 PV output power

Fig. 10 Solar radiation


Different resource conditions and load capacities are tested to validate the control methods. The simulation results show that
the hybrid grid can operate stably in the grid-tied or isolated mode. Stable ac and dc bus voltage can be guaranteed when the operating
conditions or load capacities change in the two modes. The power is smoothly transferred.

Fig.11. AC side voltage and current of the main converter with variable solar radiation

Fig.12. AC side voltage and current of the main converter with constant solar radiation

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Fig.12 Voltage transient response.

9. CONCLUSION
A hybrid microgrid is proposed and briefly studied. The hybrid microgrid can decrease the processes of dc/ac and ac/dc
conversions in an individual ac or dc grid. The efficient models and control schemes are proposed for the converters to maintain stable
system operation under various load and resource conditions. Various control methods have been incorporated to manage the
maximum power from dc and ac sources and to harmonize the power exchange between dc and ac grid. From the simulation results it
is known that the hybrid grid can be stable in both the grid-tied and standalone mode. When there is a change in the operating
conditions it is assured to have stable ac and dc bus voltage in both the modes. When the load condition changes, smooth power
transfer is obtained.
There are some sensible problems in implementing the hybrid grid based on the current ac subjugated infrastructure. Mainly
the total system efficiency depends on the reduction in various conversion losses and the increase in an additional dc link. The hybrid
grid is mainly implemented where some small customers need to install their own PV systems on the roofs and are wish to use LED
lighting systems. The hybrid microgrid is practicable for some isolated industrial plants with PV system as their major power supply.

REFERENCE:
[1] Y. Ito, Z. Yang and H. Akagi,DC micro-grid based distribution power generation system, in Proc. IEEE Int. Power Electron.
Motion Control Conf., Aug. 2004, Vol. 3, pp. 1740-1745.
[2] H. Zhou, T. Bhattacharya, D. Tran, T. S. T. Siew, and A. M. Khambadkone, Composite energy storage system involving battery
and ultracapacitor with dynamic energy management in microgrid applications, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 923
930, Mar. 2011.
[3] T.L.Vandoorn, B.Renders, L.Degroote, B.Meersman, and L.Vandevelde, Active load control in islanded microgrids based on the
grid voltage, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, pp. 139151, Mar. 2011.
[4] A. Ghazanfari, M. Hamzeh, and H. Mokhtari, A control method for integrating hybrid power source into an islanded microgrid
through CHB multilevel inverter, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron., Drive Syst. Technol. Conf., Feb. 2013, pp. 495500.
[5] D. J. Hammerstrom, AC versus DC distribution systems-did we get it right?, in Proc. IEEE PowerEng. Soc. Gen. Meet., Jun.
2007, pp. 15.
[6] Y. Ito, Z.Yang, and H. Akagi,DC micro-grid based distribution power generation system, in Proc. IEEE Int. Power Electron.
Motion Control Conf., Aug. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 17401745.
[7] A. Sannino, G. Postiglione, and M. H. J. Bollen, Feasibility of a DC network for commercial facilities, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,
vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 14091507, Sep. 2003.
[8] A. Sannino, G. Postiglione, and M. H. J. Bollen, Feasibility of a DC network for commercial
facilities, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 14091507, Sep. 2003.
[9] X. Liu, P. Wang and P.C. Loh, A hybrid AC/DC microgrid and its coordination control, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 2,
pp. 278286, 2011.
[10] V. Madhavi, J. V. R.Vithal Modeling and Coordination Control of Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014
[11] S. A. Daniel and N. Ammasai Gounden, A novel hybrid isolated generating system based on PV fed inverter-assisted winddriven induction generators, IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 416422, Jun. 2004.
[12] C. Wang and M. H. Nehrir, Power management of a stand-alone wind/ photovoltaic/fuel cell energy system, IEEE Trans.
Energy Conv., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 957967, Sep. 2008.
[13] L. A. C. Lopes and H. Sun, Performance assessment of active frequency drifting islanding detection methods, IEEE Trans.
Energy Conv., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 171180, Mar. 2006.
[14] L. Jong-Lick and C. Chin-Hua,Small-signal modeling and control ZVT-PWM boost converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 210, Jan. 2003.
[15]Y. Sozer and D. A. Torrey, Modeling and control of utility interactive inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 11,
pp. 24752483, Nov. 2009
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An Advanced Topology for Cascade Multilevel


Inverter Based on Developed H-Bridge
1
2
Jesline Naveena .A (PG Scholar), Mr.B.Ramraj ( Assistant Professor )
Nandha Engineering College,Erode.
Email ID:ajesline@gmail.com1.rajuvcet@gmail.com2.

Abstract In this paper, an advanced topology for cascaded multilevel inverter using developed H-bridges is proposed. The
proposed topology requires a lesser number of dc voltage sources and power switches ,which results in decreased complexity and
total cost of the inverter. Moreover, a Bee algorithm(BA) to determine the magnitude of dc voltage sources is proposed. It is used
to solve the transcendental equations for finding the switching angles. This algorithm can be used for any number of voltage levels
without complex analytical calculations. Simulation results for 15-level inverter verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm.

Keywords.

Cascaded multilevel inverter, Developed H-bridge, Multilevel inverter, Bee Algorithm, Multicarrier PWM
technique,Voltage source inverter.
I.INTRODUCTION

Basically Inverter is a device that converts DC power to AC power at desired output voltage
because of other
advantages such as high power quality, lower order harmonics, lower switching losses, and better electromagnetic interference
[1],[2]. and frequency. Demerits of inverter are less efficiency, high cost, and high switching losses. To overcome these demerits,
were going to multilevel inverter[3].Multilevel inverter output voltage produce a staircase output waveform, this waveform look
like a sinusoidal waveform..The multilevel inverter output voltage having less number of harmonics compare to the
conventional bipolar inverter output voltage[4]. If the multilevel inverter output increase to N level, the harmonics reduced to the
output voltage value to zero. The multi level inverters are mainly classified as Diode clamped, Flying capacitor inverter and
cascaded multi level inverter[5].The cascaded multilevel control method is very easy when compare to other multilevel inverter
because it doesnt require any clamping diode and flying capacitor. Moreover, abundant modulation techniques have been
developed in cascade multilevel inverter and reducing the power losses.The most attractive features of multilevel inverters are as
follows.
1.They can generate output voltages with extremely low distortion and lower order harmonics.
2. They draw input current with very low distortion.
3.In addition, using sophisticated modulation types of methods, CM voltages can be eliminated.
4.They can operate with a less switching frequency.
II.CASCADE MULTILEVEL INVERTER
The concept of this inverter is based on connecting H-bridge inverters in series to get a sinusoidal voltage output. The
output voltage is the sum of the voltage that is generated by each cell. The number of output voltage levels are 2n+1,
where n is the number of cells. The switching angles can be chosen in such a way that the total harmonic distortion is
minimized. One of the advantages of this type of multilevel inverter is that it needs less number of components comparative to the
Diode clamped or the flying capacitor, so the price and the weight of the inverter is less than that of the two types.Figure.1
shows the power circuit for one phase leg of a three-level and five-level cascaded inverter. In a 3-level cascaded inverter each
single-phase full-bridge inverter generates three voltages at the output: +Vdc, 0, -Vdc (zero, positive dc voltage, and negative
dc voltage). This is made possible by connecting the capacitors. The resulting output ac voltage swings from -Vdc to +Vdc
with three levels, -2Vdc to +2Vdc. The output voltage of an M-level inverter is the sum of all the individual inverter
outputs. Each of the H- Bridges active devices switches only at the fundamental frequency, and each H-bridge unit generates a
quasi- square waveform by phase- shifting ts positive and negative phase legs with switching timings.Further each switching
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Figure.1. Single Phase Structures Of Cascaded Inverter (A)3-Level,(B)5-Level


device always conducts for 180 (or 1/2 cycle)regardless of the pulse width of the quasi-square wave so that this
switching method results in equalizing the current stress in each active device. This topology of inverter is
suitable for high voltage and high power inversion because of its ability of synthesize waveforms with better harmonic
spectrum and low switching frequency. Considering the simplicity of the circuit and advantages, Cascaded H-bridge
topology is chosen for the presented work. A multilevel inverter has four main advantages over the conventional
bipolar inverter. First, the voltage stress on each switch is decreased due to series connection of the switches.The major
advantage of this topology and its algorithms is related to its ability to generate a considerable number of output
voltage levels by using a low number of dc voltage sources and power switches but the high variety in the
magnitude of dc voltage sources is their most remarkable disadvantage

Fig. 2.Proposed seven level inverters


(a).First proposed topology,(b). Second proposed topology

TABLE I
OUTPUT VOLTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SEVEN- LEVEL INVERTERS

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In this paper, in order to increase the number of output voltage levels and reduce the number of power
switches, driver circuits, and the total cost of the inverter, a new topology of cascaded multilevel inverters is
proposed[2],[4],[7] and [8].Then, to determine the magnitude of the dc voltage sources, a new algorithm is proposed.
Moreover, the proposed topology is compared with other topologies from different points of view such as the number of
IGBTs, number of dc voltage sources, the variety of the values of the dc voltage sources, and the value of the
blocking voltages per switch. Finally, the performance of the proposed topology in generating all voltage levels
through a 15-level inverter is confirmed by simulation using power system computer aided design (PSCAD)
software.
III. ADVANCED TOPOLOGY
It can be obtained by adding two unidirectional power switches and one dc voltage source to the H- bridge inverter
structure. In other words, the proposed inverters are comprised of six unidirectional power switches (S a, S b, S L,1, S L,2, S
R,1, and S R,2) and two dc voltage sources (VL,1and VR,1).Inthis paper, these topologies are called the developed H bridge. As
shown in Fig. 2,the simultaneous turn on of S L,1 and S L,2 (or S R,1 and S R,2)causes the voltage sources to short circuit in that
Figure2.Then the simultaneously turned on to mentioned switches must be avoided. In addition, S a and the S b should not turn on.
The difference in the topologies illustrated in Fig.1 is in the connection of the dc voltage sources polarity. Table I shows the output
voltages of the proposed inverters for different states of the switches. Therefore, the values of dc voltage sources should be
different to generate more voltage levels without increasing the number of switches and dc volt age sources.
An advanced topology, the number of output voltage levels ( N step) , number of switches ( N switch), number of dc
voltage sources ( N source) , and the maximum magnitude of the generated voltage are calculated as follows, respectively:
2n+1
N step = 2
(1)
1
N switch = 4n + 2
(2)
N source = 2n
(3)

IV.BEE ALGORITHM
The Bee algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the natural foraging behaviour of honeybees to find the
optimal solution[6]. A bee colony consists of three kinds of bees: employed bees on-looker bees, and scout bees. Employed bees
carry information about place and amount of nectar in a particular food source. They transfer that form information to on-looker
bees with dance in that of hive. The time of dance determines the amount of nectar in a food source An on-looker chooses a food
source based on the amount of nectar in a food source A good food source attracts more on-looker bees to itself. Scout bees
seek in search space and find new food sources. Scout bees control the exploring process, considered as possible solutions to
a problem[5].The food source is a D- dimensional vector, where D is while employed and on-looker bees play an exploiting
role. In this algorithm, food sources are the number of optimization variables.The amount of nectar in a food source determines
the value of fitness.The basic flowchart of BA is shown in Fig. 3.

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Fig.3.Basic Flowchart of BA
In step 1, random initial food sources are generated. The number of initial food sources is half of the bee colony. In
step 2, employed bees are sent to the food sources to determine the amount of nectar and calculated to its fitness. For each food
source, there is only one employed bee. So, the number of food sources is equal to the number of employed bees. In addition, the
employed bees modify the solutions, saved in memory, by searching in the neighbourhood of its food source.The employed
bees save the new solution if its fitness is better than the older one. Employed bees go back to the hive and share the
solutions with the onlooker bees. In step 3, on-looker bees, which are another half of the colony, select the best food sources using
a probability-based selection process. Food sources with more nectar attract more on-looker bees. On- looker bees are sent to the
selected food sources. The on-looker bees improve the chosen solutions and calculate its fitness. Similar to employed bees,
the on-looker bees save a new solution if its fitness is better than an older solution. In step 4, the food sources that are not
improved for a number of iterations are abandoned. So, the employed bee is sent to find new food sources as a scout bee. The
abandoned food source is replaced by the new food source. Finally, in step5, the best food source is memorized. The maximum number
of iterations is set as a termination criterion which is checked at the end of iteration. If it is not met, the algorithm returns to step2 for
the next iteration.
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V.ADVANCED ALGORITHM TO DETERMINE MAGNITUDES OF DC VOLTAGE SOURCES


In this paper, the following algorithm is applie d to determine the magnitude of dc voltage sources. It is important to note that all voltage
levels (even and odd) can be generated.

A. Proposed Seven-Level Inverter


The magnitudes of the dc voltage sources of the 7- level inverter shown in Fig.2(b) are determined as follows
VL,1 = Vdc
(4)
VR,1 = 2Vdc.
(5)
Considering (5), (6) Table I, the proposed 7level inverter can generate 0, 1 V, 2V, 3Vdc at output voltage.

B. Proposed 15-Level Inverter


The magnitudes of the dc voltage sources of the proposed15level inverter are recommended as follows:
VL,1 = Vdc
(6)
VR,1 = 2Vdc
(7)
VL,2 = 5Vdc
(8)
The proposed inverter can generate all negative and positive voltage levels from 0 to 15Vdc with steps of Vdc.

C. Proposed General Multilevel Inverter


The magnitudes of the dc voltage sources of the proposed general multilevel inverter can be obtained as follows:
j 1
VL,j = 5 Vdc for j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n
(9)
j 1
VR,j = 2 5
Vdc for j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , .
(10)
Considering (4) and (16), the values of Vo, max and Vblock, n of the proposed general multilevel inverter are as
follows,respectively:
n 1
Vo,max = VL,n + VR,n = 3 5 Vdc
(11)
n 1
Vblock, n = 4(VL,n+VR,n) =12(5
)Vdc
(12)

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS


In order to verify the correct performance of the proposed multilevel inverter in generating all output voltage levels (even and
odd), a 15 level inverter based on the topology shown in Fig.2.It has been used for the simulation and Table I shows the
switching states of the 15-level inverter. The simulation is done by using PSCAD software. The simulated output voltage and current
waveforms are shown in Fig.4.As Fig.4(a) shows, the proposed topology is able to generate 15 levels (15 positive levels, 15
negative levels, and 1 zero level) with the maximum voltage of 225 V. Comparing the output voltage and current waveform
indicates that the output current waveform is more similar to the ideal sinusoidal waveform than the output voltage because the
RL load acts as a low-pass filter. In addition, there is a phase difference between the output voltage and current waveforms,

Fig.4.Proposed 15-level inverter.(a) Output voltage waveform.


(b) Output current waveform.

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which is caused by the inductive feature of the load. The total harmonic distortions of the output voltage and current are
equal approximately below 3%,respectively.Considering the magnitude of the
blocking voltage of the switches, the
relations associated to the maximum voltage drop of the switches are well confirmed.Fig.5,6shows the simulation results of the
implemented 15 level inverter.

Fig.5.Simulation Output Of 15 level Inverter

Fig.6.Proof for THD Result


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VII.CONCLUSION
In this paper, an advanced topologies have been proposed for multilevel inverters to generate seven voltage levels at the
output. The basic topologies can be developed to any number of levels at the output where the 7-level, 15- level and general
topologies are consequently presented. Therefore, in proposed system efficiency is about 97.2% and THD is below 3%.In addition,
a bee algorithm to determine the magnitude of the dc voltage sources has been proposed. An advance topology was compared
with the different kinds of presented in a topologies in literature from different points of this view. An according to the comparison
results, hence advanced topology requires a lesser number of MOSFETs, power diodes, driver circuits, and dc voltage sources.
Moreover, the magnitude of the blocking voltage of the switches is lower than that of conventional topologies.

REFERENCES:
[1]. Ebrahim Babaei Somayeh Alilu, and Sara Laali, IEEEA New General Topology for Cascaded Multilevel Inverters
With Reduced Number of Components Based on Developed H- BridgeIEEETrans.Ind. Electron., vol 61,Aug.2014.
[2] E. Babaei and S. H. Hosseini, Charge balance control methods for asymmetrical cascade multilevel converters, in Proc.
ICEMS, Seoul, Korea,2007,pp.7479.
[3].K. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Zheng, and L. Xu, Voltage balancing and fluctuation suppression methods of floating capacitors in a new
modular multilevel converter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no.5,pp.19431954,May,2013.
[4]. J. Ebrahimi, E. Babaei, and G. B Gharehpetian,A new topology of cascaded multilevel converters with reduced number of
components for high voltage applications, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.26,no. 11,pp. 31093118, Nov,2011.
[5].M.Manjrekar and T.A.Lipo,A hybrid multilevel inverter topology for drive application, in Proc. APEC, 1998, pp. 523529
[6].Kavousi,Behrooz,Vahidi,Naeem Farokhnia and S. Hamid Fathi,Application of the Bee Algorithm for Selective Harmonic
Elimination Strategy in Multilevel Inverters IEEE Trans.Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 625636, Apirl 2012.
[7].A. Rufer, M. Veenstra, and K. Gopakumar,Asymmetric multilevel converter for high resolution voltage phasor
generation, presented at the Proc. EPE, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1999.
[8]. S. Laali, K. Abbaszades, and H. Lesani, Anew algorithm to determine the magnitudes of dc voltage sources in
asymmetrical cascaded multilevel converters capable of using charge balance control methods, in Proc. ICEMS, Incheon,
Korea, 2010, pp. 5661

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Optimized implementation of ANN control strategy for parallel operation of


single phase voltage source inverter
Dinesh Kumar.V1 PG Scholar, Dr. Balachandran.M2 Associate Professor, Nirubha.M3 Assistant Professor,
Department of EEE, Nandha Engineering College, Erode, India.
dineshv10@gmail.com, balachandran_pm@yahoo.com, nirubha.m@gmail.com

Abstract This paper describes about the efficient control strategy in parallel operation of inverters in common alternating
current(AC) bus which is used in real time applications like uninterrupted power supply (UPS), medical equipments and many. The
control system for parallel operation of inverters consists of two main loops; the first control loop is parallelism control over the
feedback inductor current to modify the input voltage to the filter. The second loop is voltage control over the output voltage of each
individual voltage source inverter connected to the common AC bus. Here control system is implemented in neuro fuzzy control
strategy which ensures less precise, flexible, better stability in control. The proposed control strategy ensures the voltage source
inverters(VSI) operating in common AC bus with proper sharing of load current, redundancy and without any needs of
communication exchange between inverter modules .The parallel operation of inverters in common AC bus with proposed control
system are verified both in theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords Alternating Current(AC),Uninterrupted Power Supply(UPS),Voltage Source Inverters(VSI),Direct Current


(Dc),Average Load Sharing(ALS),Master Slave(MS).

INTRODUCTION
The need for highly reliable power supplies has increased in recent years with the proliferation of critical loads such as computers,
medical equipments, satellite systems, telecommunications, and other electronic dependent equipment, which are intensely in demand
in present day society. Not with standing, the role of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) has also increased tremendously in
sustaining high reliable power to those critical loads. One of the ways to achieve higher reliability is by paralleling two or more units
of UPS. This is because the paralleled system has wide advantages over single unit UPS. Advantages include increase of power
capability, enhanced availability from the fault tolerance with more than 1 module, and ease of maintenance with redundancy
implementation [1].
In application for uninterrupted power supply (UPS) for very large application the parallel operation of inverters are seen in
common AC bus. The parallel operation is a special feature of high performance uninterrupted power supply system. The parallel
connection of UPS inverters is a challenging problem that is more complex than paralleling DC sources, since every inverter must
share the load while staying synchronized. In theory, if the output voltage of every inverter has same amplitude, frequency, and phase,
the current load could equally be distributed. However, due to interconnections .The first one is based on active load sharing
techniques, and the major part of them is derived from control schemes of parallel-connected dcdc converters, such as centralized
master slave (MS) average load sharing (ALS), and circular chain control (3C) Although these control schemes achieve both go
output-voltage regulation and equal current sharing, they need critical intercommunication lines among modules that could reduce the
system reliability and expandability [2].
The parallel operation of voltage source inverters (VSIs) is a configuration that allows the processed load power to be shared
among the converters, creating redundant systems and making the power expansion flexible. These characteristics have led to the use
of this configuration in an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), mainly to build a redundancy

THE CONCEPTION OF CONTROL STRATEGY


Review
The control strategy includes two main loops for each voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to common AC bus. They are
Parallelism control loop and voltage control loop. The parallelism control loop employs the feedback of the inductor current from the
output filter to modify the input voltage of the same filter and, therefore, to control the power flow of each inverter to the load. The
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second loop voltage control is responsible for controlling the output voltage of the LC filter, which coincides with the output voltage
of the VSI.

Fig 1.Circuit of VSI with two control loops

In each VSI, a control loop is added, called parallelism control, which is placed in cascade with the voltage controller Cv, as shown
in Fig. 1. This second loop enables the inverter to work in parallel. This new control modifies the output signal of the voltage
controller, Vvc, with the aim of changing the Vpc signal applied in the PWM modulator and, consequently, altering the VAB voltage of
the VSI. The parallelism control employs the feedback of inductor current L from the LC filter, called Vi, to modify the Vvc signal.
Therefore, each VSI utilizes only the feedback of its own inductor current to ensure its proper parallel operation. A relevant point is
that the proposed strategy is based on a single reference voltage (Vref) for all VSIs, thus the output voltages of all inverters have only
small deviations, which are caused by parametric variations in the control and power Fig.1. Circuit of a VSI based on the proposed
control strategy. Components of the inverters. Therefore, the parallelism control has the function of equalizing these small deviations
to ensure power sharing among the inverters [3].
Proposed Control Strategy
We consider a multi-input, single-output dynamic system whose states at any instant can be defined by n variables X1, X2, Xn.
The control action that derives the system to a desired state can be described by a well known concept of if-then rules, where input
variables are first transformed into their respective linguistic variables, also called fuzzification [4],[5]. Then, conjunction of these
rules, called inferencing process, determines the linguistic value for the output. This linguistic value of the output also called fuzzified
output is then converted to a crisp value by using defuzzification scheme. All rules in this architecture are evaluated in parallel to
generate the final output fuzzy set, which is then defuzzified to get the crisp output value. The conjunction of fuzzified inputs is
usually done by either min or product operation (we use product operation) and for generating the output max or sum operation is
generally used. For defuzzification, we have used simplified reasoning method, also known as modified center of area method. For
simplicity, triangular fuzzy sets will be used for both input and output. The whole working and analysis of fuzzy controller is
dependent on the following constraints on fuzzification, defuzzification and the knowledge base of an FLC, which give a linear
approximation of most FLC implementations [6].
CONSTRAINT 1: The fuzzification process uses the triangular membership function.
CONSTRAINT 2: The width of a fuzzy set extends to the peak value of each adjacent fuzzy set and vice versa. The sum of the
membership values over the interval between two adjacent sets will be one. Therefore, the sum of all membership values over the
universe of discourse at any instant for a control variable will always be equal to one. This constraint is commonly referred to as fuzzy
partitioning.
CONSTRAINT 3: The defuzzification method used is the modified center of area method. This method is similar to obtaining a
weighted average of all possible output values.
An example of a very simple neuro fuzzy controller with just four rules is depicted in figure 2. This architecture can be readily
understood as a neural-like architecture. At the same time, it can be easily interpreted as a fuzzy logic controller. The modules X1
and X2 represent the input variables that describe the state of the system to be controlled. These modules deliver crisp input values to
the respective membership modules (m-modules) which contain definitions of membership functions and basically fuzzify the input.
Now, both the inputs are in the form of linguistic variables and membership associated with the respective linguistic variables. The mmodules are further connected to R-modules which represent the rule base of the controller, also known as the knowledge base. Each
m-module gives to its connected R-modules, the membership value m (xi) of the input variable Xi associated with that particular
linguistic variable or the input fuzzy set. The R-modules use either min-operation or product-operation to generate conjunction of their
respective inputs and pass this calculated value forward to one of n-modules. The n-modules basically represent the output fuzzy sets
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or store the definition of output linguistic variables. If there are more than two rules affecting one output variable then either their sum
or the max is taken and the fuzzy set is either clipped or multiplied by that resultant value. These n-modules pass on the changed
output fuzzy sets to C-module where the defuzzification process is used to get the final crisp value of the output [7].

Fig 2. Architecture of four rule fuzzy controller from neural networks point of view
The architecture given in Fig 2 of a fuzzy logic controller resembles a feed forward neural network. The X-, R-, and C-modules
can be viewed as the neurons in a layered neural network and the and n-units as the adaptable weights of the network. The X-module
layer can easily be identified as the input layer of a multi-input neural network whereas the C-module layer can be seen as the output
layer. The R-module layer serves as the hidden or intermediate layer that constitutes the internal representation of the network. The
fact that one n-module can be connected to more than one R-module is equivalent to the connections in a neural network that share a
common weight. This is of key importance for keeping the structural integrity of the fuzzy controller intact.

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
The parallel operation of voltage source inverters connected in common AC bus used for much application like uninterrupted
power supply and medical equipment sets. The output voltage of all inverters connected in common AC bus should be same and all
should share the load equally. The AC source input is given to AC/DC converter and DC output is then fed into a single phase voltage
source inverter and output is then filtered by a LC filter through isolation transformer between inverter and filter. The filter output is
given to the common AC bus where similar AC output of other module is immersed. The output voltage from the output of filter is
controlled by taking it as feedback and comparing with the reference voltage from reference voltage DC bus and controlled by classic
PID control strategy in existing system and fuzzy logic control in proposed system. The error and change in error is analyzed in
controller and current signal from the controller is given to parallelism control comparing with current to LC filter then signal is given
to PWM gate driver circuit of inverter to vary switching of the inverter. The block representation is shown in fig 3.
TABLE I
SPECIFICATION OF VSI OF 5KVA

268

VREF

5V(PEAK)

VO

220 VRMS/60 HZ

KIL

0.015

VAC

220 VRMS/60 HZ

1.63

LM

348 MH

LL

370H

LE

730 H

1100 H

36 F

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Fig 3. Circuit of VSIs modules connected in parallel


This methodology defines voltage and current equations for each inverter in relation to the components of all VSI. Thus, the model
allows the study of the distribution of power, sharing, and circulation of currents among inverters in the case of parametric variation of
the components, load variations, and controller modifications. The specification for two voltage source inverters connected in parallel
in common AC bus shown in block representation in fig 3.are detailed in TABLE I

SIMULATION RESULTS
Pulse output after the process of control strategy from pulse width modulation (PWM) generator is shown in fig 4

Fig 4 Pulse output from PWM generator

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Fig 5 Square output voltage from inverter


The output current measured from voltage source inverter through isolation transformer is shown in fig 6

Fig 6.Output current measured from the inverter


The output voltage measured from the common AC bus where inverters modules of various voltage ratings are connected is shown in
fig 7

Fig 7.Output voltage measured from common AC bus

CONCLUSION
Thus the uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) and medical equipments frequently needs parallel operation of inverters with proper load
sharing capability and redundancy. Hence proper control strategy should be implemented for independent operation of voltage source
inverters making them to work at any load conditions and no load conditions. The control strategy allows the connection and/or
disconnection of one inverter from the common ac bus with a smooth transient response in load voltage. It also enables the parallel operation
of different power inverters. ANN control strategy which emerging control logic for many application is more efficient and satisfies all
features of control strategies of parallel operation of voltage source inverters. Simulation results have shown that fast dynamic response,
proper output regulation, and equal current distribution can be achieved in the proposed multi-module inverter system.

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REFERENCES:
[1] YeongJia.C and E. K. K. Sng, A novel communication strategy for decentralized control of paralleled multi-inverter
systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 148156, Jan. 2006.
[2] Guerrero J.M, L. Hang, and J. Uceda, Control of distributed uninterruptible power supply systems, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 28452859, Aug. 2008.
[3] Telles B. Lazzarin, Member, IEEE, Guilherme A. T. Bauer, and Ivo Barbi, A Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of
Single-Phase Voltage Source Inverters: Analysis,Design and Experimental ResultsIEEE transactions on industrial
electronics, vol. 60, no. 6, june 2013.
[4] Comparison between Conventional PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller for Liquid Flow Control: Performance Evaluation of
Fuzzy Logic and PID Controller by Using MATLAB/Simulink Gaurav, AmritKaur,june 2012
[5] Zhongyi.H and X. Yan, Distributed control for UPS modules in parallel operation with RMS voltage regulation, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 28602869, Aug. 2008.
[6] Qing-Chang Zhong, Senior Member, IEEE,Robust Droop Controller for Accurate Proportional Load Sharing Among
Inverters Operated in ParallelIEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, april 2013
[7] Pascual M, G. Garcera, E. Figueres, and F. Gonzalez-Espin, Robust model-following control of parallel UPS single-phase
inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 28702883, Aug 2008

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Isolated Quasi-Switched-Capacitor DC/DC Converter using solar PV


Sathish kumar. T1 PG Scholar, Dr. Balachandran. M2 associate professor,
Department of EEE, nandha engineering college, erode, India
sathishkumar.ts.t7@gmail.com, balachandran_pm@yahoo.com

Abstract This paper proposed to utilize the DC source from the solar PV. The DC/DC converter is the unidirectional power flow
between the solar PV and load, while in existing its bidirectional. The proposed converter becomes compact using wide band gap
devices which provide high efficiency and reduces heat generation of the circuit. PSO is used for the switching control for the
converter. The converter can step up, step down and current doublers, synchronous rectifier is also present. The load can be a DC
motor.
Keywords unidirectional, solar PV, PSO, DC motor

INTRODUCTION
Now a days use of other fossil fuels was becoming global warming and also due to lagging of the conventional fuels, the
renewable sources plays major role throughout. Therefore the solar PV is used as a source for the converter unit. In the EV/HEV
power system, a dc/dc converter is required to serve as an auxiliary power supply, connecting the high-voltage (HV) battery and the
low voltage (LV) dc bus [2]. The LV dc bus is linked to the 12-V battery and the LV electronic loads such as the head lamps, stereo
system, and various electronic control modules.
In normal operation, the converter delivers power from the HV battery to the LV electronic loads, while the 12-V battery is used
only for stabilizing the voltage and starting up the vehicle. The converter must incorporate galvanic isolation to protect the LV
electronic system from potentially hazardous high voltage [3]. For this application, full-bridge and half-bridge-based topologies, such
as the phase-shift and resonant converters, are primarily considered as standard approaches [4][12]. In these topologies, the voltage
stresses on the HV-side switches and the transformer HV-side winding equal to the HV-dc-bus voltage. Traditional fly back converter
is not a suitable topology for this application mainly because of the dc-offset current in the transformer. In [13] and [14], new dc/dc
converters derived from fly back topology were proposed, but the voltage stress on the HV-side switches is higher than the HV-dc-bus
voltage. In HEVs/EVs, the HV-battery voltage is typically rated at about 350 V, and it can reach up to 450 V in fluctuations. In heavyduty vehicles, the HV-battery voltage can be even higher. As the HV-battery voltage increases, the raised voltage stresses on
components will lead to a lower efficiency of the converter and less component selection choices. Three-level dc/dc converters have
been proposed in [15] and [16], having the ability to reduce the voltage stresses on HV-side switches by half. However, such
converters require multiple components and complex control. Another approach to reduce the voltage stresses on switches is to apply
the switched-capacitor circuit. In [17][20], new dc/dc converters based on switched-capacitor circuit are proposed. However, in the
case of a higher HV-dc-bus voltage, these converters can only operate within a limited duty-ratio range, and will suffer severe current
stresses in the components.
This paper proposes the unidirectional flow between the solar PV and the load. Aiming the good efficiency and to serve the
converter for the certain applications. Now, the converter is proposes to run the DC motor applications. The features of the proposed
converter include: 1) the voltage stresses on HV side switches are reduced to two-third of the HV-dc-bus voltage; 2) the voltage stress
on transformer is reduced to one-third of the HV-dc-bus voltage; 3) the transformer turns ratio is reduced; 4) it has soft-switching
capability and high efficiency; the block diagram for the above converter is shown in fig 1.

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Figure 1: Block diagram

II. BLOCK MODEL-DESCRIPTION


A. solar PV
Photovoltaic cells are devices that absorb sunlight and convert that solar energy into electrical energy. Solar cells are commonly
made of silicon, one of the most abundant elements on Earth. When photons (sunlight) hit a solar cell, its energy frees electron-holes
pairs. The electric field will send the free electron to the N side and hole to the P side. This causes further disruption of electrical
neutrality, and if an external current path is provided, electrons will flow through the path to their original side (the P side) to unite
with holes that the electric field sent there, doing work for us along the way. The electron flow provides the current, and the cell's
electric field causes a voltage.
Three solar cell types are currently available: mono-crystalline, polycrystalline, and thin film, discerned by material, efficiency,
and composition.
B. MPPT
The Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is needed to optimize the amount of power obtained from the photovoltaic array to
the power supply. MPPT is designed to withstand the harsh, fast changing environmental conditions of solar PV.

Figure 2: I-V Curve

Design of the customized MPPT will ensure that the system operates as closely to the Maximum Power Point (MPP) while being
subjected to the varying lighting and temperature. The inputs of the MPPT consisted of the photovoltaic voltage and current outputs.
The
adjusted
voltage
and
current
output
of
the
MPPT
charges
the
power
supply.
A microcontroller was utilized to regulate the integrated circuits (ICs) and calculate the maximum power point, given the output from
the solar array. Hardware and software integration was necessary for the completion of this component. While here the PSO is used as
the advanced method for the substitute for microcontroller.
C. PSO
PSO adapts in searches for the best solution-vector in the search space. A single solution is called particle. Each particle has a
fitness/cost value that is evaluated by the function to be minimized, and each particle has a velocity that directs the "flying" of the
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particles. The particles fly through the search space by following the optimum particles. The algorithm is initialized with particles at
random positions, and then it explores the search space to find better solutions. In every iteration, each particle adjusts its velocity to
follow two best solutions. The first is the cognitive part, where the particle follows its own best solution found so far. This is the
solution that produces the lowest cost (has the highest fitness). This value is called pBest (particle best). The other best value is the
current best solution of the swarm, i.e., the best solution by any particle in the swarm. This value is called gBest (global best). Then,
each particle adjusts its velocity and position with the following equations:
v' = v + c1.r1. (pBest - x) + c2.r2. (gBest - x)
x' = x + v'
v is the current velocity, v' the new velocity, x the current position, x' the new position, pBest and gBest as stated above, r1 and r2 are
even distributed random numbers in the interval [0, 1], and c1 and c2 are acceleration coefficients. Where c1 is the factor that
influences the cognitive behavior, i.e., how much the particle will follow its own best solution and c2 is the factor for social behavior,
i.e., how much the particle will follow the swarm's best solution.
D. WBG
Wide band gap devices are operates at higher frequencies to filter the harmonics. This also employs to minimize the size of the
passive component particularly for the switched capacitor. It has been documented extensively in the literature that WBG devices have
lower switching loss, better reverse recovery characteristics, and lower figure of merit in terms of the product of Rds(on) and total gate
charge Qg [22][23].

Wide band gap devices provide good efficiency.

In the existing system the wide band gap devices are designed to withstand the harsh condition due to the temperature developed in
the vehicles [1]. Such kind of protection is not necessary for the proposed converter.

III. OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF PROPOSED ISOLATED QSC CONVERTER


A. Circuit Description:

Figure 3: proposed isolated quasi switched capacitor

The power supply is utilized from the solar PV. The L1 and L2 are the shunt connect with Lm. Inductances of Lm is much greater
than L1 and L2. Thus the transformer can

withstand without any air-gap. The proposed converter can operates in various modes according to the duty cycle given
to the circuit. Based on that duty cycle ratio the converter modes are as follows.
<50% - Buck mode
>50% - Boost mode
B. Buck mode operation:
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The buck mode operation can be explained based on the various switching frequencies.
(i) Hard switching operation:
Switches S1- S4 and S2-S3 are the two complementing pairs.

Figure 4: hard switching operation of buck mode.

Mode 1 (t1 t2): The input voltage source, C2, C3, Ls, L1, and L2 are connected in series. C2 and C3 are charged. L1 and Ls store
energy, while L2 release its energy to the load.
Mode 2 (t2 t3): Ls releases its energy back to C2 and C3, via S3, S4, and the body diode of S2. L1 and L2 release their energy to the
load.
Mode 3 (t3 t4): The energy of Ls is completely released at t3. The body diode of S2 is blocked. L1 and L2 continue to release their
energy to the load.

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Mode 4 (t4 t5): C2 and C3 are connected in parallel and they are discharged. L1 and L2 continue to release their energy to the load.
Both VL1 and VL2 are clamped to the output voltage, so ILs increases quickly, transferring the current flowing through S3 to S4. The
body diode of S3 conducts because the current of IL2 is larger than ILs.
Mode 5 (t5 t6): The current of IL2 is equal to ILs at t5, so the current of S3 reaches 0 at t5. After t5, the body diode of S3 is blocked.
Mode 6 (t6 t7): Ls releases its energy back to the input voltage source and C1, via S3, S4, and the body diodes of S1; L1 and L2
release their energy to the load.
Mode 7 (t7 t8): The energy of Ls is completely released. The body diode of S1 is blocked. L1 and L2 continue to release their Energy.
Mode 8 (t8 t9): The input voltage source, C2, C3, Ls, L1, and L2 are connected in series. Both VL1 and VL2 are clamped to the output
voltage, so ILs increases quickly, transferring the current flowing through S4 to S3. During this mode, the body diode of S4 conducts
because the current of IL1 is larger than ILs. At t9, the current of S4 reaches 0 and its body diode is blocked.

(ii) Soft switching operation:


The converter has the capability to realize ZVS in the front stage circuit and ZCS in the post-stage circuit. To achieve the ZVS ON
of S1 and S2, the freewheeling current must continue to flow till the dead-band transients are over, which means the switching Mode 3
and Mode 7 must be bypassed. Fig. 5 shows the major waveforms of the buck-mode, soft-switching operation.

Figure 5: soft switching operation of buck mode.


In Fig. 5, T5 is the freewheeling transient, where Ls releases and stores energy. During T5, S1 or S2 is turned ON for enabling
synchronous rectification that reduces the conduction loss. Based on the volt-second balance of L1, the 5 is derived as,

C. Boost mode operation:


Soft switching operation:
In boost mode, the duty ratios of S1 and S2 are fixed at 50%.The duty ratios of S3 and S4 need be extended over 50%,
to overlap in advance with those of S1 and S2, respectively. In the overlapped transients, the transformer leakage
inductance stores and releases energy which is required for boost-mode power delivery. Fig. 6 shows the major
waveforms of the boost mode, soft-switching operation. Similarly, based on the voltage and the current of Ls at different
time, Po of the boost mode operation can be derived as,

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Figure 6: soft switching operation of boost mode.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS


The simulation is done by using the MATLAB software, in which the converter has the solar PV, was completely
controlled by the MPPT technique to maintain the constant power to the converter. PSO serves in the MPPT technique to
get the accurate result of the converter.
Experimental results:
1. The converter efficiency increased.
2. The voltage stress of is reduced.
3. Solar intensities were different but the result will be the constant DC voltage is possible.
4. Converter made into compact size.
CONCLUSION
This paper proposes the isolated quasi switched capacitor DC/DC converter for the effective utilization of the unidirectional power flow
between the solar PV and DC motor. By the use of converter the voltage stress has been reduced to the level and the wide band gap devices
employs to better performance of the converter and to avoid the generation of heat to the converter. Thus the efficiency of the converter is
higher than the existing model and it values 96.4%. which means it provides the higher switching frequencies.

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[5] F.Krismer and J. W.Kolar, Efficiency-optimized high-current dual active bridge converter for automotive applications, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron.,vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 27452760, Jul. 2012.
[6] J. Lee, Y. Jeong, and B. Han, A two-stage isolated/bidirectional DC/DCconverter with current ripple reduction technique,
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Analysis of ETL Process in Data Warehouse


N.Nataraj1, Dr.R.V.Nataraj2
1

PG Scholar,2Professor, Department of Information Technology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam,


nataraj.se13@bitsathy.ac.in

Abstract ETL is responsible for the extraction of data, their cleaning, conforming and loading into the target. ETL is a
Critical layer in DW setting. It is widely recognized that building ETL processes is expensive regarding time, money and
effort. In this, firstly we review commercial ETL tools and prototypes coming from academic world. After that we review
designing works in ETL field and modelling ETL maintenance issues. We review works in connection with optimization
and incremental ETL, then finally challenges and research opportunities around ETL processes.
Keywords ETL, Data warehouse, ETL Modelling, ETL Maintenance
INTRODUCTION
Enterprises as organizations invest in DW projects in order to enhance their activity and for measuring their performance.
It aims to improve decision process by supplying unique access to several sources. In this we have two types. The two
famous types are databases and flat files. Finally let note that sources are autonomous or semi autonomous. It is the
integration layer in DW environment [1]. ETL tools pull data from several sources (databases tables, flat files, ERP,
internet, and so on), apply complex transformation to them. ETL is a critical component in DW environment. Indeed, it is
widely recognized that building ETL processes, during DW project, are expensive regarding time and money.A. Data
Warehouse layersSources: They encompass all types of data sources. They are data provider. The two famous types are
databases and flat files. Finally let note that sources are autonomous or semi autonomous.
ETL: It is the integration layer in DW environment. ETL tools pull data from several sources apply complex
transformation to them. Finally in the end, data are loaded into the target which is data warehouse store in DW
environment.
Data Warehouse: is a central repository to save data produced by ETL layer. DW is a DB includes fact tables and
dimension tables. Together these tables are combined in a specific schema that may be star schema or snowflake schema.
Reporting and Analysis: Collected data are served to end-users in several formats. For example data is formatted into
reports, histograms.
Extraction:The problem data from a set of sources which may be local or distant. Logically, data sources come from
operational applications, but there is an option to use external data sources for enrichment. External data source means
data coming from external entities. Thus during extraction step, ETL tries to access available sources, pull out the relevant
data, and reformat such data in a specified format.
Transformation:This step is the most laborious one where ETL adds value. This step is associated with two words: clean
and conform. In one hand, cleaning data aims to fix erroneous data and to deliver clean data for end users (decisions
makers). Dealing with missing data, rejecting bad data are examples of data cleaning operations. In other hand,
conforming data aims to make data correct, in compatibility with other master data.Checking business rules, checking
keys and lookup of referential data are example of conforming operations.
Loading: This step conversely to previous step, has the problem of storing data to a set of targets. During this step,
ETL loads data into targets which are fact tables and dimension in DW context.
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Commercial ETL Tools We have two types of ETL tools. On the one hand, there is subfamily of payable ETL Data Stage
and Informatica [7][8] . On the other hand, the second subfamily of commercial ETL comes with no charge [9].
Informatica: Informatica is broadly used ETL tool for extracting the source data and loading it into the target after
applying the Required Transformation .ETL developers map the extracted data from source systems and load it to target
systems after applying the required transformations [9].
Data Stage: Its basic element for data manipulation is called "stage." Thus, for this tool an ETL process is a combination
of "stages." Thus we speak about transformation stages and stages for extracting and loading data (called connectors since
release which are interconnected via links.
SSIS:SSIS imposes two levels of tasks combination. The first level is called "Flow Control" and the second level
controlled by the first, is called "Data flow." Indeed, the first level is dedicated to prepare the execution environment
(deletion, control, moving files, etc....) and supplies tasks for this purpose. The second level (data flow) which is a
particular task of the first level performs classical ETL mission. The Data-Flow task offers various tasks for data
extraction, transformation and loading.
SIRIUS:It develops an approach metadata oriented that allows the modelling and execution of ETL processes [13]. It is
based on SIRIUS Meta model component that represents metadata describing the necessary operators or features for
implementing ETL processes. In other words, SIRIUS provides functions to describe the sources, targets description and
the mapping between these two parts [12].
ARKTOS:ARKTOS is another framework that focuses on the modelling and execution of ETL processes. Indeed,
ARKTOS provides primitives to capture ETL tasks frequently used. More exactly, to describe a certain ETL process, this
framework offers three ways that are GUI and two languages XADL (XML variant) and SADL (SQL like language).
DWPP:DWPP is a set of modules designed to solve the typical problems that occur in any ETL project. DWPP is not a
tool but it is a platform. Exactly, it is C functions library shared under UNIX operating system for the implementation of
ETL processes. Consequently, DWPP provides a set of useful features for data manipulation.
II. MODELLING AND DESIGN OF ETL

ETL are areas with high added value labelled costly and risky. In addition, software engineering requires that any project
is doomed to switch to maintenance mode. For these reasons, it is essential to overcome the ETL modelling phase with
elegance in order to produce simple models and understandable. This method is spread over four steps: 1. Identification of
sources 2. Distinction between candidates sources and active sources. 3. Attributes mapping. 4. Annotation of diagram
(conceptual model) with execution constraints. A. Meta-data models based on ETL Design the designer needs to: 1.
Analyse the structure and sources. 2. Describe mapping rules between sources and targets. The based on meta-model,
provides a graphical notation to meet this necessitate [13].
III. ETL PROCESS MAINTENANCE:
When changes happen, analyzing the impact of change is mandatory to avoid errors and mitigate the risk of breaking
existent treatments. As a consequence, without a helpful tool and an effective approach for change management, the cost
of maintenance task will be high. Particularly for ETL processes, previously judged expensive and costly [14], [15]. Using
ETL terminology, above previous research efforts focus on the target unlike the proposal of which focuses onchanges in
the sources. In these proposal dealing with change management in ETL are interesting and offer a solution to detect
changes impact on ETL processes. However change incorporation is not addressed.

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IV. RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES


1. Many conceptual models enrich the ETL design field. However no proposal becomes a standard neither widely
accepted by research community like multi-dimensional modeling in data warehouse area.
2. Mapping rules are an important delivery in ETL design.
3. Big data technologies arrive with exciting research opportunities. Particularly, performance issue seems solvable
withthis novelty.
4. Tests are fundamentals aspects of software engineering. In spite of this importance, and regarding ETL, they are
neglected.
5. Meta data and unstructured data [2].
V. CONCLUSION
ETL is identified with two tags: complexity and cost. Due its importance, this paper focused on ETL, the backstage of
DW, and presents the research efforts and opportunities in connection with these processes. It is widely familiar that
building ETL processes is expensive concerning time, money and effort. It consumes up to 70% of resources. Therefore,
in current survey, firstly we give a review on open source and commercial ETL tools, along with some ETL prototypes
coming from academic world. Namely, SIRIUS, ARKTOS. Before conclusion, we have given an picture of performance
issue along review of some works dealing with this issue, particularly, ETL optimization and incremental ETL. Finally,
this surveys ends with presentation of main challenges and research opportunities around ETL processes.

REFERENCES:
[1] W. Inmon D. Strauss and G.Neushloss, DW 2.0 The Architecture for the next generation of data warehousing,
Morgan Kaufman, 2007.
[2] A. Simitisis, P. Vassiliadis, S.Skiadopoulos and T.Sellis, DataWarehouse Refreshment, Data Warehouses and OLAP:
Concepts, Architectures and Solutions, IRM Press, 2007, pp 111-134.
[3] R. Kimball and J. Caserta. The Data Warehouse ETL Toolkit: Practical Techniques for Extracting, Cleaning,
Conforming, and Delivering Data, Wiley Publishing, Inc, 2004.
[4] A. Kabiri, F. Wadjinny and D. Chiadmi, "Towards a Framework for Conceptual Modelling of ETL Processes ",
Proceedings of The first international conference on Innovative Computing Technology (INCT 2011), Communications in
Computer and Information Science Volume 241, pp 146-160.
[5]
P.Vassiliadis
and
A.Simitsis,
EXTRACTION,
TRANSFORMATION,
http://www.cs.uoi.gr/~pvassil/publications/2009_DB_encyclopedia/Extract-Transform-Load.pdf

AND

LOADING,

[6] J. Adzic, V. Fiore and L. Sisto, Extraction, Transformation, and Loading Processes, Data Warehouses and OLAP:
Concepts, Architectures and Solutions, IRM Press, 2007, pp 88-110.
[7] W. Eckerson and C. White, Evaluating ETL and Data Integration Platforms, TDWI REPORT SERIES,
101communications LLC, 2003.
[8] IBM InfoSphereDataStage, http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/infosphere/datastage/
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[9] Informatica, http://www.informatica.com


[10] C. Thomsen and T,B Pedersen, "A Survey of Open Source Tools for Business Intelligence", DB Tech Reports
September 2008. Homepage: www.cs.aau.dk/DBTR.
[11] C. Thomsen and T,B Ped- ersen, "A Survey of Open Source Tools for Business Intelligence.International Journal of
Data Warehousing and Mining.Volume 5, Issue 3, 2009.
[12] Talend Open Studio, www.talend.com
[13] A.VAVOURAS,"A Metadata-Driven
UNIVERSITT ZRICH,ZRICH, 2002.

Approach for DataWarehouse

Refreshment", Phd Thesis,

DER

[14] J.F. Roddick et al, "Evolution and Change in Data Management - Issues and Directions", SIGMOD Record 29, Vol.
29, 2000, pp 21-25

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Review Paper on Energy Audit of a Boiler in Thermal Power Plant


Gaurav T. Dhanre, Urvashi T. Dhanre, Krunal Mudafale
Mtech Scholar, DBACER,gauravdhanre@gmail.com Mob no.9028290903
Mtech Scholar, KITS, urvashidhanre@gmail.com
Assistant Professor, DBACER, krunalp.mudafale@gmail.com

Abstract The world over energy resources are getting scarcer and increasingly exorbitant with time. In India bridging the everwidening gap between energy demand and supply by increasing supply is an expensive option. The share of energy costs in total
production costs can, therefore improve profit levels in all the industries. This reduction can be achieved by improving the efficiency
of industrial operations and equipments. Energy audit plays an important role in identifying energy conservation opportunities in the
industrial sector, while they do not provide the final answer to the problem; they do help to identify potential for energy conservation
and induces the companies to concentrate their efforts in this area in a focused manner.

Keywords Thermal Power Plant, Boiler, Boiler efficiency, Audit, Direct Method, Indirect Method, Coal.
INTRODUCTION
About 70% of energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels in India. Coal consumption is 40% of India's total energy consumption
which followed by crude oil and natural gas at 24% and 6% respectively. India is dependent on fossil fuel import to fulfill its energy
demands. The energy imports are expected to exceed 53% of the India's total energy consumption. In 2009-10, 159.26 million tones of
the crude oil is imported which amounts to 80% of its domestic crude oil consumption. The percentage of oil imports are 31% of the
country's total imports. The demand of electricity has been hindered by domestic coal shortages. Cause of this, India's coal imports is
increased by 18% for electricity generation in 2010.India has one of the world's fastest growing energy markets due to rapid economic
expansion. It is expected to be the second largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand by 2035. Energy demand of
India is increasing and limited domestic fossil fuel reserves. The country has ambitious plans to expand its renewable energy resources
and plans to install the nuclear power industries. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market and plans to add about 20GW of
solar power capacity. India increases the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity from 4.2% to 9%. The
country has five nuclear reactors under construction. Now, India became third highest in the world who is generating the electricity by
nuclear and plans to construct 18 additional nuclear reactors by 2025, then India will become second highest in the world.
M. J. Poddar, Mrs. A.C.Birajdar (2013) [7]:
As per the study carried out by M. J. Poddar and Mrs. A.C.Birajdar, the share of energy costs in total production costs can get
improves profit levels in all the industries. It can be achieved by improving the efficiency of industrial operations and equipments.
Energy audit plays an important role in identifying energy conservation opportunities in the industrial sector, while they do not
provide the final answer to the problem, they do help to identify potential for energy conservation and induces the companies to
concentrate their efforts in this area in a focused manner. Energy audit is a vital link in the entire energy management chain. The
overall program includes other managerial and operational activities and responsibilities. However, the audit process is the most
important part of the program and is essential to the programs implementation. In this project, the study is mainly targeted at
identifying, sustainable and economically viable energy cost saving opportunities in boiler section of Unit-III of Parli Thermal Power
Station, Parli-Vaijanath. The study shows that, there is a significant cost saving opportunities and recommendations have been made to
realize this potential.In the methodology, types of energy audit are provided. Factor affecting the operating efficiency of boiler The
factor affecting the operating efficiency of boiler are mentioned, initially the coal where it is available with wider variations in
specification, from the designed ones. The effects due to variations are highlighted in this paper. Next major factor is total air quality.
With the reduction in total air indicated by percentage increase in carbon dioxide, the stack losses would reduce and air temperature
will fall at air heater outlet. The fan power (ID and FD) will decrease, but the unburnt material will increase and also after a certain
point unburnt gas may appear leading to increase in loss. The variation in coal characteristics has not much effect on optimum
percentage of carbon dioxide, but the variation in load do have effect, primarily because the mixing of the fuel and air is not good.
Typical losses in boiler By using various formulae the losses are evaluated here such as dry flue gas loss, wet flue gas loss including
moisture in fuel loss, moisture in combustion air loss. In this way efficiency evaluation of FD, PA & ID fans is done at two different
loads i.e. at 185mW and 180mW. The comparative study has been done. From the audit it is concluded that the major reasons for
having lower efficiency are poor quality of coal and air leakages. Efficiency of the boiler is increased by 0.27% by reducing air
leakage about 6% in air heater.
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Moni Kuntal Bora & S. Nakkeeran(2014) [10]:


As per the study carried out by Moni Kuntal Bora & S. Nakkeeran, coal fired Boiler is one of the most important components for any
Thermal Power Plant. The prominent Performance parameter of a boiler is Boiler Efficiency. Boiler Efficiency affects the overall
performance of the electricity generation process and as well as plant economy. Boiler efficiency is affected by many factors. It
reduces with time, due to various heat losses such as loss due to unburnt carbon in waste, loss due to dry flue gas, loss due to moisture
in fuel, loss due to radiation, loss due to blow down, and loss due to burning hydrogen, etc.. Boiler efficiency tests help us to calculate
deviations of boiler efficiency from the design value and identify areas for improvement. The current paper puts forward an effective
methodology for the efficiency estimation of a coal fired boiler, comparison with its design value and enlists some of the factors that
affect the performance of a boiler. This study will help to increase overall boiler efficiency and as a result, annual monetary savings of
the thermal power plant.
Basically Boiler efficiency can be tested by the following methods:
A. Direct Method or Input Output Method.
B. Indirect Method or Heat Loss Method.

A. Direct Method or Input Output Method:


Direct method compares the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) to the energy content of the fuel. This is also known
as input-output method due to the fact that it needs only the useful output (steam) and the heat input (i.e. fuel) for evaluating the
efficiency.

Where,
= boiler efficiency in %.
SFR= steam flow rate in kg/hr.
SE= steam enthalpy in kCal/kg.
FEW= feed water enthalpy in kCal/kg.
FFR= fuel firing rate in kg/hr.
GVC= gross calorific value of coal in kCal/kg.

B. Indirect Method or Heat Loss Method:


In the heat loss method the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the energy input. In indirect method the efficiency can
be measured easily by measuring all the losses occurring in the boilers using the principles to be described. The weaknesses of the
direct method can be overwhelmed by this method, which calculates the various heat losses associated with boiler. The efficiency can
be arrived at, by subtracting the heat loss percentages from 100. An important advantage of this method is that the errors in
measurement do not make significant change in efficiency. The indirect method does not account for Standby losses, Blow down loss,
energy loss in Soot blowing, and energy loss running the auxiliary equipment such as burners, fans, and pumps.
Valid losses incorporate with to coal fired boiler:
1. Heat loss due to dry flue gas as sensible heat (L1).
2. Heat loss due to moisture in the coal (L2).
3. Heat loss due to moisture from burning of hydrogen in coal (L3).
4. Heat loss due to moisture in air (L4).
5. Heat loss due to formation of carbon Monoxide- partial combustion (L5).
6. Unburnt losses in fly ash as carbon (L6).
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7. Unburnt losses in bottom ash as carbon (L7).


8. Loss due to surface radiation and convection (L8).

Boiler efficiency by indirect method:

Maintenance of boilers:
Effective maintenance can also highlight potential problems quickly and enable corrective action to be taken before there is a major
impact on performance. This will improve performance of boilers. Perform regular servicing, analyze flue gas, soot removal, minimize
limescale build-up, produce
a maintenance plan, manual and logbook, boiler replacement, these are some ways for the good maintenance of boiler. The feasibility
study should examine all implications of long-term fuel availability and business growth plans. All financial and engineering factors
should be considered. Since boiler plants traditionally have a useful life of well over 25 years, replacement must be carefully studied.
This paper is convergent on the diverse aspects of the operation of Boiler efficiently. Efficient operation of boiler is likely to play a
very big role in following years to come. Industries all over the world are going through increased and powerful competition and
increased automation of plants. The suspension cost of such system is expected to be very high. To get away with this challenge, it is
clearer by this paper. We have to use the advanced technology and management skills in all spheres of activities to perform its
effective role in the turnover of the company.
Mr. Nilesh R. Kumbhar & Mr.Rahul R. Joshi(2013) [9]:
As per the study carried out by Mr. Nilesh R. Kumbhar & Mr.Rahul R. Joshi, growing concerns arise about energy consumption and
its adverse environmental impact in recent years in India, which cause manufactures to establish energy management groups. The
energy auditing is the key to successful running of an industry with saving energy & contributing toward preserving national recourses
of energy. Managing energy is not a just technical Challenge but one of how to best implement those technical Challenges within
economic limits, and with a minimum of disruptions. In this paper importance of energy auditing and process of energy audit is
discussed. Energy auditing is an official method of finding out the ECOs. Ii is the official survey / study of the energy consumption /
processing / supply aspects related with of industry or organization. Purpose of energy auditing is to recommend steps to be taken by
Management for improving the energy efficiency, reduce energy cost and saving the money on the energy bills.
Methods of energy auditing:
Energy audits can be carried outs in different ways. Depending on time span invested auditing can be classified in as:
i) Walk Through Audit
ii) Intermediate Audit
iii) Detailed / Comprehensive Audit

Basic components of every auditing:


The Energy Audit Process starts by collecting information about facilities Operation and its past record of utility bills. This data is
then analysed to get Picture of how the Facility uses and possibly wastes energy, as well as to help the auditor learn that areas to
examine to reduce energy cost. Specific changes called Energy Conversion Opportunities (ECO) are identified and evaluated to
determine their benefits and their cost effectiveness. These ECOs are accessed in terms of their costs & benefits and economic
comparison is made to rank various ECOs. Finally an action plan is created whether certain ECOs are selected for implementation and
the actual process of energy saving & saving money begins
Auditors tool box: To obtain the best information from a successful energy cost control program the auditor must make some
measurement during audit visit.
Preparation for audit visit: Some preliminary work must be done before the auditor makes actual energy audit.
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Conducting the audit: Once the information on energy bills, faculty equipments and facility operations has been obtained, the audit
equipment can be gathered up and actual visit is to be started. Following are some important steps in audit Introductory meeting audit
team should meet facility manager & maintenance manager to brief about purpose of audit Audit interview getting correct
information on facility equipment and operation is important, if the audit is going to most successful in identifying ways to save
money on energy bills. Auditor must interview with floor supervisor and equipment operator to understand building and process
problems. Walk through audit a walk through tour of facility or plant should be arranged by facility/ plant manager and should be
arranged to the auditor or audit team can see major operational and equipment features of facility. Post audit analysis after visit data
collected should be examined , organized and reviewed for completeness ant thing missing data items should be obtained from facility
of re-visit.
Energy audit report: Next step in energy auditing process is to prepare a report which details the final result and recommendation.
Energy action Plan: The last step in audit process is to recommend an action plan for facility. Energy audit is an effective tool in
identifying and perusing a comprehensive energy management program. A care full audit of any type will give the industry a plan with
which it can effectively manage the industrial energy system at minimum energy cost. This approach could be useful for an industry in
combating essential energy cost and also raps several other benefits like improved production, better quality, higher profit and most
important satisfaction of heading towards contributing in world energy saving.
Raviprakash Kurkiya, Sharad Chaudhary(2012) [8]:
As per the study carried out by Raviprakash Kurkiya, Sharad Chaudhary, energy analysis helps designers to find ways to improve the
performance of a system in a many way. Most of the conventional energy losses optimization method are iterative in nature and
require the interpretation of the designer at each iteration. Typical steady state plant operation conditions were determined based on
available trending data and the resulting condition of the operation hours. The energy losses from individual components in the plant
is calculated based on these operating conditions to determine the true system losses. In this, first law of thermodynamics analysis was
performed to evaluate efficiencies and various energy losses. In addition, variation in the per-centage of carbon in coal content
increases the overall efficiency of plant that shows the economic optimization of plant. In boiler, efficiency has a great influence on
heating related energy savings. It is therefore important to maximize the heat transfer to the water and minimize the heat losses in the
boiler. The thermal power plant is based on a simple Rankine cycle; steam is used as the working fluid, steam generated from
saturated liquid water (feed-water). This saturated steam flows through the turbine, where its internal energy is con-verted into
mechanical work to run an electricity generating system. Not all the energy from steam can be utilized for run-ning the generating
system because of losses due to friction, viscosity, bend-on-blade, heat losses from boilers i.e. hot flue gas losses, radiation losses and
blow-down losses etc. Energy analysis of a thermal power plant is reported in this paper. It provides the basis to understand the
performance of a fluidized bed coal fired boiler, feed pump, turbine and con-denser. The various energy losses of plant, through
different components are calculated which indicates that maximum energy losses occur in turbine.
Following conclusions can be drawn from this study: The coal type affects the first law efficiency of the sys-tem considerably. It has
been also analysed that a part of energy loss oc-curs through flue gases. The carbon content in the coal has to be proper. The presence
of moisture has a detrimental effect on overall efficiency. If we use the heat recovery system to recover the heat losses through flue
gases then it will be more useful for us. With the growing need of the coal, which is an non renewable source of energy and depleting
with a very fast pace, it is de-sirable to have such optimal techniques (better quality of coal) which can reduce the energy losses in the
coal fired boiler and improves its performance these create impact on production and optimizations uses of energy sources. In addition
this study shows the better quality of coal giving the high per-formance of plant and even though the consumption of coal is been
reduced that creates economic condition for overall plant.
Shashank Shrivastava, Sandip Kumar, Jeetendra Mohan Khare(2013)
As per the study carried out by Shashank Shrivastava, Sandip Kumar, Jeetendra Mohan Khare, A frequent criticism of energy audits is
that they overestimate the savings potential available to the customer. This paper addresses several problem areas which can result in
over-optimistic savings projections, and suggests ways to prevent mistakes. Performing an energy and demand balance is the initial
step a careful energy analyst should take when starting to evaluate the energy use at a facility. These balances allow one to determine
what the largest energy users are in a facility, to find out whether all energy uses have been identified, and to check savings
calculations by determining whether more savings have been identified than are actually achievable.
Method description
Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: Phase I, II and III.
Phase I - Pre Audit Phase
Phase II - Audit Phase
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Phase III - Post Audit Phase


Industry-to-industry, the methodology of Energy audits needs to be flexible. Following steps are adopted methodology for detailed
energy audit
Step 1 : In this step study of process and energy uses are taken from employees, this understanding helps in planning the resources
available and time required for conducting energy audit.
Step 2 : In this step importance of energy uses are discussed with the section officers so that awareness could be build this will also
help in future cooperation. (Kick off meeting)
Step 3 : In this step collect the plant data and electric bill find out the more energy uses of area, which are using and work properly for
different process and collect name plate review and some data use with the help of measurement device.
Step 4 : In this step measurement are taken with the help of portable instrument such as lux meter, techo meter, power analyzer etc.
The energy is mainly being use in pumping and other process for purification of water. This data is compare with operating design
data and baseline energy use is determined.
Step 5 : In this step calculation of all performance data (standard parameters) involve in the process is prepared and present
performance data is compared with baseline data (design). Based on technology availability and compression, recommendations are
proposed to save /conserve energy. These recommendations are as investment grade (payback period). Reduction in energy
consumption will take place after implement of recommendations.
Step 6 : In this step flow up the methodology & technical advice on the plant than rapid will be concur best result.
Energy auditing is not an exact science, but a number of opportunities are available for improving the accuracy of the
recommendations. Techniques which may be appropriate for small-scale energy audits can introduce significant errors into the
analyses for large complex facilities. We began by discussing how to perform an energy and demand balance for a company. This
balance is an important step in doing an energy use analysis because it provides a check on the accuracy of some of the assumptions
necessary to calculate savings potential. We also addressed several problem areas which can result in over-optimistic savings
projections, and suggested ways to prevent mistakes. Finally, several areas where additional research, analysis, and data collection are
needed were identified. Once this additional information is obtained, we can all produce better and more accurate energy audit results.

CONCLUSION
From the overall literature review it get concluded that there are so many ways to reduce the energy consumption, energy cost
reduction etc. which we are getting from energy auditing . Hence there is a need to prefer energy auditing of every plant once in an
year. For the research, it is found that it is also possible to do auditing at different load conditions and by comparison we get the actual
consumption as well as wastage.
Hence the energy auditing of a boiler at SLCM captive power plant is decided to do for energy and coal wastage.

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REFERENCES:
[1] S.C.ARORA AND S. DOMKUNDWAR A COURSE IN POWER PLANT ENGINEERING. DHANPHAT RAI & CO. (P) LTD.
EDUCATIONAL & TECHNICAL PUBLICATION. PP 40.1-40.9.
[2] RONALD A ZEITZ ENERGY EFFICIENCY HANDBOOK COUNCIL OF INDUSTRIAL BOILER OWNERS (CIBO) BURKE. PP 19-21,
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[3] SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC SPA ET AL, STANDARD ENERGY AUDIT PROCEDURE GREEN@HOSPITAL 2012.VIPUL SHAH A PAPER
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[6] V S VERMA POWER ON DEMAND BY 2012, AVAILABLE AT AVAILABLE AT WWW.TERIIN.ORG
[7] CHRISTOPHER B MILAN A GUIDE BOOK FOR PERFORMING WALKTHROUGH ENERGY AUDITS OF INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES
BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION, PP 17-21, 37-39 AVAILABLE AT WWW.BPA.GOV LABORATORY OCTOBER 2010.
[8] M. J. PODDAR, MRS. A.C.BIRAJDAR (2013), ENERGY AUDIT OF A BOILER-A CASE STUDY THERMAL POWER PLANT, UNIT-III
PARLI(V) MAHARASHTRA, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY (IJERT) ISSN: 22780181,VOL. 2 ISSUE 6,PP.1660-1666.
[9] RAVIPRAKASH KURKIYA, SHARAD CHAUDHARY(2012), ENERGY ANALYSIS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT, INTERNATIONAL
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[10] MR. NILESH R. KUMBHAR, MR. RAHUL R. JOSHI, AN INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AUDITING: BASIC APPROACH, INTERNATIONAL
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A CASE STUDY. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. VOL 1. ISSUE 1. JAN-JUNE 2011

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Excoecaria agallocha: a potential bioindicator of heavy metal pollution

Shankhadeep Chakraborty1, Sufia Zaman2 and Abhijit Mitra3

Department of Oceanography, Techno India University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata-700091, India

Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 B.C. Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal, India; Also attached to
Techno India University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata-700 091, India
3

Department of Oceanography, Techno India University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata-700091, India

Abstract: We analyzed the concentrations of zinc, copper and lead in the root, stem and leaf of Excoecaria agallocha collected from
12 stations in the north east coast of Bay of Bengal during April, 2013. The region is extremely polluted due to presence of
industries, tourism units, fish landing stations and trawler repairing units. In all the selected stations, the metals accumulated in the
vegetative parts as per the order root > stem > leaf. In the root region of

E. agallocha, the concentration of zinc ranged from 17.57

ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to 91.84 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island). In the stem region, the values ranged from10.05 ppm dry wt. (at
Bagmara) to 74.61 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island), whereas in the leaf region the values ranged from 8.80 ppm dry wt. (at
Bagmara) to 35.04 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island). In case of copper, the values in the root region ranged from 11.01 ppm dry wt.
(at Bagmara) to 35.25 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island). In the stem region, the values ranged from 8.99 ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to
30.23 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island), and in the leaf region the values ranged from 7.46 ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to 19.85 ppm
dry wt. (at Nayachar island). The concentrations of lead were lowest in all the vegetative parts and also in all the stations. The values
ranged from 3.33 ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to 15.61 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island) in root, 2.56 ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to 8.92
ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island) in stem and 1.98 ppm dry wt. (at Bagmara) to 6.54 ppm dry wt. (at Nayachar island) in leaf.
Simultaneous analyses of dissolved heavy metals in the surface water of the selected stations revealed highest values of zinc followed
by copper and lead. Among the 12 selected stations, highest concentrations of dissolved zinc, copper and lead were observed in
Nayachar island (540.2 ppb, 159.8 ppb and 42.04 ppb respectively). Station 12 (at Bagmara) exhibited lowest concentrations of
dissolved heavy metals viz. 299.47 ppb for zinc, 98.59 ppb for copper and 15.75 ppb for lead.
Keywords: Excoecaria agallocha, zinc, copper, lead, bioindicator.
Introduction
Rapid urbanization and industrialization near the coastal mangrove areas within numerous parts of the world have posed a threat to
wetland ecosystems. Bioaccumulation of anthropogenic chemicals and non-essential nutrients through the food chain has recently
become a matter of concern for several researchers (Alberic et al., 2006). Mangrove ecosystems act as sinks or buffer and they tend
to remove or immobilize metals. Numerous studies have utilized mangrove species and their sediments as reliable bio-indicators for
heavy metal pollution and contamination (Burchett et al., 2003). Due to close proximity to urban development, mangroves are
exposed

to

significant

direct

contaminant input,

including heavy metals

(MacFarlane, 2002). The value of mangrove

communities and particularly of mangrove forest sediments, as a buffer between potential sources of metalliferous pollutants and
marine ecosystems has been noted previously (Harbison, 1986; Saenger et al., 1991). Several literatures on the response of
mangrove species to heavy metal exposure (Chakraborty et al., 2014; Montgomery and Price, 1979; Peterson et al., 1979; Walsh et
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al., 1979; Thomas and Ong, 1984; Chiu et al., 1995; Chen et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997) have been published, but detailed studies
of heavy metals in mangrove forest of Indian Sundarbans are rare.
The north east coast of Bay of Bengal is exposed to heavy metal pollution from several point and non-point sources (Mitra, 1998;
Mitra et al. 2011; Banerjee et al. 2012, Mitra and Ghosh, 2014). Ample studies have not been conducted in India, particularly in
the Sundarban mangroves, regarding the incidence of heavy metal status and pollution in these mangrove settings
(Untawale et al., 1980; Seralathan, 1987). Excoecaria agallocha, a dominant mangrove species in Indian Sundarbans, can
withstand a wide range of salinity ranging from 4 psu to 28 psu (Mitra et al., 2010). Several heavy metals like zinc, copper, iron
manganese, cobalt, nickel and lead have been reported in the environment of north east coast of Bay of Bengal, but from the
viewpoint of abundance the levels of zinc, copper and lead are the highest (Mitra, 1998). Hence, the present study focused on the
bioaccumulation pattern of these three heavy metals in the selected mangrove species with the aim to evaluate the efficiency of the
species as indicator of selected dissolved heavy metals to which this region is exposed.
Materials and methods
Sampling of E. agallocha
Twelve stations were selected in the north east coast of Bay of Bengal in and around Indian Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Table
1). E. agallocha was collected at ebb within 500 meter coastal stretch (from the low tide line) of the selected stations during 5 - 15th
April, 2013. The collected samples were segregated into root, stem and leaf, washed with ambient sea water and brought to laboratory.
The segregated samples were washed with double distilled water, dried with tissue paper and stored at -200C for further analysis.

Analysis of dissolved Zn, Cu and Pb


Surface water samples were collected using 10-l Teflon-lined Go-Flo bottles, fitted with Teflon taps and deployed on a rosette or on
Kevlar line, with additional surface sampling carried out by hand. Shortly after collection, samples were filtered through Nuclepore
filters (0.4 m pore diameter) and aliquots of the filters were acidified with sub-boiling distilled nitric acid to a pH of about 2 and
stored in cleaned low-density polyethylene bottles. Dissolved heavy metals were separated and pre-concentrated from the seawater
using dithiocarbamate complexation and subsequent extraction into Freon TF, followed by back extraction into HNO 3 as per the
procedure of Danielsson et al (1978). Extracts were analyzed for Zn, Cu and Pb by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin
Elmer: Model 3030). The accuracy of the dissolved heavy metal determination is indicated by good agreement between our values
and reported for certified reference seawater materials (CASS 2) (Table 2).

Analysis of tissue Zn, Cu and Pb


Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is now - a - day accepted as a fast, reliable means of multi-elemental
analysis for a wide variety of biological sample types. A Perkin-Elmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer was used for
analysis of selected heavy metals in the root, stem and leaf tissues of E. agallocha. A standard torch for this instrument was used
with an outer argon gas flow rate of 15 L/min and an intermediate gas flow of 0.9 L/min. The applied power was 1.0 kW. The ion
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settings were standard settings recommended, when a conventional nebulizer/spray is used with a liquid sample uptake rate of 1.0
mL/min. A Moulinex Super Crousty microwave oven of 2450 MHz frequency magnetron and 1100 Watt maximum power
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reactor of 115 ml volume, 1 cm wall thickness with hermetic screw caps, were used for the
digestion of the root, stem and leaf samples. All reagents used were of high purity available and of analytical reagent grade. High
purity water was obtained with a Barnstead Nanopure II water-purification system. All glasswares were soaked in 10% (v/v) nitric
acid for 24 h and washed with deionised water prior to use.

Data analysis
Statistical software SPSS 14.0 was used to determine the inter-relationships of heavy metal concentrations in the vegetative parts of
E. agallocha and dissolved heavy metals in aquatic environment through Pearson correlation coefficient analysis.

Results
Dissolved heavy metal
The dissolved heavy metals were observed to follow the trend Zn > Cu > Pb irrespective of all stations. Dissolved Zn ranged from
299.47 ppb (at Bagmara) to 540.2 ppb (at Nayachar island). Dissolved Cu ranged from 98.59 ppb (at Bagmara) to 159.8 ppb (at
Nayachar island), whereas, dissolved Pb ranged from 15.75 ppb (at Bagmara) to 42.04 ppb (at Nayachar island) (Figure 1).

Bioaccumulation pattern
In E. agallocha samples, the heavy metals varied as per the order Zn > Cu > Pb. This sequence is uniform in all the twelve selected
stations during the study period. In the present study, the concentration of Zn in root ranged from 17.57 ppm (at Bagmara) to 91.84
ppm (at Nayachar island). Cu ranged from 11.01 ppm (at Bagmara) to 35.25 ppm (at Nayachar island) and Pb ranged from 3.33 ppm
(at Bagmara) to 15.61 ppm (at Nayachar island) (Figure 2).
The concentration of Zn in stem ranged from 10.05 ppm (at Bagmara) to 74.61 ppm (at Nayachar island). Cu ranged from 8.99 ppm
(at Bagmara) to 30.23 ppm (at Nayachar island) and Pb ranged from 2.56 ppm (at Bagmara) to 8.92 ppm (at Nayachar island)
(Figure 3).
The concentration of Zn in leaf ranged from 8.80 ppm (at Bagmara) to 35.04 ppm (at Nayachar island) and Cu ranged from 7.46
ppm (at Bagmara) to 19.85 ppm (at Nayachar island). Concentration of Pb ranged from 1.98 ppm (at Bagmara) to 6.54 ppm (at
Nayachar island) (Figure 4).

Discussion
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Heavy metal pollution in the estuarine sector is the result of land run-off, mining, activities like shipping and dredging and
anthropogenic inputs (Panigrahy et al., 1997). The main sources of zinc in the present geographical locale are the galvanization
units, paint manufacturing units and pharmaceutical processes, whereas the main sources of copper in the coastal waters are
antifouling paints, particular type of algaecides used in different aquaculture farms, paint manufacturing units, pipe line corrosion
and oil sludges (32 to 120 ppm). Ship bottom paint has been found to produce very high concentration of Cu is sea water and
sediment in harbors of Great Britain and southern California (Bellinger and Benham 1978; Young et al. 1979). The most toxic of
these three heavy metals is lead, which finds its way in coastal waters through the discharge of industrial waste waters, such as from
painting, dyeing, battery manufacturing units and oil refineries etc. Antifouling paints used to prevent growth of marine organisms
at the bottom of the boats and designed to constantly leach toxic metals into the water to kill organisms that may attach to bottom of
the boats, ultimately get transported to the sediment and aquatic compartments. The study area is exposed to all these activities
being proximal to the highly urbanized city of Kolkata, Howrah and the newly emerging Haldia port-cum- industrial complex
(Mitra and Choudhury, 1993; Mitra, 1998; Mitra et al, 2011; Mitra et al., 2012).
The bioaccumulation pattern in plant parts like leaves, bark and roots may vary depending on the concentration of heavy metals in
the sediment, the types of heavy metals and also the tolerance of the species and its parts towards the heavy metals (Baker and
Walker, 1990; De Lacerda and Abrao, 1986). Heavy metal concentration in plant tissues is influenced by the metabolic
requirements for essential micronutrients such as Cu and Zn, while non-essential metals like Pb tend to be

excluded

or

compartmentalized (Baker and Walker,1990). Zinc is an essential micro-nutrient of numerous enzyme systems, respiration
enzyme activators, and the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones (Ernst et al., 1992). Copper is an essential micronutrient
required in mitochondria and chloroplast reactions, enzyme systems related to photosystem II electron transport, cell wall
lignification, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis (Verkleij and Schat, 1990). The mobility of metals (in the order of
Zn > Cu > Pb) is thus justified given the role played by essential metals like Zn and Cu in plant metabolism while the non essential
metal like Pb was rather restricted in translocation to the upper plant parts. The order of the heavy metals in the vegetative
parts of E. agallocha reflects that of the dissolved heavy metals, which clearly confirms the use of the species as effective indicator
of dissolved Zn, Cu and Pb in the northeast coast of Indian subcontinent particularly in the inshore region of Bay of Bengal. The
heavy metals from the ambient environment enter the coastal vegetation very frequently as they are inundated during high tide twice
daily. The roots are exposed to water and sediment during most of the period, whereas the leaves come in contact with water during
the high tide phase. This may be one of the reason of the maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the root followed by stem and
leaf. Several researchers also observed variation in metal level in the vegetative parts of coastal vegetation particularly mangroves.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to the financial support and analyses facilities offered by Progressive Organisation Of Rural Service For
Health, Education, Environment (PORSHEE).
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Mitra A and Choudhury A. 1993. Heavy metal concentrations in oyster Crassostrea cucullata of Sagar Island, India. Indian
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Table 1. Coordinates of selected stations


Stations

Latitude

Longitude

Canning

221837"N

884036"E

Gosaba

22 15' 45" N

88 39' 46" E

Diamond Harbour

22 11' 30" N

88 11' 4" E

Nayachar island

21 45' 24" N

88 15' 24" E

Kakdwip

215206N

881112E

Chemaguri

2138'25.86"N

8808'53.55" E

Sagar South

21 38' 51.55" N

88 02' 20.97" E

Jambu island

2135'42.03"N

8810'22.76"E

Frasergunge

21 33 47.76 N

88 15 33.98 E

Digha

21 42' 50.03" N

87 05' 20.12" E

Bali

2204'35.17''N

8844'55.70''E

Bagmara

2139' 4.45''N

8904' 40.59'' E

Table 2. Analysis of reference material for near shore seawater (CASS 2)


Element

Certified value

Laboratory results (g l-1)

(g l-1)

295

Zn

1.97 0.12

2.01 0.14

Cu

0.675 0.039

0.786 0.058

Pb

0.019 0.006

0.029 0.009

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International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 6, October-November, 2014
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Figure 1. Spatial variations of dissolved heavy metal concentrations(in ppb)

Figure 2. Spatial variations of heavy metal concentrations in root (ppm dry wt.) of E. agallocha

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Figure 3. Spatial variations of heavy metal concentrations in stem (ppm dry wt.) of E. agallocha

Figure 4. Spatial variations of heavy metal concentrations in leaf (ppm dry wt.) of E. agallocha

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Table 3
Inter-relationships between heavy metal concentrations in E. agallocha and ambient environment
Study period

April, 2013

298

Combination

r-value

p-value

Root Zn x Dissolved Zn

0.960899

<0.01

Stem Zn x Dissolved Zn

0.976413

<0.01

Leaf Zn x Dissolved Zn

0.793961

<0.01

Root Cu x Dissolved Cu

0.968539

<0.01

Stem Cu x Dissolved Cu

0.962121

<0.01

Leaf Cu x Dissolved Cu

0.922790

<0.01

Root Pb x Disosolved Pb

0.880778

<0.01

Stem Pb x Dissolved Pb

0.947862

<0.01

Leaf Pb x Dissolved Pb

0.961542

<0.01

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Automation of Inter-Networked Banking and Teller Machine


Operations
Prof. Mazher Khan 1
Dr.Sayyad Ajij 2
Mr.Majed Ahmed Khan 3
Marathwada Institute of Technology,Aurangabad (MS)

Abstract In this article about biometric systems the general idea is to use of facial recognition to reinforce security on one of the
oldest and most secure piece of technology that is still in use to date thus an Automatic Teller Machine. The main use for any
biometric system is to authenticate an input by Identifying and verifying it in an existing database. Security in ATMs has changed
little since their introduction in the late 70s. This puts them in a very vulnerable state as technology has brought in a new breed of
thieves who use the advancement of technology to their advantage. With this in mind it is high time something should be done about
the security of this technology beside there cannot be too much security when it comes to peoples money.

Keywords Biometrics, Facial Recognition, GSM Standards, Biometric Standards, Automatic Teller Machine Technology, Biometric
Predecessors.

1. INTRODUCTION
Face detection and recognition are challenging tasks due to variation in illumination, variability in scale, location, orientation (upright, rotated) and pose (frontal, profile). Facial expression, occlusion and lighting conditions also change the overall appearance of
face. Face detection and recognition has many real world applications, like human/ computer interface, surveillance, authentication
and video indexing. Face detection using artificial neural networks was done by Rowley [7]. It is robust but computationally
expensive as the whole image has to be scanned at different scales and orientations. Feature-based (eyes, nose, and mouth) face
detection is done by Yow et al.[15]. Statistical model of mutual distance between facial features are used to locate face in the image
[4]. Markov Random Fields have been used to model the spatial distribution of the grey level intensities of face images [1]. Some of
the eye location technique use infrared lighting to detect eye pupil [2]. Eye location using genetic algorithm has been proposed
byWechsler [3]. Skinpaper, motion information is used to reduce the search space for face detection. It is known that eye regions are
usually darker than other facial parts, therefore probable eye pair regions are extracted by thresholding the image. The eyes pair region
gives the scale and orientation of face, and reduces the search space for face detection across different scales and orientations.
Correlation between averaged face template and the test pattern is used to verify whether it is a face or not.
Recognition of human face is also challenging in human computer interaction [6, 10, 11, 14]. The proposed system for face
recognition is based on Eigen analysis of edginess representation of face, which is invariant to illumination to certain extent [8, 9]. The
paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the face detection process. The method of obtaining edginess image and
eigenedginess of a faces are discussed in Sections 3 and 4, respectively. Experimental results are presented in Section 5. color is used
extensively to segment the image, and localize the search for face [13, 12]. The detection of face using skin color fails when the source
of lighting is not natural

2. FACE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES


The method for acquiring face images depends upon the underlying application. For instance, surveillance applications may best be
served by capturing face images by means of a video camera while image database investigations may require static intensity images
taken by a standard camera.
Some other applications, such as access to top security domains, may even necessitate the forgoing of the nonintrusive quality of face
recognition by requiring the user to stand in front of a 3D scanner or an infra-red sensor.
Therefore, depending on the face data acquisition methodology, face recognition techniques can be broadly divided into three
categories: methods that operate on intensity images, those that deal with video sequences, and those that require other sensory data
such as 3D information or infra-red imagery. The following discussion sheds some light on the methods in each category and attempts
to give an idea of some of the benefits and drawbacks of the schemes mentioned therein in general.
2.1EIGENEDGINESS
Edginess is a strong feature extraction method and has proved to be better than other edge representations [2]. The reason behind this
is that edginess is based on one dimensional processing of images. The traditional 2D operators smooth the image in all directions
resulting in the smearing of edge information. To extract the edginess map, the image is smoothed using a 1D Gaussian filter along the
horizontal (or vertical) direction to reduce noise. The smoothing filter is a 1D Gaussian filter is given by
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---------- (1)
Where 1 is the standard deviation of the Gaussian function. The response of the 1 D Gaussian filters applied along a particular scan
line of an image in one direction. A differential operator (first derivative of 1-D Gaussian function) is then applied in the orthogonal
direction, i.e., along the vertical (or horizontal) scan lines to detect the edges. The first order derivative of 1D Gaussian is given by

---------- (2)
The resulting image obtained by applying equation 1 produces the horizontal components of edginess (strength of an edge) in the
image. Similarly, the vertical components of edginess are derived by applying the above filters on original images in orthogonal
directions of those used in obtaining the horizontal components of edginess. Finally the total magnitude of partial edge information
obtained in both the horizontal and vertical edge components gives the edginess map of the original image. Figure 1a and 1b show a
plot of Gaussian mask and its derivative. Figure 2a-2f shows the various steps in creating an edginess image from a gray scale image.
The edginess of a pixel in an image is identical to the magnitude of the gradient of gray level function,[12,13] which corresponds to
the amount of change across the edge. The edginess images of an example face are shown in Figure 2f.

Fig 1. 1(a) Gaussian Function (smoothing filter), 1(b) First derivative of Gaussian (differential operator).
It is visually clear the edginess image carries more information than the edge map of an image. The intuitive reason for this is that the
edginess gives a very low output when it operates on completely smooth regions with no useful information.
However, unlike the edge detection process, the edginess maintains an output in the regions having even low amount of texture.
Again, the 1-d and orthogonal processing of the Gaussian and its derivative is less affected by the tradeoff between smoothing out the
noise and smoothing the image features. Thus as seen from the face images, the smooth regions of the face that carry no discriminate
information, and may cause class overlap in the classification, are removed. However, the regions with even a small amount of
discriminate texture are visible in the output. This is the intuitive motivation behind this research, where we need to know whether this
information at the output of the edginess filter is really made mainly of the discriminate information of the face.

Fig 2. 2(a) Gray Scale Image, 2(b) Image after smoothing in horizontal direction, 2(c) Image after applying the differential operator to 2(b)in vertical
direction, 2(d) Image after smoothing in vertical direction, 2(e) Image after applying the differential operator to 2(d) in vertical direction, 2(f)
Edginess Image.

2.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


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In order to establish the performance of Edginess-SVM in comparison with Euclidian distance based NN classification, we carried out
the experiments on a set of CMU PIE database. All the images considered had a frontal pose and nearly the same expression with wide
changes in illumination conditions. We have considered 24 images for one individual and these have been randomly distributed for the
training and testing sets. The training and testing sets are so chosen that there is no overlap between them. Different experiments have
been performed considering varying number of images for training and the recognition rates have been recorded for both Euclidian
distance based NN classification scheme and SVM based classification scheme. The testing set consists of 12 images chosen
randomly. Figure 3 shows the comparison of recognition rates between the Eigenedginess-SVM method and Eigenedginess-NN
method, [13, 14].

Fig 3. The graph shows a comparison of recognition rate between SVM and NN classifier for different number of training images
As observed from the graph in Figure 3, the performance of both NN and SVM is nearly same except for the cases when the number
of training images is less. However, in [4] the authors have shown that classification by SVM's is more efficient than that by nearest
neighbor scheme for face recognition problem with PCA as the feature extraction technique. The reason for this is that nearest
neighbor based scheme is very sensitive to noisy inputs and can easily get confused with the neighboring classes in the eigen space.
The latter is due to the fact that it does not perform classification based on discriminatory function like in SVM's but on the data points
itself. This leads us to conclude that possibly edginess is a strong feature extraction method and the classification is not affected much
by the classifier used at the back end,[13]
2.2 FACE RECOGNITION FROM INTENSITY IMAGESFace recognition methods for intensity images fall into two main categories: feature-based and holistic, an overview of some of the
well-known methods in these categories is given below.
2.2.1 FEATURED-BASED
Feature-based approaches first process the input image to identify and extract (and measure) distinctive facial features such as the
eyes, mouth, nose, etc., as well as other fiducial marks, and then compute the geometric relationships among those facial points, thus
reducing the input facial image to a vector of geometric features. Standard statistical pattern recognition techniques are then employed
to match faces using these measurements Early work carried out on automated face recognition was mostly based on these techniques.
One of the earliest such attempts was by Kanade [19], who employed simple image processing methods to extract a vector of 16 facial
parameters - which were ratios of distances, areas and angles (to compensate for the varying size of the pictures) - and used a simple
Euclidean distance measure for matching to achieve a peak performance of 75% on a database of 20 different people using 2 images
per person (one for reference and one for testing).
Another well-known feature-based approach is the elastic bunch graph matching method proposed by Wiskott et al. [22] . This
technique is based on Dynamic Link Structures [17]. A graph for an individual face is generated as follows: a set of fiducial points on
the face are chosen. Each fiducial point is a node of a full connected graph, and is labeled with the Gabor filters responses applied to
a window around the fiducial point. Each arch is labeled with the distance between the correspondent fiducial points. A representative
set of such graphs is combined into a stack-like structure, called a face bunch graph. Once the system has a face bunch graph, graphs
for new face images can then be generated automatically by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching. Recognition of a new face image is
performed by comparing its image graph to those of all the known face images and picking the one with the highest similarity value.
Using this architecture, the recognition rate can reach 98% for the first rank and 99% for the first 10 ranks using a gallery of 250
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individuals. The system has been enhanced to allow it to deal with different poses (Fig. 3) [11] but the recognition performance on
faces of the same orientation remains the same. Though this method was among the best performing ones in the most recent FERET
evaluation [12, 13], it does suffer from the serious drawback of requiring the graph placement for the first 70 faces to be done
manually before the elastic graph matching becomes adequately dependable [14]. Campadelli and Lanzarotti [15] have recently
experimented with this technique, where they have eliminated the need to do the graph placement manually by using parametric
models, based on the deformable templates proposed in [10], to automatically locate fiducial points. They claim to have obtained the
same performances as the elastic bunch graph employed in [19]. Other recent variations of this approach

Fig. 3. Grids for face recognition [21]. (1999 IEEE)


Replace the Gabor features by a graph matching strategy [16] and HOGs (Histograms of Oriented Gradients [17]. Considerable effort
has also been devoted to recognizing faces from their profiles [08-12] since, in this case, feature extraction becomes a somewhat
simpler one-dimensional problem [17, 11]. Kaufman and Breeding [10] reported a recognition rate of 90% using face profiles;
however, they used a database of only 10 individuals. Harmon et al. [18] obtained recognition accuracies of 96% on a database of 112
individuals, using a 17-dimensional feature vector to describe face profiles and utilizing a Euclidean distance measure for matching.
More recently, Liposcak and Loncaric [01] reported a 90% accuracy rate on a database of 30 individuals, using subspace filtering to
derive a 21- dimensional feature vector to describe the face profiles and employing a Euclidean distance measure to match them (Fig.
4).

Fig. 4. a) The twelve fiducial points of interest for face recognition; b) Feature vector has 21 components; ten distances D1-D10
(normalized with / (D4+D5)) and eleven profile arcs A1-A11 (normalized with /(A5+A6)) [21]. (Courtesy of Z. Liposcak and S.
Loncaric)

2.3 PCA ALGORITHM


Automatic face recognition systems try to find the identity of a given face image according to their memory. The memory of a face
recognizer is generally simulated by a training set. In this project, our training set consists of the features extracted from known face
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images of different persons. Thus, the task of the face recognizer is to find the most similar feature vector among the training set to the
feature vector of a given test image. Here, the identity of a person where an image of that person (test image) is give to the system is
recognized. PCA is itself a feature extraction algorithm.
In the training phase, the feature vectors for each image are extracted in the training set. Let A be a training image of person A
which has a pixel resolution of M N (M rows, N columns). In order to extract PCA features of A, the image is converted into a
pixel vector A by concatenating each of the M rows into a single vector. The length (or, dimensionality) of the vector A will be M
N. Use the PCA algorithms a dimensionality reduction technique which transforms the vector A to a vector A which has a
dimensionality d where d M N. For each training image i, you should calculate and store these feature vectors i
In the recognition phase (or, testing phase), you will be given a test image j of a known person. Let j be the identity (name) of this
person. As in the training phase, you should compute the feature vector of this person using PCA and obtain j. In order to identify j,
you should compute the similarities between j and all of the feature vectors is in the training set. The similarity between feature
vectors can be computed using Euclidean distance. The identity of the most similar i will be the output of our face recognizer. If i = j,
it means that we have correctly identified the person j, otherwise if i j, it means that we have misclassified the person j. Schematic
diagram of the face recognition system that will be implemented is shown in Figure 2.

Mobile scanning device scans SIM number through GSM Modem Collected data is given to the Automated teller machines (ATMs)
for further processing. At the same time, web camera captures the images and compares using digital signal processing with the image
stored in the data base. Each processing information produces by voice annunciation module.
Power supply unit consists of a step down transformer along with rectifier unit to convert 230 V AC into required 7 V DC. 7 V DC
supply is given to the micro controller for its action. It may be difficult for blind people to use existing ATM so we can add voice
annunciates to indicate each and every process to the blind people. It enables a visually and/or hearing impaired individual to
conveniently and easily carry out financial transactions or banking functions. Each processing information produces by voice
annunciation module
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If images and PIN number are same then further processing is continued, otherwise it gives alarm through Alert module. Data trasfer
unit consist of a micro controller of no AT89352 which transfers the data between alert module, voice annunciation module & ATM
machine. Automated teller machines (ATMs) are well known devices typically used by individuals to carry out a variety of personal
and business financial transactions and/or banking functions ATMs have become very popular with the general public for their
availability and general user friendliness.
ATMs are now found in many locations having a regular or high volume of consumer traffic. For example, ATMs are
typically found in restaurants, supermarkets, Convenience stores, malls, schools, gas stations, hotels, work locations,
banking centers, airports, entertainment establishments, transportation facilities and a myriad of other locations. ATMs
are typically available to consumers on a continuous basis such that consumers have the ability to carry out their ATM
financial transactions and/or banking functions at any time of the day and on any day of the week. Existing ATMs are
convenient and easy to use for most consumers. Existing ATMs typically provide instructions on an ATM display screen
that are read by a user to provide for interactive operation of the ATM. Having read the display screen instructions, a user
is able to use and operate the ATM via data and information entered on a keypad.

CONCLUSION
This paper presents a system creates the new generation ATM machine which can be operator without the ATM card. By using this
system ATM machine can be operator by using our SIM in the mobile phone. When we insert our SIM in the reader unit of the ATM
machine it transfers the mobile to the server. In server we can collect the related information of the mobile number (i.e) the users
account details, their photo etc. the camera presented near the ATM machine will capture the users image and compare it with the user
image in the server. Only when the image matches it asks the pin number and further processing starts. Otherwise the process is
terminated. So by using this system need of ATM card is completely eliminated we can operate the ATM machine by using our SIM
itself. By using this system malfunctions can be avoided. Our transaction will be much secured. One more application can also be
added in this system for helping the blind people. In the existing system all the transactions are done through keyboard only. It may be
difficult for blind people so we can also add voice enunciator to indicate each and every process to the blind people. It that enables a
visually and/or hearing impaired individual to conveniently and easily carry out financial transactions or banking functions.
REFERENCES:
[1] S. C. Dass and A. K. Jain. Markov face models. In Proceedings, Eighth IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision
(ICCV), pages 680687, July 2001.
[2] C.-C. Han, H.-Y. M. Liao, G.-J. Yu, and L.-H. Chen. Fast face detection via morphology-based pre-processing. In Proceedings,
Ninth International Conference on Image analysis and Processing (ICIAP), volume 2, pages 469476, 1998.
[3] J. Huang and H. Wechsler. Eye location using genetic algorithm. In Proceedings, Second International Conference on Audio and
Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pages 130135, March 1999.
[4] T. Leung, M. Burl, and P. Perona. Finding faces in cluttered scenes using labeled random graph matching. In Proceedings, Fifth
International Conference on Computer Vision, pages 637644, June 1995.
[5] P. Kiran Kumar, Sukhendu Das and B. Yegnanarayana. One- Dimensional processing of images. In International Conference on
Multimedia Processing Systems, Chennai, India, pages 181 185, August 13-15, 2000.

[6] P. N. Belhumeour, J. P. Hespanha and D. J. Kriegman. Eigenfaces vs. fisherfaces: Recognition using class specific linear
projection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19(7):711720, July 1997.
[7] H. Rowley, S. Baluja, and T. Kanade. Neural network-based face detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine
Intelligence, 20(1):2338, January 1998.
[8] S. Ramesh, S.Palanivel, Sukhendu Das and B. Yegnanarayana. Eigenedginess vs. eigenhill, eigenface, and eigenedge. In
Proceedings, Eleventh European Signal Processing Conference, pages 559562, September 3-6, 2002.
[9] K. Suchendar. Online face recognition system. M.Tech Project Report, IIT, Madras, January 2002.
[10] B. Tacacs and H. Wechsler. Face recognition using binary image metrics. In Proceedings, Third International Conference on
Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pages 294299, April 1998.
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[11] M. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland. Face recognition using eigenfaces. In Proceedings, Eleventh International Conference on Pattern
Recognition, pages 586591, 1991.
[12] J. Yang and A.Waibel. A real-time face tracker. In Proceedings, Third IEEEWorkshop on Applications of Computer Vision,
pages 142147, 1996.
[13] M. H. Yang and N. Ahuja. Detecting human face in color images. In Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on Image
Processing, volume 1, pages 127130, 1998.
[14] Yilmaz, Alper and M. Gokmen. Eigenhill vs. eigenface and eigenedge. Pattern Recognition, 34:181184, 2001.
[15] K. C. Yow and R. Cipolla. Feature-based human face detection.
[16] A. Colmenarez, B. J. Frey, and T. S. Huang, "A probabilistic framework for embedded face and facial expression recognition," in
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Vol.1. Ft. Collins, CO, USA, 1999, pp. 15921597.
[17] Y. Shinohara and N. Otsu, "Facial Expression Recognition Using Fisher Weight Maps," in Sixth IEEE International Conference
on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Vol.100, 2004, pp.499-504.
[18] F. Bourel, C. C. Chibelushi, and A. A. Low, "Robust Facial Feature Tracking," in British Machine Vision Conference. Bristol,
2000, pp.232-241.
[19] K. Morik, P. Brockhausen, and T. Joachims, "Combining statistical learning with a knowledgebased approach -- A case study in
intensive care monitoring," in 16th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-99). San Francisco, CA, USA: Morgan
Kaufmann, 1999, pp.268-277.
[20] S. Singh and N. Papanikolopoulos, "Vision-based detection of driver fatigue," Department of Computer Science, University of
Minnesota, Technical report 1997.
[21] D. N. Metaxas, S. Venkataraman, and C. Vogler, "Image-Based Stress Recognition Using a Model- Based Dynamic Face
Tracking System," International Conference on Computational Science, pp.813-821, 2004.

[22] M. M. Rahman, R. Hartley, and S. Ishikawa, "A Passive And Multimodal Biometric System for Personal Identification," in
International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing. Spain, 2005, pp.89-92

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Analysis of Noise Signal Cancellation using Adaptive Algorithms


Abhishek Chaudhary1, Amit Barnawal2, Anushree Gupta3, Deepti Chaudhary4
Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation, Galgotias College of Engg. And Tech. Greater Noida U.P India
deeptichaudhary2014@gmail.com4
Abstract Noise is an indispensable part in signal processing that we encounter every day. The study of reducing noise
arises from the need to achieve stronger signal to noise ratios. It is any unwanted disturbance that hampers the desired
response while keeping the source sound. The different sources may include speech, music played through a device such
as a mobile, IPod, computer, or no sound at all. Active noise cancellation involves creating a supplementary signal that
DE constructively interferes with the output ambient noise. The cancellation of noise can be efficiently accomplished by
using adaptive algorithms. An adaptive filter is one that self-adjusts the coefficients of transfer function according to an
algorithm driven by an error signal. The adaptive filter uses feedback in the form of an error signal to define its transfer
function to match changing parameters. The adaptive filtering techniques can be used for a wide range of applications,
including echo cancellation, adaptive channel equalization, adaptive line enhancer, and adaptive beam forming. In last few
years, a lot of algorithms have been developed for eradicating the distortion from the signals. This paper presents analysis
of two algorithms namely, Least Mean Square (LMS), Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) and gives comparative
study on various governing factors such as stability, computational complexity, filter order, robustness and rate of
convergence. It further represents the effect of error with alteration in amplitude of noise signal fixating reference signal
and desired signal. The algorithms are developed in MATLAB
Keywords Anti noise, Adaptive filter, LMS, NLMS, Rate of convergence, Noise cancellation, Filter
I.

INTRODUCTION

Noise is any unpleasant, objectionable, unexpected, undesired distortion in sound. In electronics, it may be defined as
the random fluctuation in an electrical signal. Noise is all around us, right from radios and television, to lawn movers and
washing machine. Normally, the sounds that we hear do not affect hearing, but too loud sounds may be harmful in the
long run. Noise free signals give better signal to noise ratios as the absence of noise strengthens the signal to noise ratio.
[1]
The technique employed to achieve this is active noise cancellation. The best approach to cancelling noise would be to
take the noise signal, invert it, and add the input and inverted signals such that they add deconstructive. It is a highly
recommended method because can block selectively and improves noise-control. It offers potential benefits such as size,
cost, volume and effective attenuation of low frequency noise. The components of noise signal such as frequency,
amplitude and phase are non-stationary and time varying; hence the use of adaptive filter helps us to deal effectively with
the variations. Noise Cancellation utilizes the principle of destructive interference. When two sinusoidal waves
superimpose in a way such that the amplitude, frequency and phase difference of the two waves are the governing factors
of the resulting waveform and, if the two waves, the original and its inverse happen to meet at a joint, at the same instant,
total cancellation occurs.[2]-[4]

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Fig. 1 Noise Cancellation through Destructive Interference


Noise elimination from an input signal could produce disastrous results, which is marked by an increase in the average
power of the output noise. However when an adaptive process controls filtration and reduction, it is possible to achieve a
superior system performance compared to direct filtering of the input signal.[5]
METHODSMethods used for executing the result of the research work is described belowII.

A. ADAPTIVE FILTER
An adaptive filter has the property of exhibiting self-modification in its frequency response with respect to time,
allowing the filter to adapt the response to the input signal characteristics change enhancing performance and
construction flexibility.
An Adaptive Filter may be defined by following four aspects:
1. The signal being processed the by the filter.
2. The structure that defines how the output signal of the filter is computed from its input signal.
3. The parameters within this structure that can be iteratively changed to alter the filters input-output relationship.
4. The adaptive algorithm that describes how the parameters are adjusted from one time instant to the next

Fig.2. Block Diagram of General Adaptive Filter

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The parameters of an adaptive filter are updated in each iterative step and hence it becomes data dependent. The adaptive
filter is used when the parameters are not fixed or the specifications are unknown. Therefore, this implies the nonlinearity
feature of the filter, as it fails to follow the principle of superposition and homogeneity. An adaptive filter is linear if the
input output relation obeys the above principles and the filter parameters are fixed. As the parameters change continuously
in order to meet a performance requirement, the adaptive filters are time varying in nature. In this sense, we can interpret
an adaptive filter as a filter that performs the approximation step on-line. The performance criterion requires the existence
of a reference signal that is usually hidden in the approximation step of fixed-filter design.
These filters are recommended because of their ease of stability and simplicity in implementation without any
adjustment. Adaptive filtering, which concerns the choice of structures and algorithms for a filter that has its parameters
(or coefficients) adapted, in order to improve a prescribed performance criterion. [1]-[7]
The adaptive filter adjusts coefficients to minimise following
Cost function J (n) = E [ (n)]
Where E[ (n)] is the expectation of

(n), and

(n) is the square of the error signal at time n.

The two algorithms used in the FIR Adaptive filter to control the adjustment of filter coefficients are:
1. Least Mean Square Algorithm (LMS)
2. Normalized Least Mean Square Algorithm (NLMS)

B. LEAST MEAN SQUARE:


Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm are a class of adaptive filter used to mimic a desired filter by finding the filter
coefficients that relates to producing the Least Mean Square of the error signal, that is, the deviation between the original
signal and the desired signal. One of the feature of LMS filter algorithm is its simplicity. Further it neither requires
measurement or knowledge of correlation function nor does it require Matrix Inversion (case of more than one = step
size, a scaling factor which controls the incremental change applied to the tap weight vector of the filter from one iteration
to next. To ensure stability, should satisfy the following condition.
0
Where,
L = filter length

is the maximum value of the power spectral density of the tap input x(n).

The goal of the LMS method is to find the filter coefficients required to reduce the mean square error of the error
signal. The error signal, which, is the difference present between the desired d(n) and output y(n). The filter will only
conform to the error at the current time. In this algorithm, initially it assumes small weights (mostly zero), and at each
iterative step, by finding the gradient of the mean square error, the filter parameters are updated. That is, if the MSEgradient is positive, it implies that the error would keep increasing positively. If the same parameters are used for further
iterations, which implies that we have to reduce the weights. Similarly, if the gradient is negative, we have to increase
the weights. The mean square errors is a quadratic function which means it has only one extrema that minimises the
mean square error, that is the optimal weight. The LMS thus, approaches towards this optimal weight by
ascending/descending down the curve between the mean square error and filter weight. [3]-[7]
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NORMALIZED LEAST MEAN SQUARE

C.

The main drawback of the LMS algorithm is that it is sensitive the scaling factor, of the input signal. When it is
large, the filter suffers from gradient noise amplification problem. This makes it difficult in choosing the appropriate step
size for the filter to ensure the stability. The Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm is an improvement over the
conventional LMS and solves this problem by normalising the power of input. [8]
The step size of NLMS filter is given as

where, = Adaptation constant which is dimensionless and optimizes rate of convergence by satisfying the condition,
0 < <2
The weights of the filter are updated as the following step:

III.

FACTORS DETERMINING THE BEHAVIOUR OF ALGORITHM

A. Stability:

The term stability refers to the effects of finite precision on the algorithm that is used to find the solution of some
problem of interest.
B. Computational Requirement:

Basic requirement during computation are: Number of operations required to complete the whole algorithm in one
iteration; memory required for storing the data and algorithm program and also investment required during the
programming of the algorithm on computer.
C. Rate of Convergence:

It explains the number of iteration required for the algorithm with respect to stationary inputs in order to converge close
enough to the optimal wiener solution in the mean square error sense. Due to fast rate of convergence, which permit the
algorithm to adapt rapidly to a stationary environment of unknown statistics.
In case of NLMS, when the input vector x(n) and x(n-1) are orthogonal to each other, i.e., the angle between them
90, then the rate of convergence is fastest. When the input vector x(n) and x(n-1) are in the same direction or in opposite
direction such that the angle between them is 180, then the rate of convergence is slowest.
D. Robustness:

The ability of the system to cope up with errors is defined as robustness of the system. For a robust adaptive filter, small
fluctuations results in errors. These deviations can be present as a result of various, internal or external factors of the filter.
[9]-[12]

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IV.

RESULTS:

A. ANALYSIS I

These algorithms (LMS & NLMS) were formulated in MATLAB and following results were generated. The first figure
shows the desired signal. The next figure represents the input signal which is composed of sinusoidal signal and

Fig. 3 Desired Signal Fig. 4 Input Signal


a. Results of LMS Algorithm
Figure 5 represents the filter output. The next figure gives the error generated. The filter order is 251 and the step size is
0.005.
2

Fig. 5 Adaptive Filter output

Fig. 6 Error signal

b. Results of NLMS Algorithm


Figure 7 represents the adaptive filter output. The next figure shows the error signal of NLMS algorithm. The filter order
is 7 and is fixed at 0.5.

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Fig. 7 - Adaptive filter outputFig. 8 Error signal

Table.1 Comparison between LMS and NLMS on various factors


Serial No.

Factors

LMS

NLMS

Stability

Highly stable

Computational Complexity

2N+1

Rate of Convergence

Robustness

Moderate stable
3N+1

Low and has slow


implementation

High and has faster


implementation

Less robust

More robust

B. ANALYSIS II

In this section, we have observed the fluctuation in the error signal with the variation of amplitude of noise signal
having constant reference signal and fixed desired signal. The input signal changes as it is the summation of reference and
varied noise signal.

1.5

desire
d
signal

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

time

Fig. 9 Desired Signal

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1800

2000

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This is desired signal of amplitude 1.5.


We have fixated the order of the filter at 251.
1. When the scaling factor of random noise is 0.3, the noise signal, input signal and error signal are generated as follows.

Fig. 10 Noise signal

Fig. 11 Input signal

Fig.12-Error Signal
2. When the scaling factor of random noise is 0.7, the noisesignal, input signal and error signal are produced as below

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Fig. 13 Noise Signal Fig. 14 Input Signal

Fig. 15 Error Signal


2. When the scaling factor of random noise is 1 and 1.1 the error signals are given below in figure 16 and 17
respectively.

Fig.16- Error signal for scalinging factor 1

Fig.17-Error signal for scaling factor 1.1

V.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the research paper on the basis of the B. Tech Project undertaken during
B.Tech Final Year. We owe special debt of gratitude to our supervisors Mr Navneet Mishra (Professor EIE) and
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology for their
constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. We are also thankful to HOD of Dept. Of EIE
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Professor Dr Monika Jain and Project Co-ordinator Mr Gavendra Singh (Asst. Proffesor Dept. EIE). Their sincerity,
thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only their cognizant efforts that
our endeavours have seen light of the day.How can we forgot to thanks Mr Gulshan kumar, who always helped us.
We are also thankful to Dr. R.Sundaresan, Director of Galgotias College of Engg. And Tech. For providing their support
and all the facilities for completing this project.
VI.

CONCLUSION

In first analysis, we see that the LMS is preferred because of its stability, simplicity and additional adjustment is required, but has a slow
rate of convergence, whereas NLMS though less stable, offers better robustness, converges faster than conventional LMS and has good
performance because of its properties.
In second analysis, we have observed that with increase in the scaling factor of random noise, the fluctuation in the error signal increases
and it takes little longer to optimize the error in accordance to the desired signal. As verified above, when the scaling factor is taken as 0.3,
0.7, 1 and 1.1, the adaptive filter output, initially deviates from the desired signal and gradually the filter output approaches the desired signal.

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DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS BREAST CANCER USING


CLASSIFICATION RULES
Miss Jahanvi Joshi
Mr. RinalDoshiDr. Jigar Patel
jahanvijoshib@gmail.comrinalhdoshi@gmail.com drjigarvpatel@gmail.com

Abstract Breast Cancer is highly heterogeneous disease. Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis are two medical challenges to
the researchers in the field of clinical research. Breast self-exam and mammography can help find early diagnosis of breast cancer.
This is possible when in some situation or stage the treatment is possible. Treatment may consist of radiation, lumpectomy, and
mastectomy and hormone therapy. The origin of this research for diagnosis a breast cancer depends upon a lump in the breast, a
change in size or shape of the breast or a nipple. Men can have breast cancer, too, but the number of cases is small. The purpose of this
research is to develop a novel prototype of clinical problem regarding to diagnose and manage patients with breast cancer. The
primary dataset of breast cancer is carried out from UCI dataset repository for the purpose of experimental work. These experimental
works justify the problem formulation of the clinical research using different classification technique.\

Keywords Breast Cancer, Clinical Problem, Classification Rules, Data Mining, Health Care, Web Mining,Weka.
INTRODUCTION

Breast Cancer becomes dangerous disease in todays era. The most common type of this type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma,
which begins in the lining of the milk ducts. It is nothing but only thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the little
nipple. Another type of breast cancer is lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules of the breast. Invasive breast cancer is breast
cancer that has spread from where it began in the breast ducts or lobules to surrounding normal tissue. Breast cancer occurs in both
men and women, although male breast cancer is rare.
According to the survey of United States in 2014, there are 232,670 females and 2,360 males having this type of new cases
regarding the breast cancer. Among them 40,000 females and 430 males was death during the period this survey [1]. This survey is
origin and motivation for our research work.
Early burning signs of breast cancer may absorb the detection of a new lump or a change in the breast skin. These are the signs and
symptoms for the early detection of the breast cancer. By performing monthly breast self-exams, patient will be able to more easily
identify any changes in her breast. If patient found abnormal changes in her breast she gives a path to contact healthcare experts. In
some situations women are encourage for an excitement like breast sensitivity issue, breast examination by doctors and measurement
with tailor.
Data Mining is a powerful tool and technique to handling this task. In data mining breast cancer research has been one of the
important research topics in medical science during the recent years The classification of Breast Cancer data can be useful to predict
the result of some diseases or discover the genetic behavior of tumors. There are many techniques to predict and classification breast
cancer pattern. This paper empirically compares performance of different classification rules that are suitable for direct interpretability
of their results.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Author of this paper Tired to improve the website design, optimize website structure and built intelligent website. To achieve
these targeted objectives, the author used machine learning approaches and for the user identification algorithm, session identification
algorithm and Apriori algorithm applied on the preprocessed dataset. These processes worked on WEKA open source Data Mining
s/w tool. The resulted outcome arrives on the bases of Apriori algorithm. The author gives the challenge that must apply on other.
Data mining algorithm and the comparative analysis gives more optimum outcome [2]. Author of this paper Compare the performance
of the supervised algorithm Nave Bayesian, support vector machine, Radical basis neural network, decision tree, j48 and simple
CART. The proposed work conducted to discover the batter quality classifier for disease for detection. That is processed in WEKA
with the dataset WBC, WDBC, pama diabetes and Brest tissue. The outcome of the result showed that the SVM RBF kernel
responded well than the others. The author concludes with to achieve the potential outcome with accuracy well as the complexity will
be calculated for feature expansion [3]. Author of this paper performed comparative study of classification method with different data
set- PIMA Indian Diabetes, state Log Heart Disease, BUPA Liver disorders, and Wisconsin Brest Cancer. This work target to study
the performance to achieve higher accuracy level with lower error rate. There experimental findings used 10 fold cross validation
method. The outcome by SVM method indicated promising level of accuracy level of 96.74% for PIMA Indian diabetes dataset and
99.25% with statLog heart Disease data set. They have used c4.5 decision tree technique with BAPA Liver-disorders dataset with an
accuracy level of79.71% there ultimate finding with user techniques-Bayes Net, SVM, kNN and RBF-NN with the dataset Wisconsin
Brest Cancer Data set have indicated as to combine multiple technique with different parameter [4]. Author of this paper explored the
comparative performance of the classification and clustering algorithm using heart disease dataset. The work targeted to higher level
of prediction accuracy by comparing both the techniques. The evaluation carried on the performance of classifiers of Bayes (Nave
Bayes, Nave Bayes updateable), functions (SMO),Lazy (IB1,IBK),Meta Multi BoostAB, Multiclass Classifier),Rule(Decision
Table),tees (NB Tree)and the clustering algorithm of EM, Cobweb, Father First, Make Density Based Cluster ,Simple K-means
algorithm. The analyses lead to conclusion which state that the NB tree having higher prediction Accuracy compared to the clustering
algorithm [5]. Author of this paper focus on the work statistical and data mining tool and technique for diagnosis disease. To achieve
the more accurate outcome of data mining techniques they applied hybridization on the selected method used which illustrate the
acceptable levels of accuracy then for enhance the accuracy of disease the hybridization data mining techniques. Hybrid data mining
techniques produces more effective outcome in diagnosis of heart disease. Different hybrid technique like fuzzy artificial immune
recognition system and K-nearest neighbor are applied together are applied tougher which produced accuracy of 87%.Neural network
gives accuracy of 89.01% which is batter. One case of neural network and genetic algorithm is also discussed which produced better
result in deter mining heart disease [6]. Author of this paper constructed the work to discover the effectiveness of preprocessing
algorithm on dataset to investigate. The research conducted data mining algorithm on dataset on the Z AlizadehSani dataset which is
used to achieve more accurate results. The cost sensitive algorithm are used along with base classifiers on nave Bayes, sequential
minimal optimization (SMO), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and C4.5 were a closed work with the
SMO algorithm has to very high sensitivity (97.22%) and accuracy (92.09%)rates. AS a final point, they said that the proposed cost
sensitive algorithm can be used on other diseases such as cancer [7]. Author of this paper focus on compared the performance of the
classification technique like Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), IBK, BF Tree. The proposed work conducted to find out the
accuracy classifier for breast cancer detection. that process in weka with the data set UCI machine learning in all over technique
sequential minimal Optimization (SMO) achieve better outcome of the result with accuracy ,low error rate , and performance[8].
Author of this paper explore performance of classification technique using Wisconsin prognostic breast cancer (WPBC) data from
UCI machine learning technique .the work targeted to high level of prediction accuracy by compare classification different technique.
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the evaluation carried on the performance of classification like Binary Logistic Regression (BLR), C4.5 decision tree algorithm
,Partial Least Squares for Classification (C-PLS), Classification Tree(C-RT), Cost-Sensitive Classification Tree(CS-CRT), Costsensitive Decision Tree algorithm(CS-MC4), SVM for classification(C-SVC), Iterative Dichomotiser(ID3), K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptron(MP), Multinomial Logistic Regression(MLR),
Nave Bayes Continuous(NBC), Partial Least Squares -Discriminant/Linear Discriminant Analysis(PLS-DA/LDA), Prototype-Nearest
Neighbor(P-NN), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Random Tree (Rnd Tree), Support Vector Machine(SVM ) the analysis lad to
conclusion random tree and Quinlans C4.5 having 100% accuracy in classifying the Wisconsin prognostic Brest cancer data set
[9].Author focus on performance of supervised learning algorithm viz decision tree, random tree ,ID3 ,CART,C4.5 ,and Naive Bayes.
That processed in TANAGARA with Wisconsin breast cancer data set used for modeling breast cancer data. The result of random tree
fives batter optimum result with highest accuracy rate [10].Author of this paper investigation on data mining three technique first one
is Nave Bayes, second one is back-propagated neural network, and last one C4.5 decision tree algorithms. For this processed use
WEKA. Open source tool with data set SEER. The outcome of the result showed C4.5 better performance then other two techniques
[11]. Author of this paper analyzed Brest cancer using data mining technique classification. They use machine learning technique like
Decision Tree (C4.5), Artificial Neural Network and support vector machine for predicting a breast cancer. That process in WEKA
tool kit with the Iranian center of breast cancer .this work targeted to analyzed the performance to achieve higher accuracy specificity
and sensitivity result by SVM technique indicated promising level of accuracy level of 95.7%,97.1% and 94.5%[12].Author of this
paper prediction on data mining technique on heart disease , Diabetes, Breast Cancer in heart disease data collected data from a
hospital information system the heart disease prediction in that machine learning algorithms namely nave bayes, K-NN, Decision
List. In all technique classification accuracy of the nave bayes algorithm is better when compared to other algorithm. Second one
breast cancer as per survey of united state prediction data mining technique like C4.5, ANN and Fuzzy decision tree. ANN conducts
better accuracy and good performance. Third one about diabetes as per base on the American diabetes association perdition by using
homogeneity based algorithm genetic algorithm predicts batter accuracy. For feature work enhance they predates diff type of disease
prediction using data mining technique [13]. Author of this paper focus on use three different type of machine learning technique for
predicting of breast cancer. They use Iranian canter for breast cancer (ICBC) data set and implement machine learning technique like
decision tree (C4.5) Support vector machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural network (ANN) compared the performance of technique
and find sensitivity, specificity , accuracy. As per a conclusion SVM provide better performance with highest accuracy rate [14].
Author of this paper Prediction on breast cancer and heart disease with dataset Public Use data. They consisting of 909 Record for
Heart disease and 699 for breast cancer. They use two type algorithms c4.5 and c5.0.as per a conclusion c4.5 get better result all over
technique [15]. Author of this paper compared the performance of classification algorithms- Decision tree, Nave Bayes, MLP,
Logistic Regression SVM, KNN. That is process in WEKA with data set. The outcome of the result showed that the SVM responded
well then the other. The author conduct with to achieve the potential outcomes with accuracy as well as the complexity will be
calculated for future expansion [16]. Author of this paper focus on prediction of breast cancer using data mining technique.This
process in WEKA data mining tool kit with data set SEER.They investigation on three data mining techniques like Nave Bayes, the
back-propagated neural network, and the C4.5Decision tree algorithms. The outcome of the result c4.5 algorithms shows much better
performance then the other two techniques [17]. Author of this paper focus on data mining application on medical research for a
predicting and discovering pattern base on detected symptom on health condition for process take a mammography, dermatology,
orthopedic thyroids for data pre-processing execute classification for clinical test data lode test data for verification for classifier
malady classification. They support decision tree generate by the quinlans algorithm is smaller then the decision tree by the random
tree classification technique [18]. Authors diagnosis breast cancer using clustering data mining techniques [19]. Authors of the paper
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develop pattern knowledge discovery framework using data mining technique. This framework is generic which is relate to different
services for users [20].

PROPOSED WORK
The main area of the research work is web mining. Web mining has three categories content, structure and usage. We use web usage
mining for finding hidden pattern from the breast cancer dataset. The suggested model of the proposed work is followed.

WebMining

Structure

Usage

Content

Web Dataset
Breast Cancer Dataset
WEKA Open Source Data Mining Tool

BayesNet
Nave Bayes
NaiveBayesUpdateable
Logistic
MultilayerPerceptron
SGD
SimpleLogistic
SMO
Voted
IBK
KStar
LWL
AdaBoostM1

CLASSIFIER RULES
Attribute Selected Classifier
Bagging
ClassificationVia Regression
CVParameterSelection
FilteredClassifier
LogitBoost
MultiClassClassifier
MultiScheme
RandomCommittee
RandomSubSpace
Stacking
Vote
InputMappedClassifier

DecisionTable
JRip
OneR
PART
ZeroR
DecisionStump
J48
LMT
RandomForest
RandomTree
REPTree

Prototype Evaluation
Healthy, Sick

Predictive Classifier

Pattern Discovery from Breast Cancer Dataset

Figure 1: Prototype for Breast Cancer Pattern Discovery (PBCPD)


In Fig. 1 we discuss novel prototype for breast cancer detection. Here Main work is start with Web Mining which has three
dimensions- content, usage and structure. In this prototyping we select usage mining. In Web Usage Mining data is retrieved from web
dataset. We select breast cancer dataset in Weka Open Source environment. In Weka we use 37 classification rules for diagnosis and
prognosis breast cancer among patients. By Experimental Analysis we can get predictable pattern
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IMPLEMENTATION WORK:
To classify breast cancer data set with high accuracy and efficiency different classifier rules are used for finding healthy
patients. In this research WEKA open source mining tool is used for modeling breast cancer data. This tool proposes
several classification rules from exploratory data analysis, statistical learning and machine learning.
For the purpose of the implantation work the data is taken from UCI for the purpose of to solve the research objective. To
perform experimental work this research take WEKA as an open source data mining tool and then apply different
classification algorithm for diagnosis and prognosis patients. The dataset attributes descriptions are as under in Table
1:
Table 1: BREST CANCER DATASET ATTRIBUTE
Attribute Name

Description

Age

Patients Age in years

Menopause

the period in a woman's life when menstruation ceases

Tumor-size

Patients tumor-size on her breast

inv-nodes

Node size in main portion of the breast.

Node-caps

Node is present or not in cap of the breast

Deg-malig

Stage of breast cancer

Brest

Left breast or Right breast or both breast

Breast-quad

Portion of the breast for example left-up, left-low, right-up, right-low, central.

Irradiate

Present or not (YES/NO)

Class

no-recurrence-events, recurrence-events (Reduce the risk of breast cancer)

Table 2: BREST CANCER DATASET CLASS

319

Class name

Description

Diagnosis

sick, healthy or (unpredictable) no class

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For this research we use different 37 classification algorithm for the purpose of diagnosis of healthy and sick patients. The
result of these classification rules are tabulated in table 3.
Table 3:RESULT ANALYSIS OF BREAST CANCER PATIENT
Clustering Technique

320

Healthy

Sick

BayesNet

76

24

NaiveBayes

75

25

NaiveBayesUpdateable

75

25

Logistic

76

24

MultilayerPerceptron

76

24

SGD

76

24

SimpleLogistic

76

24

SMO

76

24

Voted

74

26

IBK

98

KStar

98

LWL

79

21

AdaBoostM1

76

24

Attribute Selected
Classifier

76

24

Bagging

81

19

ClassificationVia
Regression

76

24

CVParameterSelection

70

30

FilteredClassifier

76

24

LogitBoost

78

22

MultiClassClassifier

76

24

MultiScheme

70

30

RandomCommittee

98

RandomSubSpace

77

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Stacking

70

30

Vote

70

30

InputMappedClassifier

70

30

DecisionTable

71

29

JRip

77

23

OneR

73

27

PART

80

20

ZeroR

70

30

DecisionStump

72

28

J48

76

24

LMT

76

24

RandomForest

98

RandomTree

98

REPTree

74

26

Figure 2: CLASSIFIER PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS


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By this result analysis BayesNet , Logistic, MultilayerPerceptron ,SGD, SimpleLogistic, SMO, AdaBoostM1, Attribute Selected ,
ClassificationVia Regression, FilteredClassifier, MultiClassClassifier Classifier, J48, LMT classifier gives more accurate result.
According to these classifier rules these research diagnosis 76% healthy and 24% sick patients.

CONCLUSION
Because In this paper various classification rules are compared to predict the best classifier. We develop new prototype for diagnosis
predictable pattern discovery of breast cancer. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The base for this
is knowledge discovery and data mining. The classifier is identified to determine the nature of the disease which is highly important
for finding healthy breast cancer patients. By this work is useful to uncover patterns hidden in the data that can help the clinicians and
doctors in decision making.

FUTURE WORK
For this research we use different classifier rules for diagnosis healthy patients. To study and experimental work we use weka