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Feature on bone

Structures associated

External features
Supraorbital margin
Supraorbital foramen
Zygomatic process
Nasal spine
Internal features
Orbital plate

Supraorbital nerve and artery

Superior and inferior temporal lines
Emissary foramina
Sagittal suture

Insertion for temporalis muscle

Emissary veins pass through
Joins the two parietal bones

External features
Foramen magnum
Occipital condyles
Hypoglossal canal
External occipital protruberance
Jugular foramen

Spinal cord passes through

Articulates with superior articular process of C1
Hypoglossal nerve (CNXII) passes through
Fusion of 3 foramina
Internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal nerve (CN
IX), vagus nerve (CNX), accessory nerve (CNXI)
pass through

Jugular process
Internal features
Groove for superior sagittal sinus

Blood sinus sits in groove that travels from

anterior to posterior
Blood sinus sits in groove that travels from left to
Blood sinus sits in groove that is on posterior
side near condylar canal
Where the grooves for transverse and sagittal
sinus meet (corresponds to external occipital

Groove for transverse sinus

Groove for sigmoid sinus
Internal occipital protuberance

Basilar part of occipital bone

Condylar canal

Emissary structure for veins to pass through

Frontal process

Connects to frontal bone at fronto-zygomatic

Connects to maxilla at zygomatico-maxillary
Connects to temporal bone at zygomaticotemporal suture

Maxillary process
Temporal process
Zygomatic arch: zygomatic and temporal bone

Crista galli
Cribiform plate
Ethmoid air cells/sinus

Olfactory nerves (CNI) passes through

Superior nasal concha

Middle nasal concha
Perpendicular plate
Orbital surface

Forms medial wall of orbit

External features
Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
Medial and lateral pterygoid plate
Pterygoid fossa
Pterygoid hamulus
Superior orbital fissure
inferior orbital fissure
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal features
Foramen rotundum
Optic canal

Pituitary gland sits in it

Oculomotor nerve (CNIII), trochlea nerve (CNIV),

abducens nerve (CNVI) passes through
Mandibular nerve passes through (branch of
trigeminal nerve (CNV))
Middle meningeal artery passes through
Irregular foramen covered by a cartilage plug
Emissary veins pass through
Maxillary nerve passes through (branch of
trigeminal nerve (CNV))
Optic nerve (CNII) passes through

External features
Squamous part
Tympanic part
Zygomatic process
Mastoid process
Digastric notch
Styloid process
Stylomastoid foramen
Mandibular fossa
Petrotympanic fissure

Articular eminence
Articular tubercle
External auditory meatus
Carotid canal
Temporal fossa
Internal features
Squamous part
Petrous part
Internal auditory meatus
Jugular foramen

Connects to zygomatic bone at zygomaticotemporal suture

Location for attachment of many muscles
Attachment for digastric muscle
Attachment of tongue and neck muscles
Facial nerve (CNVII) passes through
Where the mandibular condyles articulate
Chorda tympani of the mandibular nerve passes
through which joins with lingual nerve for taste
Prevents dislocation of TMJ

Internal carotid artery passes through

Vestibulocochlear nerve (CNVIII) passes through

Fusion of 3 foramina
Internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal nerve (CN
IX), vagus nerve (CNX), accessory nerve (CNXI)
pass through

Carotid canal
Sulcus for sigmoid sinus

Internal carotid artery passes through

Blood sinus which sits in the sulcus

Frontal process
Zygomatic process
Alveolar process
Incisive fossa/foramen
Canine fossa
Canine eminence
Anterior nasal spine
Infraorbital canal and foramen

Infraorbital groove
Frontal sinus
Maxillary sinus
Nasolacrimal groove
Palatine process
Intermaxillary suture
Maxillary tuberosity

Articulates with frontal bone (frontomaxillary

Articulates with zygomatic bone
(zygomaticomaxillary suture)
Contains sockets of the teeth
Incisive nerve passes to supply palatal surface of
anterior teeth
Due to the thick roots of canine
Maxillary nerve passes through called
infraorbital nerve
Infraorbital artery passes through
Where maxillary nerve exits as posterior superior
alveolar nerve

Where the 2 maxillae meet

Important for retention of dentures

Perpendicular plate
Horizontal plate
Pyramidal process
Orbital process
Sphenoidal process
Palatomaxillary suture
Greater palatine foramen
Lesser palatine foramen

Where palatine bones meet maxillae

Greater palatine nerve and blood vessels pass
Lesser palatine nerve and blood vessels pass

Incisive canal

External features
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular angle
Coronoid process
Mandibular/sigmoid/condylar notch
Mental foramen
Mental protuberance
Mental tubercle
Alveolar process
External oblique line/ridge

Attaches to temporal bone at the TMJ

For muscle attachment

Where mental nerve and artery leave to supply
the chin
Elevations on either side of mental protuberance
Holds sockets of the teeth
Creates a thicker buccal cortical plate for lower 7

and 8
Important for retention of dentures
Groove for facial artery
Internal features
Mandibular foramen
Mylohyoid ridge
Submandibular fossa
Sublingual fossa
Genial tubercles/mental ossicles

Covers the opening of mandibular canal by

attachment of sphenomandibular ligament
Opening of mandibular canal where inferior
alveolar branch of mandibular nerve passes
Attachment of mylohyoid muscle
Location of submandibular salivary gland
Location of sublingual salivary gland
4 bony prominences on the lingual side near the