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CLASSICAL

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A

HISTORY
OF

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL
FROM

CENTURY

SEVENTH

THE

B.C.

TO

THE

CENTURY

TWENTIETH

AJ).

BY

HARRY

THURSTON
OF

MEMBER

THE

PECK,

NATIONAL

INSTITUTE

OF

Ph.D., LL.D.
ARTS

AND

LETTERS

NetD
THE

||ork
COMPANY

MACMILLAN
191
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right* reserved

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up

and

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Smith

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CARISSIMAE
VXORI

PREFACE

Long

rule, classical

the

to

even

courses,

are

of

history
They

of

proceed

his

had

familiar

able

School;

with

that

Casaubon,

and

than

Yet

be

such

regretted,

of

clear

to

and

names;

about

for

student

example,

of

the

him;
and
that

of

he

the

of

should

ever

which

he

should

be

to

sicist
clas-

Scaliger, Lipsius,

Lachmann

he

seems

Alexandrian

Renaissance

that

little

without

field

account

various

It

Latin

entire

gaged.
en-

are

in

whole.

and

the

that,

Corssen,

genetically

scientific

Greek

in

significance

not

as

the

as

knowing

university

any

intelligent

Bentley,

more

nothing

part;

no

the

should

little

conspectus

give

to

that

they

while

Philology,

informed

trained

thoroughly

as

pursuing

are

which

upon

Philology

doctorate

who

that,

imperfectly

very

Classical

thing

to

having

be

author

the

those

subjects

Classical

anomalous

an

is

of

nothing

or

the

may

ramifications

convinced

students,

advanced

most

has

experience

should

should

literary criticism,

have
text

be

learned

criticism,

linguistics.
is very

it is not

often

the

reasonable

case;

cause

though

and
for

censure.

it is to
There

be

Vlll

PREFACE

exist

manuals

no

information

in

losingsightof
and
book

the strand

Manuel

de

which

parts of

give this general

to

splendidwhole.

Grafenhan's

which

begun

was

Reinach's

to-day.

admirable

PhilologieClassique is

without

all classical studies

unites

quite obsolete

course,

and

manner,

volumes, the publicationof

in four

1843, is, of

in

lucid,coherent

them

makes

the present time

at

as

work

reference, but, with all its closelypacked information,

of

it does

Dr.

form

not

Sandys, publishedonly
scholarshipand

his

to

of details contained

unnaturally deter
seeker

after

the

desire

and

give

of how

of that

sum

has

this

of human
made

it

the

classical studies

any

be

by

ment
monu-

the

volumes

he

plicity
multi-

will not
heroic

very

aesthetic
of

names

knowledge.
possibleto
is

will enable

comprehensible
first developed,

has
the

Classical

made

time

same

into

compress

essential;while
the reader

particularsubjectthat

to

volume

the

pursue

has

such

here

have

as

by adding something
adoption of

some

seemed

It has

phases.

only such scholars

The

with

written

and

were

which

evolution

evolution

size all that


references

is

ago,

in its three

science,possessing at

best to mention
on

treatise

reading; yet

comprehensive

marked
distinctly

helped

wide

years

has, therefore,been

gradual

Philology a
very

few

The

knowledge.

to

knowledge

student, unless

present work

The

narrative.

continuous

to

the

plan

of

venient
con-

bibliographical
more

tively
exhaus-

been

touched

PREFACE

It

upon.

service

and

see

often

that

hoped

is

to

students

understand

obscured

by

the

of

the

the

unity

matters

of

IX

book

may

classics,
which

secondary
Harry

New

March

York,

29,

191

1.

in

be

in

of

some

helping

their

studies

tical
prac-

them

is

importance.
Thurston

Peck.

to

too

TABLE

CONTENTS

OF

PAGHS

vii-ix

Preface
.

CHAPTER

I.

Genesis

The

Studies

Philological

of

in

Greece

II.

5-27

Pr^-Alexandrian

The

28-87

Period
.

III.

Alexandrian

The

Period

88-129
....

IV.

GrjECO-Roman

The

Period
....

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

Ages

The

Middle

The

Renaissance

Division

Age

The

Period

192-259

260-288

Periods

into

The

130-191

of

289

Erasmus

of

290-300

Nationalism

301-384
....

X.

XI.

The

German

The

Cosmopolitan

385-455

Influence

456-458

Period
....

Selected

Bibliographical

461-476

Index
....

General

Index

477-491

HISTORY

CLASSICAL

OF
PHILOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Definition

The

Methods

history of

The

of

that

intellectual
the

once

the

that

interpreted and

have

history

of

classical

the

of

evolution

Epigraphy,

for

variously used
was

and
and

the

"f"i\o\oyia,

dialogues
to

Greek

first

in

only

is

argument,

many

"philologist"

centuries.

Plato

one

writer

but

he

uses

general
who

whether

to

them

in
A

way.

is fond

the

employ

of

philosophical

or

or

science

the

tory
his-

Criticism,

have

been

(428-347

technical

no

who
not.

B.C.)

""t\o'\o7o?

words

philologist

talk

at

Religion.

and

"philology"

terms

chronicle

and

the

trace

of

Numismatics,

Palaeography,

and

upon

will

literatures,

Philosophy, Archaeology, Mythology,


The

It

will

(especially linguistic science), and


of

light

Rome.

cal
classi-

from

studies

those

thrown

and

Greece

springs
of

growth

history of the

is the

Philology

development

antiquity, and
sciences

Treatment

of

Classical

intellectual

whole

Philology

Classical

of

in

is much
In

sense,

Plato's

given

Aristotle,

HISTORY

philologyis

love of

the Alexandrian
restricted
There

is

scholar,""a
the

and

merely, or

geographer and

inconsistent
The

makes
the

athlete.

by

Greece

sound

scholarship.

us

think

of the
almost

the

the

dawn

eighteenthcentury

language

best

"philology"

speech; second,

the

Renaissance

oftenest

was

great Homeric

made

criticism

as

the

critic,F.

A.

himself

it clear that he meant

critical

well

study of the whole

as

the

and

as

relates
When

Romans.

Wolf, matriculated
as

by

studiosus
the

at

philologies,

phrase the

traditional

cluding
in-

humanities.

philologywhich

of the Greeks

inscribed

of

used

period last named, Watts,

in the

Philology is

amples
ex-

is
versatility

English lexicographerof the time, explainedit

Classical

learningin
finally,
of

it

the

word

firstof all,
a love of

From

sense.

of

cheap gibes of

that

research; and
pursuitof linguistic

Gottingen,he
and

refute the

with

to the culture-studies

the

first

was

astronomer,
of

one

have

historyand
Thus

to

is

would

studies; but
linguistic
an

He

and

who

it,then, mean,

to

man."

day,

student

general development of the

its widest
down

in his

was,

mathematician

an

afforded
men,

fact that it

primarily,a

even

but
literature,

petty

learned

since he
type of the scientific investigator,

supreme
not

was

often

was

(276-196 B.C.),the head

great libraryat Alexandria, who


the

the word

Rome,

in
deep significance

applied to Eratosthenes

so

in

of "a

sense

PHILOLOGY

learning(Lat. studium). During

period and

the

to

CLASSICAL

OF

gent,
intelli-

learning of

INTRODUCTION

the past;

that the

so

been

1777)has

opposed

Otfried

of pedantry.
spirit

acquaintancewith

an

There

in every

the

to

way

abstract

forms, but

to

get
the

grasp

its works

in

meaning,

to

nor

of

l
and of imagination."
feeling,

of

reason,

philology."

facts
particular

its broadest

spiritin

ancient

(April8,

Miiller well said of it that it

establish

strive to

not

modern

styled"the birthdayof

Classical Philology is

"does

his matriculation

day of

four

are

recognizedmethods

of

treatingthe

historyof Classical Philology.


(1)The
with the

historyby periods.

(2) The

BiographicalMethod, which

in the persons
1

Since

Method, which deals

Annalistic

or
Synchronistic

the

study

Indo-European

of the history

treats

of great representative
scholars.

of Sanskrit

languages

as

led to

related

the scientific

to

of
investigation

another, the

one

new

the

science

of

the meaning
Comparative Philology has arisen to complicatestill more
of the word
The
Germans, therefore,
"philology" when simply used.
have

made

certain

distinctions

which

convenient

it will be

for us,

also,

when
modified by an adjectiveis
not
adopt. Philology (Philologie)
the general study of language; Comparative Philology is better styled
logie
while
Classical Philology (KlassischePhiloLinguistics(Linguistik)
;
Klassische
Alterthumswissenschaft)is that comprehensive study
or

to

antiquity which

of

of the
schichte

der

word

has

"philology" at

Klassischen

Lehrs, Appendix

to

references
interesting
the

History of

passage
an
a

been

just now

given by

Classical

contained

different

Philologie im

Herodiani

defined.

times,

the

Letters

ings
mean-

Grafenhan,

see

Tria

(Berlin,1857);

in pp.

1-4

of

Philology (Boston, 1902).

in Seneca's

various

Ge-

Alterthum, vol. i (Bonn, 1843);

Scripta
Gudeman

For

(xviii.v.

30-34,

In

and

the

his Outlines
a

of

remarkable

Haase)

there

is

comparison between the different ways in which a philologist,


examine
Cicero's
grammarian, and a philosopherwould respectively
acute

treatise De

Refublica.

HISTORY

The

(3)
of

Eiodographic

philology
The

(4)

CLASSICAL

OF

which

Method,

describes

the

tory
his-

subjects.

by

Ethnographic

the

PHILOLOGY

Geographic

or

philological

of

history

school

single

cusses
dis-

which

Method,

nation

or

separately.
In

this

these

book

methods

general

in

it

and

the

need

of

chronological

has

played;

relief

the

individuals

from

There
Alfred

more

brief

See
is

valuable

skeleton

elaborate
Geschichte

in

his

life-work

Klassischen

of

history
etc.,

(Leipzig

and

Philologie

of

into

bringing
gains

Classical

classical

3d

each

or

added

an

personality.1

their

System

emphasising

nation

time

give

to

constantly

each

same

of

Outlines,

Grundriss
der

the

at

of

keeping

of

one

but

others;

symmetry

whose

Outlines

the

which

part

single

no

subject,

knowledge

Gudeman

whole

and

Fitz-Hugh,
a

of

the

school

meaning

exclusion

the

follow

to

of

clear

making

proposed

the

to

survey

mind

is

ed.

philology
(Boston,

Berlin,
(Leipzig,

(1900).

Pcedagogy

1907).

1908).

by
1903)
See

Professor

also

and
Kroll's

his

HISTORY

horde
of

CLASSICAL

OF

of virile conquerors

the

ethnic

same

their descent

great male

from

their

Hellenes, and

of their

in

own

in the states

as

into the
of that

only

worshipping the

it

fact that

past

which

Tiryns and

as

explains. The

importance of

to

arts, leave

still at

us

early Greeks.

assertingnothing more

than

subsequentlyHellenized
Mediterranean

loss
One

first

were

See

the

afterwards

Botsford
Ramsay,

the

in
justified
became
sections

the

Pelas-

Libyans.2

as

Journal

Chapters in Greek

of what

Hellas, or
in

of

very

Hellenic

History, pp.

destined

was

Greece.

Professor

manner
interesting

Studies, ix.
28-54 (New

351;

and

York

and

London, 1892).
2

See

Sergi,The

Mediterranean

north,moving slowlysouthward,

has described
in

is

populated by

inhabitants
original

the

known

Gardner, New

and

regardingthe

comprisingthe so-called

race

migration from

overwhelmed

G. W.

regarded as

that the lands which

gians,the Iberians,the Ligurians,and

be

beginning

explorationsat Mycenae

racial affinitiesof the

to

far back

very

be

it

elsewhere, though attestingthe antiquityof

certain of the

later

it presents

anything like

afterwards

The

aristocracy

an

how

show

to

serves

came

were

civilisation

theories,and

look for

must

we

culture

it

Zeus,

or

they subsequentlyfounded.1

of many

one

Hellenic.
essentially

of the

and

they ruled

cities which

difficultiesas

lies in the

fathers

part

tracing

conquerors,

they established

Asia, where

and

this is

many

is another

thundering deity, Bronton

possiblytrue

Yet

Thrace

These

theory.

through

PHILOLOGY

Race.

Eng.

trans.

(London, 1901).

the

of

nature

which

and

bows

future

home,

dense

were

wolves."

and

These

of brush

huts
and

they

who

But

islands

and

they

boats

must

have

for the first time


own,

them
1

Botsford,A Historyof
See also E.

1892); Hall,
Ridgeway,

and

The

The

the Orient

Greece

the
civilisation,
from

harbours

off to the islands.


when

vessels,much
These

with

Greece
zur

of
the

fruits of which

the north.

But

push

Greece

city,and

York

were

and

vol.
Geschichte,

in

gauds

'

London,
i. (Halle,

(London, 1901);

Pelasgians as

saw

Phoenician

countless

(New

alien

they

at

largerthan

were

(Cambridge, 1901,

this

"

to

and

out

invaders

found

coast

men,

fully accepted view, regards

line
coast-

harbours.

no

commercial

not

Hellenic

country the

new

astonished

yet

mere

They began

Civilisation

Early Age of

built

hand.

Meyer, Forschungen
Oldest

they

semi-

were

at

been

greedy merchant

Age

shifted their uncertain

eastern

ancient

an

Greece,

plains. Everywhere

first

with

strange black

Sidon,
'

came

1904).

have

enteringtheir bays.

ships from

dren
chil-

they readilyabandoned,

near

small

and

by lions,wild boars,

of their

the

to

came

make

to

their

the west

pikes,

country, with

broad

at

clay,which

for centuries
At

everywhere

"

habits; since

with

found

of the Tribal

nearly straightand

was

once

few

Greeks

and

must

habitations.

those

only

bands

warriors

women

They

ox-carts.

forests,haunted

in their

nomadic

their

rugged, mountainous

valleysand

narrow

Their

armed

and

in

came

its chief.

while

arrows,

GREECE

IN

They

in skins

in two-wheeled

rode

"

migration.1

foot, dressed

on

with

their

this

STUDIES

each under
call tribes,

we

travelled

and

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

and

foil.).A recent,

having

worked

appropriatedby the

true

HISTORY

for

trading with

the

the

Greeks

then

were

Indians, they
ways

of

the

coast

welcomed

CLASSICAL

OF

natives.

Though

barbarous

as

were

PHILOLOGY

foreigners.The
Asiatic

and

arts

these

and

weapons,

homes,

from

chiefs; artists

native

and

painted,carved,

this civilisation
of it.

With

uncivilised

their

bronze

wise

in

palaces for
dwellings,

new

and

enough
wealth

as

of

course

centring

in

in

roving.

polished
to

by

receive
means

they conquered

weapons

neighbours, and,

for

walled

vases

well

as

Contented

these

were

gained power

kingdoms, each

small

decorated

bronze

use

fondness

built

East

who

and

east

these

From

in stone.

frescoed, made

chieftains

Those

gems.

the

the

along

make

their

they outgrew

Skilled workmen
the

build

to

can
Ameri-

imitate the

artisans.
to

respects

North
to

chieftains

strangers they graduallylearned


tools and

the

as

learn and

to

eager

in most

their

time, formed

strongly fortified

castle."
The

make

early Greece
But

they

Greek
much

do

genius

as

in
plausibility

not

of
originally

mercurial, full
centuries

made

have
the

with

of

to

come

view

the

that

Celtic

their
curiosity,

they also afford

of

all accounts

character

the
know

more
a

it.

peoples,and

There

that

is

were

they

Restless, brave,

nomadic

brilliant than

parallelwith

of the

Hellenes

these

singlestock.

one

them

in

us

insightinto

an

we

meet

positive hypothesis untenable.

any

give us

connected
racially
were

which

contradictions

the

life for many

stable.

liticall
Po-

Celts,in that

the national

they lacked

Latins

had.

unity.

On

last,the Greeks

the

To

the

than

for

intellect,

qualitiesof imagination and

the

enhanced

and

than

the

it stimulated

and
inquisitive,

9
Roman.

was

separation rather

hand,

other

the

which

larger outlook

for

made

It

GREECE

IN

cohesiveness

them

seafaringgave

Their

STUDIES

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

tion.
specula-

adventurous, ingenious,

were

and

seekingafter something new

ever

interesting.

of

monument
not

rude

of the

exquisite workmanship,
of

management

Although the

their construction

be

or

Odyssey,though

very

the deftness

older, assume

first generallyintroduced

was

scholarshipis

not

representingeach
have

may

parts.1 It
1

See

the

does

not

Blass, Die

Br6al,Pour

Mieux

changes
concern

Inter polationen in
Connattre

Hotnere

that

view

these

and

both

us,

indeed,

der

the

fairlydefinite

two

however

which

of

is everywhere

Iliad

the Greeks.

among

organic whole,

an

mode

the

century B.C., when

indisposedto

been

The

fairly
primitive

of touch

them.

in

much

sound.

masterpiece,of epic poetry.

in the seventh

somewhere

form

melodious

nothing primitivein

discovered

bit of

wonderful

with

epicstell the story of

is

epic, is

but rather

out

and

colour

final

Homeric

people, there

to

wrought

lightand

climax, the

is the

It

poeticart,

the oldest

Homeric

literature,the

Hellenic

specimen

explainswhy

culture

Greek

antiquityof

The

writing
Recent
poems

numerous

underwent
to

as

in

determine

Odyssee (Halle, 1904); and

(Paris,1906).

HISTORY

IO

whether

there

student

of

as

OF

actuallylived

Classical

of intellectual
that

period of

undoubted
could

formal

have

must

the

been

little to

be

and

tradition

and

such

bards

to

the

importance of

is found

in its relation

even,

after

and
religion,
the

education

was

the

of

the

to

to

know

We

that

earliest home
with

the

of
of

names

that
the

the

of

centre

genialshores

more

completed epic which

the

is

cribed
as-

the

trainingthat

schools,which

we

our

scientific

present purpose

know

to
speculation,

part which

The

philosophy.
in

for

literary
study,to criticism,

to

extraordinary.
all

epos

fashion, to

Odyssey played

basis

masters

Homer.

chief

The

there

period there

became

the

know

Thrace

came

of

name

Orpheus, Musaeus, Eumolpus,

as

shifted from

by

there
writing,

centuries

epic.

be

to

tested

the

Homeric

of the

Finally,we

Ionia, whence

and

under

poets who

Thrace

be

within

scholarshipendeavours

the

of

Greeks

of

fifteen

which

after that
held

Thamyris.

cultivation

and

for

epic

opment
gradual devel-

historycan

classed

The

Homeric

the

associated
literature,
semi-religious

mythical

Homer.

the

trace

generaluse

Before

thousands

been

Greek

In

of the arts

explain.

lyric,and

of

their

Before

of the

this

to

pursuitsamong

when

time

evolution

study

to

which

scholarship,although

an

individual

an

facts.

have

PHILOLOGY

Philologyregards the

from
starting-point

was

CLASSICAL

early period

These
was

to

poems
not

have

the
of

were,

Iliad

Greek

indeed,

purely physical.
existed

as

early

but

Homer

B.C.,

700

as

warfare, medicine,

and

poems,

theory of

their

theory is

in fact

were

settled

were

consulted

breathed

"I

and

critus

great poets
of

sort

mad

divine

"

find the

of the unusual

made

of the

thought
from

the

debate,
would
what
the

to

be

Iliad

end
the

New

to

each

or

Testament
the

this the Homeric

Bible

The

poems

mankind

to

Homer.

An

silence

pointed text

is to

is to the
Koran

study of his epics,

in them.

would

the
the

to

the

tions
relaall

apt quotation
an

opponent

from

orthodox

orthodox

were

were

the

Puritans.

is to orthodox
were

poets, held in

contained
and

by

for the

Lists

controversy among

Hebrew

what

belief accounts

studies.

other

Odyssey

song."

of Demo-

other

explained by

as
effectually

as

and
"

gods

of

say, carried away

In the

many

words

god that

ways

the greatest of all the

of

germs

to

says

in the notion

that is to

the intellectual life of Hellas.


we

was

is

B.C.),to the effect that all

frenzy. Such

Homer,

it

this

who

one

Phemius

various

is found

fifth century,

are

placewhich

appeal to the

according to the

bard

the

all the

mind

my

(in the

an

poet is

self-taught;but

touch of orientalism

by

expresslystated.

am

into

literature,

as

plenary inspiration.In the Odyssey

inspiredby the Muses;


Odysseus:

much

so

II

religion. Questions that

even

which

Homeric

GREECE

IN

ethics,
history,politics,

authorityon

lands

titles to

involved

STUDIES

read, not

was

ultimate

an

as

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

in

Bible

Indeed,

Jews, what

Protestant

tians,
Chris-

Muhammadans,

early Greeks.

HISTORY

12

for

reverence

them

in

Even

their

authentic

affected the

presentlyhave

own

days

its existence
which

made

regardingevery topicthat

upon

by

same

which
inspiration

Homer.1

Iliad and

the

called

poets, commonly
imitated

Homer

round

cycleof

one

or

and

the
other

the

and

There

with

Cyclic poems
Homer,

but

of the

the

Trojan
the

were

later to

of Arctinus, and

The

Cypria,

Stasinus

parodies by Pigres.2There
1

See,

for

The

Proclus

xiii-xvi (New

certain

cycles,
the

cosmogony;
stories

upon

nected
con-

celebrated of the
ascribed

time

one

to

Agias, not

likewise

York, 1908) ;

and

so-called

the

Age,

the Homeric

the

mention

to

Adam,

with
The

liography
the bib-

Religious

of Greece,pp. 21-67 (Edinburgh, 1908).


chief

authority for

(412-485a.d.)in

(New

York, 1898);

by

B. Munro

D.

largely

Hegesias,the Mthiopis

the

Cyclic poets is

the extracts

preserved by

Epische Cyclus (Bonn, 1865); Lawton,

Der

to

most

at

of the

genealogiesof
and

were

example, Seymour, Life in

pp.

Teachers

or

of

the Nostoi

who

reallytwo

the

Titans

War.

have

the minor

to

within

were

Trojan Cycle,based

in the

of the

the author

to

themselves

tradition.

battles

much

that

Cyclic Poets,

confined

and

see.

casuallytouched

even

added

Mythic Cycle, relatingto

gods

the

to

scholars

also attributed

Odyssey, was

in later

men

occasion

modern

ascribed

was

of

is discernible

was

be

It may

among

historybegins.

minds

shall

critical studies

minutely

entertained

we

as

our

PHILOLOGY

learning was

when

time

Its strong influence

centuries,

CLASSICAL

Homeric

the

at

OF

and

in The

meaning

of the

of Hellenic

Studies

for the
Journal

The

the

Chrestomatheia

Photius.

See

Successors
word

Welcker,

of

a
cyclicus,

(1883).

of

Homer

paper

HISTORY

14

"

tyrant,"the

said

have

to

committed

referred

is

to

later writers

Josephus, Libanius, and


of this standard

with

has

have

to

the

series of

with

poor

cattle

leave

Athens

and

have

erected

beautiful

rites
religious
1

See

that
work.
nor

both

The

has

It

Thucydides

have

Homer

and

modern

One

seine

in
nor

the

students

hold

festival,yet with
20.

no

more

text

that

credit

innovations,

to

he

is said

have

plied
sup-

they might

regulatedthe

the

superb

festival

(Tubingen,
Thtttigkeit

of letters took

men

times

text.

So

Herodotus

frequently mention

all

allusion

any

neither

that

part in the

whatever

to

Pisistratus

moderate
for purposes

has

opinion and

any

of

basis of

are

posed
dis-

fact

at

regard Pisistratus

of recitation

consideration

this alleged

significantis this omission,

subject (forexample, Wilamowitz)

minute

is not

to
agriculture;

have

Aristotle,who

deny that the story about


may

tion
ascrip-

to

Thus,

to

litterarische

modern

Homeric

of the

upon

Diomedes, quoted by Villoison, says

Pisistratus,makes
of

of

so

instituted

(or seventy-two)

Plato

having rearranged the


infra,p.

und

noticed

nor

custom

themselves

grammarian

been

seed

only

the

laws;

sumptuary

buildings;to

to

staff of seventy

to

all.

and

Greek

recension
that

betake

Flach, Peisistratos

1885).

the

artistic.

and

tradition

Pisistratus

to

extraordinarynumber

an

enforced

The

Therefore

been

conceived

Cicero, Pausanias,

as

text

and
social,literary,
political,

"

plan

is based

such

Tzetzes.

It

necessarilyaccurate.
Pisistratus

out

and

Homeric

In this,
specialists.1

followed

tradition

is

(about 530 B.C.) to

predecessor,Solon.

merely a

authorityof

the

work
Homeric

have

relative and

his

PHILOLOGY

sagaciousPisistratus,who

the

learned

is said to

Pisistratus

by

brilliant and

of four

commission

CLASSICAL

OF

at

as

the Panathenaic

particularlines.

See

of the

the

it does

There

that

recension

the

since
highlyprobable,
writers

priorto

is
five

read

Christian

We

hundred

Thus,

era.

cited

are

Herodotus.
and

are

only

also
1

hear

See

"

Ludwich,

(Leipzig,
1898).

pelled
com-

portions
and

with

that

by

slight

very
few

portant
imof

text

our

that

is

made

made

which

was

of the

the

beginning

and

fifty-two
passages

about

amount

to

contain

less than

made

ever

of

Homeric

an

the

city editions
Die

he

after and
four
a

cluding
in-

hundred

dozen

lines

ordinarytext.1

official text
of

Homer

by twenty-ninewriters

They

in the

not

If Pisistratus
the

confident

hundred

one

brought

in his time

themselves

before

case

arrangement;

period exhibit

be

eightylines,but they

which

definite

quotationsfrom

years

else

supposing that

undertaken

was

may

Hence

In any

one

in

Homeric

standard

some

substantiallyidentical

Homer

from

"

"

or

Homer-vidgata

text, it

was

not

great epics,since

two

als

moting
pro-

first person

recite the different

Alexandrians

changes.
Homer

or

Alexandrian

the

The

variations.

to

according to

poems

the

Pisistratus.

for

reason

publicdeclaimers

the

indeed

is

of

to

he

whether

matter

it into form.

the

ascribed

been

have

not

thus

libraryfor publicuse.

open

encouraged Thespis

been

have

to

that the establishment

it is natural

of

and

Drama;

should

have

to

GREECE

IN

primitivetragediesat Athens,

his

to collect and

Greece

text

Panathenaea;

Greater

produce

to

STUDIES

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

civic

we

editions," which

voralexandrinisch

erwesen

HISTORY

standards

were

fact is that

beginning

in its

PHILOLOGY

country.1 The

own

Criticism

Text

knowledge

must

in

which,

have

been

chronology,history,geography, and,

It is
of

remember

to
interesting

that the Athenians

War,
so

and

of

bring in

to

as

Athens.

We

the

critics in modern

times

only

for there

is

detected

in

There

is some

of these

Seven

national

first four

editions

were

prepared under
editions

"

were

beset text
due

also conscious
Nor

to

teratio
alwas

suffered in this way;


Onomacritus

of Musaeus

and

was

that he

the first carefully

in the legendthat
significance

"

of Homer

city editions

Ionic, and

supposed

to

the

have

the direction

is ^86creis

the sixth

as

was

"

are

noted

made

in

the

"

Athens, rather

Massalotic, the Si-

nopic, the Chian, the Cyprian, the Argive,the Cretan, and


The

hero

for it.

prepared edition
1

text

oracles

Odyssey

editions,errors

effect that

the

to

alteringthe

punished

was

story

whose

author

the

of the transcriber.

purpose

make

to

as

so

early

ignorance,and

to

accused

was

line in the

Theseus,

variant

"

extent,

language.

difficultieswhich

of all the

suit the

the

of

name

others due
carelessness,
to

inserted

"

part in the Trojan

have, therefore, as

century, indications

Homer

had

that Pisistratus

upon

certain

many

drawn

Iliad

taken

had

found

now,

Solon

that

line in the

having interpolateda

it appear

to

be

as

aesthetics of

the
especially

aesthetics,
more

important

should

early a period there

so

of

of

sources

each

at

CLASSICAL

OF

last three

been

copies made

of Pisistratus.

/card ir6\"s.

were

The

jEolic.
from
Greek

the

Lesbian.

All of
the

term

these

archetype
for

"city

than

Athens

of culture.

it had

of

yet

not

teachingof which

The

we

physicaltrainingwith
States such

Doric

the

care

seven,

trained

as

man

the

The

and
writing,

which

by Plutarch

of course,

in

and

music

the

Crete

Bidiaei and

Paedonomi, under

placed after the

was

in

very much

had

gymnastics,in the

age

of

use

of

education
singing. For such literary

givenby

was

Homeric
them

practicewhich

his parents.

It is stated

to

poems

made

Sparta,and

requirementin the Spartan schools;

have been due to the fact that he had

but if so, this must


travelled in Asia

the

dependedchiefly
upon

semi-mythicalLycurgus brought

the

that

the

knowledge of

and

he
littlearithmetic)

instruction

paid

expectedto possess (usuallyonly reading,

was

copies of

young

in choral

and

arms,

with

was,

instruction

some

Spartan boy

the

whose

in Homer

read

Sparta

as

character.1

same

credit

the

has

publicinstruction given to youths in

The

medicine.

come
be-

to

impartinga generaleducation.

of

teachers for the purpose

and

Minor
he

had

had

observed

introduced
abroad.

at

home

the

Among

Ionians, however, literary


teachingin regular Schools
found

as

schools
1

See

Roman

earlyas

the

seventh

were

then

in

Monroe,

Source

Book

very

century

B.C., and

prosperous

as

is

these

condition

of the History of Education

Period) (New York, 1901).


c

world,though

Greek

regular schools

first established

having

destined

Ionia

supremacy.

won

represented

had

was

of the

the intellectual centre

GREECE

IN

the Asiatic Ionians, who

among

higher form

STUDIES

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

(Greek

and
and

HISTORY

CLASSICAL

OF

largelyattended, they

very

Herodotus

long before.

in the

in Chios

took

did

was

to

of

period

their

first

The

of literature

teaching

firstof all,as

an

adjunct to

probably before they had begun


study of

the Homeric

learningof
by

of

read

and

learn

them

recited

with

to

epics was

understand

remember

regard to

poet, the

master

teacher, an

the

anticipatedeven

the

But

peculiarview

of heroic

first taught

the

Odyssey were
urged

were

the

to

earlyappreciation

literary
appreciationat all;

He

in morals.

school, and

at

alphabetwas

heart.

veloped,
de-

school,was

prominence given to

Homer.

ethical

boys

the Iliad and

not

the

the

the

state

been

instruction

growing boys, who

to

graduallyby

of the

must

alphabet; for

while
ypafifiaTi(TT^"i,

the

and

the

have

attend

to

This

poems.

B.C., made

to

appears

earliest intellectual exercise

The

rightto

Sicily.2

in

instruction
provisionfor literary

thingsthey

of the

Charondas, about 650

schools.

city

own

Mitylena^ans

punished disloyalallies by deprivingthem


maintain

vasion
in-

system during the

exile.1 The

temporary

of the

left their

school

for their

arrange

boys' school

of the

one

established

the time

at

Athenians

refuge at Trcezen,

been

mentions

and

B.C.;

the

of Xerxes, when
and

have

must

(vi.27)

500

year

PHILOLOGY

was

verse.

guide, who

which
not

so

He

was

drew

the

study,we

Greeks

much
rather

the
a

his characters

10.
Plutarch,Themistocles,

Diodorus

xii. 12.
Siculus,

this

took

great
moral
with

conscious

concrete,
"

friend

"

what

and

been

either
is

late

As

as

great lover of the

he

reading over
who

Trojan War,

clearlythan

noble

was

the

actions

shun.

or

19

thought expressed.

same

have

of the

writer

their

declaiming at Rome,"

are

you

Lollius,

more

Romans,

find this

we

While

the

like all

who,

Horace

emulate

should

men

GREECE

IN

exhibitingin

of

purpose

that
qualities

STUDIES

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

GENESIS

Chrysippus

base,

what

Praeneste

at

tells

what

is

what

is

expedient and

is

and

better

us

Crantor

or

his

to

says

not."

useful model
The

given in
by

Plato

us.

is outside
even

of
have

against clear
the
were

hand
the

the

writing in
slaves.
"

of

When

Greek

we

is not

us

thorough knowledge

as

his moral

the

formal

by

the

that

to

ordinary

ing.
teach-

than

knowledge

of

barely

one

with

or

of

education

Greeks

enable

elegance

education.

There

MaharTy suggests, a prejudice

regularscript,because
which

before

set

that to write fast

range

books

the remark

average

and

far

so

existed,as

and

less valued

only

read;

on

in his Laws

says

necessary

and

write

has

dom
wis-

Ulysses."

also that

much

was

and

virtue

due, first of all,to

remember

school

of

insistence

must

what

to

as

(Homer)

person

therefore

writingis

may

in the

was

We

to

effect,he

strenuous

Homer

Again,

on,

able to

are

it is

"

farther

And

done

was

say that

person

it would

recall

by copyistswho
"

writes

clerkly

altogether
complimentary. Hence,

probably wrote

with

more

or

less diffi-

HISTORY

20

did not

culty,and
the

have,

of

most

with

learning,he

his

inasmuch
the

was

it

Homer

resulted

in

poems.

As

Mr.

impossiblethat
given as

poems."

use

memorised

teacher

the

could

be

and

contradictions

to

of

yet reconcile it with

and

of the

find traces

Solar

Myth

the

literary

with

mere

poetry.

at

in the

words

of

Literary

preserve

about

this

which

and

not

Nevertheless, it was

Saintsbury, A

Criticism

rightfulsense,

for

the form
a

his

began

We

time, and

Here

Bible.

though

"

genious
in-

Rabbinical

the

it had

to do

of Homeric

10-12

authority
life.

beginning;and

History of Criticism,i. pp.

which

pretation
rationalistic inter-

given of portionsof the Hebrew

beginning
"

Then

facts of human

like those
interpretations
writers have

wise,
all. Like-

at

untrue.

should
the

great moral

pointedout

were

be

to

the

deceitful,faithless,

as

or
allegorical

which

Homer,

without

thoughtful

moralist

statements

give an

and

whether

reallya

practicalknowledge showed
attempt

was

philosophically

in Homer

case;

representedthe gods

who

It

their critical faculties upon

themselves

ask

to

"

says,

so

be soaked

the

of

criticism

and

acute

indeed

was

debauched

and

exercise

to

with
familiarity

Saintsburywell

people so

Such

began

men

to

deeply saturated

more

general

very

Greeks, should

the

being tempted

"

he

as

universal

the

that

about

came

Homeric

is

occasion

it.

So

an

rule, much

as

But

accomplishment.

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

(New

and

not

chiefly
other

in succeedYork, 1900).

HISTORY

22

form

new

the

was

of

CLASSICAL

In

religionand

of

philosophy, while

Greeks
l

be

to

learned

"

seventh

the

Egyptians.

Americans

study, so early Greek

in

time

our

scholars

Dr.

visited the

Greek

culture

enthusiastic

the

Greek

admiration.

at

the

wants
practical

introduced

Thales

him

and

with

The

attempt

the

square

were,
'See

of
personality
mist

study

Tannery,

La

Greek

Geomelrie

Elementary Mathematics
2

is

An

abstract

of

While

commands
of

It

pierced
study

Geometry from

as

into

Greece

of scientific Astronomy.
old

as

stands

this great

the

as

Anaxagoras.

study of

alone.

matics.
Mathe-

Around

the

genius there hangs,as


envelopsall

Thales

Grecque (Paris,1887);

to

and

Euclid

it

of the most
(Dublin, 1889);

Cajori,A History of

(New York, 1907).

historyof geometry

preservedin the commentaries

of Euclid.

of Geometry

the circle is

of tradition such

Allmann,

instruction.

revelled in the

thingsand

Pythagoras,however,
life and

sat

questions pertaining

philosopherspursued

All of the Ionic

all
...

everyday life.

begins the study


to

of the

science."

as

of

Germany

mind
speculative

transcended

once

into the ideal relations of


of science

The

which

land

primitive,it

is,therefore,not

our

merely to

Egyptian priestsfor

the

marks:
Cajori re-

go to

pyramids. Thales, (Enopides, Pythagoras


at the feet of the

he

matics
century, mathe-

studied, (mainly geometry)

from

Just as

arise among

to

fact,as earlyas the

began

to

PHILOLOGY

first great mathematician

Greeks.

the

OF

in

Greece, written by Eudemus,

by Proclus (412 a.d.)on

the first book

GENESIS

Pythagoras

and

visiting
Egypt
Crotona,

in the

born

was

of

them

the

bound

were

he

under

the

and

highest caste;

Three

they

accordingto
not

to

be

the

make

spheres,"that
This

their lives reflect

is to

say,

the

order

the

and

of different

was

thing
some-

of secrecy

Everything is

so-called

Religion he taught

the

Pons

them

righteousness
of the

music

harmony
through

is

of the

all the
metic,
arith-

story which

sounds

scale

produced

weights strikingupon

respectivehammers.
the

There

various

suspending by stringsother

of the

largely

relations of the musical

by accidentallyobserving the
hammers

them

the

ran

He

Asinorum

in

transmigrationof

anvil,

an

weights equal
is said to

of

admitted

comprised music,

astronomy.

he discovered

"

and

principleof harmony

geometry, and

by

"

ethical

an

Pythagorean teaching, which

tells how

study his

were

oath

an

tocratic
aris-

everybody." Pythagoras taught

self-control,and

should

universe.

they took

leadership

There

of their master:

maxim

told to

temperance,
which

all this,for

about

the

hundred

judged

through his knowledge of physiognomy.

after

but

to

vow

philosophy.

Napoleon.

established
from

by

23

his residence

mainly

only by Pythagoras himself, who

mystic

to

Samos,

Italy,where

religionand

formed

of

brotherhood

Pythagoras. They
of

Moses

island

which, drawn

class,formed

theories

GREECE

IN

made
East, he finally

the

Southern

in

cult the members

of

STUDIES

from
history,

characters of

remarkable

at

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

those

to

covered
first dis-

have

geometry.
souls

"

In

doc-

24

HISTORY

trine which

he had

of all

CLASSICAL

OF

PHILOLOGY

probably learned

in India.

thingsis Number, accordingto

existingworks, bearing the


His

influence

among

the

of

name

the

among

Athenians,

was

for many

in the

century, the Eleatic

numbering

arose,

idea

of

God,

with

of whom

asserted

that

the

but

The

of

study

School, led

long

to the

the

been

be

may

basis

seventh

the

rhapsodes,thus

teach

the

with

became

existed before

of Homer.

elders who

had

On

his

earlypoets had depended.

spread

poems

Ionian

Homer

science.

exaggeration that

was

truth,

us

the mind.2

began

another

Zeno, both

and

cannot

senses

the other

it had

century,

schools,and the

la

as

philosophy

geographicalknowledge.

without

far

through

of

and

said

geography, so
the

originof

Finally,

having rejectedthe

Parmenides

nature, which

statements, Hesiod
It

as

verityis apprehended only by

that

the

teachers,
distinguished

Xenophanes, already mentioned


Homeric

centuries.1
of

wards
after-

that

so

no

uine.
gen-

Greeks, and

School

its most

among

teaching;but

great;

very

cult endured

essence

Pythagoras,are

Italian

Pythagorean
sixth

his

The

heard

among

interest in

the

The

Greeks

tirely
en-

children in the

the declamations

acquainted with

of

the middle

the

of the

cities,rivers,

Gleditsch,Die Pytkagoreer (Posen, 1841); Chaignet, Pythagore

Philosophic Pythagorienne (Paris, 1873). For

Verses,

see

Gottling'sedition

of

Hesiod

his

so-called

(Gotha, 1843); and

et

Golden
Schnee-

berger,Die goldenen Spriichedes Pythagoras (Munnerstadt, 1862).


'Windelband,
translation

History of Ancient

(New York, 1899).

Philosophy, pp.

46-52. English

GENESIS

of

mountains

and

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

Greece, and

Ships) with

of

after first-hand

But

learned

the

of the

names

had

physicalgeography,

been

formulate

to

that

so

made

largescale

upon

His

supposed it to

be.

constructed

bronze

the

sphereof

the

the

science

of

Miletus

is said

to

sea, and

the

In

this

of

Descriptive Geography

To

this the

who

corrected
of

This

and

western

such
the

with

contact

data

the

of

the

Hanno

were

of

and

as

fragments

of

Carthage,

into

came

direct

adding

tary
commen-

preserved in quotations.4

are

is the firstgeographicalwork

See Bunbury, A

preparation

Egyptians.3 Hecataeus

chart of Anaximander,

which

curiosity.

Africa,his countryman

Greeks

Persians

from

gradually accumulated.

were

coast

collected

were

or

which

come
yet be-

not

for the

necessary

great contributors

exploredthe

Himilco,

the

manner

business

on

he

of the rivers

courses

countries,however, had

travelled

as

(c.500 B.C.),
2

of

who

persons

world

plaque or possiblya globe, on

notes
important; though descriptive

from

tribes.

of

of the

map

logue
Cata-

view

exact

compatriot,Hecataeus

earth,the

given. Maps

were

the

gained by travel,

them
of

2$

Hellenic

more

with

Geography began.1 Anaximander


have

GREECE

IN

from
(especially

knowledge

began

men

STUDIES

History of Ancient

written

by

any

Greek.

Geography (London, 1883).

aX"^f""" nlvaZ (Herod, v. 125).


JSee

Antichan,

1891); and
4

by

Edited
Schaffer

Les

Grands

infra,pp.

34-.35-

by
on

C.

and

Hecataeus

Th.

Voyages

Miiller

de Dicouvertes

(Paris,1841).

(Berlin,1885).

des Anciens

See

the

(Paris,

monograph

26

HISTORY

OF

CLASSICAL

Writers like Anaximander


observations

employed
followed
But

in

even

but

the

from
known

were

as

mingle,with

and

remarks

Logographi;

of

Thus

the

there

it

employed

presentlythey began

their works,

also with
the

of

Herodotus, who

learning. Homeric

the

story of

has

Grafenhan

of the

the

elements

study

fostered

came

with

fully
skil-

given

Antiquity."

that out

seen

Its

personalobservations, so

which

name

at

was

simply written.

very

later with

Humboldt

it will be

of Homer

and

prose,

rowed
expressionbor-

who

descriptivegeography

deserves
"

annals

comes

nations, interwoven

him

Those

true

beginningsof History,which

than

development

he

of

of

highlypoetical

it become
turns

Romans.

restraints

geographical. In
strictly

first nothing more

that

the

been

of countries,anecdotes
descriptions

find the

combined

writers.

epic

not

therefore,we

true

phrases and

their

the

among

aside

cast

Only by degrees did


filled with

their

example

an

"

still maintaining a

form, though

was

committed

their time, poetry had

in later times

descriptivegeography

character.

Hecataeus

discussion
philosophical

Lucretius

by

metrical

to

Until

Prose.

to

and

PHILOLOGY

study and

criticism

of

kinds

many

mathematical,

of

graphical
geo-

research,justas
astronomical,and philosophical
it led other

model.
a

poets

Though

universal

to

write

in

imitation

ceased
gradually

Homer

teacher, yet the devotion


1

"Koyoypdcpoi.

of

their

to be

of the

great

viewed

as

Greeks,

so

GENESIS

poetry, exercised

his

long given

to

it endure

far

part of every

embedded

the

English

our

own.

of

Greek

guide

of

the

chez

1887);

(Berlin,1897)
Gli

and

London,

the

addition

to

Egger,

2d

ed.

1909).]

done

der
de

as

him

to

as

model

Griechische

1902);

Modern

Philologie,

History

de

of

la

York,

tique
Cri-

Classical

1908); Jebb,

Homer
ed.

4th

Study (London,
E.

2d

Classique,

VHistoire
A

preceding

AlterthUmer,

oj Homeric

for

Classischen

sur

Sandys,

(New

in the

Philologie

Essai

(Rome,

vols.

cited

(Cambridge,

Handbook

Pelasgi

Greeks

sources

unconscious

the works

Manuel

Schdmann,

in

him

still turned
an

Geschichte

1-51,

trans.,

the

forsaking

men

and

(Paris, 1887);

Browne,

Hethei

Greece, Eng.
have

pp.

while

of

expression.

Reinach,

les Grecs

(Glasgow,

What

science,

find

to

those

as

embedded

are

are

we

language

(Paris, 1885)

Scholarship, i.

Cara,

in

Grafenhan,
;

him

firmly

as

Greeks,

the

phrases,

were

Shakespeare

Afterward,

In

"

also

1843)

vols.

of

yet harmonious

see

(Bonn,

ed.

study

of

[Bibliography.

of

and

master

strong

chapter,

and

learning.

in morals

of

be

to

become

His

utterances,

daily speech

Bible

In

great

the

in

had

equipment.

gnomic

made

held

was

lines

great

intellectual

many

he

27

which

influence

when

His

GREECE

IN

an

time

writer.

man's

epithets, his

his

the

beyond

wholly inspired

STUDIES

PHILOLOGICAL

OF

1005)

Curtius, History

1868-

1872);

Civilisation?

oj

Mahaffy,

(New

York

II

THE

PR^E-ALEXANDRIAN

PERIOD

(500-322
Throughout

the

Greek

in

culture

Minor.

Asia
which

To

have

Hellas

The

ascribed

were

these

in almost

brilliant, and

Sparta

in

States

had

territories

century
1

See

been
which

they
Jannet,

of

institutions

Athens

of

all

all to

and

which

at

gradually
touched

became

Les

so

of

possessed

Sociales
.

1880).
28

of

each

Sparta

they
were

democratic,

strict

activity.
discipline,

These

power.1

own;

Sparta

which

by

was

acquiring

their

Institutions

to

had

Pisis-

fitted

intellectual

warlike

for

In

ties.
possibili-

Solon

and

Athens

respect.

first of

efforts

Sparta

latent

roles

important

aristocratic, subjected

was

and

full of
rule

history.

every

given

caring first

and

the

of

Ionians

preceding chapter.

was

the

acy
suprem-

intellectual

Athens

which

and

the

in the

temperate

play

to

known

different

due

the

by

traditionallyto Lycurgus, had

States
best

are

and

centuries,

held

both

however,

Athens,

in

tratus

been

described

wise

seventh

were

prominence

and

had

them

been

proper,

achieved

sixth

B.C.)

two

control

over

the

that

the

sixth

in

civilisation

Sparte,

2d

ed.

based
(Paris,

CLASSICAL

30

HISTORY

Marathon

(490 B.C.).

ten

thousand

were

routed

and

Datis

under

PHILOLOGY

hundred

One

Artaphernes

Athenians

under

Modern

historians

Probably

Greeks,

fell upon

long time,
and

the

the

If the able

different.
effect

the

all

Making

campaign

leaped at

and
to

once

enhanced

when,

returned
a

and

ten

years

marched

Spartans, who

The

glorious defeat
routed

and

the

of

Persians

Spartans united

of Persia
1

Sec

behind
also

influence

enormous

Thermopylae
off
in

Salamis;

to

in

was

and
to

arms,

The
while

shatteringthe
fortifications at

Schauer, Die Schlacht bei Marathon

which

army

Macedonia

rushed

been

was

Persian

new

fleet sailed forth

now

their

have

Therefore, Athens

later,the
An

manded
com-

abandoned

Persians

Asia.

through

overwhelming

an

doubtless

positionof great

Xerxes, sought vengeance.


his command

to

already
had

energeticDarius

since the

for

departing,

were

allowances, however, it

victory for Athens,

says,

battle

powerful cavalry had


and

been

Geldner

F.

they

as

nians
the Athe-

it has

avoided

the result would

in person,

victorysent

that

K.

having

Persians

their

especiallyafter

embarked."

Professor

after

Asiatics

exploitof

greatlyexaggeratedthen, and
since.

against

Hellas.

believe that the

ever

The

the Athenian

triumph throughout all

misunderstood

Persians

pitted there

Miltiades.

great loss,and

with

thousand

were

thrill of

was

"

OF

king,
under

Thrace,

Thessalonica.
suffered
Athenian

both

fleet

Athenians

disordered
Plataea.

the

troops

Finally,

(Berlin,1893).

PR^-

THE

the

Ionians,

the

on

Grecian

of their

servitude

remained

by

same

day, being encouraged by

the

off

shackles

destroyedthe sixtythousand

and

of the great host that had

out

Persian

two

Wars

been

by compelling the
these

splendid triumphs
wherever
activity

stimulation

well

serve

which

men

led forth

cost

The

floweringof

ravaged Italy in
of

the

race

heavilyin

so

treasure.

triumphs

stimulated

vindication

Punic

Italian

and

XIV,

again amid

the

the

superblymemorable

science; and
See

Cox, The

'Note,
Athenians

for
in

did her

so

Greeks

and

to

afford

material

in

apparently
to the

Civil

Wars

with

the

France

Napoleonic

was

Wars.

made

in the annals

the Persians
remarkable

this

for the

which

golden

never

so

Louis

The

heroic

of literature and

with

(New York, 1897).

activity displayed by
the urgent advice

work, tearing down


walls.

first

the Elizabethan

enlargingtheir city'swalls.

children,under

even

struggles

contest
stubborn, unrelenting

the

example,

Themistocles,engaged
tombs

and

rebuildingand

station,women,

The

it may

under
battle-years

struggleof England againstSpain


Period

in

led at Rome

Augustan Age.

in
as
glorious,
intellectually,

and

war,

life and

genius.

dinary
extraor-

historic

many

Wars

fact,

represented.2Such
great

human

in

into

them

was

of

direct

no

all their power,

later century ended

the

put forth

to

had

Philology;yet

result of every

is the

as

have

wasted

real

Classical

Greeks

have

to

seem

may

historyof

relation to the

the

more

once

Xerxes.1

The

PERIOD

ships,shook

sightof

who

ALEXANDRIAN

Men

of every

of the

temples

the

mighty

and

even

OF

HISTORY

32
the

Corsican

and

joy

of

conflict stir at

the

imagination.

Hence

it is that

of

States, and

make

to

the

cityof

arts

as

the rise of

men

who

visible in the

from
of

two

which

assault

were

their
had

Greece.

on

had

which

come

early in
of the

Conspicuous

Pindar, greatest of

Thebans

were

jealousof Athens; yet

poet, but the laureate of the whole


over

for the

the defeat of the

of

to the

Wars

the

death

spirati
in-

of the Persian
these

was

lyric poets.

Pindar

Persians

tends
ex-

the

through

Hellenic

forth vivid, joyous lines,ringingwith

for

ment
develop-

period,which

among

all the

look

now

because

them

of all

centre

Certain

chief distinction
to

pride

only nebulously

this

Persian

such

won

Hellenic

must

been

ning
begin-

Hellenic

the

the

reallygreat, and

the

had

rouse

crown

to

and
intellect,

for

We

arms.

nations

Wars

which

to

as

violet

Theban

exultation

the

Persian

alike

lets the fierce

and

ease

preceding centuries.

the outbreak

Aristotle,won

the

as

famous

became

who

well

studies

of those

It leads

Athens,

field

in the

Hellas, in

men

success.

inspiresthem

splendid career

of all for

brilliant victories
and

entirely

ultimate

senses,

find in the

we

most

of

the

once

great and

It

its defeats.

by

love
inglorious

aside their

cast

in her

mental.

physicaland

its victories

by

she stood

times

at

great scale brings into play all the energies

both

PHILOLOGY

confidence

haughty

on

of men,

when

Emperor,

alone, with
Warfare

CLASSICAL

was

race;

led him

the note

of

no

and
to

the
The

local
his
pour

patriotic

THE

of

Because

pride.
him

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

twofold

besides

The

Poetry

of

and

the

Pindar

of

with

after

expressionof

"

the

form

peoples.

by

movement

forms

was

Melic

known

so

Poetry, which

to

musical

was

shape

earlyas

700

from

B.C.

'See

it

from
the

York, 1908).
D

in

dance, a
primitive

find in Homer.

Side

lighterlyrical
Iambic

Purely lyricalor

intended

verse

varied

the

Elegiac and

Ionians.

to

be

sung

to

Ionic,but first received

not

In the ^Eolic

Scherer,Poetik

existed

epic to lyriccomposition,

Terpander of

complete and

W.

we

in song.

imitated by Horace),and
(later
gave

have

developed very gradually

was

which

accompaniment, was

artistic

the

among

primitivemetrical

hexameter, however,

transition

Lyric

originally
expresseditself
is the

Then

cultivated

was

Poetry
and

this

it must

of the

which

hexameter
dactylic

side with

art

that

ual
individat first absolutely

"

This

measure,

the

note

play instinct,"seekingnaturally

in the trochaic
all

him

rude form, for it is the spontaneous

rhythmic movement.1

among

to

on

lyricin general is the

a concomitant
self-expression,

vocal

to

conscious

poetry, and

of emotion

utterance

paid back

us

The

the earliest ages, at least in

imposed

in his honour.

leads

Dorians.

form
primitive

most

Athenians

statue

first cultivated

was

^olians

the

erectinga

mention

33

this,his fellow-Thebans

heavy fine,which

PERIOD

Antissa

in Lesbos

as

Alcaeus of Mitylene
lyric,
his

contemporary, Sappho,

form.

(Berlin,1888); and

So the

jovialpoems

Peck, Literature (New

HISTORY

34

of

Anacreon

(550 B.C.)

time.

Pindar's

Yet

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OP

it

Pindar,

was

choral poetry to its highestform

Wars, togetherwith

earlier than

composed

were

his

and

raised

of the Persian

the time

at

Simonides

Dorian, who

nephew, Bacchyl-

ides.1
The

foes

splendid
led

of

Herodotus

which

is

of

middle

fifth

the

"

history of

however, that

Logographi.2 It

and

form

annalistic

was

retains

of

epic of

Persian

in

11

of

This

is

be

See

obliterated
Mattel,
to

Die

Smyth's

See p. 26.

It

the end

the
that

by time, and

written

Melic

Poets

seen,

the

by
the

aside

dry

is at

style that

This

for the

Hellas

and

shows:

that

great

the

East,

of Herodotus

deeds
the

genial,

"

researches
the

it

subjectof

of

men

great and

griechischenLyriker (Berlin,1892); and

Greek

great

is, indeed,

of the first book

to

the

about

have

We

cast

prose

date

highly picturesque,for

Wars.

publicationof

Halicarnassus,

not

conflict between

the

the first sentence

as

who

Herodotus
wrote

been

yet pleasingwriter took

history the

prose

had

to

facts,
interesting

History."

sort

Minor

Herodotus,

B.C.

eastern

at

been

deep tinge of poetic colouring.

learned, and
his

books

have

must

simple, attractive, and

once

Asia

collector of

the Father

styled

in

in nine

century

observer,

keen

a
traveller,

has been

which

uncertain,but

its

over

Halicarnassus

narrative

his remarkable

write

Hellas

of

victories

(New York, 1900).

the

may
won-

duction
intro-

THE

derful achievements

both

divested

of their

explain the

to

Greeks

by

and

glory

by

and,

"

led them

which

cause

35

to

with

Contemporary
lene,of

whose

lived to

works

Herodotus

old age,

very

dying

was

the first writer to introduce

of the

war

for

likewise

and

like

after
of

his

of

Herodotus
mine

made

during

were

for writers

Genealogy.

His

the

cydides (471-c.
this

allieson

399

who

War

has

an
B.C.),

had

and

of Hellas

her allies on

the other.

were

rich

ever

written.

Athenian

who

one

His

became

instrument

theme,

fine intellect had

wrote

Thu-

history

the

Sparta and

man

been

of remarkable

was

two

of the race,

side,and
was

This

between

for the supremacy

the

(431-404 B.C.) inspiredthe

Thucydides

character.
an

of

notes

given Herodotus

epoch-making strugglewaged

leadingStates
Athens

Wars

Peloponnesian

greatesthistorian

the

of much

DescriptiveGeography.

on

the Persian

Just as

cepted
ac-

He

travels

his extensive

history

death.

historians; while

later

the

to

of

logical
chrono-

records, though having littleliterary


value, were
service

he

none

regarding them

student

Mity-

Nevertheless, he

something

century

profound

was

B.C., he had

prose.

his views

than

more

new

406

of

Though

into the traditional records

arrangement

mythology;

Hellanicus

was

in

charm
literary

of

over,
more-

wage

only fragments remain.

the

so

barians
bar-

each other."

upon

and

PERIOD

wrought
be

not

may

ALEXANDRIAN

PRJS-

of wealth

"

her
and

cultivated until it

power,

and
delicacy,

36

HISTORY

finish.
and

had

He

the

on

the other hand

on

expression. When
of

eightbooks

illumined
He

Lord

finest prose

that

this in
be

to

and

the

has

yet been

ever

obscurity. His
he

in that
that

he
To

war.

was

more

to
1

Dr.

uniformly

work
2

This

masterly concentration

The

eighth book

other

manly, moving

written

by

mind

the

was

man;2

any

often

seems

the

more

tory,
his-

an

Athenian

F.

B.

which

high

and

of

incompleteand

is

took
"

Jevons:

part

There

posterityhas
estimate

distinction

is

tained
enter-

the

than
he
a

to

owes

narrator;

his work, in which


by

some

regarded as

he

not

the

Thucydides himself.

Macaulay

believe that

attempt

hand,

as
impartiality

the

of

was

the

his prose

favourable

and
undeviating fidelity

is

narrative

impartialityis

himself

history of Thucydides.

had

writingcontemporaneous

was

quote

session
pos-

facts.

to the modern

what

of curious

on

said that

in

produced

Herodotus

style. His

production of
hardly a literary

his

det).

the narration

Macaulay

spiteof

extreme

remarkable

in

he

judicialimpartialitywith

eloquence.

highest; and

desired it to be,

Thucydides,

poet.

prose

combined

and

of

and

anecdote

by
a

was

e?
{jcrrjixa

great charm

fortyyears

their very

he

spirit,

giftof literary
was

historywhich
what

all time

with

written

faculties at

has become

for

scientific

out, he

broke

war

the

unrivalled

almost

naturally,the

thus, most

hand

one

an

the

all his

with

age,

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

also said of himself

he could

equal the

to rival the seventh

that while he might

prose

book

of

of any

other

Thucydides.

perhaps dare

writer,he would

never

to

38

HISTORY

also

OF

Athenian, is the

an

to

the Prse-Alexandrian

in

Greek

his

be

to

read

in

and
observed

he

is

which

admirable

an

work
a

of

Herodotus

to do

the

Cyropadia, and

is the

On

dialect which

long and
In the

histories of
set

delivered

See A.

See

1873).

Socrates.

the

Thucydides

the

confine

treatises which

Polity,

of which

his native

their

Croiset,Xinophon,

son

country.2

Xenophon

troops, by

there

are

have

statesmen

(London, 1894-99).

trans.

Caractere

in

fact of his

the

speeches,conventionally
supposed to
by generalsto

well

writes

Xenophon
to

finished
un-

partiali
im-

stern

not

famous

most

and

an

wrote

Finances) as

purelyAttic,owing
from

the

as

(theLacedcemonian

Holm, Griechische Geschichte;Eng.

Alfred

in

he

did

composed

the

facts

historyof

whom

the Athenian

frequentabsences

introduced

been

is not

of

the

with

contrast

Political Science

plicity
sim-

persistentpopularity

unlike

Thucydides,

Memorabilia

for

practically
completed

quasi-ethical
monographs,

as

for the

Thucydides, but

predecessor.1Xenophon

had

continues

Xenophon

and

his

but
himself to historical writing,
with

both

the Anabasis, he wrote

strong bias,in violent


of his

which

the work.

writer,as

Besides

mercenary

recorded
faithfully

up

(Hellenica)which

Greece

work

narrative, and

and

make

is inferior to

well shows.

with

its

the Persian, he recorded

secondary schools

our

givelustre

to

Serving as

by Cyrus

by Xenophon

historian

great historian

the Anabasis,

vivacityof

books

seven

third

PHILOLOGY

Period.

force raised

experiencesin

CLASSICAL

et

son

Talent

(Paris,

PR^E-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

to

39
and

deliberative assemblies, by ambassadors

speeches do

These

records.

They

to

the

sum

personaltouches, and

with

supposed

substance

hold

to

though

of

been

known

become

oratory is

back

his followers

this

But

describes

Sears

graces

Such

of external
power

"

giftwhich

some

imaginationsof

not

their

own

certain

have

must

which

make

for

undoubtedly

rangued
ha-

in the

Even

in hexameter
Professor

as

was,

of

understood.

The

yet taught by precept.


from

came

their hearers

course,

down

not

was

were

possess

rence
occur-

protoplasmic eloquence."

of it

oratory had,

as

something of

form

Their

arose.

oratory

it, merely

in

true

prehistoricperiod, since

occasion

untutored

psychologicalbasis

The

Of

speechesset

are

have

that, during the fifth

primitivechieftain

there

poetry of Homer

form.

in

accomplishments

when

ticularly
par-

compass

are

extemporaneous,
the

in

of the

one

statesmanship. The

verse.

and

more

short

They

art.

an

narrative

speakersmight

utter.

authentic

oratory, rude
far

to

writing shows

century, Oratory had


kind

and

not

historical

in

the

which

opinionsor arguments

been

within

and
effectively

up

authentic

enliven the

partlyto

gogues.
dema-

by

be

pretend to

not

inserted

are

it
by interspersing

the

PERIOD

strong feelingand

swaying

the

minds

by communicating

passion. By

the end

to

of the

and
them

sixth

century, however, educated

men

the

end

of

in

treatise by
philosophical

gift of eloquence,the

could

be

acquired;so

that

began

to

which

recognisethat
is

persuasion,

HISTORY

40

of

Diogenes

CLASSICAL

OF

Apolloniathere

trilobite in limestone,"the
"

It appears

ought
the

to

to

the

state

stylesimple

who

that

me

of

account

and

the

Greek

both

the

"

which

narrative

prose

oratory

"

of

Its

the

reason,

See

it

to be

the

statesman,

that at

was

highly

diplomat,

Oratory,or,

to

use

the

comprising

arose,

speaking. So

be called at last

to

of the

one

of poetry and

the

steps

rise of

esque
pictur-

graduallypreferredto poetry, so

was

from

remove

assimilate

due,

was

which

the

the assembled

impulses,and

last the chief functions


1

plained
ex-

might judge of

Hence

it came

and

lyricsupplanted the epic,and

rapid growth

giftof

all

developmentwas

helped to

democracy by
the

at

that

still further

"

composition
life.

Its

the

Just as

that

the theoretical art of

accompanied the decline

prose.

accompanied

armies.

it cultivated

the art of arts."

be

thus
(pTjTopiKrj),

and
practical

Greeks,

talkers, expected the

so

the

make

to

fact, the

Wars, eloquence came

Rhetoric

earnestlywas

discourse

begins a

In

character.

of

commander

term,

to

spoken words,

indispensableto

as

of

nation

actions

of the Persian

valued

who

one

dignified."

moral

like

followingrhetorical injunction,

and

his intellectual and


the time

"

embodied,

subjectwith distinctness,and

man's

his

by

is found

every

a
essentially

were

PHILOLOGY

the

purely imaginative

literature with
of course,

people.

the

to

of the

government

To

of
prejudices

practical
spread

State

dominate

the

the

peoplewere

of the art of oratory.

Sears,The History of Oratory,ch.

came
be-

i. (Chicago, 1003).

Already for

'

Cicero

PERIOD

trainingof legaland

the

language,and
first manual

instruct

to
professing

said to

have

Syracusein Sicily
earlyin

this date then


Rhetoric.

beginsthe

opened

Corax

laid
taught the principles

his

pupil,Tisias,of

been

whom

written

The

Corax

by

With

B.C.

development of the

art of

Syracuse in which

at

down

in his

little is known,

rules of Corax.2

the

to

highlycoloured

in the art of persuasive

men

school

he

additions

love of

famous

were

the sixth century

formal

forth.

set

passion for subtle argument.

their

speaking is
of

been

ascribes it to the SicilianGreeks, who

for their ready wit,their


antiquity

in

judicial
pleading,

though imperfectsystem had

definite

ALEXANDRIAN

PRjE-

THE

Gorgias

Te^i^; and
made
of

some

Leontini

(485-380b.c),probablya pupilof Tisias,carried the study


of rhetoric to

ask for

to

of

Syracuse.
another

and

Hellas

the

cityof

in the

both

as

of rhetoric.

Brutus,46.

These

rules divided

an

in

So far

as

and

that is
whole

of

to man's
3

Two

to

Tisias
say,

an
sense

made

the

plainthat his

the

semblance

to

truth

appear

of what

which

to him

(2) narrative,

in

an

they called ef*6s,


oration
possesses

makes
an

right.
are

extant.

of

(5) peroration.Both

plausibleand therefore

is just and

orations ascribed

value

cal
practi-

rules looked

oration into five parts: (1) proem,

of

of what

as

styleof oratory.8

meretricious

much

argument

bassador
am-

evidences remain

any

(3) arguments, (4) subsidiaryremarks, and


Corax

an

Thessaly,winning

and
publicspeaker

highly artificialand

as

residence in Athens

Larissa

teachingof Gorgias,it seems

to

he went

protection
againstthe encroachments
that time he had

From

widespreadfame
teacher

proper, whither

See

Blass,pp. 44-72.

the

appeal

HISTORY

42
Studied

antitheses,a profusionof
other

apostrophe,and
balanced

rhythm,

have

so-called

his fellow-Elizabethans.
of

Greece

adopted

the

There

during

the

made

so-called

by

in

of

middle

the

carefully

finished

quence
elo-

John Lyly and

style of eloquence

of the Roman

some

great

were

of

metaphor,

fact, a foreshadowing

Asiatic

less affected

and

his most

Euphuism

It was,

in later times

Athens, however,

simile

figures,togetherwith

must

the

resemble

in

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

mode

of

who

orators

At

orators.

eloquence prevailed.
conspicuous

were

fifth century B.C.,

and

whose

manly, noble eloquence (the Attic style)gained littlefrom


teachingssuch
The

Age

of

Pericles

produced

Greece

adorned

by
Greece

"

was

"

Gorgias.
noblest

the

enriched

the

the

allied

States.

Paris

Under

his

to

city with

the French

the

the

public edifices.
other

arts.

which

were

He

He
was

Odeon,

the

centre

many

like

literature
of

and

Myron.

festivals and

crowned

The

as

magnificent
well

the

as

splendid group,

in

Thucydides, /Eschylus, Sophocles,Euripides,

sculptorsPhidias

glory.

and

architecture

Anaxagoras, Zeno, Protagoras,Pindar,

gorgeous

meant

planned the Parthenon,

and

encouraged

him

to

tributed
con-

people has long meant

patronage, Greek

perfection. He

wealth

the

Athens

sculpturereached
Erechtheum,

whom

statesman

cles
periodof great splendour. Peri-

and

just as

France.

of

those

as

noblest

figure of

Athens
with
all

was

and

the

brilliant with

the laurels of
was

great

Pericles

military
himself.

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

PERIOD

Thucydides opposed him,

Though

Pericles

the fact that

did

never

high position,that

he

of

flattered the

neither

he

is said

have

Thucydides, but

the rules of rhetoric

also the firstto


If

study.

the

in
exhibit

to

publishspeechesas
these

models

and

the

he is

lackingin

properlyso called,and

oratorical diction
'Lloyd,

The

Eloquence")

perhaps

was

for rhetorical
woven
inter-

they

purityof styleand
Isocrates

(436-338

father of artistic oratory,

stylehe

fluence
has in-

throughout all succeedingages.2


vols.

Man

as

(London, 1875);

$250, for

he gave
of

course

time, yieldinga
him

speeches

20

and

lessons,and

He

at

he

Abbott,

Greek
from

was

delivered

understood.

five to

ten

years

On

in

Cicero's "Father

speeches to

wrote

the rate

of

often

had

be

hundred

The

but

the

other

one
perfecting

delivered

king

hand,

he

about

of

and

would

of these show

Cyprus

These

copied

were

or

pupils at

singleoration.

once,

of

teaching as

drachmae,

1000

equivalentto $25,000.

merely

not

and

for his rhetorical

talents (about $22,000) for

were

spend

known

it.

instruction

revenue

Eloquent"

well

practicalapplicationof

by others,and

wherever

public

is fatal to effective

energy.

the

Age of Pericles,2

(Milton's "Old

Isocrates

paid

the

(London, 1801).

Pericles

for his

apply

find that

his mastery of

by

to

orations

historyof Thucydides, we

though

both

B.C.)is rightlyregarded as

instructed

the first Athenian

378 B.C.)shows
oratory. Lysias (458-c.
grace,

limited
un-

corrupt
personallyin-

was

certain self-consciousness which

all his

with

Antiphon (480-411 B.C.) He

was

examine

we

of his

people nor

in speakingbefore
practically

assemblies and the courts


was

that

and

public money,

Gorgias
Pericles and

generouslyrecords

anything unworthy

oppressed his privateenemies,


command

he

43

set

read
times
some-

pieces.

HISTORY

44

spoke with

He

to his

and

own

tends

the

to

not

was

Period

home

of

like

the

and

of

person

Thucydides, and
in

to the minds

arrows

of

much

of the

teaching in

existence

perhaps find
the

why

to

belongs

to

Greece

divisions

of

an

oldest

and

arguments.

In the manual

by the

wrote

'See

way,

nine

only

an

employed

patrioticfervour

given orally

of

the

books

text-book
the

fourth

tion
explanain

now

century

merely discussed

manner

written

an

by

of

presentingits

Anaximenes

of criticism

the

on

(who,

Homer), the

1898);and
Blass, Aitische Beredsamkeit,2d ed.,3 vols. (Leipzig,

Jebb, Attic Orators,ii. pp.


See

not

was

rhetorical

middle

the

oration

multitude.

in this circumstance

Corax, alreadymentioned, had

B.C.

go

insisted.2

had

as

also

the art

would

of rhetoric

but

and

to the el/cos
belongs essentially

sinceritywhich

may

shows

resources

Corax

we

well

assembled

an

bined
com-

animation

which

the Crown

On

He

understood

sentences

which

So

Prae-Alexandrian

Demosthenes.

he

short, terse

mastery of all the

that

upon

close of the

great intellectual power,

with

of Isocrates.1

magnificentrepresentativeof Greek

superb oration

absolute

that

near

in the

speaking

His

until

student

It is

language.

persuasivenessof Lysias, the

the

of

arose

boldness

knowledge of everythingwhich

deep

was

that the most

oratory

flowingand rhythmical;

periodswere

of harmonious
possibilities

said that Cicero


It

his

instinctive

an

PHILOLOGY

adapting the language of the people

ease,

usage;

he had

CLASSICAL

OF

1-34,

2d ed.

Butcher, Demosthenes,preface to

(London, 1893).
last ed.

(London, 1903).

46

HISTORY

possible means

OF

of

CLASSICAL

are

as

essential

an

(i) the

persuasionthat
of

means

are

and

seeing both

(4)

the

of

means

possibleattacks
of

"

sets

be

forth

proofs,such

either
or

else

by appealing to

their

says,

syllogism from

the
and

the

the

upon

the

upon

thus

Following

division

divided into three kinds:


with exhortation

future time

as

to

covering
disand

against all
The

means

(1) natural, "

testimony

of

by

weight of
in

his

artific
innesses,
wit-

ment;
argu-

speaker's

hearers,and

of
feelings

his listeners

prejudices.Logical

or

principleof giving

"

probability." Of

or
specialarts, gifts,

of

(2) artificialproofs,which

the

common

and
to all subjects,
head, applicable

with

of

it.

upon

sworn

sympathies

depends

rise

means

case

follows:

the
syllogismshe distinguishes

has to do

own

inspiresconfidence
he works

from

the

and

case

made

(b) ethical,when

emotional,when

proof,he

justicemay

(a) logical,
involvingdemonstration

character

own

of rhetoric

uses

popular assemblies; (3) the

as

as

into

adversary'sargument;

an

can

documents, etc.;
are

to

of

and

defending one's

that

persuasionhe

truth

sides of

the weakness

The

injustice;(2)

suited

is the

of logicenter
principles

which

by

means

the

part of them.

falsehood

superiorto

rhetoric

persuasion. Hence,

counterpart of Logic, and


its laws

PHILOLOGY

the

of

nature

topic

or

such

general

specialtopicdrawn

circumstances.
of

Anaximenes,

rhetoric

was

(1) Deliberative Rhetoric,which


or

persuasionand

is concerned

expediencyor inexpediency;(2)Fo-

rensic Rhetoric,
with

concerned

accusation

relatingto

time

past

eulogy

(3) EpideicticRhetoric, relatingto

honour

of

means

and
of the

arrangement.

the

metaphor, simile,and

of

use

stylehe

to

four varieties:

notes

of

of sentences, and

gnomic sayings,of the rhythm


As

is the

Aristotle's Rhetoric
scientific treatise
It

written.

is, however,

philosophyof
His

mind

prepared the
in turn

than

been

been

ever

truly said,the

rhetoric

that

he

verging upon

that

so

causes;

was

in this

even

sphere of

the

cusses.
dis-

the

physical.
meta-

great importance of the treatise is that it


way

furnished

for Aristotle's Dialectic


many

destined afterward
of
by the originators

Aristotle himself
side with

forensic.

intensely analyticaland

was

is forever
The

has

rhetoric rather

always seeking for ultimate


field he

subjectthat has

as

Style.

exhaustive, analytical,

most

the

on

terse

(i) the purelyliterary,

and (4) the


(3)the political,
(2) the controversial,

and

treats

delivery,consideringverbal expressionin

of

is included

which

the

sion
expres-

he

the latter head

Under

to

Aristotle's

relates to

third book

persuasion.The

art

as

invention, i.e. the discoveryof

with

deal

rhetoric

and

of

books

first two

The

distress.

or

and

censure,

or

present time

the

with

usuallyconcerned

and

defence

or

justiceor injustice;and

to

as

47

PERIOD

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

of the
to be

Formal

Logic, which

distinctions and
used

in

tions,
classifica-

different relation

Grammar.

regarded rhetoric

logic,since each

or

as

relates to the

standing side by
process of insur-

48

HISTORY

conviction.

ing

would

reach

The

the

on
dialectician,

effective

CLASSICAL

orator

Organon,

he

developsthe
He

be

highestexcellence

the

other

through

his

PHILOLOGY

must

command

after he

has

methods

discloses the

cognitionfrom

in

of

his

the

forth

set

which

laws

of

thinking and

the

of this

inquiry

human

edge
knowl-

all possibleobjectsof
classify

ten

modes

course

he

famous

the

and

conclusion.

In the

doing, he

so

logic,

nature

and

In

of

In

facultyof cognition,

of evidence

definite heads.

oratory.

edge.
arrives at knowl-

man

an

under

of

arts

the

logicmost

his system

of man's

insightinto

his

to gain
striving

tries to

art; and

dialectic science.

reallya

by

study

dialectician if he

hand, will make

Aristotle's rhetoric is

Hence

of

OF

Categories(prcBdicamenta)These

formation

drew

his

stance,
(i)sub-

are:

up

(2) quantity,(3) quality,(4) relation,(5) place,


ing,
(6)time, (7)situation,(8)possession,
(9)action,(10)sufferthat
these

is to

categoriesserves
with

connected
formal

Alexandrian

period,he

ten
or

sDio

edited

terminology and
other

been

criticism and

These

how

intimatelythey
find

we

Because, in settingthem

and

has

show

to

enumeration

mere

classification that

the

grammar.

provided

both

passivity.1The

say,

in

of

spoken

grammar

as

the

find their

are
categories
reallyreducible

to two:

are

our

totle
forth,Aris-

framework

grammarians

in

of

the

source

for the

following
in which

origin.2
(1) substance,(2)attribute;

(1) being,(2) accident.

Cassius, liii.p.

separatelywith

353;

notes

Reiske

by Cope

(294 R).
and

Aristotle's Rhetoric

is

Sandys, 3 vols. (Cambridge,

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

PERIOD

49

Rhetoric, language study, criticism,literarytraining,


and

philosophywere

who

became

all

famous

the
Originally

popularisedby

under

the

of

name

Sophist was

name

about

educated

who

men

travelled from
for

return

of

writers

had

of

tuition
made

of what

the

who

of them

were

the United

before

of great

men

of rhetoric

in

all

things,"that
of

standard

on

is to

"

is

Greeks, see

the

Man

Perrot, Les Prlcurseurs


V Eloquence

de

la

decades.

Gorgias

must

be

his

only relative and


of

Ceos, who

the

of

measure

on

own

not

lectured

the

rhetoric

right
of the

Rhetoriquechez les Grecques(Paris,1835);

Demosthene

(Paris,1847); and

(New York, 1888).


E

sur

as

in

first scientific

is the

Zeller,Aristotle (London, 1897). On


Gros, Etude

in the

a brilliant
Protagoras,

man

also Prodicus

was

last two

was

every

truth

lyceums,"and

literary
layinggreat stress
style(opOoeireia),

1877); and

sur

motto

say,

truth, since

There

absolute.

minds

States from

such
ability,

Athens, who

individualist,
taking as his

"

of the

of Leontini,alreadymentioned; and
teacher

untrained

profoundlyby original

traversed

teachers

who

middlemen

the

were

more

i860, making addresses

to

well-

teaching in

They have their counterpart

extension
university

Some

They

to
intelligible

thinkers.

and

specialsubject;

some

giftof ready speech and

set forth

was

lecturers
peripatetic

1830

fee.

who

one

any

primarilyapplied to

was

the

Sophists{ao^iarai).

place to place lecturingand

learningand

good deal

it

B.C.

450

class of teachers

given to

a particular
knowledge
professed

but

(Paris,1873); Girard, Etudes

Bascom, The

Philosophy of Rhetoric

HISTORY

50

CLASSICAL

OF

of

words

(le

another

famous

Sophist.

memory

and

use

he

far been

so

his

should

He

was

He

piqued

be

not

one

of the first representatives


of what

our

day

describes

Such
and

"

as

had

ingenious
"

Their

thought.
of Athens.

immense

an

of

to

be

them

other

for his

money

all

and

fashion.

Hippias, the

teacher
Plato

of any
his

drew

Socrates
Before

an

gave
his time

had

is

evil

an

do

to

many

this he

was

higherslang of

the

as

most

new
entirely

philosophyhad

for

their

sation.
conver-

class and

their

believed

he

given in

Protagoras

his

From

leadingmen

Socrates, though he

was

From

popular

on

the

pleasurein

were

as
inspiration,

sought

law

Sophist because

metaphysical and

it became

Ionians

time.

shocked

In

by

Skeptics derived

forth

stands

Socrates

than

teachings,which

conversational

rather

influence

professedto despisethe Sophistsas


himself

that had

man

the

the

form

that

courted

Pericles took

Greatest

prodigious

brilliant,
versatile,eloquent,

"

societywas

Even

was

the artistic temperament."

these

Sophistsas

and

it forces

Elis

learningof

his nature.

to

contrary

are

of

every

prove

obeyed,since

of

man

in all the

by attemptingto

thingswhich

attempted literature in

developed.

audiences

and

juste). Hippias

mot

profoundlyversed

that

day, so

PHILOLOGY

took

no

desultory,

and

Gorgias

doctrines; but

inspiringphilosophical

talk,
immensely suggestive
Aristotle

did

turn

been

to

Plato.

philosophic
teaching.

physical;after

ethical.

material

from

Just

originof

as

the

Socrates

the

early

universe,

asked the
The

this

to

the

Sophists as

sought

question was

class
them

the

the later

worse

the

place of
it

repute.1But
a

gave

was

the

from

the

the theoretical

thought in
The
the

fact that

study

of

On

the

glib
a

price to
the

In

and

end,

times
talkers,some-

took

with

study of language.

such

and

quasi-

have

arisen

regarding language,

the laws of
govern

the

Protagoras and

as

there should

discussion

laws which

human

two
1

of

the desire to discover


the

disesteem.

the fifth century who

Sophistsof

men

whole,

they fell wholly into ill

that

strange that

amount

discoveryof

the

in

reason.

importance of rhetoric

is not

immense

an

better

so

reason,

of
philosophical
principles

Hippias, it

Epicureans

which
technicalities,

mere

specialimpulseto

Remembering

the

willingfor

nothing but smooth

Sophistswere

delightingin
them

the

"

merely by

smatterers,

mere

were

appear

live?

man

not

rightlyheld

were

shallow, pervertingthe truth, and


make

by

and

the Eclectics.

Cynics and

majority of

The

shall

How

kind

the

remembered, however, that, on

be

It should

51

of
speculations

but afterwards
by Aristotle,

and

the Stoics,the

and

all

epoch-making question,"

answer

Plato

aside

thrust

Socrates

so

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

PR^E-

THE

thought through

the

expressionof

that

speech.
Language Study began

as

an

adjunct to

philosophy is immensely important as


facts,
interesting

Sophists,see

"

the

fact that

the

plaining
ex-

pur-

ch. ii. (London, 1883);


Benn, Greek Philosophers,

Schanz, Die Sophislen (Gottingen,1867); and


1007).
Philosophic,i. 9th ed. (Leipzig,

Ueberweg, Geschichte

der

HISTORY

52
suit

conducted

was

in

linguist;and
the

before

the

certain

of

to

like them

others

study

sound

of

relation

of

Hence,

if the

and

to

rather

strove

representationof

up

from

the

the

was

one

letters stood

lay

These

the
the

idea,while

for the representation

to

have

questions

as

last and

very

scientific

and
the

most

linguist.

language
investigate

created

subjectmerely

the

was

philosopherto

modern

begun

certain

general,what

In

thought?

had

what

out

Why

currency.

interest the

ancients

find

down

dig

to

penetrate into the working of

sake, they would

own

they took

end

ment
govern-

language,while they are

problems to

as

and

first attracted

remote

for its

their arrangement

different idea?

losophe
phi-

external

of other

combination

The

their

language,to

of letters the

long time elapsed

forms,

them

that gave

minds

combination
a

of

heart

very

tific
scien-

only with the meanings


their

They

the sounds, and

behind
the

other, or

of the

scientific grammar.

of

little with

sentence.

unlike that

so

way

first concerned

very

each

relations to

PHILOLOGY

other fact that

the

at

of words, and

into

development
were

in

CLASSICAL

OF

Grammar;
to

means

but

another

standpointof psychology,they invented

Etymology.
It is, of
most

course,

to

enlightenedof

researches

went

never

be
the

understood

also

Greeks

their most

peoples

as

the

beyond

language. They scarcelyeven


other

in

entitled to

study

that

of

the

even

earnest

their

own

recognisedthe speech
be

called

language

at

of
all.

HISTORY

54
such

that he knew

of

speaks
Volga

as

needing

seven

languages.

Alexander

the

Brahmins

on

had
The

on

Thus

in

were,

Latin, and

Strabo

young.

read

On

of

needs

to

that

notes

tion
conversa-

interpreters.

knew

tongues with

the

to

no

much

so

giftedas

was

learned

in their

naivete

people who

many

tical
prac-

language

speak

it well.

it impossible
to master

begin its study when

historical treatises

inaccessible to the

hand,
and

Greek, men

at

an

very

composed

Greeks

earlyperiodthere

writers who

acquired an

like Berosus

the

century B.C.)and Manetho

in Greek

questionedthe

series of

amusing

that he found

one

foreignscholars

fourth

and

period, when

and

by them.3

the other

command

later

after Latin

foreignlanguageswere

never

passage

fact,apparentlynot

even

says

that

the

much

rulers,they seldom

Plutarch

the

spoke barbarian

who

own

region of

in

through a

findingso

linguists;for
of their

he

one

the
subjectof their religion,

the

at

They

ease.

of

very

Greeks, in fact,displayedan

Greek, but

In

penetratedIndia

Great

astonishment

in

be carried

to

the

(ep/jLrjvels)
speaking
interpreters

seven

At

languagesspoken in

merchants

of

in the remotest

implieseven

visited.

he

caravans

PHILOLOGY

of the

any

that

countries

many

nowhere

Herodotus

men.

way

CLASSICAL

OF

the records

of their

Babylonian (inthe

countries
respective

Herodotus, iv.

Plutarch,Demosth.

Strabo,ii.4,

24.

19.

excellent

Egyptian,who

the

is mention

2.

"

wrote

annals

which

the Greeks

There

is

regardedwith

the

to

certain

the

of

verge

in the last

century, he failed

fact which

he

and

the

of

"

have

observer

as

Aristotle

order

which

supreme

he

Hence, it

naturallyslow

in

and

discover

about

came

the

The
and

the

rather than

Greek
reason

word

the

and

source

did

in every

so
"

the

as

keen

the law

realm

of

were

they had

their own,

and

subjectfrom

by

them

was

the

empirical.

Xo'70?means

which

language

psychological
point of view, the

first stage of language study reached


theoretical

the

few

that, as the Greeks

of
investigation

and
purely philosophical

only

nor

acquiringforeigntongues,

on

made

perceivein languages

tried to

evidently

common

contempt for other languagesthan

they entered

is

borrowed

own

him;

to

for

rather to account

had

people

the

notes
names

was

had

his

in

importance of

chose

That

occurred

to

never

nature."

as

"

Plato

the

see

the Greeks

Phrygians.

barbarian

to

down,

set

theory that

the

from

seems
an

on

had

Phrygian

though

proach
ap-

is found

Socrates

discoverythat

nearest

idea

an

and

objects. But

common

upon

Greek

the

between
similarity

that

such

preposterous

The

dialogue,the Cratylus,where

Plato's

words

seemed

have

suggestionof

the

to

for it

related to the Hellenic

enlightenedGreek.

most

writer that any

ancient

in any

would

idea

The

dialects.

here

hint

absolutelyno

55

indifference.
supercilious

foreignlanguagesmight be

of these

even

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

PILE-

THE

at

prompts the

once

the

utterance

spoken word,
of that

word.

56

HISTORY

This
the

OF

CLASSICAL

dualityof meaning
in
spirit

which

both

the Greek

study of language. They


the word
if so,

and

the

(2)what

opposing views

truth

immutable
of

is to say,

thing

it

innermost

The
vo/jlg)).

believed

they

either

are

either

be

there
signifies,

each

of the

is

mental

processes

the forms

or

the

on

in which

it is

Megarian, Diodorus,
thinkingto

by

Heraclitean

doctrine,
"

I.e. the followers

of Heraclitus

I.e. the followers

of

be

to

things,

pleasure;

thrown

of the

slaves
the

Ephesus,
and

of

names

on

thought,by studying

recalls

Xenophanes

or
{fyvaei,

altered at

of

his

of

the

teans
Heracli-

nature

the

thereby

no

harmony by

The

expressed. One

which

it is

or

hand, regarded words

be

nature

named

show

name

That

inevitablyexpresses

lightis

no

an

upon

sounds.

natural

the other

that, in consequence,

all

therefore,and

arose

slaves,might

because

rests

thing named.

language

Eleatics,2
on

of

that

true

in itself

word

nature

names

philosophical

perfect expressions

name,

every

(i)whether

two

only inarticulate

are

that
given to things arbitrarily;

like the

Words

held that

by

language, language

Between

which

of

the

Naturally enough, two

formulated

must

all.

thus

and

from

illustrates

relation; and

necessary

was.

Heracliteans

name

which

virtue

as

soon

else

at

name

the

were

determine

to

had

thought

basis.

thingsor

wished

relation

is derived

symbolisesand

philosophersapproached

that

The

schools.

PHILOLOGY

after

Eleatics,
the

absurdity of

Parmenides

the

Johnson's

Dr.
about

junctions,
con-

500

B.C.

of Elea.

57

Berkeley's idealism.

of

refutation

famous

PERIOD

PR.E-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

convention

by

Eleatics,arose

the

therefore,according to

Language,

(Oeaetor awO-qicy).
controversy has

This

could

merely linguisticdiscussion
strikes down
mind.

into the

most

It grazes

the

questionthat
began

has

has

questionthat

speaking,admits

the

as

of

question of

of the
the

of

ancient
As

What

is

that

claimed
the

to
inevitably

the

the

questionwhich

as

known

was

It is the
the

question

Its discussion

by
guage.
lan-

of
investigation

language corresponds

thought,just as

object which

"

excites

before

sensation

quiry
it, the first in-

themselves

this:

was

language?

product of

existence.

Will.

it

was

being,

Nominalism.

Human

men

that, humanly

Ages

times, appeared

philosophersset

Heraclitus

its proper

and

to

correspondsto
which

Middle

philosophersled

naturallyand

since

their

and

man
hu-

philosophical

It is the

the

Realism

the

of

solved

solution.

no

in after

Freedom

of

mystery

been

period of

questionwhich,

of the

recesses

borderland

the

never

scholastic

in the

profound

any

really

It

possess.

puzzled metaphysiciansever

reflect upon

to

greater than

far

interest

an

that

asserted
a

natural

power

designationas
Names,

he

artificial
images

of

shadows

solid

cast

by

language
which

necessary

said, are

visible

is the

assignsto
element

like the

immediate
each

of the

thing
thing's

natural,not

things,i.e. they

the images seen


objects,

resemble
in

the
the

mirrors,

58

HISTORY

the

reflected

true

word

who

do

make

merely
the

are

human

caprice,but

and
(opOorr)?)
is the extreme

to

have

noise."

realities

abstract

an

That

by Epicurus

referred
objectivenecessity,

above,

to

ness
fit-

This

meaning.

doctrine which
make

to

as

so

or

by objective

proprietyand

of the Heraclitean

modified

those

subjectiveinfluence

any

intrinsic force and

an

statement

afterward

while
object,

the

correspondingto

necessity; they

the

use

copiesof things,produced by

due

herself,not

who

Those

unmeaning

an

immediate

nature

was

"

reallyand trulyname

not,

is,words

PHILOLOGY

still water.

in

sun

do

CLASSICAL

OF

the

physical,organic

necessity.
the

Against
thesis that

by

names

about.

them

Homonymy.
collar-bone.

inevitable
cannot

the

and

be

called
no

Now

key

each

natural

four

The

(i)

and

both

means

inevitable

argument

of

of

one

and

if "Xe"

alike; how

names

Change,

as

of the
when

then
one

can

natural

all three

object? (3) The

Aristocles

comes

to

and

be

the

them, it certainly

Polyonymy.

they

of

lutely
abso-

have

or
or
fiporot;.These
avOpairos,
fiepoyfr,

way

key

collar-bone

for

arguments

argument

other; hence,

name

equally the
(2) The

other.

view,

instance, /cXet?

relation to

no

in

For

perfectproprietychange

propounded

Heraclitean

their

defended

trarily
always given arbi-

were

with

might

Democritus

against the

given and

are

who

men

Eleatics

Heracliteans,the

be

of

name

man

terms

be

are

the

argument
called

is

essary
nec-

of

Plato.

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

(4) The

find

such

no

said that

be

followers

with

the

majority of

his dislike of

hold
practical

his

8iicaio"rvvr

from

the Heracliteans

philosophers,
though Aristotle stands
He, with

have

we

Bucaioawelv.

as

may

their

among

while
^/aoV^o-t?,

from

verb

general it

In

59

Missing Analogy,as when

formed
"f"povelv

the verb
we

of

argument

PERIOD

out

as

ancient

great

ception.
ex-

anything mystical,and

the real,was

on

the

bered
num-

an

ing
uncompromis-

opponent of the natural theory,and held that language

depends
men,

words

"

but

the

on

having

them.

They
the

wholly upon
It

made

good

could

not

when

time

to

notion

the

it

sought to show
If word

by those who
value

the

the

it

as

of many

case

that

words

words

once

had

from

as

and

and

directlycreated

in what

manner

be

not

essential
and

greatly changed

words

been;

any

by them;

first coined.

were

selves,
them-

actuallyexisted; for they

objectsdescribed

they

was

depends

Heracliteans

Hence,

they

this led to

by

the

it firstcame

object be related,what

is the

the

it

since

cussion
dis-

then, to

were

originof language. Settingaside

that

themselves,

study,that their claims could

in the

had

to

course,

put back

they

as

into them

of

of mankind.

language

evident

was

as

in

with

also

words

little

conviction

all in

at

counters, whose

mere

assent

show

connection
was

are

evident, of

was

after

the

meaning

no

having all their meaning put

use

and

argument

common

speculation
the

original

Deity, men

into existence.
nature

of the

60

HISTORY

relation?

If the
in

thing named,

generaldrift
"

of the

PHILOLOGY

originalname
what

it

was

way

appropriateto

was

opinion answered

of

"

in which

by

like

men

cautiouslyby Whitney
cited

Epicurus
fairest and

it has

been

and

his

Heyse
and

by Diogenes

appropriate?

this

onomatopoetic theory,not

but in the form


times

CLASSICAL

OF

in its crudest

defended

form,

in modern

pupil Steinthal,and

Laertius

passage

of

(x. 75) gives the

temperate expressionof what

most

The

question in favour

Paul.1

by

the

this view

meant:
"

in the

Words

agreement; but

beginning did

by

the very nature

of men,

peculiarideas, they expelledthe


different

people differed
This

is in
that

argues

by
horses

who

and

from

gullsand
and

of

hearing
pressing
ex-

just as
differently,

surroundings."

the

of the

Lucretius2

So

impulse of things,just

men

same

gesture. And

to

mark

voice?

in the

crows

case

different

Even
way

dogs

ings
feeland

express varying

passions.

edited by Steinthal (Berlin,


Heyse, System der Sprachwissenschaft,

1856); Steinthal,Geschichte
Rbmern,

vols. 2d ed.

of Language (New

der

bei
Sprachwissenschaft

Lucretius,v.

York, 1880); id. Language and

1028

den

Greichen

und

(Berlin,1891); and Whitney, The Life and Growth

4th ed. (New York, 1884).


2

ideas

is it,he says, that

sounds

express

thus
accordingly,

speak, begin

cannot

different

and

moods

in location

air

the theory of Heyse.


reality

wonder

what

feelingsand

speech arose

children

in the

people,experiencingpeculiarfeelingsand

each

as

originateby

not

foil.

the

guage,
Study of Lan-

62

HISTORY

OF

unexplained,too

many

prefersto refrain

from

claim

have

to

CLASSICAL

lacunae in his fabric.

dogmatic

well-rounded

therefore,he elects

to treat

observations

chips and
and

further

the

giant at play.

It

gives us,

gold than

and

of
and

opposed

to

speculation.

as

each

that

his friends

some

upon

of the

then

He,

discipleof

the

believer in the
been

arguing

losophy
phi-

about

respectivetheories.

criticises

each, and
his

Just as

doctrine

of

out

between
as

from

to

each

listened

Having

in
in

own

Nominalism, Conceptualism stands


the

Socrates

usual, professesignorance

as

by questionsdraws

of
speculations

between

men.

other, they call upon

suggestivediscourse.

justas

the

way,

represents a pointof view diametrically

their

Socrates

have,

Socrates, Hermogis

have

They

in

dust-heap contains

of other

sincere

Cratylus a

to

Cratylus we

dialoguebetween

Heraclitus.

subject,and

them,

whose

one

the treasuries

share in the discussion.


of the

of

as

workshop, yet the chips

Cratylus. Hermogenes

later Eleatics,and

names,

his mental

those

Cratylus is

enes,

so

shavingsof

pure

The

most

own

of his reader

in

shavings are

more

to

toward

let his

to

that

treatment,

it were,

of

mind

lighttouch,

reallyserious spiritis, therefore,subordinated

humorous
as

subjectwith

caution, and

incentives

will not

complete system; and,

fall casuallyinto the

suggestionsand
His

the

Hence, he
He

statement.

and

with

speak modestly and

to

PHILOLOGY

his turn

enters

half-playful
yet
Realism

compromise,

Predestination

and

and
and

that

advanced

views
"

"

natural

theory of

Socrates

by

theory

like
imitations,

executed,and

that

that

have

they

true

to

form,

not

simpleforms.
primary ones,
must

compose

strict
most

primary words, nor


These

we

must

we

But

the

end

words,

far

So

element

these,or

are

meaning.

as

to

make

as

we

may

and

judge
only

so

the first place,

in their

present

simple words, but


until

altered

by

into

the

rather

so

convention.

do

can

pound.
com-

reach

we

simpleforms themselves
been

exceptional

natural

analysis. In

resolve words

them, because

by

accident,we

even

of

into the formation

them.

first resolve

for these have

in the

or

closelyintertwined

art and

words, perhaps

many

so

vocal

Yet

earlymeaning

chance, all enter

words

by applyingto

has

discover the natural

derived from

as

their

helped out

is that which

name

impossibleto separate

hope, however,
of it

be

are,

names

involve the element

had

have

are

imperfectly

be most

that is accidental

to

language,and they are

it often

of art, for

copying,may

words

Thus, nature, art, and


of

natural and those that

are

imperfectionmay

Some

language.

conventional,

sounds, vocal imitations.

other

any

this

of

For there is much

the
Yet, still,

"

conventional

"

it is also

It is originally
a work

all,imitations

obscured

the

between

mean

the

he says, is natural,and

conventional.

chance.

and

of Heraclitus

for it has in it elements

in

represent a

the

so

Eleatics.

the

Language,

firstof

Determinism,

of the Will stands out

of the Freedom

63

PERIOD

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

are

time.

not

the
the

Hence,

letters which

the sounds

which

64

HISTORY

have

they denote, must


the first makers

to

of

sound
motion

of breath
such

thought

of air is

letter to

so

impressionof

used

the

that

the

that when
what

is

united

while

notion

and

dumb

person

language
Yet

is

in

some

other

real relation to the

the time.

be

of

detained

X,

\nrap6v,

there

is
as

being "sounded

would

in \t

make

his

names

which

is the method
to

use

given

suggests roundness.

Gesture

the

within,"

impressedthought on

that

or
moral;
philosophical

or

of

meaning

only vocal gesture, the gesture

lesson

may

in Xeto?,

with

though thought was

genesis,the

It
indefinitely.

no

inwardness;

of imitation.
principle

the tongue.

is not

of

the firstlanguagemakers

clear,and

their

the

movement

glutinousand clammy,

givesthe

deaf

limpid

sound

v,

in imitative words

as

y\oi(b8r)"i
; that
crxpot-, 7A.U/CU9,

agitatedand

most

was

smoothness

express

slippingtongue

by

expressed

f requireda great expenditure

and

involved; that

Ko\\S)he"i (" gluey ") ;

Thus

the

pronunciationthe tongue slipsalong,enables

X, in whose

an

that

pvp,^"w (" whirl,")because

therefore

were

observed

length;that

the tongue

ty, "f",
"r,

well known

was

and in generalwhen
"ea"("seethe"),creicr/io'?,

as

that

and

vastness

and

This

language. They

sound

least at rest; that

PHILOLOGY

meaning.

in peco, porf, rponos,

as

utteringthat

in

of

denoted

CLASSICAL

OF

we

may

for the

stamped

words

from

learn
use

on

of words

of
in

words
varies

tional,
metaphysical,accidental,conven-

way

secondary,and

thought or feelingof

so

the

may

have

speaker at

PR^E-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

Such

is

set

forth

and

most

outline of the Platonic

an

in the

all that

Lautgeberden,he

of the
in the

of
similarity
in

much

his

in
to

speaking of

the

agree to follow.

the

which

of

great

alphabet

phoneticians
into voiceful

separatedthem

it is who

He

modern

most

the

corresponding

classification of the letters of the

that

tion
men-

advance

Greek, he approaches the very verge

discovery. His
is very

foreignwords

certain

In

immense

an

and

the distinction

to

words.

makes

physiologyof language;

yet rejected.

not

attention

compound

simple and

best

was

linguistic
speculation,and

rational in ancient

between

language as

on

Cratylus.They embody

Plato, in fact,is the first to draw

terms

views

have
that philologists
principles

contain

65

PERIOD

and voiceless letters,


vowels ((fxovqevra)
or
or
letters,

nants
conso-

The
(d(f"cova).
X,
(riufyava,

of the words

he

says,

know,"
is

time."

(a(f"0oyya).

mutes

that

overlaid

off
stripping

and

be
And

done
so

position
com-

to

him,

and

system.

the

originalform

and

bedizened

in all sorts
or

it may

the

the

suggest

letters for the sake

for ornament
in

conjectureson

phonetic order

twistingand turning them

this may

true

his listeners

all
"

always being

on
sticking

flood of

which

with

word

and

playing havoc

You

and

part of the Cratylusis that in which

Sophists,pouring forth

"

a)

vowels
semi-

into

burlesquesthe extraordinary etymologiesof

Socrates

and

p,

fi, v,

reallyhumorous

The

subdivides

letters he

of the

by people
of

euphony,

of ways;

and

be the result of

restoringthe originalform,

he

gives

66

himself

HISTORY

OF

free hand

and

sort

of

is

knocked

rfyvr)he

have

"

says

you

which

the v," upon

Well, Socrates,

about

the

ixovorj("possessionof
take

between

mind

the

naturally
says,

very

earth;

the t, insert

away

another

Hermogenes

in

tween
be-

and

v
"

")

That

of the

at

guesses

making;

etymology and

and

it was

equallyin the

followed

the

interest,one

should

manifestation

this sort of

of

than

very

Greek

imaginationwhich

from

in an
linguistically

almost

upon
See

words,

for

that
mere

the

Sophistsin

but
thingprevailed,

As
this

It

trait,
"

for

general

etymologisingcraze

fad.

childish

of

matter

it

in this

who
literature,

simplyone

was
a

earliest times

paronomasia,

their

and
philosophers

the

writers of pure

note

the

century.1

of languageprinciples

the

fashion.
prevailing

something more

was

at

only among

not

that
quasi-philosophers
seen

vagariesof

the

fifth

the

of

in

of the

excellent notion

an

word-mongers

in fact,were

Many,

us

in its serious

and
speculations;

acute
singularly

it affords

its lighter
passages

absurdities

Cratylusbecause

read the

should

parts it abounds

pretty tough etymology."

Every one

is

in

piecesmanfully." KWrjp
"

the v, and

and

"

cries out,

to

only to

pates
apoco-

Hermogenes

alwaysrunning

from

derives

the x

is

syncopates and

them
it is "

because
aeiOerjp

and

alters and

admiration
half-skeptical

have

you

PHILOLOGY

stretches until

and

extends

and

CLASSICAL

quickness of
reveals itself

fondness

punning.

for

playing

This

is, in

Jowett's translation of the Cratylusin his Plato,and especially

the Introduction

to the

Dialogue in question (2d ed.,Oxford, 1893).

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

oriental trait,as the Hebrew

an
reality,

and

so

names,

406); of Ate\ v

xix.

(Od.

(Od.
eXe^aipofiaL

e\e"t/9and
of

the

iEschylus on

"

and

in the most

two

puns

are

playing upon

of
Romans

and

names

proper

from

omens

'EXeV^ eXeVa?
lish
Eng-

Helen,

is

looks;"

play (1040, 1049)

same

probablethat

this

also its dignitydepended

so-called
which

names,

great

Onomantia, or
Greeks

both

duction
deand

devoutlythat Leotychidespledged

so

people to

perfect stranger

the

oSva-aofiai

I.)

in her

together.1 It

found

believed in

Samian

of the

tragicscene

generalbelief in

the

upon

Sweet

but heaven

Hell in her name,

names.

classic in

become

(in Edward

Peele's imitation

from

of Helen,

name

and

562 foil.).The

xix.

eXavSpateXeTrroXis, (Ag. 689) has


through

ing
down, seek-

(II.xix. 91); of

aarcu

trama?

proper

upon

in words

meanings

explanationof Odysseus

Homer's

Observe

hidden

fiftyof

some

poets, from Homer

find the Greek

we

analogiesand

the

find

we

chieflyin plays
pseudo-etymologies,

these

pun

alone

of Genesis

in the book

justas

Scripturesattest,

or trifling.Hence,
regardedas undignified

never

was

67

PERIOD

great expeditionmerely because

who

urged

it

happened

to

be

called

Hegesistratus.2
1

Euripides was

875,

742,
iii. 11-17
p.

of

called

rpa-yiKbsirvfu"\6yos. Cf.
and

Herod,

Prom.

86,

in

German, Lersch, Sprachphilosophie,


718; Ajax, 574
De
Nominibus
Graecis,in his Opusc.
(Bonn, 1841) ; Sturz,

1825). Myths
78 (Leipzig,
false etymologies,as Xa6s and
1

yEsch.

ix. 91.

seem

XSoj.

to

have

been

built upon

the basis

68

HISTORY

Much

is little evidence

there
deal with
Such

of

On

taken

be

itself and

On

On
the

are

oratorical

and

note

shown

having

So far

as

it

agreement,

involved

principlesare

the

and

classify
This

border-land

Classical

to

came

development

of

Philology,

formal

mar.
gram-

ical
etymolog-

any

three

of words:

(i)

alreadydiscussed;(2)
(Mi/i^o-t?),

of
principle

the

by
principleof Metaphor (MeTa(f"opd)

which

words

lose their
in their

primitivemeaning

as
application,

appliedto

mountain,

of
made
"A

and

or

when

and

his voice

Sicilian teacher

Schneidewin

in the

which
of Polus

"

they

"

as

who

also

head

sweet

of

or"
of

"

foot
man's

"; (3)the principle

which

called

also wrote

"

speak

we

Antiphrasis (Kvrfypaais)

much,

graduallyextended

are

the word

when

thought as "bitter,"of

See

nius,1
Licym-

cognates.

the

is

men

generallyadmittingthat

in the

Imitation

these

said.

partlydiscuss

appreciationof

in

was

oras
Protag-

properlyreferred

teachings of

Prae-Alexandrians

the

sake.

Proprietyof Names,

more

historyof

some

of

to

as

for its own

Names,

roughly as standing on
the

far

so

something has alreadybeen

periodsin

first two
as

went

root-words, compounds, and

synonyms,

and

they

Gorgias

Phrases

rhetorical and

however, did

the

that

Elocution,of Prodicus

regardingwhich

may

of

those

as

Licymnius

the

to

ever,
period etymologised,how-

generalsubjectby

treatises
On

and

the

PHILOLOGY

of this

Greeks

the

as

CLASSICAL

OF

the

the
treatise

GottingerGel. Anzeiger for 1845.

ancients

making
on

of

rhetoric.

HISTORY

70

CLASSICAL

OF

in Attica1 has

tile found

y3ap,"yap, 8ep and

the

scratched
syllables

like,which

show

But

taught and, later,reading.

grammaticus
speaking,did

are

not

mean

education,

that

"

around

of the

word

favourite

on

predicate.The
also

who

much

goes

a term
(a-vvBeafiot),

every

and

kind

of

the

In the

and

all female
uses

not

as

of

was

Abdera

of

(ovofia)and
it draws

is made
mentions

subject

by Aristotle,
conjunctions

since it includes

apOpa

term

he

(Cambridge, 1887-1905).

gender,

creatures

feminine, and
was

tween
be-

tinction
dislogical,

expressionas question,answer,

of

tise
trea-

divided

he

nouns

neuter, this classification being, like

7"?k"s which

the term
sense

170

artificial. All male

creatures

in the

matter

of

between

looselyused by him,

Protagoras classified modes

natural

and

further

sense

having recognised

which

difference

distinction

Roberts, Greek Epigraphy, p.

our

written

noun

connecting particle.The

masculine, feminine, and

He

true

command.

had

distinction

correspondingto
and

of Ceos

a grammatical,but
strictly

is not

them

been

had

Protagoras

speech,the

the

(prjfta)
; but

write.

grammatical moods
distinguish

distinct parts of

verb

and

nucleus

Plato is regardedas

while

ordinary

developed. Etymology

discussion.

the first to

synonyms;
two

the

be

to

soon

genders.2 Prodicus

also

and

read

to

grammatical teaching in

subject of

(c.411 B.C.)was

able

was

of

person

alreadysuggested,a

which

was

simply a

who

is,one

Nevertheless,as
formed

but

grammarian,

(a/",

was
spelling

word

we

it

upon

that

the

of which

the time

at
(ypafifAaTiKos)

PHILOLOGY

were

"gender" (Lat.genus).

as

either

our

own,

regardedas masculine,

all inanimate

afterward

prayer,

things

adopted by

the

as

neuter.

ans
grammari-

used

in

He

distinguishedbetween

not

only

known

to

say of

first word
called

and
Trapaypafyrj,

applied to

givesnames

did

not

long

subjectand

to

their

scholars

Alexandrian

became

the

to

or

be

to

"

word

our

he

This

graph,"
para-

number

noted

of

totle
Aris-

that

predicate. All

even

the time

Later, the

essence.

narrowed

familiar

at

were

the

and
our
(17t4xvt)ypa/jL/xciTi/crj),
word

placed beneath

these

tinction
dis-

part of grammatical doctrine,since this

no

metaphysicalin

only

originof

It is further

has

he mentions

sentence.

sentence

yet exist; but they

as

mark

as

are

He

"deponent."

ends

it is the

sentences.

form

short

"

line which

of the

connected

and

articles.

which

those

punctuation,though

punctuationmark

and

classifies verbs

"passive,"but

"neuter"

as

us

71

pronouns

tenses, and

and

"active"

something to
one

of both

indefinite way

an

PERIOD

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

while

or
logical

Stoics

and

the

definition of grammar

modern

meaning

of the

its wider

still
significance

survived.

Literary Study
of

Wars

intellectual
been

The

period
the

was

undertaken

now

and
aesthetics,

scientific.
Persian

was

historyof

Literary Criticism
which

Greece.

almost

the Ion of Plato.


was
inspiration

But

divine; and

this

passed on

from

him

followed

the

had

something supernatural

feelingis

popularbelief also

more

of Homer

poems

their lines

point
stand-

fruitful in the

most

The

the

became

immediately

richest and

regarded as containingin
and

from

set

forth in

held that Homer's

to the

great poets who

HISTORY

72

OF

his successors,

were

Church
Thus

the

just as

have

We

said to have

poets

of

to

tion.
by popular tradi-

form

rude

masterpieces almost

in

exponent

form

newer

personalin

its

allusions,was

himself

plays,both

study of
and

the

led at

rhetoric and

tragediesand

to

careful

well

the

of

as
exegesis,

the

five

and

the

in the

meaning
So at first.

judges chosen

as

the

of the

poetry.
when

the

New

fected
per-

Comedy.
were

duced
pro-

prizes

people.1 The

Such
Plato

Greek
famous

mind
works

study inevitablytook
discusses
the

in the poem;

Afterwards, the prizeswere

the

most

Protagoras,taking up

lot.

less

was

comedies,

decision

study of

of certain words

by

of the Drama,
oratory, the popularity

as

Simonides

and

Comedy)

(b. 342 B.C.)in

in prose
form

its most

in its criticism

of
exceedinglygreat intelligence

once

great

presentlydeveloped first by

(Middle

given accordingto

were

found

great festivals of the Athenians, and

the

at

The

Euripides,produced

thrive and

to

less harsh

comedy,

by Menander
All these

encouraged

was

Aristophanes (444-388 B.C.).

of

Aristophanes

tragedy was

contemporaneously. Comedy

(invented by Susarion) began


brilliant

of

present his plays at Athens.

iEschylus,Sophocles,and
tragedians,
their

and

generalreverence,

ennobled

some

of the Christian

ApostolicSuccession.

an

in this

were

that

seen

branches

originatedwith Thespis,who

Pisistratus

by

shared

lyricpoets

PHILOLOGY

certain

the doctrine

assert

great dramatic

the

CLASSICAL

awarded

poem

questionsas
then

by

as

of
to

to the

committee

of

and

consistencyof Simonides;
the

on

deal

be

might

which

is

said

in

And

then

This

is

he

of

have

Poetica

^Esthetic
who

produced

The

of

most

aesthetic criticism,

writings.1Professor

to

feature of the treatise which

one

in the

study of

than

the

by

the

the

Aristotle.

by

their

spheresof

In

the

Greek

art.

was

first

and

and

use

the

union

contains

admirable

critical text

historyof
between

the

and

was

Fine

their

Art

loss

rative,
to be deco-

the

But

two

practice

longer gave

translation

discussion of its teachingsand

Greek

the

in

objectceased

user.

It

beauty came

life no

common

to

useful art

independence.

the useful

things of

maker

fine and

Butcher, Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and

volume

Aristotle in his

it to-dayperhapsthe most

numerous

rather

dissevered,when
and

to make

important fact

struck

for art when

This

of true

Republic

unfinished,is so full of suggestion

all his

fullyby

out

of art

to

the

the

"

are

we

See

work

length.

belongsto

it was

But

distinction between

brought

to be

and

very

poem."

considerable

at

so

great

ever,
like,how-

of the

exposition.In

or

brief and

emphasises an

forms

do

and

I should

tedious.

Criticism.

calls attention

says:

"

details of the poem,

the

general intention

the

profoundthought as

Butcher

out

be

Hermeneutics,

widely studied

art

praiseof

proceeds to

which, though

"

Socrates

says

treatment
essentially
exegetical

science

He

a
finally,
long disquisition

Thus

would

that

point

to

and

whole.

73

charming piece of workmanship,

finished,but

we

as

poem

PERIOD

PRjE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

light
de-

theoretic

(London, 1902).

of the

Poetics,with

meaning.

74

HISTORY

distinction

between

down, and

to Aristotle

fine art

end

doctrine

that

of

passionsinstead

that

ment."
improve-

refers to the

feeds

serves
feelings

Professor

to

and

that

he would

kill

the
ish
ban-

the other
the

to starve

or

gence
regulatedindul-

the

maintain

sorrow

waters

on
Aristotle,

to

of

said

for

hunger

Thus

desirable

part of the soul; and

of the
nature."

"poetry

his ideal State.

held that it is not

emotional

politics,
having
moral

or

natural

starvingthem."

the poets from


"

of education

it satisfies "the

weeping,"1 and

hand,

of

and
religion

mind,

the

Plato had
"purgation" (icci0apo-i";).

tragedy that
and

of

laid

be

to

conceptionof

the firstclear

in the Poetics is that which

passage

of

needed

independent activityof

both

distinct from

A famous

owe

we

free and

useful art

fine and

the domain

outside
an

as

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OP

the balance

Butcher, summarising

an

of

our

explanation

put forth in 1857 by J. Bernays, says that katliarsis is


medical
the
The

and

metaphor

he

thought,as

excites the

emotions

that

are

of excitation

called forth

by

pathologicaleffect

the effect of medicine

soul,analogous to

Tragedy

act

"denotes

be

it,may
interprets
emotions

in the breasts of all


affords

the

are

quietedfor

stage, in fact, providesa harmless


1

fear

Republic,x.

606.

and

body."

kindred

"

and

"

pleasurablerelief.

tragicspectacleare

removed, but

men

on

expressedthus:

pity and

of

the

on

by

The

the

feelings

not, indeed, permanently

the time.

The
.

pleasurableoutlet

indulgedhere

Unities

Dramatic

forth

One

which

and

the

formulated

be

suggestionof

these

unity of place; yet

within

unity

connected

probablesequence.

and

of necessary

"

constitutes the

incidents should

read into the treatise

may

time

law

the

togetherby

definitely

namely, that

"

successive

can

of Aristotle.

Poetica

since Aristotle

only the unityof action,

play," the

which

of the Three

doctrine

in the

singleand complete action

the

the

true, however,
strictly

is not

demands

of

is set

75

in real life.1

than
fearlessly

more

popularlysupposed that

It is

This

PERIOD

and
satisfaction,

demand

for instincts which


be

ALEXANDRIAN

PR^-

THE

were

the

unityof

not

actually

century by Castelvetro,an

until the sixteenth

Italian editor of Aristotle.2


The

of Aristotle's time

Greeks

of

highest form
moving

more

life than

is

that the drama

We

epic.
than

more

all the other

with

blended

profound

more

the

even

Hence

the

but it is

acted

drama

melange

Butcher, op.

See

cit.pp.

was

of
interpretation

The

dance, the song, the

music, too,

sculptureis

impersonate the

is not

literature pure

found

are

in the

characters.

and

simple,

of all the arts.3


227-228.

Spingarn, Literary

Criticism

in

the

Renaissance,

(New York, 1908).


JPeck, Literature,
pp.

it

remember, however,

instrumental

who

women

them

the

since it is literature
literature,

the effect of animated


and

livingmen

in its

must

arts.

painter'scolouring,and
there,and

Certainly to

literature.

and

regardedtragedyas

22,

28

(New

York, 1908).

pp.

90-101

76

HISTORY

dwells

One
most

remarkable

now

possess.

found

CLASSICAL

OF

Aristotle's Poetica,because

upon

specimen of

writers,and

(fl.340 B.C.),who

cus

Plato.

under

various

kinds

in
especially

written

upon

be

to

was

Heraclides

Athens, where

to

came

we

Ponti-

he

studied
jects
sub-

many

philosophy,mathematics, music, history,politics,

"

language,and

Only fragments of

poetry.

remain, though

have

we

synopsis of

science.
subjectof political

the

on

of

is said to have

He

it is the

aesthetic criticism which

criticism

But

in other

PHILOLOGY

phrastus of
two

works,

the

second

On

one

he

is said

have

to

left

treated

his books
also Theo-

was

the other

and

Comedy

has

treatises

of

one

There

(b. 372 B.C.)who

Lesbos

these

fragments of

On

Style.

of metres

In

and

of

solecisms.1
Much

criticism

Sophistsin
the

by

their

lectures;and

with

case

who

comic

fond

was

praising^Eschylus.

one

dramas

themselves

another.

This

poets, above

tophanes,
all,Aris-

whole

passage

Telephus,by Euripides,was

subsequentlyomitted

Aristophaneshad

game

be

criticism is to
'See

Voss,

De

See

Comedy.

wrote

See

by

in the
Pontici

Rabe

Histoire

Egger,

Alexandria

found

Heradidis

the dissertation

and

such

book

de

on

la

on

Athenaeus, xi.

was

gibing at Euripides and

of

It is said that

made

the

given orallyby

in the

their hits at

playwrightsin

the
especially

been

have

must

of it.2 Another

parodiesof
Vita

et

of

of the
because
form

of

serious works.

Scriptis (Rostock, 1897);

Theophrastus (Bonn, 1890).


Critique,pp.

the poets who


p. 232.

45-70.
were

Later

Antiochus

of

criticised in the Middle

78

HISTORY

known
the

the

as

OF

classic

the

la

or

the

rise to

ironical

so-called
rire.

spiritappears

intended

to

perioda good
authors.

Great,

It is

also

Athenian

that

of Homer

by

of the

some

duringthe

for the

Aristotle of questions
inconsistencies

tradition

that

of his

use

"

as

preservedin
after
this

the

copiesof

with

publicarchives.

statues

playsto

These

careful collation of the actors'

edition."

(c. 350

Lycurgus

bronze

their

edited

the casket

Lycurgus

be confounded

authentic

of standard

pupil,Alexander

B.C.), the
the

cal
mythi-

the three

to

great tragic poets, ^Eschylus,Sophocles,and


caused

or

latter part of this

Aristotle himself

known

erected
Spartan legislator),

and

certain

existed in the texts

that

edition

(not to

be said also that

collection

deal of confusion

an

"

later

(UpofiXr/fAciTa).

It is known

specialedition
the

at

tragedy (IXaporpaycpSia)

It must
in

evidences

are

(orSyracuse)in playswhich

mock

point out

absurdities in Homer
There

{aiXkoi) guyed

burlesqued,though

was

of Tarentum

tragUie pour

silli

dogmatic philosophersin epic verse.

tragedy

period,
by Rhinthon
gave

PHILOLOGY

whose
Sillographer,

teaching of

The

CLASSICAL

Euripides,

be made

copieswere

and
made

copies. Concerning

recension,however, very littleis known, though the fact

itselfis

if the

Even
significant.2

'Literally"Squints."

Cf.

our

State

theatrical

codex

slang,

(Berlin,1821); Delapierre,La

prepared by

"It's

scream!"

See

Paul, Be

etc.

(London, 1871),and Carroll,Aristotle's Poetics,etc. (Baltimore,


1895).

Sillis

Wilamowitz,

kles of

in Hermes,

xiv. 151; and

Euripides (Berlin,1889).

Parodie

id.,Introduction

chez les

Grecs,

to the Hera-

Lycurgus

historyof

the

Alexandrians, it
great

reallydid
lack of

Text

It

to

could

critical comparison of
there
of

tragic poets.

codex

in each

however
and

Homeric

have

being compared
theatre.

More

supplied with

with

the version

than

for,regardingthe

this,however,

methods

of

have

the

that

families

inal
orig-

an

was

be

cannot

contained

by

it is

no

was

the

errors,

notes

after

the actors

in the

marginal

used

it

originalcodex,

stillhave

been

that

text

that

The

text.

carefully
copied,must

may

assertion

was

long existed,

not

there

Furthermore,

instance,an

regarding the

made

manuscripts had

certainlyautographa preservedin

were

the

edition and

chosen
arbitrarily

an

of

the time

to

authority. Granting also

much

so

down

probable,however,

seems

cally
criti-

very

great importance in

standard

not

critical basis,since there

upon

editions,nor

attained

remained

esteem.

rest

of

work

Criticism,because

the

in

79

only a careful exemplar and

was

made, it still remains

held

PERIOD

PILE-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

impossibleto

say;

actual evidence

recension,no

survives.
Attention
other

arts, and

Many

treatises

though

much

was

none

the

to

of them
writer

contemporary
have

study of
spoken of

are

earliest known

been

importance in

earlier

of

have
on

given to

it had
with

the

scientific character.
,

to

the

teacher

the

historyof Greek

our

Lasus

was

times.
of

Pindar.

He

music,

is

The

Hermione,

Simonides, and

Xenophanes and
of

to

the title TleplMovo-i/crjs

descended
music

than

Music

said

figureof

introducingin

80

HISTORY

the

dithyramb
it

givingto
number

much

of

Sages
devoted

case

By

wrote

of many

subject,inasmuch

exact

alliedthat the
The

still remain
The

of which

the

by

them

stringsinstead

of

stringsto

to

writingsthat

used

See

now

the

music

is said

'iii.12.

any

were

to

of their

certain
so

closely

in the

andrian
Alex-

portion,is
which

that

vEolian

that

there

by Saran

Greek

was

of Lesbos

given the lyre seven


is

inaccurate.
certainly

Terpander merely added


alreadyexisted

still older, but


of Sacadas

of the

the Greeks

among

this statement

not

was

of

ancients

was
part-singing

10.

Archytas

descended

perhaps

have

that

says
seven

to

the

on

lyre.

scientifically

Argos (c. 580 B.C.).


differed

unknown,

Athenaeus, viii. p. 338, and

'Edited

cially
espe-

of either.
indifferently

have

we

Terpander, an

until the time

have

poetry and music

four; but

was
Flute-playing

in that

were

treatise with the title 'ApfioviKov.

of classical music

Pausanius3

vocal

the

fragments,edited by Saran.2

some

(c. 675 B.C.),who

studied

among

famous

impossibleto be

as

music,
the

numbered

them,

in

adding to

styled'Ap/j.ovitca
Iroixeia,of

foundation

ascribed

music

and
flutes,

written
only important treatise,

by Aristoxenus

The

is

rhythm

Pythagoreans

Movai/crjwas

name

Age,

four

of

was

The

of the

by report only, it

us

of

he

some

music, among

who

PHILOLOGY

greater freedom

Greece.1

to

Tarentum,

In the

CLASSICAL

accompaniment

an

of voices.

Seven

of

OF

from

there

Diog. Laert.

Terpander first set poetry

beingonly

i. 42.

(Leipzig,1893).
to music.

modern

difference of octaves,

when

as

Another

chorus.

were

from
distinguished

each

againstthe

therefore,as
with

which

their

names

we

These

used

notation

the firstfourteen lettersof

last

being

carved

reconstructed
Greek
1

See

by

Engel,

Westphal, Die

The

For

et Theorie

oj Ancient

13-45

pp.
O

de la

Most

Music

at

was

Ancient

Musique

dans

Gleditsch

earlymusic, see

(New York, 1902).

form

specimens
us, the

to

in

It has

1893
been

theory is that

Nations

rhythm

(London, 1866);

VAntiquiU (Ghent, 1881);


1887); Monro,
(Leipzig,

(Oxford, 1894); Henderson,


and

alphabet

Delphi

stone.

in Iwan

ii.3, 3d
Allerthumswissenschaft,
of

notation

the words, while

Alterthums
griechischen

York, 1898);

simple account

Music,

des

Greek

der classischen
a

from

from

few

down

whose
Fleischer,

of the

Music

Musik

Developed (New
buch

Oscar

tinct
dis-

the other

ancient

an

come

two

older

an

Only

Apollo found

melody emanated

Gevaert, Histoire

Modes

to

fragments of

the

upon

have

notation

hymn

of lambda.

peoples

taken

were

besides

digamma,

forms

two

musical

of Greek

"

the

retained

iota,and

of

had

the Greeks

alphabet; while the instrumental

derived from

got

Hypolydian).1

for the voice

Those

for the instrument.

by

the Asiatic

for the voice and

systems of signs,one

which

modes

seven

from

(Phrygian,Lydian, Mixolydian,and

the Ionic

minor)

and

the three great divisions of the Greeks

from

musical

which

modes,

seven

(major

modes

(Dorian,^Eolian,and Ionian) and

The

in the

sang

modes,

had

music

acquainted.

are

by the place of the

other

two

boys

in the

was

Greek

in the octave.

semitones

and

men

difference

same

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

PR^E-

THE

ed.

How

Music

Miiller's Hand-

(Munich, 1901).

Untersteiner,A Short History of

82

HISTORY

and

metre

OF

were

words."1

Greek

the

music

introduced

had

with

which
how

continuous

that the

graphicart

century B.C.; and


the

colours, since

the

But

after

soon

called

the

(86 a.d.) built


for

Odeum,

fresco-painting
ing
vase-paint-

in Greece

began

began

artists had

whitened

discoverer

of

the

those

art,

distinguish

use

of various
in

chrome
mono-

who

appeared

of Thasos

was

taking subjects from


of

events

the publicbuildingsand temples.


history,
decorating

recent

Polygnotus used only


red

yet gave

"

in
JSee
2

eighth

clay.

Polygnotus

wars.

the

worked

tablets of

greatest painterswere
the Persian

the

to

us

believe

may

earlyas

as

Athens

One

mythology (460 B.C.). His contemporariestreated

and

the

his direction.2

Egyptians,and

development.

heretofore
or

entertainments

earlier

paintings,
probably by

walls

on

the

Eumaresof

in his

sexes

was

through existingremains, shows


the

was

the

its highestdevelopment at the

from
trace

can

we

the

and

Rome

there under

sculpture. Even

borrowed

been

at

Domitian

called

held

were

painting reached

time

same

he

of

accents

public

gave

which

exercises that

Greek

musical

concerts, and

large structure,

musical

was

Nero

resembling modern
a

PHILOLOGY

given by

admired.

greatly

CLASSICAL

shading.

Fleischer, Die

Little

can

Martianus
learned

be

from

varietyto
Soon

Reste der

learned

Capella

four colours

and

the Greeks.

black,white, yellow,

"

his

paintingby

afterward

the

Tonkunsi
altgriechischen

about

music

Boethius,

since

from

Roman

they merely

the difference

scene-painter,
(Leipzig,1900).
writers,such
copy

what

as

they

discovered

Agatharchusof Samos,
and

methods

His

Athens

which

shading,on

followed

were

of
principles

new

subjectshe

wrote

spective
per-

book.

panels by Apollodorus of

on

The

others.

and

83

PERIOD

PR.E-ALEXANDRIAN

THE

school

which

founded

he

was

usuallycalled the Ionic School,and it comprised the


great rivals,Zeuxis, who

truth, and

copied

of

Parrhasius

Ephesus.

Encaustic

painting
his

perfectedby Pausias, in the fourth century, and

was

Ox"

"Black
bull

in

was

famous

as

modern

have

skill

work

remains

scarcelyany

antiquityas Paul Potter's

in

Great

times.

Apelles of Ephesus, whose

was

of

it cannot

but

(obsidian)or

sharp stone
drill which

cut

the

charged with
little for

cared

made

cameos

dark
xSee

(New

be

of onyx,

background.
Woltmann

and

sort

the

of emery

The

Woermann,

N.

xxvii.

76.

they used

powder.2
and

The

The

by

tools

Greeks

preferred

figuresstanding out vividlyon


oldest
A

Greek

jewellerwhose

Historyof Painting. Eng.


Antique (Paris,1S95) ;

Sculptur (Aschersleben,1882).

Pliny,H.

tians,
Egyp-

disk worked

Egyptian scarabs,
the

the

proved
greatlyim-

of the pattern.

Henri, UEncaustique (Paris, 1884); and

metal

models.1

by

cuttinggems

minute

York, 1901); Girard, La Peinture

der antiken

Greek

the Greeks

For

deeper parts
a

the tombs,

said that the Greeks

their models.

upon

were

learned from

was

graceful. We

upon

usuallyEtruscan, and often copied from


Gem-cutting

by

paintingsof the

found

are

attained

was

very

Grecian

classical age except those which

wonderful

with

nature

two

Bockler,

Die

trans.

Cros

and

Polychromie in

84

HISTORY

has

name

the

down

come

of

master

teles in the

of

love

century

precious

become

that not

of
of

supremacy
had

what

Greece

development
historyof

whether
this

So

in fact, marks

the

emeralds

in

nation

creative

same

Greece

as

less

the spontaneous

1891); Murray, A
(London, 1892); and

The

Fowler

genius of

the

the

of Greek
and

(New York, 1909).

the

the

to

destructive

vigorous and

period,cherishinga
with

result of conscious
native

of Classical Times
Archeology, pp.

Wheeler, A

gradual

ever
began, when-

same

outpouring of

Engraved Gems

Handbook

the

at first

as

of

decadence

faith,and
intelligible

and

The

sufficient time

its formative

springsup

Middleton,

vii

find

we

comparativelysimple

and

complete

repeated in

been

over

the

philosophical.

since the world

extended

quick-wittedpeople,in

literature that

the

in Greece

have

ing
end-

as

kings.

in
striking

periodreveals

other

the

Macedonian

or
political,
literary,

history has

giveplay to

ch.
ecology,

ness.
like-

did

be viewed

(322 B.C.)and

decline that

and

every

that

See

his

pearls and

may

and
original

most

historyof

than

only artist

allow to cut

as

the

by

Macedon,

been

Greeks,

forces.

the

was

Pyrgo-

was

until later times

Period

of Aristotle

the death

domination

such

stones

Prae-Alexandrian

with

would

times

most

passion.1

The

He

father of

B.C.). The

600

Greek

B.C.

the Great

be added

It may

art

is Mnesarchus, the

us

gem-cutting in

fourth

Alexander

whom

The

to

PHILOLOGY

philosopher Pythagoras (c.

famous

the

CLASSICAL

OF

Handbook

genius,

(Cambridge,

40-50,

146-173

of Greek

Arch'

86

HISTORY

There

is some

OF

CLASSICAL

truth in the belief that

developed culture

is fatal to

leads to established
conventional.

place of

few

The

average

man

is less

is

consistent

and

last

at

good

"

form

the
mild

questionswhich
epic

is

In

the

aside

by

of

realism,which
1

See

give way

with

drama

it out

with

pp. 74-92.

Horace,

Sat. i. 4,

Eng.

trans.

46-47.

(New

in

sort

realm

Euripides

and

York, 1906).

and

intense

first

cynicalplays of

elegantand

its urbane

The

cious
meretri-

Sophocles are

rather

of

the practical

day.

its many

to the

of the

Decharme,

astic
enthusi-

thought is

beyond

Verrall, Euripides the Rationalist,introduction


and

it is not

Thus

to

itself the

the drama

Menander,

(Cambridge, 1895) ;
Dramas,

drift of

go very far

the rationalistic and

takes

But

thus in the later philosophy,

until tragedygivesway
Euripides,1

comedy

reduces

critics who

be eccentric.

powerful tragediesof ^Eschylus and


thrust

more

no

relate to the life of every

supplanted by

allurements.

not

exceptional

imaginativeand

idealistic systems

eclecticism that does

the

power.

and

form."

the whole

and

commonplace;

and
speculative

be

to

is held to

original.This

the

the

giveplaceto

good

thing
every-

takes

exceptionalmen

Creators

highlycivilised community

toward

makes

blast
intellectually

they call

it inevitably

of creative

but
intelligent,

more

formulas.

with

thus

level of excellence

dead

until
original,

slaves to what

are

and

strikingmanifestations

man

everythingto

generaland highly

because
originality,

standards

Society becomes

exist.

PHILOLOGY

ing
amus-

dialogueand
of pure
and

the

its

poetry.2
pp.

257-60

Spirit of

his

THE

The

for

rather

analyse,

to

especial

into

came

and

and

remained

anything

been

produced
Thus

there

that

sciences

and

lateral
col-

are

linguistic

study
formal

and

criticism,

text

creative

attempt

classify.

the

lexicography,

What

to

literature

to

the

already
to

prominence

subsidiary

hermeneutics,

"

had

what

criticise,

to

not

was

study

to

critical.

the

to

when

then,

ends,

therefore,

men,

but

yielded

87

PERIOD

Age

largely

had

serious

new,

"

Alexandrian

Prae-

impulse

ALEXANDRIAN

PR^E-

grammar.

chapter,
translation

PP-

Classical

of

the

(Paris,

1854);
(New

3-59

Greek
Greeks

(Oxford,

1896);
An

Croiset,

English

translation

Poetry:

Law

in

(New
Taste,

pp.

The

1893)

(London,

Denis,
Abridged

York,
37-221

Laertius,

La

Growth

(London,

Tlie

Comidie

and

English

0/ Criticism,

Influence

and

Haigh,

History

1904);

History

Tragic

Grecque,
of

Greek

Courthope,
1901).]

this

in

translation

English

Athenaeus,

Jebb,

cited

already

Diogenes

Saintsbury,

1900);

York,

books

of

and

with

together

Poetry

1886);

works

1853),

(London,

(London,
i-"

anecdotal

the

to

"

the

see

addition

In

[Bibliography.

of

Drama

vols.

Literature,

Life

in

Ill

THE

ALEXANDRIAN

A.

In

the

Alexandrian

The

306

year

Athens,

at

infant

the

twenty-five

Alexandria

in

from
his

Great,

had,

of

city to which

the

he

the

made

metropolis of

of

the

king

to

sure

situated
in

it.

live and

that
Down

flourish

lay
the

whole

the

barbaric

of the

East, carried
China,

masses

of

and

Nile

gold

and

scarcely known

there

Africa.

To
vast

over

spices and

of the

jewels

silver

from

even

to
88

the

general plan
which

to

as

The

be

commands

to

city; but

such

were

that

planted there, was


ages.

of

projecting tongue

trade

exactly

it should

that

world.

when

to

sea

was

throughout succeeding
a

upon

of

from

name

Alexandria

community,

wealth

were

of

advantages

Alexandria

the

entire

to

Alexander

give enduring greatness

commercial

great

the

It

traced

orders

the

over

when

his

gave

statesman,

sentenced

Egypt.

time

peremptory

cannot

natural

the

passed

hand,

own

he issued

most

the

been

having

orator,

and

years
with

Phalereus,

left Greece

of

city

School

Demetrius

B.C.,

poet, philosopher, and


death

PERIOD

land,

centred

Mediterranean

floated

to

it also
spaces
from
lands

the

its wharves

the treasures

came

by

so

caravans

India, and
of which

contemporary

silks

"

enormous

the

names

geographers.

its harbour

In
Asia

in the

vessels of

the

were

and

East, to Spain

89

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

country, from

every
and

Gaul

Britain

even

in

the West.
the outward

To

its entire

Through
shaded

by mighty

costlymarbles

known

was

foliageand
while

oriental

adorned

lighthouseof

the

which

on

marble

numbered
the time

when

more

obelisks gave

humming

with

the

took

life.

of Alexandria's

Its

of the

thousand

sheltering
pyramidal

height at

justly

world.

At

inhabitants,and

people were

alert,energetic,

and
distinction,

belief in its

destiny,giving it

miles, and

in

eye

tained
refugethere,the citycon-

sublime

fifteen

the

and
($940,000),

Dinocrates, its designer,had

than

ture,
sculp-

suggestionof

of

feet

future.

more

tropical

Grecian

II. reared

wonders

seven

with

there

seaward, his

rocks

hundred

hundred

it, before

In

looked

one

silver talents

one

city was

Alexander,

Residence.

Ptolemy

Demetrius
than

succeeded

masterpiecesof

four

the

among

whole

gardens, brilliant

and

of

splashedand

reigningfamily; and

water,

eighthundred

of

proud

blue

the

who

Royal

strangeness. As

island,Pharos,

was

of the

with

sphinxes

beheld, over

cost

One-fifth

besides, parks and

were,

by parterres

fountains

palacesof

the

long,were

diversified

kings

the

as

great boulevards,

two

which

amid

Greek

extremelybeautiful.

was

ran

trees, and

gleamed.

for the

reserved

length

flowers

multicoloured

and

eye, Alexandria

ambitious

planned
a

for

it with

circumference

its
a

of

foreseeing
alreadyits coming

HISTORY

90

OF

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

splendour. Ptolemy Soter, who


the

styleand
and

title of

liberal

of

ideas.

be

he

had

His

Philipof Macedon,

half-brother

to

king, was

served

soldier and

the

to

with

fact, he had

himself
He

Alexander.1

Antigonus; but

mother
that

so

and

contest

he

the

whom
A

also

was

narrative

his

of the

true

In
of

wars

campaign against

thoughts

glory

great

literature.

and

nearing its end,

was

cubine
con-

believed

was

in Asia.

science

turning

designs for enhancing

been

Ptolemy

still carryingon

was

assume

largeconceptions

had

statesman,

written

was

the

Ptolemy

of

man

conspicuous success

in his love of art

Greek

to

great Alexander, under

consummate

justabout

was

and

and

ready
al-

magnificent

to

splendour

of

his

capital.
It

All the

achievement.
Here

by

contact

only

not

of the

JThis

work, the
can

narrative
Anabasis

be found

world

people were
with

itself,and

Greece
once,

in

that

was

The

largely used

of Alexander.

in the Didot

youthful city,

and

was

an

The

edition of Arrian

than

desire to

the

first Greek

by Arrian

little

ised
ideas, liberal-

new

intense
but

than

broader

civilisation far older

commercial,

world.

able.
absolutelyfavour-

were

receptiveto

filled with

the

remarkable

some

traditions of intellectual greatness,

Hellenic

yet growing up
Its

conditions

rich, populous,

was

possessingthe

Hellas.

for

psychologicalmoment

the

was

in

that

of

gain

at

intellectual

king

of

premacy
su-

Egypt

preparing his chief

fragments of Ptolemy's work


(Paris,1848).

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

unlimited
possessedpractically
with

suggestionalone

The

opportunitiesin

needed

was

Such
possibilities.

inherent

himself

even

the

among

ruler

last of the

Attic

his native

governed

and

ninety statues

his honour.

He
of

schoolmate
who

To

by

the

him

was

and

by the Athenians

pupil

the

head

of

of

the

Peripatetic

had

these
of two

author

books

text

criticism.

No

fitted than

he

advise

the

any

to

project for
is not

one

which

capitalof

the

the

world

king

rendered
and

historyof Greek
fruits of his wise

to

have

of
him

is ascribed
the

the

were

two

"

gestion
sug-

intellectual
the

learning. The

Roman

to

fore,
learning. There-

Alexandria

counsel

better

related

profoundly influenced
and

have

to

been

in whatever

advancement

surprisedthat
soon

could

the

relatingto

dealt with

one

tion
recita-

fallen into disuse.

relatingto the Odyssey,supposed

and

in

Theophrastus,

four

Iliad

He

hundred

three

the revival of Homeric

due

was

highly cultivated scholar,the

Rhapsodes, after
the

influence

distinction.

ably that

erected

Aristotle at

himself

was

also

of

orators

city so

Menander,

succeeded

School.

He

was

the

King Ptolemy. He

as

been

had

their

from

well fitted to

man

had

worthy of

be

Phalereus.

was

independent

so

refining.

suggestioncame

exiled Athenian, Demetrius


Demetrius

and

employ these unusual

to

should

that

way

noble

was

gifted

was

inspiredwith

taste, and

for all that

splendidenthusiasm

He

resources.

and
intelligence

trained

sequent
submediate
im-

the estab-

of

lishment

An

of the

account

attached

was

quarter of the

marvels

contained

It

observatory for

an

and
a selected library,
laboratories,

rounded
sur-

decorative

of

its astronomers,

great hall which

It

beautiful

most

harbour, and

city,overlookingthe

and
by lawns, porticos,
art.

given by Strabo.2

royal palace in the

the

to

is

Museum

also the

and

Library.1

Alexandrian

of the famous

foundation

(to Mvaelov),

great Museum

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

92

was

theatre of magnificentproportionsarranged
a
practically

publiclecture

as

who

drawn

were

dined

like
together,

who

at

body; while

whole

the

Athenaeus,v.

Strabo,xviii. p. 794.

Alexandrinische

Greece,pp.
beforethe

See also

Museum

the

first

bore

on

his

time

as

in

there
ing
strik-

ton.
Washing-

own

specialty,
teen
four-

as

many

primarilyunder

the

call deans, chosen

may

of

administration

Parthey, Das Alexandrinische


1-70,

123-172,

(1895);Walden,

48-50 (New York,

Middle

we

institution

the

p. 203.

(Berlin,
1838);Ritschl,Opuscula,i. pp.
Das

one

and

great universityin

were
professors

whom
of principals
supervision

by

At

Museum

essence

numbered
The

thousand.

whole

Carnegie Institution
in

English

an

botanical

were

lectured,each
professors

the

students

to

the

it became

Later
which

to

the

that

teaching,so

resemblance

Museum

original research.

encourage

no

was

fellows of

and

object of the

The

all countries

from

Museum

the

to

hall,the scholars

second

the master

gardens.
zoological
to

the

to

college.Attached

was

In

room.

The

1909); Graves,

Ages (New York, 1909).

197-237;

Universities

History of

Museum

Weniger,

of Ancient
Education

HISTORY

94
have

been

and

purchased

believed

at the

between

five hundred

were

as

It

side

often

any

haste

and

without

bring

into
a

with

endowed

an

magnificentproportions
orderly

previouslybeen

taken

inadequate materials.

every

play
great

and

rest,
the

each

data

"

out
with-

work

so

each, and

facts, results,

succeedinggenerationfound

to which

in turn

great development of the

Buchwesen

of

of

highly

research

labour

apportioningtheir

of

mass

of

for
facility

peculiartalents

(Berlin,1882); Geraud,

(Paris,1840); Castellani,Delle

1884).

copies.

systematic and

Ritschl,Die Alexandritiischen Bibliotheken

Antike

of

pecuniaryanxiety,could

from

classified for its use

ch.

such

Private

purchased,as

were

a largebody
sphere of learning,

which
principles,

Das

libraryof

and
unsatisfactory

provided

men,

there

by individuals,working independentlyand

freed

See

had

once

thousand

Demetrius

the existence

subjectsthat

accumulating

how

seen

is

contained

authoritative
especially

of many

every

at

have

its shelves.

Aristotle

the

last,in

and

to

of

on

quickly foster

very

to

of

and

Library,which

six hundred

death

volumes

side with

with

and

for the

would

trained

as

by

random

at

At

readilybe

can

study
up

editions

^Eschylus, Sophocles,

and

the

that

as

of

fact that the

the

greatest fame

thousand

before

such

rare

school

of its

thousand
fifty

collections

well

time

Even

some

mentions

originalcopies

or

Euripides were

volumes.1

PHILOLOGY

Galen

made.

thus

autographa

CLASSICAL

OF

Les

it added.

scientific

Hence,

spiritin

(Breslau,1838); Birt,
Livres dans

Biblioteche nell' Antichita

I'Antiquite,

(Bologna,

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

of the

establishment

There

School.

but

there

that

word

when

number

of able

such

fast to

the

together in
held

no

most

diverse

theory

methods.

in

had

direction.

"

"

school

school

of

of

medicine,

a school
literature,

school

more

mathematics,
a

school

of grammar

and
to

proper
were

school

of

tain
cer-

and

Alexandria

at

lived

who

only thing that

of

and

took

the

all of them
of scientific

speak

of the

reallymany,
astronomy,

philosophy,a

and

of

each

by

activities

Alexandria, since there

at

the

or

ideas

men

love of science
far

growths
out-

singlephilosophy

no

Their

The
a

be

But

learned

common.

It would

schools

In

all dominated

were

The

Museum

drian
Alexan-

School,

School.

is

given to

sense

Ionic

theory.

case.

possessedtogetherwas

"

the
Stoic

men

common

the

not

was

what

training,

philosophicalprinciplesand

common

holding

all in the

of

the

or

and

researches

at

speak

we

Pythagorean School,
these

"

school

no

and

fact, several distinct

in

were,

"

was

Library

the

upon

inaccuratelystyled the

Alexandrian

the

from

95

immediately

and

Museum

somewhat

and

roughly

almost

followed

direction

every

PERIOD

school

of

and finally,
linguistics,

of textual criticism.1

Yet

these

'See

St.

different schools

Hilaire,De

Histoire

de I'Ecole

Histoire

de
Critique

ley's Alexandrian
only to

the

VEcole

had

one

d'Alexandrie

characteristic

(Paris,1845); Simon,

d'Alexandrie,2 vols. (Paris,1844-45); aQd


I'Ecole
Schools

Vacherot,

d'Alexandrie,3 vols. (Paris,1846-51).

(Cambridge, 1854)

side.
philosophical

so

is

Kings-

disappointingand

lates
re-

96
far in

common

"school."
exhibit

Just

in erudition.

they

belongsto
It is

the

has

that

of

suggestingto

the

reader

died

overwork

in

at

scientific

CAra/cra, TXaxra-ai).1The
were

of the

equinoxesand

their science.
as

about

language

Poetry,

of

It

was

Homeric

an

vidual
indi-

Apollonius,

writer

though

in each

learned

else,

trait that

It is

study.

or
ecliptic,

the

in

and

astronomers

morbidly anxious

grammaticalmerits
of the

turn

every

the first attempt at

made

all

their hands.

Aratus, and

(c.300 B.C.),though

of Cos

who

from

treatise.

elegies,
deed,
he, inlexicon

the mathematicians

the rhetorical

in which
the

they

solution

and

wrote

of the

quadraticequation. So, again,the geographers and


suppliedtheir
And

thus,

given
1

in

at

first,even

verse.

See Couat, La

It

was

treatises
the
an

with

age

of

torians
his-

notes.
archaeological

abstract

most

of

steeped

find the Alexandrian

we

Callimachus,

So Philetas
from

is the

"

Greeks

are

reproduce itself

to

Therefore

work."
as

this

aptly said:

in

freshness

Before

lamp.

came

thus

earlier

Alexandrians

that

very

great librarystrove

such

the

and
originality

of the

smell

all

to

the Alexandrian

less in their literature than


writer

German

speaking of

the

singlework

every
no

seen

scholars,and

productions; and

learned

are

family likeness

writings of

instinctive

They

of

sort

in

writingsof

the

thought, so

PHILOLOGY

Alexandrian

the

as

certain

the

justifyus

to

measure

some

CLASSICAL

give a

to

as

productionsof

the

OF

HISTORY

lectures

were

scholarencyclopaedic

Poesie Alexandrine,pp. 68 foil. (Paris,


1882).

ship; and

the

less than

no

is what

This

influence

an

Rome, where
the

treatises

that

afterward

it

work

literature

in pure

marked

to

respects

of

and

the

enduring value

of that

andrians
Alex-

that

their

that

their

The

eclecticism.

intellectual

study

physicswas

to-day; while

scientific men

most

noblest literature,
demands,

in its results

sure

so

of the

research

learned

the

genuine inspiration.But
mechanics,

Vergil,the

tendency

and

learning,an

mere

at

writingsof Varro,

the

imagination,and

of

by

highest philosophy,like
in addition

"

slightaesthetic value, being

of

was

void

formal, pedantic,and

philosophy was

whole

the

reflection

toward

was

Influence,

poets.

because
precisely

It is

dramas

powerfully felt

in the lines of

less than

and

lexicography.

and

so

reproduced itself in

of all the Latin

epics

Alexandrian

the

by

was

97

grammar

on

is meant

polymath, no

learned

Alexandrian

tingesthe

it

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

no

mathematics, of

and
fruitful,

now

as

of

subtletyand

to

be the

one

of

admiration

overestimate

can

systematiclabour

and grammar)
language (lexicography

in many

in the

and

the

study

of

in the criticism

of texts.
So
at

far

as

literature is concerned, the Alexandrians

their best in

down

to

added

of

them

their

and
collecting
from
own

the
was

any

great aesthetic merit.

the

Alexandrian

writers

preservingwhat

Little
of

and

in amount
more

epics and

than

come

What

preceding centuries.
vast

had

were

the

lyricsand

they

devoid
names

dramas

of
of

98

HISTORY

OF

to-day.

Here

known

are

of vast

which

were

but

which

were

treatment

or

technical

so

the oblivion that

and

the

the

and

has

other

of

an

of

which

be

said

treatise

fourth

been

now

The

science.

of

Colchis,the

hundred

one

on

of

of the three
It is claimed

used

have

second

writing Greek,

in

Likewise
them

also that
the

for

admirable

Old

the

librarian,

an

bear

invented

he

Comedy,
the

upon

in his editions

he

wrote

the

ject
subThe

taste.

(c. 200

B.C.),

and

also

the

system

critical

of Homer,

other

which

accents

suggested

great tragic poets, and

plots to

The

of antiquity."
greatest philologist

is said to

employed

and
(arj/xela)

poets

excellent

knowledge and

epic

comic

third

B.C.),wrote

another

the

foundation

The

literature.

books, bringingto

punctuation.

first librarian,

twenty books

and

laid the

have

and

styled "the
who

criticism

B.C.),made

275

librarian,Aristophanes of Byzantium

It is he

of

exact

Cyrene (c. 200

geography

on

wealth

to

of Greek

least twelve

in at

are

of

deserve

reduced

Cyrene (c.

Library in

study

in their

to

as

^Etolus,the tragic poets.

the

Eratosthenes

obscure

so

at

them.

upon

catalogueof

scientific

admired

even

in their themes

lyricpoets ; Lycophron

may

and

either

fragments tell

few

Ephesus (c.300 B.C.),collected

of

librarian,Callimachus

has

there
read

come

study of styleto

Alexander

PHILOLOGY

hand, the Alexandrians

Zenodotus
and

and

volumes

Alexandria,

On

CLASSICAL

famous

Hypotheses

greater dramatists, with

signs

Hesiod,
writers.
or

notes

densed
con-

and

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

aesthetic criticisms.1

Most

have

of what

PERIOD

Canon2

Alexandrian

become

known

and

it

represents the matured

Alexandrian
Greek

students

writers

excellence in their

to

embodied

greatest care,

Iambic

those

the

the

Canon

(3) Lyric Poets, Alcman,

are

as

thought

follows:

(i) Epic

Hipponax.

Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesichorus,

Poets, Callinus, Minnermus,


Poets

(First Class), ^Eschylus, Sophocles,

Tragic Pleiades), Alexander


Corcyra, Sositheus, Homer

pp.

See

Gudeman,

The

(Middle

Outlines

word

rule;
whatever

reallymade

Class,

or

-/Etolian,Philiscus of

Younger, ^Eantides, Sosi(6) Comic

so

served
up

infra,
pp.

(Kavdbv)meant

canon

that, in
as

Classical

(Old

Poets

canons

or

Philology,3d ed.,

a
reed, and
originally

norm.
as

Antiphanes,

100-102.

the

figurative
sense,

model

of several

Comedy),

of the Historyof

(Boston, 1902), and

11-13

the

(Second

Epicharmus, Cratinus, Eupolis,Aristophanes,

Pherecrates, Plato.
1

the

Sosicles,Lycophron.

Comedy),

giac
(4)Ele-

Philetas,Callimachus.

Euripides, Ion, Achaeus, Agathon.

or

highest

were

Pindar, Bacchylides,
Ibycus,Anacreon, Simonides.

phanes

of

names

very

Poets, Archilochus, Simonides,

(5) Tragic

of the

judgment

Hesiod, Pisander, Panyasis,Antimachus.

Poets, Homer,

(2)

the

especialspheres,and who

details of

The

works

antiquity. The

final
as

canons

for all future authors.

be models

to

and

literature

of

whose

of Greek

"

"the

as

prepared with

was

all is his establishment

important of

listsof the very best authors

or

99

may

The

be

seen

word

Canon

came

then
to

denote

Alexandrinus

in the text

penter's
car-

above.

is

Alexis.

Menander,

Comedy),

(New

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

IOO

Philippides,
Diphi-

Apollodorus. (7) Historians,Herodotus,

lus, Philemon,

Thucydides, Xenophon, Theopompus, Ephorus, Philistus,


Callisthenes.

Anaximenes,

(8)

Orators

(the

Attic

ten

Orators), Antiphon, Andocides, Lysias,Isocrates, Isaeus,

Hyperides, Dinarchus.

iEschines, Lycurgus, Demosthenes,

(9) Philosophers, Plato, Xenophon, ^Eschines, Aristotle,

the

with

epoch

same

Pleiades

Poetic

(10)

Theophrastus.

of

(seven poets

another), ApolloniusRhodius,

one

Aratus, Philiscus, Homer

the

Ni-

Younger, Lycophron,

cander, Theocritus.
This

Canon

multitude

of

of books

There

Age.

should

certain

The

as

Canon

standard

purity of styleand
From

the

of the

to

It

harm.
of the

some

the

value

works

were

the

of
be

definite

some

Alexandrian

undoubtedly

greatest works
works

to

to

our

of

wrought

led

the

of
that

to

be

it

preserved

the

lishment
estab-

both

good

preservationof

antiquity;but
would

it also led

of inestimable

philologist.These

perishjust because

it

literary
expression.

times

own

flood

all literary

which

thus

real

and

serve

Canon

classical

modern
allowed

be lost in

and

laws

weight
of

comparison by
judged;

the

claims

intended

standpoint of

loss of other
to

apprehension lest

was

the great

to

in the Alexandrian

to appear

prevail against the

productionsmust

and

began

owing

lest the great classics should

of innovation.
serve

that

was

numbers

merit, and

did

felt to be necessary

was

they

were

latter
not

HISTORY

102

with

heavilycharged
parts like
its

dictionaryof antiquities.As

trulytypicalof

epics" of

Aratus

of

until it

As

The

to

came

It

the

largelyto

it

some

their
of

influence

result

The

was

body

See

pure

literature,

beginningof

the

Aristobulus,an

called it
very

La

The

at

on

"poem

of

show

of shadows."

Poesie

Alexandrine

rate,

any

began

admit

to

the

into
earlier

monised.
harsuperficially

expounder

Mosaic

Library

doctrine
semi-religious

of

this

mony
har-

Jew {c. 180 B.C.)

Alexandrian

the

most

who

rabbis

Books, dedicated
that the main
The

scholia

valuable.

Couat,

characterised

after the

as

theology were

Ptolemy Philometor, sought to

work
literary

pedantic

was,

Jewish

elaborate

most

commentaries

however,

bites of

the

philosophical
conceptionsof

the

philosophy and

was

of

or

religiousteaching,so

in which

Suidas

of Ni-

more

always

Egypt

Jewish

was

The

the

was

in

arose

Greeks.

whose

that

originated nothing.

that

established

widen

and

far from

not

the

on,

spiritof

Philosophy

school
interesting

to

wards
meteorology (after-

more

the

times.1

so-called "didactic

poison and

went

second,

era.2

eclecticism.

due

time

with

Alexandrian

became

for

became

end

an

the

to

by Cicero),and

cures

less imbued

Christian

by

on

Alexandrians

far

and

into Latin

creatures.

the

and

astronomy

Colophon

venomous

the

are

age

reading in

in ancient

proverb even

the

on

translated
cander

PHILOLOGY

ponderous learning,and

obscuritypassed into

More

of

CLASSICAL

OF

(Paris,1882).

by

to

teach-

Tzetzes

are

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

ings of

derived

were

later,when

the

their system, in the

hands

In
the

the

the

older
and

Pure

treatise

on

of the

well

determination
six

was

on

conic

the

(c.300

the

out

by

first

B.C.);

by
the

systematic

the

Copernicus,

some

See

1901).

sixteen

ment
develop-

Archimedes

by

matics
mathe-

the

scholar;

Eratosthenes

first

(275-194

Julian Calendar;
the

solar year

made

until

hundred

years

was

Aris-

by Apolloniusof Perga

length of

astronomy

merate
enu-

These

moon

minutes) by Hipparchus (c. 160 B.C.),after


in

of

to

applicationof

same

sections

later called

of the true

real advance

and

sun

well

attained.

were

the first

as

hydrostaticsby

what

tianity
Chris-

strict limits of

the

geometry of three dimensions

(260-200 B.C.);the working


B.C.)of

which

geometry by Euclid

scientific treatise

for

both

however, be

(310-250 B.C.);

(287-212 B.C.),as
to

beyond

may,

measurement

of the

Julian the

and

Applied Sciences, the achievements

Samos

of

the

but

faith.1

strikingresults

comprise the

to

Christianity;and

to

substitute

pagan

philology. It

some

tarchus

as

turies
cen-

Christianity
began

of Iamblichus

lie somewhat

Alexandrians

classical

forth

set

hostile

and

Three

thereby modified;

was

were

Apostate, was

of

influence

later Neo-Platonists

and

of Plato

Pentateuch.

the

from

felt,Neo-Platonism

be

103

those
especially
philosophers,

Greek

Aristotle,

PERIOD

(within

whom

the

the

time

later;

no

of
the

Kingsley,op. cit.;and Whittaker,The Neo-Platonists (Cambridge,

HISTORY

104

invention of
the

OF

CLASSICAL

trigonometry,also by Hipparchus; and

construction

of the

and

toys by Hero

(c.125 B.C.),to

writings on

the

the introduction

the

also been

he

was

the
essentially

Alexandrians,

so

great (fu\6\oyo";

Aristarchus

afterwards,and
that

that

with

Great

from

Astronomers

of
integrity

long dead

name

is with

that

will

to

for its

History

(New

York,

of

History of

there

been

It has

done

texts

work

exist

and
was

viously
prealso
now

inquiryand

time

went

on,

(London, 1899); Ball,

Astronomy

1899); Ball,A

especially

choose.

scientific

prosecution. As

Short

(London, 1901); Cajori, A

of
spirit

This

result

soon

when

something had

in

author, pursued

an

the text,

and

has

one

great dramatists.

means

Berry,

of

the criticism of the Homeric

of the

ample

the

which

up at Alexandria

See

his

highestdevelopment

systematic way,

been

shown

toward

taken

its

literary
study

and

has

versions

texts

his

day, proverbial. It

reached

the

thorough

already been

the

this

to

even

the author

variant

critic of literature made

questionsrelatingto

when

in Samothrace,

times.

It is evident
a

as

criticism

text

until recent

in

essentially

was

pupil of Aristophanesat Alexandria, where

stupendous labours

him

ascribed

quadratic equation and

of all antiquity. Born


great /cpiTiic6";

the

in

the

have

mechanical

algebra.1

Aristophanes was

among

curious

many

whom

of

solution
of

finaly,

the steam-engine,
the
fire-engine,

nickel-in-the-slot machine,

As

PHILOLOGY

History of

Mathematics

(New

Mathematics

York, 1906);

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

definite School

of Criticism

of

Zenodotus
librarian,
founder

this

of

him

look

to

that

also

He

epic

glossaryof

Homeric

his

duties

finds him

one

and

lyricpoets

Philetas

put forth

into

edition

an

work

the
were

sort

of

elaboratingthe
ambitious

more

which

first

of making

preparing a
and

05

classifierled

the

upon

The

regarded as

fact that

especialinterest

so
collections,

corpus of the

be

cataloguer,purchaser,and

with

The

established.

was

Ephesus, may

school.

of

partlythose

PERIOD

be

may

work.

called the

very first scientificedition of both the Iliad and

the

Odyssey.

It

b.c.

Hence

publishedshortlybefore

was

work

8t,6p6eo"n"

the

Recension.

or

preparingthe

In
four

kinds

of Homer,

text

of corrections:

of certain

omission

the

order

Fink,

History of

der

Mathematik

treatise
them

in

of certain

doubtful

so

absolutely

as

lines

as

very

justifytheir

to

as

complete

scribe,copied part

(Leipzig,
1877).

Pneumatics

invention

back

time.

und

Mitlelalter

ingeniousmechanical

realityan

his

(Chicago,1900); Hankel, Zur

Allerthum

Greenwood,

algebra dates
before

of certain

the

lines; (4) Emendation, the sub-

Mathematics

im

Hiero's

on

in

regarded

introduced

the rearrangement
altogether;(3)Transposition,

of the
A

he

marking

doubtful, though still not


omission

Zenodotus

(1) Elimination,

lines that

spurious; (2) Query,

was

274

year

and his
SiopdcoTi]*;,

is called

Zenodotus

the

to

the

of

an

The

of
year

1700

toys with

Egyptians.

algebraic work

book

of

drawings to

Ahmes

As

The

to

Ahmes,

written

eight

has

been

the

illustrate

algebra, this

first treatise

when

B.C.,

and

(Leipzig,1874);

(London, 1851).
the

Geschichte

edited

an

Egyptian

hundred

by

on

years

Eisenlohr

106

HISTORY

stitution of
a

OF

CLASSICAL

the old.1

readingsfor

new

he paid great
lexicographer,

of Homer,

and

done

by
of

era

minute

style,received

of text

processes

criticism

than

texts

those

iEtolus, and

spoken of, were

Alexandrian

observations

in the

third

studies

it he

the Old

on

seems

complete and
of

The

extended

to

already

comic

ander
Alex-

poets by

catalogueof

the books

critical

each

volume,

of each, and

cation
indi-

an

ing
regard-

note

Bibliography employed
essentially

has

been

to have

given for

critical treatment

comedies,

but

on

such themes

as

491

scientific

the

were

be

twelve

books.

first time, not

only a

less than

of the

also

may

whose

already said, compiled

in not

Comedy

Examples of his corrections

See

the

as

Callimachus, previously

than

the

iii.pp.
Hettenici,
2

language,

have

librarian,Eratosthenes, of

something

treatise

was

new

service of criticism.

The

excursus

This

tragicpoets by

of

of

last word

made

could be

what

be

to

We

of the

edition

been

close attention.

began

genuinenessof

of the first and


its size.2

vocabulary

Library,since they contained

the

on

the

phrase began

Homer.

reallymore

natural in

in which

very

now

ntW/ce?

The

Lycophron.

in the

of

the

and

was

have

proof of

one

the great edition

mentioned

In

of word

philological
study,and

distinct from

other

His

to
to

appear

side.

study

As

attention

his corrections

the verbal

chiefly
upon

PHILOLOGY

an

language and

exhaustive

ject
sub-

series of

of collateral interest and


found

in H.

F.

Clinton's

Fasti

foil. (Oxford,1824-1834).

(Paris,no date).
Egger, Callimaque et I'Originede la Bibliographic

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

PERIOD

"

apparatus, the actors, the

theatres,the

of

e.g. the structure

importance,

107

the

costumes,

scenic

different

kinds

the

elocution, and, in fact, everythingpertainingto

of

generalsubject.1
His

fullyof

that

the

put it

to

done

toward

to

now

there

best

the results of
be

whole

himself

taking upon

based

of these, and

it

of

criticism

comparison

of

inspiredand

of

were

known

as

accents,2the
1

The

thenica

two

not

was

work

set to

in

It

was

both

the

ment
sentiTen

sorts.

(the long and

of

markings

the
breathings,

in

is, criticism

tempered by

the two

in

wholly verbal,

that

of various

quantitymarks

and

Aristophanes; and

fragments of his writingswill be found

the

three

short),

Berhardy, Eratos-

(Berlin,1822).

'Breathings and
Greek

were

failures

literature became

the 8e/ca TrpocrcpSiai,


ten
or

Aristophanes. These

to

broad

manuscripts.

critique.His o-qyL"a were


them

and

in

task, he

mind

principlesof

Greek

"

was

tury,
cen-

alreadybeen

some

wholly diplomatic,

even

the

upon

sphere of

heavy

of catholicity.
His
spirit
it

of

full,and

labours

so

had

previoussuccesses

utilised to the

field for the

entire

an

only a great

Much

establishment

spirit.The

was

for

The

hand.

at

now

needed

was

possibleuse.

the

criticism;but

nor

was

self
him-

thoroughly sifted,arranged, and

been

it had

so
classified,

which

Library had alreadyexisted

and

liberal

material

the

Alexandrian

were

Aristophanesof Byzantium, availed

successor,

accents,

manuscripts earlier than

however,

were

the seventh

not

century

regularlywritten
a.d.

in

108

HISTORY

the mark

CLASSICAL

OF

separationinserted

of

point of separationmight

in

as

under

line drawn

curved

elision

mark

When

p.

of

word,

between

double

the two

last

The

call

He

given; he

he

The

middle

the

first or

of the

use

its

upon

stop. The

line

the

point on

middle

full

position.

positionwas
the

in

use

ninth

the mark

which

edited

a
critically
great

number

wrote

not

supplement

on

treatise

we

already

also
about

the
one

first
dred
hun-

stillpreserved.1

dwell

of

of

catalogue of

Canon

and

lexicography,of which

in detail upon

the

be

much

of his remarkable

fragments

the

metres,

on

the

to

compose

Aristophanes,since they

the work

or
f i/r,

%,

in the

above

depended

replacedby

helped

fragments are

of

found

placed

point in

it was

prepared

scientific work

need

/c,

It

comma.

Callimachus;

We

ending in

disappeared from

Aristophanes also
texts.

full

The

century a.d., when


now

foreignname.

was

value
a

semicolon.

comma.

connection,

letters.

high point was


a

word

consonant

point or period,whose

was

hyphen (a

the

these, Aristophanesalso made

Besides

The

of

end

apostrophe was

an

the

the apostropheused
finally,

the

or

where

words

the letters to show

after

written
regularly

was

between

be obvious,the

not

words), and

compound

either to

PHILOLOGY

Aristophanes

ByzantiiFragmenta (Halle,1848).

can

pupiland
are

edited

critical methods
better

seen

in

associate,Aristarby Nauck, Aristophanis

HISTORY

IIO

7).1 It

v.

OF

approached

spiritlike

to

note

the

the

three

forms; (4)

of

criticism

the author

but
theirs
Homeric
of the

had

or

See

been.
of

substance

Infra, pp.

in

must

he does

Aristarchi

1885); Jebb, Homer,

be

seen

examples preserved for

by Aristarchus involved
of the

be

that

judgment
as

used

pp.

19-120.

upon

as

Homerische

ecessors
pred-

studies
a

the

knowledge

to the

"analogist,"2

Homericis

his

knowledge

He,

Studiis

he

that

confine himself
an

by

scientific than

more

Zenodotus,

based

passed

critic,Aristarchus

text

spiritfar

like

is to be

whole.

not

Aristarchs

of

includingall questions

as

text; (2) the

determination

of information

Thus,

foreignwords.
Lehrs, De

best

can

words, holding with him

Yet

interesting

proper,

his work

sources

1882); Ludwich,

ed.

It is

tions
corrup-

words, allusions,etc.;

his work

always

use

language.
rare,

and

all the

and

main

the

the final

carrying out

employs

His

additions

(3) the

accents;

explanationof

and
authenticity

In

of the

author

an

of the
an

sceptical

in later times.

(1) the arrangement

(5)/cpto-ts,or

upon

Wolf

in

scholia.

examination

determination

of

recension

of the concrete

some

five processes:

and

of

them, that Aristar-

preceding centuries.

in the Venetian
The

for

of these

knowledge

details of his system, which

by taking up
us

work
A.

of his

reasons

rid the text

to

of the

of the

of F.

that

was

purpose

PHILOLOGY

probably because

was

and
interpolations
chus

CLASSICAL

of the

archaic,
considers

(Konigsberg, 1833 ; 3d
Textkritik

91-98 (Glasgow,1887).

(Leipzig,1884-

these

less

being

as

important,from

to
individuality

the work

as

familiar,give a clue

are

fidWetv

that

"

thus

refers

ovrd^etv

while

"

meaning

of

the

when

careful

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called upon

more

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gave

consistent

WlfJLOVTOV

with

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had
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not

He
"

done
and
to

the

and

of

for

in

usage

of the

such

the

was

poet (to

text, he ascribed

by

the

before

great weight

Zenodotus

as

him; but

and

be

found
have

to
to

have

internal

establishment

editions,"the work

in

of

the

them

grouped
determined

evidence
canon.

of individual

of his

work

of
Thus

both
a

codex
we

tophanes
Aris-

exhibits

Aristarchus

system in his classification of the

seems

families,"and
and

7roVo"?

TTOlrjTOV),

manuscript authority,just

an

close

mountain,

reading that

general usage

his
Again, in establishing
to

at

ings
readconflicting

two-

the

preferenceto

";

that

standard

between

decide

to

actual

him

study gave

thither

combat;

to

manuscripts of equal value;

in two

he

means

ample,
ex-

always

"flight";that

the

on.

case

of

reference

Iliad

"

or

wounding

strikingor
sense

they

hurling of missiles,

the

to

eoSe

"

here

since

and

So, for

Homer,

employed especiallyin

'O\vfnro"; in
so

in

never

has the
quarters ; that "f)6fio";

is

which,
sense.

"

and

colour

lend

and

that

fact of their

very

the Homeric

always

is used

the

whole

remarks

Aristarchus
has the

to

III

phrases that

and

the words

than
rarity,

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

scripts
manu-

sors.
predeces-

generallyin
by comparison
its value
find

"

in

private

editors; "city editions,"

HISTORY

112

made

under

and

he

those

That

which

"

of
as

texts

like that
fact

of

impliesa

common

text,

in

his time

is

lines.

in

seen

This

of

it stand.
he

was

On

to the

while

for

were

the

limits

and

tions
addi-

kind.

This

omissions

of the

tant
impor-

in Homer

in

vulgate

recension.

Aristarchus,as contrasted

his treatment

with

The
Zenod-

so-called formulaic

line,was

three

occurs

much

too

he

instance,by Wolf

"

baneful

times

in

whole, though Aristarchus


to

averse

has

been

and

doubted, but he did

alteringhis

censured

Lehrs.

not

often
1

See p. 15.

it,
of

second

he

the
let

sceptical,
for this

times, for

questionedand

Aristarchus
introduce

so

; and

in modern

"

this

was

text

of

the
in

rightly saw

for

dream

and
primitivestory-teller,

of the

the

the

and

critics in

rejectedthe frequent appearance

very much

conservatism

the

and

"

families

of modern

Pisistratidean

Aristarchus, however,

naif redundacy

"

their

tradition,embodied

of the

Agamemnon

book.

divisions

variants

narrow,

for instance, in the Iliad,where


to

minute

work

the

line
repetition,

Zenodotus, who

Zeus

rate
inaccu-

more

comparativelyunimportant

possiblythat

otus,

are

particularverses;

basis of

judgment

in

in the

and

better

such

no

divergencebeing very
were

that

Horace, for example, is due

of words

variants
of

of

that

made

found

are

popular editions,"

fairlyaccurate.

are

manuscripts

"

groups

"

and

those
distinguishes

Aristarchus

subdivisions

PHILOLOGY

*
supervision;

State

which

among

CLASSICAL

OF

an

emendation.

he

In his critical work

The

important of

most

lines

spurious. Such

to
exposition,

word

(3) The

is the

same

it

the

know

criticisms

embodied

in any

For

of the

that out

of
one

and

60

former.

the
For

the

of
were

Aristarchus

that

foil.
I

reading

of Zenodotus.
verse

spurious. If

as

the

in

the

of the

one

asterisk

the

or

were

used

idea.1

The

stigma, r,
the

same

the

15,600 lines

last-named

the best

account

was
verses

of

is

the

athetised.

marked, and
seemed

of these

apparently,

not,

were

were

so

was

spread
passage

repeat the

to

critical

1899) and
hausen, Paldographie,p. 288 foil. (Leipzig,
ip.432

the

great standard work, but

instance,Iliad,viii. 535-537,

538-541, because

that

onlysuspectedspuriousness.It

Odyssey, 11

The

Greek.

marked

of
repetitions

denote

stigma,alone,denoted

Iliad and

him

occurred, with

antisigma,D,

to
interesting

indicate that

to

or

to

the line.

to
prefixed

togetherto

either for

genuine formulaic

spurious,it was

was

-$, used

denote

regardedby

one

scholars.

in Attic

mark

(aOerelv).

German

by

differed from
to

"

was

especialpoint,or

some

as

line

athetised

or

diplS, "-,to

places where

(5) The

"J

only once,

distinct from

obelus

"

or

is used

Aristarchus

repeatedverse

"

said to be

which

asterisk,*,

(4) The

indicate that

to

to

dotted

adopted by

two

were

call attention

the construction

as

these

in criticaltexts

SlttXtj,
S-,

(2) The

mark

were

obelus is stillused

113

employed various signs(a-rj/jLela

6/3e\6";
or
spit,-,

(1) The

This

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

signs see

sense

Gardt-

Susemihl, op. cit.

HISTORY

114

of

development
of
never

also, it is

himself

scholars

who
felt

fact,was
and

Age;

and

"

this

The

only about

of

Aristarchus

in which

of

Aristonicus

Didymus,

wrote

is due

B.C.

160, Herodianus

and

prosody
time

same

Now

between

scholar

made

the

with

the
an

these

years

epitome

Aristonicus, Herodianus,

Aristarchus

the critical

of
the

to

roundabout

to

mus,
Didy-

us.

writingsof

Homeric

on

and

of these
and

in connection

the

arguments

signs.

About

the

year

a.d.

"

the

punctuation.
some

four writers

Nicanor

relating

about

Homeric
250

with

the accentuation

on

Nicanor

poems.

work
200

and

treatise

Homeric

improved

tain
ascer-

the critical signsemployed

on

work;

wrote

of the

Augustan

Alexandria, a contemporary

treatise

marked

verses

students

tryingto

down

come

incidentallyquoted

this matter,
the

of

in his text

by Aristarchus

to

the

difficulty,

in the

as

have

we

whole

just mentioned, collected


Aristarchus.

This

approved by

that

of it have

notices

of

to

century after his death.

as

ideas.

of

work

belonged

times,

were

imperfectknowledge

work
way

Homer

Hence,

is the

Chalcenteros

Didymus

readingsof

what

his

out

in ancient

even

critical work

great number

the

carried

find

we

which

that

the

statement

text.

distinguishwhat

to

"

his

singlestandard

from

School,

Aristarchean

the

or

it is that

one

difficult to

so

Aristarchus

in

in

canonised

was

and

PHILOLOGY

line of research

new

principle. Hence

new

CLASSICAL

great quantity of monographs, marking each

over

OF

in

"

unknown

Didymus,
such

way

as

to form

The

text.

of

Epitome
"

simply

No.

the

into
is the

Codex

its

of the

the

as

Villoison in

definite

signs of

followers

His

directed

been

the

It

tains
con-

altered

only

knowledge

and

source

in detail

only MS.

Aristarchus

served
pre-

are

ployed.
em-

first edited

its

by

time

went

on.

careful,and

too

great

sort

of Procrustean

fondness

language and

See Hiibner's

highestpoint with

often

were

have

to

accurate,

Iliad,

their attention

become
The
of

Alexandian

great
seems

in its laws

Encyclopddie,pp. 37-40

School

more

was,

grammatical scholarship,

for
regularity,

to
willingness

and

narrower

deeply learned, but


for

of

men

minutely to verbal,i.e. grammatical

more

school
a
fact, essentially

in

This

somewhat

were

antiquityreached

criticism,and

in

of the

It is also the

critical

the

criticism in

pedanticas

is almost

but
and indefatigable
industry,
ability
have

Iliad.

a.d.

1788.1

Aristarchus.

to

of the

in Venice.

scholia of this Codex

The

century

language,etc., shows;

MS.

get any

the

as

tenth

Venetus

St. Mark

of Aristarchus.

in which

Text

codex

Codex

This

can

we

views

the

(usuallyspoken
Germany

in

Epitome, undoubtedly

scholia.

which

of

Library of

originalform,

(2) other
from

and

famous

very

the

(1)
from

Epitome,"

margin

in the

454,

Treatises

in

the Homeric

on

of the Four

Scholien),1 was

Viermanner

copied

the

as

115

criticalcommentary

continuous

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

secure

with

strict

rules, and

absolute

by crushingout
in the second

ed.

perhaps
a

ity
uniformthat

idio-

(Berlin,1892).

Il6

HISTORY

matic

freedom

essential

studies

of both

attribute

After

composed

"

was

freelyand

wrote

the fall of

Troy

after

Alexandria

of

have

to

treatise On

him

the

B.C.

B.C., and

ships.

He

the

great

manual

year
of

mythology

many

of the

should also

speak of

which

Theon
Alexandrian

middle

had

been

who

a.d.),

the

Blau,

De

fragments

of

See

less and

of the first century

Aristarchi

Didymus

the

B.C.

archaeological.1

first
less

Moritz

and

century

Schmidt

from

"

the

mentator
com-

The

a.d.

important after

good part of

siege of

extensively.One

drew

Alexandria

Discipulis(Jena, 1883);
by

said

is

the first of its kind

lived in the

School grew

who

books, lexicographical,

grammarian Tryphon,

the

who

Chalcenteros

appeared anonymously

later writers

destroyed during

was

"

wise
like-

The

10

there

B.C.

75

mentary
com-

later writers."

and
critical,
grammatical,exegetical,
About

on

information

curious

thousand

nearlyfour

by Plutarch;

Didymus

-c.

Smyrna,

twenty-fourbooks

in

and

came

successors,

of

Ammonius,

was

(c. 65

written

1444

the Gods

critical

trimeters,a work

catalogueof

Aristarchus

pupil;and

his

to

his

upon

in

extensivelypiratedby

of

by

drawn

treasury of minute

successor

is the

B.C.,

143

Hermippus

who

the Homeric

on

about

Alexandria

noted

Apollodorusof Athens,

which

died

biographies,much

chronologyfrom

expressionwhich

and

at

be

may

PHILOLOGY

livinglanguage.

continued

were

of

writer

of

form

Aristarchus, who

whom

among

CLASSICAL

OF

and

the

by

the

Library
Julius

the edition

1854).
(Leipzig,

of

Il8

HISTORY

which

organisedat last

was

which

gamum,

Pergamum

miles from

in

by

263

the coast

was

of

B.C.

Eumenes

famous

ancient

an

them

the Middle

The

Lycon.
I, who

assumed

the

invadingGauls,and

title of
then

He

laid out

and

sought

sculpture. His
set

Gladiator," but

preserved in

now

the

artists

Antigonus
1

The

where
2

on

It

name

it
was

Conic

for

he

whom
of
for

the

over

books

for the

like that

academy

an

over

king himself

The
his

taste

the Gauls

in

were

the

of

copy
as

"the

patronised,one

recalls

wrote

parchment {pergamena)is

one

on

art

derived

Rome.

and

Of

especially

and
from

of

Dying

Dying Gaul,"
at

who

for

rated
commemo-

CapitolineMuseum

Carystos,

scended
conde-

more

was

figureknown

properly "

the

Attalus

was

victories

magnificentbronzes.

more

his court,

rians,
histofriendshipof philosophers,

the

is the famous

these in marble

and

andria.
to rival the collection at Alex-

grounds

victories
of

arts

Peripatetic
philosophe

gatherthe

to

authorship,though

to

in

was

mathematicians.2

and

the

king, won

began

was

first presidedover

of Eumenes

successor

Pergamene Library that

Athens,

had

teen
fif-

Age; and

sculptorsto

Athens, and

at

It

patron of the

being Arcesilaus,who
Academy

about

town,

in the Alexandrian

I became

at Per-

in Asia Minor.1

Mysia

sciences,invitingphilosophersand
among

School

assail the theories of the

and

dynasty founded

PHILOLOGY

in the

meet

to

arose

Alexandrians.

ruled

CLASSICAL

OF

likewise
Pergamum,

first made.

was

to

King Attalus that Apolloniusof Perga dedicated

Sections.

his work

THE

natural

on

phenomena.

Pergamum

splendid buildings,above

bounded
of

of the

the court

were,

by

These

the

of

kings

bequeathed

and

and

of

varied

in their

interest

Stoics

controlled

Crates

School

representedthe
and

Crates derived

pus,

On

them
and

will be
on

the

found

Pergamene

1836).
Aulus
Crates.

in

For

"

'

inaqualitas
Anomaly,

see

v "

Wachsmuth,
School

see

Cratete

Wegener,

reference

on

is

to

the Per-

De

which

avcofxaXia.1
verbalists of

He

criticism

held
of

with

on

(Leipzig,i860);

Mallota
Aula

156-158.

Chrysip-

commentary

Attalica

Aristarchus

to

hagen,
(Copen-

Anomaly,

and

sequens."

that

Homer,

the treatise of

Analogy

based

Crates

mere

similis dedinatio;

cit. i. pp.

founder

the Alexandrian.

directlymade

consuetudinem

Sandys, op.

from

Crates

De

discussion

est similium

declinationum
also

of

fragments

where

7 /

text

more

The

the catchwords

regarded the

expressionivu/xaXla

some

Gellius,ii. 5,

became

avaXoyta and

the
especially

The

Anomaly.

real

speciesof contempt.

the

whole,

language,while

were

III

Alexandria.

to

was

exception;and

and
criticism,

text

rule in

distinction

with

the

the

who
(c.168 B.C.),

by

people.

teachings,and

his followers

Alexandria

of

of

out

Attalus

B.C.

those

reverenced

carried

in 133

Aristarchus

quadrangle

great writers

were

than

teachings upon

Crates

other

on

what

it

by majesticstatues

were,

the

Acropolis,a

vast

the Roman

to

with

protecting,as
a

Pergamum

of Mallos

Aristarchus

until

his entire realm

scholars

his

adorned

similar works

The

gamene

level,and

sea

Pergamum

adorned

the

rose

goddess Athena,

colonnades

the past.

119

was

Herodotus, Alcasus,and

Homer,

was

which

the

feet above

thousand

PERIOD

ALEXANDRIAN

.dvufiaX

On

Analogy

see

and
la

est

and

HISTORY

120

OF

ought to embrace

CLASSICAL

the whole

Homeric

allusions to the

Stoics.

In

cosmical

The

importance of

that because

he

of

and

to

of

read

play to

that which

sent

on

study
an

first century
with

some

in which

gories
alle-

the

large

propose
the

principle

ingeniousmind.

Thus,

tion
diplomaticexamina-

to alter what

he finds in

writings;but they include

it,

made

have
a

come

tary
commen-

Hesiod, Euripides,and

epics,on

Pergamene Library like

the

of the

Library of Alexandria;

the Attic dialect in at least five books.

of grammar

at

in 157

Demetrius
B.C.

and

Rome,

who

wrote

infra,p.

His

who
on

biographies.
1See

which

to

B.C.1

Magnes,

157.

It

laid the foundation

passant, that Crates

ambassador
was

in the fact

text

antiquity. Only fragments

Homeric

be noted, en

successor

of the
teacher

is found

led to

was

reluctance

Callimachus

work

as

as

into the

his

Aristophanes; a catalogueof

of the

more

represents cautious

of his

us

the

on

may

theories

emendator,
type of the brilliant conjectural

is the

Bentley

Homer

of Crates

there, he

full

gave

of the text and

and

and
text, allegories

astronomical

this view

saw

while Aristarchus

down

in the

saw

conjecturalemendations

anomaly

the

in

"

of his desire to

which

Crates

historical,

"

poet,placinghis 8i8aa/ca\ia before hisyfrv^aycoyta.

as

of

problems

philosophical suggested

fact, he regarded

than

number

He

poems.

of

mass

physical,mythological,and
the

PHILOLOGY

most

city he

important

flourished
synonyms

was

in the

together

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

It
the

might

indeed

the

it had

been

before

So

case.

called

far

it

The

the

became

changes in

into

Athens

was

the

from

university.These

neglectof

(i) The
were

These

was

isation
organ-

free Athenian

youths,were

that

corps

of

of this
a

primarily

was

They

body

educated

were

the nucleus

the

university.

body prepared the

quasi-military
tion
organisa-

changes

were:

"

principleof compulsion.

enrolled,but only those who

(2) Membership
even

the

Not

chose.

longer confined

no

the

philosophers

student

the constitution

parts

schools of the

of the State.

for its transformation


to

or

all

"

the

plished
accom-

from

and mentally,and they formed


physically

Two

all

Ephebi, or

for the defense

what

way

The

enrolled

early times

of

beginning of

Universityat

the

even

learningbright.

lectured to students

and
""f"r)poi,

Sophists.

both

the

was

Pericles,

Greece," and

previouslyexistinginstitutions

of the

intended

such

organisedfacultyof

an

been

have

of

time

fire of

immediately after

and

result of two

of

the

long kept

of the civilised world.

in

should

the

as

school

"the

professorswho

and

back

Era, it contained

Christian

121

great institution of learning;and

in its decadence
Both

that Athens

well be assumed

of

seat

PERIOD

Athenians

to

Greeks.

changes left a body

regularlyenrolled,free
as

best suited

to

be turned

to

of young

follow such

their inclinations and


to

any

line of

study

men,
a

course

organisedand
of

training

and ready
capacities,
that

had

the

advocacy

122

HISTORY

of

and
brilliant,
energetic,

the

CLASSICAL

OF

The

popular men.

philosophers supplied

completing the change

PHILOLOGY

influence

the

from

schools

for

necessary

militarycollegeto

of

great

university.
schools

Four

Macedonian

or

been

Academic

Aristotelian

received

School,the

Plato

it.

Eleusinian

Way,

Polemon,

of the

continued

us

the

friends

maintain

small

in the

Xenocrates

spot; their

same

learningadded

property

chair.
Peripatetic

for his school,2and

text

for the

Around

independent.
1

v.

2.

the

to

support
an

demic
aca-

has

Ilyssus;

the

near

down

come

Epicurus left

So

to be the

the Stoics

the

near

Aristotle left to his successor,

the will whose

Ceramicus

petuate
per-

for three thousand

endowed
practically

thus

had

and

garden

sufficient funds

valuable

the

Epicurean.

of its foundation

in the
of

These

completed the permanent


Diogenes Laertius,1
of the

made

teach

of the

Peripatetic

the

of Academe,

In like manner,

Theophrastus,in
in

to

bequeathed

Theophrastus,

the

philosophicsuccessors,

philosopher,and
chair.

and

purchased a

in the grove

wealthy pupils and


and

the time

time

Athens.

School,

sufficient to

His

the

Stoic School, and

from

had

drachmas.

grounds

Platonic

endowment

an

since

flourishingat

or

of these schools

Each

and

philosophy had

wars

the

were

of

nucleus

an

probably in

were

four

these

14.

Diog. Laert.

of

xx.

10.

to

ment
endow-

his property

endowment
like

schools

manner

of

phi-

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

PERIOD

losophy, which, being endowed,


multitude

learned

think

to

her

from

been

quarter and

every

but the scholars


and

attended

the

records show
them

the

with

wore

Semitic

reserved

for

of lectures

the

generaldirection
of

shape

Library;
at

the

Ephebi,

their

own

tors,
instruc-

they

chose.

Theophras-

thousand

that

professorwas
a

later

From

placeearlyin
of the

the theatre

at

sources

of
we

the year;

that

undergraduates

specialgallery

required;that they were

were

of

president;that

annual

an

breaches

contribution

of

close,so

very

course

themselves
young

The

men.

fees

disciplinewere

was
"

very

touted

enthusiasts

"

for

that

for

cutting; and

for the

under

university

punished,as

student

student
to

the

that

professors.

at

exacted

were

the

to

Oxford, by fines;that the relation between

take

The

that certificates of attendance

them;

courses

the

that

ardour;

the

in

have

to

foreignstudents, some

like that

gown

flocked to

enormous.

race.

took

learning

that theypursued athletic sports


Englishuniversities;
much

was

of many

of

It appears

as

two

as

many

matriculation

students

at the

as

names

of the

being

learn that

to

became

world

seat

among

lectures

such

The

Students

enrolled

students

lectured

alone

tus

great

selected for themselves

of these

number

as

country.

become

to

necessary

clustered.

renowned.

culture, brilliant and

and

literature,

rhetoric,grammar,

of Athens

23

a
taught gratuitously,

mathematics

logic,physics,and
soon

of

teachers

of

"

Most

cease

and
to

students
of the

learning,"says Gregory Nazianzen,

HISTORY

124

11

became

all

their

anxiety to get
This

they

post themselves
each

as

PHILOLOGY

carry

off at

cityat

the

their

beginningof

of

hands;

countryman

some

trumpeting the praisesof

at

fees

the year;

falls into their

he

to the house

once

is best

larger and

are

portentous lengths. They

to

disembarks

newcomer

friend who

audiences

the

over

carry him

they

CLASSICAL

partisansof their professors.They

mere

increased.

or

OF

his

own

professor."
Private

looked

the

over

students'

subjectsin which
them

to

seems

of the

not

to

haze

health.

feeble

universitywere
nius tellsof
There
the

one

were

At

the

end

of

new

have

subjectto

been

there

of

hazing.

of their sport with

Basil,recalls

freshmen.

his class

student, Eunaphius, because

Sometimes

inferior

the

subjectto similar
of the tutors

likewise other
in the

who

famous
East

tossed

schools
and

of

officers of
and

annoyances,

was

We

in

the

Liba-

blanket.

given over

in the West.
is said

his

to

to

JEshave

school for oratory in the island of Rhodes, and


famous

were

Minor,

there

sort

his friend

over

chines, the great rival of Demosthenes,


a

helped

year

Proaeresius,asking
professors,

higher education

founded

the

the

on

interested,and

most

were

them

examination.

an

memories
the

employed. They

notes, "coached"

funeral address

of

one

to

seem

Gregory, in

find

been

have

Freshmen

some

they

their exercises.

at

often

were
("f"v\afce";)

tutors

had

teachers

faculties

in

Lesbos.

representingall

Tarsus, in
the

branches

Asia

of

126

HISTORY

OF

in the

gloss (yXaxraa)was,

grammarians, the

and
that

obsolete

In
or

acquirea

may
in

of the

generalreader, the

such.

and

the term
Aristotle

to the

speaks of

word

the

meaning, or

of

it

uses

(ovofiaKvpiov,
Then

the term

word

in the

the

explanation was

margin

yXaxraa

meant

the

its

explanationalone

in

be

"

Cf. id. Rhet.

called

on

them

purelylexical and

iii. 3.

glosses spoken of,


treatise

applies

4-6).*

21.

Originally
defined

common

use

beside

in the

yXcaaaa.

i.e. the

margin,

Ultimately
With

but the

became

it.

these

glosses

encyclopaedic

historical,or
geographical,biographical,

character,
1

purely

pair of words,

glossesbeginsthe historyof lexicography;


to

belong

are

of the text

explanatoryword

was

all

yXaxra-rnxara

a whole.
constituting

as

these
benefit

simply

the word

the

and

that

cf. i. 1. 35).

15;

Arist), in

text

the

which

term

synonymous

(i.8.

needed

being viewed

ceased

As

provincialisms(Poet.

usitatas

that

those

may

given to

words

II.

of Hipparchus.
expressions

by writingits simplersynonym,

the two

of

Poetis," 6). Galen

obsolete medical

minus

voces

in

text

become

may

yXSxra-awas

name

Audiendis

Quintilianemploys

soon

critics

in the

peculiarsense.

purelypoeticallanguage,and

local,as yX"rrai (De

the

word

requirea specialexplanationfor

Thus, Plutarch

the

shade

new

technical

would

the

the Greek

time,ordinary words

words

to

languageof
given to

name

of

course

employed

to

PHILOLOGY

in
required explanation,e.g. KopeacnfyoprjTow;

viii. 527.

be

CLASSICAL

since

2.

As

early as

Democritus

(Uepl T\u"r"rt"ov).

of

the

fifth century

Abdera

(c. 410

B.C.,

we

B.C.) wrote

find
a

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

the

philological,
accordingto

chief

glossographer. The

already mentioned,

have

of

Aristophanes
Herodianus.1
collected

language of

of

these

later

arranged

the text,

of

Cos,

the

meaning,
same

sense

to

of

codex

much

those

in

its

scholia have

margin

or

but

piler
com-

developed
in the

down

come

such

exist

as

between

lines

the

the work

of the earlier scholiasts.

generallybear

evidence

of

later than

Scholia

the

the

understood

attached;

name

upon

few

and

copiedfrom

and

scholia

The

In

be

is to

Very

author's

usuallywritten

are

"

gloss

scholium.

as

with the

us

"

word

the

on

collectors of these

Etymologicum Magnum.

the

and

regularly

commentaries

running

being Hesychius,Photius, Zonaras, Suidas,


of

Zenodotus,

glosseswere

the best-known

"

of the

Aristarchus, Crates,

times, the
as

the tastes

glossographerswe

Philetas

"

127

or

purpose

Byzantium,

In

and

PERIOD

the

written

the date

margin
between

when

the

written

itselfwas

written.

the codex

known

are

having been

glossa marginales;

as

lines

are

called

glossceinter-

lineares.2

Something

be

must

the Greeks.

among

earlywritingson
in extent

so

said

So far

as

this theme

far

as

they

'Athenasus, writing about

the

here
any

the

study

evidence
have

must

250

of

Art

remains, their

been

very

A.D., alluded

limited

There

aesthetics.

concern

year

of

to

is

thirty-five

glossographers.
2

most

See

Mat

thai, Glossaria

important (Gk.)

Cf. also

Graeca

scholia

Hiibner,Encyclop. pp.

is

(Moscow, 1774-1775);
given by Gudeman,

37-40,

2d ed.

list of

op. cit. pp.

(Berlin,1892).

the

20-21.

128

HISTORY

mention

scarcelya
of

OF

CLASSICAL

of any

PHILOLOGY

formal

discussion

the

on

architecture, sculpture,painting, or

history

music.

The

historians,and

also the

philosophers,
merely give,in

incidental way,

detached

and

and
art, artists,

works

the

of

Greeks

the

as
inadequatesuggestions

of art.

As

in

literature,
so

Prae-Alexandrian

creation

to

more

than

criticism.

to

of Abdera

model
living

(Hepl ZcoypaQias).

know,

by

practicalin

were

artists for

beauty

human

by

the

their character

beginningof

of Samos

was

aphorisms

first of these

the

and

aesthetics of the
book

the

which
ten
writ-

were

matical
mathe-

or

produce

however,

are,

not

acute

with

canons

was

many

number

regard

to

to

aesthetic.

write
was

busied themselves

upon

the

there

much

Vitruvius
who

dotes
anec-

painting. Many

that of Polyclitus in the

of writers

of artistic symmetry.
principles

but

Period,

the first to collect

among

until after Aristotle

technical

not

are

plasticand graphic arts.

names

the Alexandrian

School
Peripatetic

came
Polyclitus,

but

that

paintingscattered throughout the writingsof

to criticisms which

sculpture;

the

of
treatises,

artists,
regardingthe "canon"

of
representatives

seventh

Other

There

After

to

paintingfrom

on

form.1

and

B.C.

work

in the

Thus, Duris

The

the

of

wont

was

proportionswhich

Aristotle ; and

Lives

of those

come

selves
them-

Philostratus

demonstration

criticisms of

we

wrote

to

music,

and
subjectof paintingand sculpture;

Democritus

we

his

B.C.) of Elis

Hippias (c. 420

the

disputeon

of

in

devoted

Age

remarks, however, in the first book

Sophists,that

an

technical
written

in the

concerned

fifth century
side of
the

on

preface to

themselves

his

with

ALEXANDRIAN

THE

the

in

same

understood

who

men

of

authors

the

already

these

'

Sculptors

of

Canon

with

the

regard

scholars,

especially

Greek

such

writers

and

Ten

drian
Alexan-

the

tion
informa-

our

from

Elder;

Strabo

as

have

we

of

of

comes

the

Pliny

lar,
particu-

Canon

Most

writers

as

match

to

up

early

from

the

that

were

"

in

sculpture,

Orators.

these

casting

Pergamum,

to

drawn

Ten

to

bronze

At

there

was

probably

was

20

themselves

artists

and

paid

was

it

"

treatises.

and

seen,

the

rule,

sculpture

attention

much

late

As

way.

PERIOD

or

Roman

else

from

and

Pausanius

Lucian.2

Quintilian,
See

of

Jones,
Greek

ischen

Plastik

(New

York,

xii.

10.

Select

Sculpture

(Leipzig,
1909).

7.

from

Passages
(London,

1894)

Ancient

1895)
and

Fowler

Writers

Illustrative

Overbeck,
and

Wheeler,

Geschichte

Greek

of
der

the

tory
His-

griech-

Archaeology

IV

THE

GR^CO-ROMAN

Tradition
to the

ascribes

eighth century

Roman

people
the

deserves

either

rugged

the

Tiber

having little
in

it could

whom

the

intensest

and

of the

formed
to

distinctive

enemies

nation, the
in them

by

of

the

purpose.

the

and

Romans

were

and

magic
along

the

centuries,

many

peoples, dwelling
neighbours, against
disciplineand

strictest

interest.

the

Thus,
in

civic virtues

Their

concrete.

Their

arts

statesmanship

mans
Ro-

high degree.

patriciate was

Later,

when

characteristics

which

of toil and
130

had

had
effort

was

wonderful

had

vanquished

builded

wrought

been
were

relating

religion. One

and

they

and

arts

were

they possessed

throughout Italy

centuries

that

efficiency,intelligentcooperation,

was

quality which

tenacity of

external

formidable

fightingmen.

military science

their

from

of

anything

settlement

small

with

ideal

the

the

from

agriculturalfor

possess

love

and

concentration

Primarily, their

Rome

before

Greeks, the

prevail only by the

to

came

attained

apart

The

commerce

danger

constant

or

the
race,

sea.

pastoral

was

of

founding

literaryculture,politelearning,or

Unlike

of the

mystery

the

long,however,

was

acquired

inland

an

race,

It

of

name

of

date

B.C.

philologicalstudy.
a

the

PERIOD

to

be

seen

great
out
not

GJLECO-ROMAN

THE

others

and

transmuted

into

131

in what

they created,but

in what

only

PERIOD

they

something that

took

from

almost

became

purely Roman.1
the fourth

By
where

laws

own

annals

in

and
expressedprecisely

were

with

of the

Greeks

that

Greek

heart

long

have

been

Homeric

the

the

Rome
in

Rome

at

nenicBj the
crooned

over

chanted

to

Drama

"

unknown.
away
1

See

first

from

found,

spells,the

not

of

the ancient

Pais, Ancient

the

even

See the pages

on

very

dance.2

comedy
of

"

more

Latin

were

native

was

History, Eng. trans.,

not

drift

regular
pp.

1-59

(Paris,1900) ; and Weise,

Sprache (Leipzig,1905).

early Latin

"

the

63-89 (London and

douvres, Les Latins, pp.

gradual

the folkhymns, the litanies,


"

pp.

that

songs

Italicus to the

versus

Lyric Poetry

were

and the legalwritings


literature,
poetry, the priestly

History of Rome,

there

lullabies that

of the

Legends of Roman

der lateinischen

Yet

in the

in other

traces

(New York, 1905) ; Michaut, Le Genie


Charakteristik

the

exotic, but

an

extemporaneous

find

We

Tables.

charms, the

accompaniment

sort

should

compelled

were

rhythms.

as

little children,and

the

the

from

passages

is,

position
beginnings of poeticalcom-

in artless

lyricssung

It

children

children

Roman

least the

clearness.

difference between

of the Twelve

Laws
at

was

by

while

poems,

at

were

learn

to

set

memorise

to

Romans

Their

simple prose.

indeed, quite characteristic


and

out.
with-

impulse from

any

set down

were

beginning to display

was

quiteindependent of

Their

reaching the point

they were

B.C.

literature of their

evolution

an

century

39-79

in

Duff, A Literary

Leipzig, 1909). See also De-

(Paris,1903).

HISTORY

132

of the Saturnian

form
often
and

rude,
it

the

that Oratory
has been

This

of

what

earlyGreeks.

Nor

"the

rightlysaid,belongsto

senator,
for

the

we

the

or

contact

have

been

with

had
and

Romans
authentic

was

doubt

it

was

as

field.

had

even

the
also

necessary

Therefore

Rome

not

influences,there

Hellenic

for

necessary

come

would

quite surely,not
both

absolutelyRoman
learning,

been

The

studied
See

Roman

still

only

in form

Rome

was

of peace

terms

for at least two

is recorded

for

out

delivered

almost
publication
in

280

See

(New

was

read

Sears,op. cit.,
p.
A

and
94.

History of

York, 1903-05); and

der romischen

dates
ante-

by Appius

B.C.

by Pyrrhus, and

centuries.

earlychapters of Bernhardy, Grundriss

by

acquired certain

had

offered

23-315

the

of Campania

Greeks

(New York, 1902); Mommsen,

Ihne, Early Rome

(Eng. trans.)vol. ii,pp.

Rome

It

between

their Alphabet.3 From

Romans

oration written
poetry.

than

the Chalcidian

also the

against the
at

farther back

borrowed

had

Romans

earliest Roman

Claudius

desultoryrelations

some

the Greeks

Etruscans

formal

ameter
dactylichex-

is there any

in the

army

that

history. From

the

the

content.2

There

the

an

created, slowly,but

literature but
and

of

reasonablyassert

into

was

literature that tends

popular leader, and

commander

can

it

fairlywell developed,since oratory,

was

statesmanship."1 Eloquence

to

last,though

reallyartistic treatment,

earlyRomans

the

to

was

PHILOLOGY

measure.

capable

was

to

was

CLASSICAL

OF

the

5th ed.,
Litteratur,

(Brunswick, 1875).
3

See

"Recent

Lindsay, The Latin


Theories

Society(1901);and

of the

Language,

pp.

1-12

(Oxford, 1894); Peters,

Alphabet," in vol. xxi,Journal

Clodd, The

of the Oriental

Story of the Alphabet (New York, 1903).

HISTORY

134

which

the treasures

Rome

centuries.

The

the

of

The

Roman

the revelation.

and
j

set

which

of Cato

sneers

and

of the

boys

after Grecian

girls. In

models.

Juno.1
1

See

Ribbeck,

Geschichte

(Leipzig,1 897-1900); and


p.

likewise

was

der romischen

Mommsen,

ship,Essays

that

in Latin

on

"The

Literature

Odyssey

for

schoolbook

he set upon

the stage

attempted lyricpoetry,
a

hymn

freeborn

and

in honour
the citi-

Dichtung, 2d ed.,i,p.

15

foil.

History of Rome, Eng. trans., ii,

498 (New York, 1903); the chapter in

York, 1907); and

and,

uninspiredpiece

and

the State to write

Naevius, who

Gnaeus

(c.250 B.C.),

constructed
laboriously

he

which
He

by

B.C.

240

probably to

translated the

rude

was

is

livingby teaching

he who

was

It

being commissioned
of

It

dramas

the first of many

order.

slave to Rome,

as

generationsit remained

and

gibes

Italy as

over

Andronicus

Livius

receivinghis freedom, made

of work, yet for


Roman

Influence

brought

was

verse.

so-

teachers.

and

into Saturnian

ancient

scattered

were

of Hellenic

language.

comed
wel-

captive Greeks, including men

by birth

his native

was

partisansof the

in literature when

after

there

this time

other

be found

Greek,

lasting.

in influence,despitethe

hostages,ambassadors,
first evidence

and

of
grasped the significance

By

highest attainments,

The

ment
subsequentdevelop-

grew

of

time, thousands

In

life.

garnering for

Scipiosand the Metelli

like the

of

the graces

been

profound

was

them

among

had

the whole

people

Men

PHILOLOGY

she

effect upon

ablest minds

called Greek

CLASSICAL

OF

Earliest

Mackail's
Italian

(Oxford, 1885).

Latin

Literature

Literature"

(New

in Nettle-

GP^ECO-ROMAN

THE

of

zen

Latin

of Latin

had

adapting often
based
did

was

attack

Metelli.

and

verse,

War, he

and

/Eneas

introduced

with

Vergil,for

He

did

"

that

Naevius

legend

the

use

Greek
in

nor

prove

and

that

him

if Rome

1, 93.

On

et Usu

see
alliteration,

(Berlin,1884);

in
Repetition

Latin

poets;

He

had

and

also due

are

so

the

24-43

Botticher,De
on

felt the
Roman

the

afterward

only

Not

which
repetition

he died

that when

neither

was

rather Roman

was

him

followed

deft touch

of the

Lectures
satire,Nettleship,

(Oxford, 1895).
Alliterationis

dynamic

(Chicago,1902).

are

but he held

verse,

those who

never

Also, on

and

Trojan

parts of it

Quintilian long

Saturnian

Satur-

the precursor

was

and

the Greek, but

from

Essays (second series),


pp.
2

links the

Naevius

truth,

the First Punic

of literature which

mass

in form.

Quintilian,x,

he

in

was,

the native

love of alliteration and

imitated

and
spirit

native

distasteful to the Greek

he left behind

He

which

long read,
To

he

oned
impris-

was

satire,indeed, is wholly ours."

fast to the Roman


were

elsewhere

powerful patricians,

writingof

Punka,

was

and

clung to

beginnings of Satire, whereof


remarked

these

history. Thus,

his Epic

much,

wrote

this,in the end, he

in the JEneid}

embedded

In

died in exile.

that

Roman

He

race.

the most

For

in his

ning
begin-

Greek, but also producingdramas

of the Romans.

Roman

the

foreignsycophant,but

no

his

history.

banished

and

of

the

hesitate to

not

nian

from

Roman

upon

the
especially

He

literature.

independent spiritof

the

135

Campania, reallymarks

in

town

PERIOD

apud

Romano*

repetition,
Abbott,

The

Use

Vi

of

136

HISTORY

Hellene, it would

worthy of
in

native

lacks the
solemn

stillhave

this Roman

products

"

and

must

this

Genius

the

was

remain

in its literature

is

achievements

mirror

that

for

out

of

an

the literature of

the
be

can

make

after

from

germs

modified

the loan its

of

power

In

thousand

Since, then,

it, it will

and

while

in its own
times

changing
it remains

91.

its

way.

and

that of the United

Duff, op. cit.,


p.

reflect

soon

it will evolve

out

the

of innumerable

presence

For

its

achieving

this character

modern
with

long

itself,
conquering

time

them

growth,

can
history,

character.

own

thought.

England
1

cannot

perpetual shiftingand

will work

example

Impotence

ambitions, and

allied with

the

but
leading-strings,

take

ful
power-

nected
discon-

imitator.

mere

reflect

to

are

golden sands

masterpiecesand
us

alter its

cross-currents,

in

less often

no

feeble and

it

make

to

interplayof myriad forces,the

of the

yet

as

Rome.

its own
difficulties,
fulfilling

literature

"

It contained

borrow, and

can

able

and

strike

great thingswhich

the

issue.

possessingthe

with

it must

as

be borrowed:

with

case

endued

own

missing:

However

follow.

to

was

had

all,it

energy,

disdained

be

cannot

nation

truth, no

directions

said,
rightly

but is

grace,

always masculine.

early work

success.

That

In

styleand

not

developed. Above

own.

of

the literature that

create; and

has

Duff

verse

these pre-Hellenic
incoming Hellenic influence,

Rome

with

and

prose

strain,which is never

it is

dignified

of

to

literature,
then, is often cumbersome, and

and brilliant the

of later

Professor

highestdistinction

and

PHILOLOGY

given birth

great nation.

speakingof
This

CLASSICAL

OF

own

Let

compare
States.

GR/ECO-ROMAN

THE

languageof

The

English

books

humble

fashion.
off its

shaken

bonds
political

was

and

it had

its literature

modes

new

first departure from

of his

conscious

Howells
the very

Gnaeus

from

came

by

two

gave

to

from

any

Latin

measures,

with

whose

of Italian

initial

and

Livius

which

force,lacked

that

even

the

sees

had

in

grown
such

as

ens,
Harte, Clem-

American

were

period lasted only a

fact,

to

Andronicus

Naevius

were

by,theirgenius
freed

Greek.
wrote

used

there

revolutionised

was

which

the

it

technique

character

birth, who

impulse

very

sense,

afterward

soon

spiritand

literature,in

which

themes

authors

who

it,

Irvingand

literature whose

slavish subservience

language in

that

new

nation

Bret

new

wrote.

full flower

the

show

One

arose

others

Naevius, and

both

men,

to

in

Whitman,

had

Republic

feeble, creeping, childish

Hellas, but
Latin

Roman.

there

the imitative
the

bursts forth into

they

pathetically

It found

model

read

developed

began

the young

of

score

in all

In

with

English

power,

in Rome

little time.
ends

own

and
core

so

the

Thoreau, Walt

and

Emerson

And

had

affairs

They

treatingthem.

of

that,and when

After

Cooper.

to

and

attainingindependence.

too,

in

them

in time, after the

But

interests of its own,

material

art.
literary

imitated

they

or

but Americans

with

the

serious way

attempt in any

to

cumbered

much

137

is the same,

nations

the two

first too

at

were

PERIOD

it forever

The
his

earlier

stumbling

clumsily,though

and mobilitywhich
lightness

would

138

HISTORY

also

both

it

gave

later

century

Livius

the

held

Ennius

Ennius

successful,
"

to

personallytrained

He

was

the

he

has

been

Cato,

who

Greek.

his
in

teaching

helped

intimate

in

famous

was

the

for

his
a

verses

correct

which

the

taste
were

giftsand

work

rebelled
at

of

make

of the
the

of

had

He

nobles
State.

Scipios,and
to the

of

did.

world

of the

even

hatred
man

also due

young

head

and
his

Roman

example.

taught Greek

himself

was

these natural

carried forward
and

still

everythinghe

of several of the

friend

said to have

Ennius

with

in

which

the

of

to

Elder

all that

was

engaging

most

well-read,genial,
courteous,
personalqualities,
and

but

circumstance

and

letters many

taking their places at

were

sure,

teacher;

was

preciselythe positionin

give weight

who

be

to

approval

skill shown
linguistic

and

to the tact

fit for noble

general acceptance,

received

(230-

(c.254-184 B.C.)

Plautus

words, which,

new

Andronicus,

literaryinnovations

to

language

Livius, his personal influence

like

Ennius

Cicero.

greater master,
Like

of

all win

did not

his time
in

wealth

give
varied

more

Quintus

was

Maccius

Titus

writer

prose

the Latin

made

poetry; and it was


who

the

to

should

vocabulary which

expression. It

of

B.C.)who

172

fuller

poet and

the

to

instrument
c.

and

ampler

an

It lacked

for the finest prose.

poetry and

it fit for

make

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

and

refined;

artificial advantages,he

Nasvius.

His

sensitive

ear

againstthe heavy and lumbering

first his models

and

which

were

the

could

best that

He

set

adherence

the obstinate

second

the

extraordinarynumber

attempted
Roman

literature not

in

and

iambic

already

established
but

combat;
and
a

to

he

It has

been

hexameter

had

of Ennius.
that

be

Varro, Plautus
it cannot

was

from

innovations

had

did

not

kind
render

to

care

of

verse

natural

Prosody.

been

question whether

used
exist

at

no

all in Latin

his

wrote

that

Oracles

of such

verse

"

the

the Annates.

to

but

tion
composiThe

so-

possiblyin hexameters,though

quotationsgivenby Livy do
Ars

the time

genuine. According

he did it earlier than

Horace,

dactylic

epitaph in hexameters,

own

were

the

before

remains
literary

confidentlycalled

give to

tradition

and
might justify

which

now

style. With

entirelynew

an

great epic of Ennius

called Marcian

he

to

any

There,

which

usage
to

limitation),

destined

making

poetry.

mooted

be shown

of the

the

of

There

can

turned

theme,

new

system

new

trochaic

the natural

the level of prose;

stateliness but

only

first,

long syllables.1He

that

refrained

sagacityhe

much

of

experiment

an

on

grace.

two

were

of this accentual

(partlybecause

and

Greek

the

of this

verse

of the

of the Greek

to
predecessors

kept the

word-accent, which

or

his

by

39

literary
purposes.

it some

smoothness, and

Greek

greatest obstacles in the way

The

for

infusinginto

himself the task of

the
lightness,

used

been

hitherto

limitations

the

under

written

be

it had

languageas

PERIOD

GILECO-ROMAN

THE

not

this
justify

Poetica,250-260.

view.

Yet

HISTORY

140

if some

even

few

this metrical
work
literary
in

OF

CLASSICAL

strayattempts had been made

form

had

been

ever

make

a new
distinctly

was

in the matter

would

written

familiar

sphere.

example

own

may

and

which there had

of

of

way

short

in

before

of

account

final

vowel.

Ennius

Hexametri

Versification,
Eng.

altromischen

Metrik

Latini

trans.

De

Saturnio

Latinorum

(Halle,1885); and
(New

du

York, 1906).

"

word.

as
syllables

as, for

regarded all
and

mute

to

instance,

possibleand

of

easy.
vowels

liquid)

syllable
ending

also

made

little

followingthe pronunciation
long after.1
(Bonn, 1876); Miiller,Greek

and

(Boston, 1895); Klotz, Grundzilge der


et Latine

(Berlin,1892); and

M filler's
Handbuch, ii.

Versu

his

guished
distin-

as

(Leipzig,1890); Plessis,
Metrique Grecque

by Gleditsch in Iwan

by

follows:

of

the

himself

(Paris,1889); Westphal, Allgemeine Metrik


treatise

more

the rule of the Greek.

vowel, or

final s, in this

Birt, Historia

Latin

effected
as

doubt,

he

varyingquantities.

(nota

consonants

prevalentat that period and


1

he

made

compensation

elision of

of

any

after
beinglongby position,

(4)The

changes in

nearlyall

dactylswere

that stood before two

Ennius,

quantities

metrical accent

been
previously

musa", palrS. Thus

as

like

in the number

regarded as

(3)By

and

measures

the natural, colloquial


accent

(2)A diminution
Ennius

it; and

roughlysummarised

(i) A fairly
frequentuse
from

extended

to himself.
entirely

alterations that

be

imposing

field,such changes as he might

of forms

The

in

the field

less criticism than

arouse

at

Latin, certainlyno

upon

writingthe Annates, had

As it

PHILOLOGY

the

Compare also Havet,

(Paris,1880); Thurneysen, Der Saturnier

Bois, Stress Accent

in Latin

Poetry, pp.

24-74

HISTORY

142

ably added

OP

the

to

verbal

enrichment

source,

and

CLASSICAL

vocabulary
which

which

one

PHILOLOGY

It is in Titus

it needed

would

Maccius

but
essential differences,

native

the

which
books.

Like

attached

to

with

audience

Plautus

own

James.

There

was

power,

temper

and

nation

entering

Rome

was

of

Rome,

too,

battle,justas England

fleets of

Spain.

The

touched

was

of the
was

apparently

age

the age

air the

an

era

of

his

in which
of Elizabeth

of
stirring

awakening

upon

Greece, just

Shakespeare displayedmuch
of France.

was

ised
modern-

thought of

The

ways

in the

who
the

with

than

firsta subordinate,

writer who

mind.

in many

spirit. The

supremacy.

mercurial

his

before

resembles

wrote

adventurous

for fame, but

that

rather

men

be

speare's,
Shake-

chieflyof

at

hack

Like

dramatist
a
finally,

littlecare

always

and

of its

theatre;then

to

of humble

was

been

was

many

enough

town.

with

association

closest

by

course,

true

have

Shakespeare,he

plays; and

old
wrote

whole

to

the

modern,

country

seems

from

comes

and

the

on

of

his education

in

seemed

finds,after

one

Shakespeare,Plautus

striking. Like

originand

that

modified, of

"

and

another

from

came

Plautus

parallelto Shakespeare,

with

The

language.

first sighthave

at

ancient
surveying all literature,

sort

the

unlikelyone.

most

very

of

to

an

sense

conquest

by something of the
as

the

England

gayety and

of

ness
reckless-

facingthe Carthaginians

confrontingthe

victoryof Duilius

off

armies

Mylae,and

and
the

its

of the New

the colonisation

and

own

to

time

and

their

depths.

in its

own

English people

was

and
original,

new,

wrote
not

for

people

If the

course,

are

In

Plautus

there

which

breathes

wrote.

His

he

"

the

the

becomes
1

nothing of

the

whatever

Shakespeare
they lived

the

great
The

spiritof

degrees lower.

old man,

foolish

and

the

and
parasite,

despitethe

and

were

richness

of

masters

of

differences,

Shakespeare's favour.

in

poetry

pure

the

writer's

The

fact that

Shakespeare composed

the

of the

occurrence

the

austere

old

man;

the

same

the

man;

faithful slave; the loose young

precise young

courtesan,

two

immensely

tragediesas well;
the

and

their own.1

alone, while

swindlingslave,the
and

ages in which

these

of

is many

comedy

immortal

litical
po-

through almost everythingthat Shakespeare

tone

wrote

types

is

land
Eng-

Roman

upon

and

of mind

cast

kinship of
all

of

the

favour

Plautus

whom

intellectual endowment

language have

and

in

strong.

the

dissimilar,so

both

with

alike; if the

much

were

these,each

"

intellectual and

an

was

look

conquest of Sicily,

stirred Rome

stimulated

to

I43

World,

way,

There

quickening which
the

the

by Drake,

Armada

of the

defeat

PERIOD

GR^CO-ROMAN

THE

man,

lying, foul-mouthed

inexperienced,affectionate meretrix;
bullyingsoldier,
"

all this

extraordinaryinventiveness

monotonous

See,in general,Ribbeck's

and

perhaps

comments

Dichtung,i (Leipzig,
189 7-1 000).

makes

us

in the firstvolume

repetition,

and

vigour,

feel that

we

of his Romische

HISTORY

144

been

have

world.

by

warned
not

the

Naevius, with

fate of
the

the New

upon

him
which

not

nice.

had

consorted

with

and

Terence

and

great. He

audiences
the

dramatists
said that
and

sharpers and

those

merely

whom

Sir

onides in the

John

plays

not

cise
criti-

harness

ities
sensibil-

slave and

he

like Ennius

that

the
side

the

this side that his

it was

reproduced

see

Plautus

compare

and

themes

upon
with

not

Shakespeare
Falstaff

the

it cannot

two

be

buffoons, his hypocrites

courtesans

quiteas

of

motives

in this way,

His

and

slaves

Trinummus

the

Judged

is inferior.

doubtless

and

must

own

his

speare
whole, but with those portionsof Shake-

similar.

Plautus

humorous
as

the

are

And

did

protege"of

and
side of life,

delightedto

we

in

never,

he

Shakespeare,was

stage. Hence

his

himself

slaves;and

other

of all

most

where

been

the gutter.

on

Shakespeare as

Then, too,

had

He

only one

saw

verges

him.

must

working

was

that

community,

model

to

Greeks, one

severely. Plautus

sorelyhampered

the

portionof

of the

Comedy

too

were

which

well-bred

audience

an

which

topics,and

Roman

upon

practicallyforced

thus

being

touch

is

vulgarity,

under

conditions

the

to

yet contain

and

by

Forbidden

he wrote.

and

of its coarseness

Plautus

on

of what

of this absence

Very much, however,

imposed

of the ancient

the slums

tarryingtoo long among

and refined,much
elevating
were

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

true

to

is the twin

as

richly

life in their way

Pyrgopolinicesis

drew.

turned

are

into

Latin.

brother

of

MegarPolonius,

while the Dromios


the

standpointthat

rival.

After

the

of the
him.

owes

clearness and

maker, and

caught at

he

was,

in

it

had

If he

the word;

cases
ninety-nine

wit.

No

Latin

coined

with

fittingones.
L

at

and

ease

into

once

the word
he

had

an

he

priate
appro-

wished,

made

it, it

very word

that it fixed itself firmlyin


remained
as

there because
a

word-maker

is as boundless
fertility

as

his

except Apuleius,three centuries


so

lies.

because

for

fancy not merely

hundred, the

many

words.

Apuleius shows

of the former
or
eccentricity

His

writer

afterward,ever
of Plautus

His

when

of

out

and

great language-

necessity.Plautus

inexhaustible.

Latin

speech fit

of

was

not

and

languagelacked,so

actual

an

the

thought with

idea,but flungit out

his

awkward, cramped,

an

of human

range

it

conscious

are

which

instrument

an

vocabularyof the people,and

seems

the

it from

merely an improver.

made

the

was

and

alone, by his individual

He

precision.Plautus

not

an

45

linguistic,

Plautus;

at

debt

enormous

into

verbal form.
then

the

from

look

to

now

genius,transformed

expressinga wide

the

but
literary,

we
studyingPlautus carefully,

ungracefuldialect

which

from

have

we

more

language
unaided

Shakespeareare actuallytaken

language,if anywhere, that Shakespearefinds

and

more

of

from

it is not

is in his

of Plautus.

Mencschmi

But

PERIOD

GR^ECO-ROMAN

THE

exactlywhere

Apuleius coins

he will not

Plautus

The

strikes

take
out

words

comparison
the
from

ness
greatmere

the trouble to find


a

new

phrase, a

146

HISTORY

OF

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

strikingcombination, a picturesqueepithet,because
existingvocabulary is
To

it up in

sum

the

the

is the

doubled

the

that

invented
the

to

the

of Plautus

invention

were

to the

so

Latin

made

much

Latin

(1) Words

the

of

proves

Apuleius

period of transition,

language.

him

by

formulae

various

in this

who,

one

capacity of

with
made

language;

equivalent.

an

poverty of the writer.

Plautus

he

to furnish

poor

sentence, the invention

poverty of the

proves

too

the

words

which

ing
accordinstinctively,
Horace

insight. The

directlyfrom

afterward

scribed1
de-

additions

which

various

heads

vocabulary fall under

borrowed

The

the

Greek:

he
:

"

e.g. dica

(Sikt)),
dapsilis {Jkvtyfcffi)
; dulice (Sot/\i/e"w?)
; euscheme
{eva-'xr}^^)logos (\0709); sycophantio(a-VKocfjavTeco)
; tar',

pessita(TpaTre^iTrj^)
; etc.
(2) Comic

words, chieflypatronymics

e.g.

the
Virginesvendonides,

and, comicallyagain, pernonides,

"

the
as
majestically
There
talosagittipelliger.
here

in

Pacuvius
Latin

semi-comic

of

son

is very

way

"

of

compound

words,

"

of

son

ham.

do

that

pounds:
com-

pander,
"

scribed
de-

So, again,scu-

littledoubt
what

that Plautus

the

learned

is,the formation

Plautus

but

long

flitch of bacon

tried to

seriously
attempted,

and

failed

as

in
did

Pacuvius.

(3)New
near

which

words

formed

they stand
1

after the

in the text,

analogy of other
or

which

Horace, Ars Poetica, 46-72.

words

suggest them:

GR,ECO-ROiIAN

THE

PERIOD

147

suggested by parenticide;sicelicisso
perenticida

e.g.

by atticisso;and
charmido

by

gested
sug-

(from Charmides).
words

(4) Compound

freelymade

the

into

adopted

decharmido

and

recharmido

gested
sug-

language:

and

after
generallythere-

e.g.

opiparus, parci-

and
promus, pauciloquia,salipotens,stultiloquentia;

even

better, opimitas,mendicitas,minatio, moderatrix,oratrix,

based

upon

shade

of

existingwords

meaning,

verbs

boldlyformed

e.g. paro,

words

for

common

about

the

word,

new

seem

Latin

word,

it is

invented

the

from

and
so

that

of

necessity:
e.g.
else

new

this

new

sense

Lucretius

Roman

His

take

Those

old

wrote

which

it be

makes

for the

first century

Greek

form.

used

in

first of

employed

learned.
B.C.,

terminologyso
philosophical

new

makes

is the
him

If it

of words

the context

Plautus

uttered,

analogy

word

with
were

it is

Latin

followed

who

in the

If

the

upon
an

given it where

though they

literature

language

when

on

absolutelyplain.

Cams,

the

word-formations

moment

very

to

are

adjectives:

and

unerringjudgment

it be
is

sense

language-makers.
his methods

enriched

it is formed

already existing. If
sense,

as

they

scortor, sororio,etc.

utterlyindigenous.

modified

either

are

give a different

to

existingnouns

use.

with

word,

new

of

out

that Plautus

seen

brought

T.

modified

are

parasitor,
pergmcor,

It will be

the

class

this

trahax, etc., or
polleniia,
perplexibalis,

osor,

be

and

they

or

of

Words

etc.
perdisco,perlibet,

Thus

gives

to

far

he

as

148

HISTORY

needed

it in

settingforth

stilllater

Cicero

coining words

began

Tertullian

had

and

the

thoughts

the

Empire,
and

Augustine

which
principles

culture had
fantastic

teachingsof

materialism.1

for which

equivalent.2When

no

theological
vocabulary;
on

the

express

spread over

to

PHILOLOGY

enlargedthe philosophical
vocabularyby

to

then

language

CLASSICAL

OF

but

African

St.

Plautus

Plautus,

as

as

introduced

their words

his

ture,
litera-

Latin

said before, is the

was

of Roman

Apuleius,with

combinations, is the Carlyle of

while

such

earlydays

instinct.3

grasped by

writers

fashioned

in the

Latin

Christianity

Jerome

they all

the

Roman

Shakespeare.
Thus

the Latin
side

continuous.

vius, who
His
seen

language and

by side, in

The

was

drama

men,

doctrina,for which

he

in his attempt to make

See such words


"a
"an

growth

as

that

enriched

was

by

famous

so

was

literature developed

in

long compounds,

in his introduction

corpus in the

of

sense

steady and

Marcus

of the work

represents a succession

and
carefulness,
1

the Latin

of

Pacu-

of Ennius.
is
antiquity,
in his syntactical

philosophical

"matter"; caetus,and glomera-

mass"; corpusculum, or principium, or primordium, each


atom";

Polle,DeArlis
Introduction

sensus

Vocabulis
to

his

aXa6t\ais;

rerum

summa,

Quibusdam Lucretianis

Lucretius,pp.

"the

universe."

See

(Dresden, 1866); Merrill's

(New York, 1907); and

42-47

ing
mean-

Reiley,

PhilosophicalTerminology of Lucretius and Cicero (New York, 1909).

The
2

Note

such

words

as

ratio

(\6yos) qualitas (ttoi6tw),


species{eUos).
,

See

Reiley, op. cit.


3

De

See

Schmidt, De

Tertulliano
.

Cooper, Word

Latinitate

Tertulliani

(Erlangen, 1870); Condamin,

Christiana

Lingua

Artifice (Lyons, 1877); and

Formation

in the Roman

Sermo

Plebeius

(New York, 1895).

HISTORY

150
of

life;while

satire into

later

CLASSICAL

of

irreverence

which

of

has

the New

diplomaticmission

he

publiclydiscoursed

advantages

was,

that

human

in

loss of

time, as being

that
especially

expounders
gave

to

writers

one

Nevertheless,

immoral.

the

among

of the

the

back

whose
from

Romans.1

Usener,Epicurea (Leipzig,1887); Martha,

4th

ed.

(Paris,1885); Thiaucourt, Les

trans.

Sources

(London,

Trait

es

him

"

and
disciples

philosophers

yet

See

won

philosophy

found

Epicurean, to

have

essentially

were

Roman

is new;

we

without

Athens

this time,
"

quence,
elo-

before.

day

that

to

tenets

the

equal

orations

et Leurs

there,

of his belief

and

His

sent

nothingthat

Lucretius

upon

While

with

day,

next

of the ethical schools

the world
as

In 155 B.C.,

Athens.

is uncertain

was

have

eloquenceand subtletyon

of truth.
he

tain
cer-

we

came
scepticism,

all his arguments

knowledge

applause,but

much

with

standard

styledthe

what

fact,a practicaldemonstration

absolute

no

from

Rome

justice.The

refuted

he

This

of

hideous

rapid speaker,representing

its essential

to

be

to

the Romans.

and

with

Academy,

led him

responsiblefor

was

vehement

the

humour.

philosophicalwriting among

Carneades,

influence

Greek

lashed

converted

him, infusinginto his lines

first exponent of American


The

Iunius Iuvenalis

and
scorpions,

about

saw

PHILOLOGY

Decimus
still,

whip

vices that he

grim

OF

we

Cicero
Le

Poeme

such

to

owe

the
de

Philosophiquesde

AcaLucrece,
Ciceron

Eng.
Historyof Eclecticism,
Grecques (Paris,1885); Zeller,

1893); Lecky, History of European Morals,

York, 1884); and Binde,

Seneca

(Glogau, 1883).

(New

demic, and
which

Seneca

to

is both

and

power,

in the

of

his

technique in
but the

Roman

ing
supply-

as

have

been

millions,even
of the

use

genius of

of

for

even

his

the

to

the present

at

and

defects

respects a model

some

he makes

hexameter

the writer

melancholy overcome

in
originality,

poets in

peculiarappeal which

materialism

inherent

in

valuable

treatises which

Greek

of those

greatest of all the

His

of literature

Lucretius, in particular(96-55 B.C.),is perhaps

lost.
the

151

a body
pseudo-Stoic,

the

and
in itself,
interesting

knowledge

PERIOD

GILECOROMAN

THE

day.

is stillimperfect;

tual
passionatespiri-

styleand

Vergiland

make

the

him

cloyingly

exquisiteOvid.
Epic poetry
in which

the

Naevius

of all that

literature,
woven
skill.
Pharsalia

only
to
largely
on

in

the

Grecian

Statius,marks

the

finest in both

was

P.

Saturnian

rough

until

of the Mneid

poem

togetherby

it culminates
"

marvellous

Greek

in

and

Roman
with

VergiliusMaro

summate
con-

Later, the Spaniard,Lucanus, composed in


an

followingthe

from

his Punka

wrote

splendidnational

mosaic

the

continued

was

of

epic

model

of

almost

Naevius

writing brilliant
world's

and

and

the end

Ennius,

lines which

collection of

theme,

as

but

have

epigrams.

known

of serious

events,

contemporary

the

epic poetry

ceeded
suc-

added

The

epic

Thebais, by
among

the

Romans.1

Lyric poetry
1

See

in native

Gubernatis,Storia

rhythms,
delta Poesia

as

alreadysaid,ante-

Epica (Milan, 1883).

HISTORY

152
dates

Hellenic

poetry

OF

informal.

was

the

It

But

composed

the Latin

lyriccompositionthat

find

we

until the time

not

was

lyricpoetry

in

the core,

poured forth

longing

of

In

heart

in the

but

mingling of

love

his

to

as

With

no

followed

subject,Horace

seem

such

the

ing;
train-

tortured

pedantry

predecessor

passion,yet

Catullus,and

perfectease

Grecian

and
lyrists,

of the

measures

or

with

and

truly Roman

more

and

of

verse

in

Rome

Propertius,and

nearly so,

to-day

lyricverse

than
was

among

the

more

remained
of his

any

especially

Tibullus,
"

temporaries,
con-

of Horace.1

Ribbeck, op. cit. i; Werner, Lyrik und Lyriker (Leipzig,1890) ;

Sellar,The

also du

by

the

with

See

emotion.

Lesbia, his

Latins; for he managed

by Ovid,
represented

Horaz

him

to

the wild

intense

free from

so

make

Italian

Alexandrian
to

that

Catullus

easy metres

with

an

are

contemporaries. Elegiac

and

Valerius

ing
humour, wit, or melancholy,accorddignity,

less Alexandrian

was

yet adapted

not

master

difficult

of

this attempt

styledthe greatest

be

must

the

was

hate

and

Juno

Catullus,an

surcharged

d'Annunzio.

infinite grace,
to

for

lyricsaddressed

of Alexandrianism
of Gabriele

Quintus

sapphicsand

respects Catullus

many

honour

vie with that of the Greeks.

Latin;

in

that

language was

of

early

already noted

However,

could

this

course

lyricin

set

of

have

we

request of the State.

since
unfruitful,
for

PHILOLOGY

influence,though

Livius Andronicus
at

CLASSICAL

Roman

Poets

of the Augustan Age (Oxford, 1892). Cf.

Meril, Poesies Populaires Latines (Paris,1843); and Weissenfels,


(Berlin,1899).

GR.ECO-ROMAN

THE

Roman

soldier,statesman,

"

also writer; for he

what

treatise entitled

us,

would

treatises
slighter

Some

to-day be

epistolarycomposition,and

to

all that

practicalhandbook

Other

Romans

annals

of their

at

language until
with

its

find

on

the time

written

History

himself,whose

Caesar

and

G.

eminence.

whom

After

works, the

Annates

find

The

This

Cato

was

and

two

famous

fragments

are

his

Re

Rustica,
farm.

the

of

narrative,

attractive

to

almost

the

climax

of

collected in

and

contemporaries,Julius
a

high degree of

very

thought to challenge
Titius

Livius, in

as
delightfully

as

Tacitus, in
and

the

contemporaries,we

imitated,just as

wrote

him

form

very

be

may

his

had

remarkable

two

torical
Historic?, brought his-

excellence; for

only biographies like

1858).

Practically

by Varro, Atticus, Hortensius,

he

Augustan Age,

writing to

people.

of

management

Sallustius,reached

Herodotus.

we

anecdotes.

of Cato.

Sallust,indeed,

Thucydides,

the Roman

country, but they employed the Greek

own

that, after

so

discussed

comparativelyearlyperiod wrote

Cicero

the

the

interest

to medicine,
respectively

to

background,
patriotic

Romans;

he

left is the littlemonograph, De

have

we

Censor

of vast

which

Origines,1in

of his relate

the

militaryscience,

on

and language of
history,
antiquities,

the

Cato

53

orator, farmer, and

works

produced

and
agriculture,

to

with
begins practically

prose

(234-149 B.C.)

on

PERIOD

that

commentary

of

by

after

Suetonius

Bormann

him
on

denburg,
(Bran-

HISTORY

154
Twelve

the

OF

Caesars

CLASSICAL

else

or

PHILOLOGY

and

epitomes

fragmentary

sketches.1
their

In

prose-writingthe

and

novel

in which

romance,

later Greeks.

in fiction

always prolix and

unreal, the Romans,

been

their love of the

at

expected from
singleblow,

called Satira

it were,

of Gaius

criticism of life and

in its sound

remains, yet it is

of it

literature

ancient

be obscure

otherwise

Lucius

people.
Medaura

in

as

in the life and

Romanorum

short

stories

Die

Geschichtschreiber der Romer

especiallythose
Augustine, and

Suringar, De

biographical material
of

would

that
the

known
(generically

thread

are

of

mon
com-

of

lesians),
Mi-

as

plot,but

are

collected by Peter, His-

See

on

history (Berlin,1833); Gerlach,

De

the introduction

West, Roman

biography
Auto-

Vitis Scriptorum Romanorum

Romanorum
is found

Autobiographis(Leyden,
in the

Cicero, Pliny, Seneca, Symmachus,

Cassiodorus.

(London, 1843).

portion

earlier form

the

biography, see

On

York, 1901); Wiese,


and

as

fragments of

much

(Stuttgart,1855); and

history of Rome.

(Berlin,1840);

well

1883). See Ulrici,treatise


Fragmenta (Leipzig,

general characteristics of ancient

(New

is wonderfully

as

language of

better

historians

the

to Mommsen's

so-

Apuleius (second century a.d.), of

fragments of the Roman

1846). Much

clew to

strung togetherby

are

toricorum

well

Africa,represents

fiction in which

The

as

choicest

out

in the

learning. Only

of the

one

have

concrete, struck

of character

the

almost

(d.66 a.d.),which

Petronius

of the

might

as

first

by

were

realistic novel

the

in its treatment

modern

as

form

imitated

they were

while the Greeks

But

developed,

fiction in the

peoples,prose

western

among

Romans

form
St.

of letters

"

Jerome, St.

Roberts, History of Letter-Writing

GR^CO-ROMAN

THE

not

yet

as

form.

the

is odd

It

only

them

woven

that

these

of

number

preserved.

latter is

influence

modern

upon

fimile Zola.

to

and

give us
In

piquant picturesof

addition

there
is

very

these

to

written

were

various

pointed lines

poetry, and

in

Tacitus
1

in

the

of

These

Collignon, Etude

to

and
see

See

Pierre
written

century a.d.,

literature,

pure

the master

and

strong

life in Athens.

of

to

of

have

Horace

aphorisms

of

well with

in Latin

relished
and

Lucan

Seneca
he

and

of
spirit

(Paris,1862); Dunlop, A
dans

no

History
la Grece

(Paris,1894); Warren, A Historyof the Novel (New York, 1895);

Ancienne

Peck's

St.

of Fiction,last ed. (London, 1896); Salverte,Le Roman

brand

curiously
author

from

second

seem

accorded

Chassang, Histoire du Roman

See

the

The

Bohemian

Plautus

sententious

prose.2

the

forms

Martial, though the Romans

less the

Helio-

has exercised

of which

Epigrams

jEthiopicaby

imag'nary letters

sophistof

Greek

by Alciphron, a

been

fiction

prose

of

Greeks

have

Chloe.

collection of

The

century, and

the book

but

unknown,

left behind

of which

is the

symbolisticnovel, Daphnis

unity of

practically

are

have

55

later,poured forth

number

of them

definite

writers

Apuleius. and

dorus, composed in the fourth

the

works.

completed

best

literature

romances,1 a

The

like

two

in Roman

period as

same

vast

anything

like

anything

the

into

who

ones

PERIOD

sur

his edition of

translation

(Paris,1892); the Introduction

Petrone

Apuleius (Leipzig,1842); and

of the Ccna

for the

rough and rather

Bernstein,Versus

Ludicri

the Introduction

Trimalchionis,2d ed. (New

Booth, Epigrams Ancient


coarse

and

by Hildeto

York, 1908).

Modern, 3d ed. (London, 1874);

epigrams directed againstthe emperors,

in Ccesares Priores

(Halle,1810).

156
homely

wisdom

that

type and
fered to

the

PHILOLOGY

the Romans

to

was

to the

philosophywas

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

Greeks.

So

cynicalshrewdness
almost

tragedyat

The

truth

ever

Hellenised

is that

either

of the

the

in

language

language, highly educated

surface

Castilians.

In the easy

friends and

intimates, they used

formal

of Latin

sort

letters,for example.

Latin

had

which
which

now

at

nothing
been

histories have

of Grecian

models; but

largethere

existed

sometimes
nursery

an

down

come

know

we

immense

lines sung

chants

of the

must

we
1

See

of

set

mass

by

us

be

the

orations,

carefully

that
of

children

for the

acrostics.

people at

popularcompositions,
sometimes
at

not

play, the
well

as

"

umphal
tri-

fables,

Against Terence

Plautus; againstthe epic of Vergilwe

Introduction;Olcott,Studies in the Word


Cooper, op. cit.,
the Latin

boleth
shib-

bearingthe impress

as
soldiery,

common

familiar letters,
riddles,and

everywhere,

epics,and

orallyand

transmitted

songs,

to

the

the older

than

more

less

spoke

literature,ornate

to

their

of Cicero's

street

current

wrought lyrics,learned
exquisitely
penned

so-called

looser and

literati to

the

by

ignorance.1As

of

in

In

estilo culto of the

the

was

held

was

Romans

the

cotidianus

sermo

time

the

in

much

man

one

culture.

dailylife,
among

The

plebeius,which

sermo

but

the

"

pre-

in literature.

or

the

of

converse

were

Roman

were

wrote

men

urbanus, correspondingto

sermo

mimes

periodof

every

speculative

of the farcical

comedy

on

only

what

must
tion
Forma-

Inscriptions(Rome, 1898); Grandgent, Vulgar Latin

(Boston, 1008) ; and du Meril, op. cit.

158

HISTORY

the

"on

basis of Latin

school
of

PHILOLOGY

the

explainingeverything

is that

other

itself.

of M.

The

Terentius

learned

most

the

great scholars
and

of the

Lipsiusjust after

sen

in

however,
be

recent

very
of

his

mentioned,

the present

been

He

had

the

the

both

well

was

who

the mind

which

80

B.C.

is

an

between

stands

with

has

there

tosthenes
Era-

Momm-

the

should

continued
to

came

to

Rome
He

Pergamum.

at

of
linguists

each

doctrines.

This

admirable
the

account,

Alexandria.

of

in all their

versed

with

incident

cityand

disputesof

Dionysius Thrax,

middleman

of

in his native

of

one

giving any

probably

native

listened to the

person,

Before

influence

styled

was

Renaissance, and

In the year

day.

be

to

man

Greeks, with Scaliger.

labours, an
philological

trained

school,and

him
Varro

the

among

years.

roving scholar,a

had

caused

time, to be compared

Aristarchus

and

(116-28 B.C.),a

Romans."

all

of

in the latter

great name

Varro

prodigiouserudition,which

"the

CLASSICAL

B.C.),and

(c. 100

crates

OF

type of the
mind

creative

that is entirely
receptive.Until his
much

and

day, grammar,
in itself

as

we

have

as

an

adjunct to logicand philosophy. Dionysius Thrax

made

digests of

putting
was

alreadyseen,

down

the

what
precisely

the

in

and

he

didactic

appealed to

something definite,concrete,
of

so

which

lectures

results
most

not

was

the

had

made

on

This
mind

Roman

dogmatic.

it the firsttreatise

attended,

manner.

set forth
Dionysius,his Te^v TpafifMaTt/ct],

which

art

an

Formal

One

"

treatise

certain

ciples
prin-

Grammar.

GR^COROMAN

THE

into Latin, it became

Translated
and

formal
A

have

it there

from

Roman

later

the

remain.

the

name

of

philologist.He

by

birth

aristocrat

an

and

Greek

had

knowledge.

Therefore

in the matter

the
us

of

five
See

he

century the book

the edition

Grafenhan, op.
A list of these
may

be

3d ed.

cit. i. p. 402

found

in

xpo"os

Thus,
=

have

we

for

The

Latin, both

in Grecian

and

with

in

given

has

manuscripts
the

French

(Paris,1824).

account

while

Armenian,

version

of the later Greek

Greek,

antiquarian

of the earlier

into

Armenian

the

patrician

tain.
con-

lation
trans-

Cf.

also

Steinthal,op.

their Latin

cit.

equivalents,

of the History of Classical Philology,

6vopa

7rTcD"ris

nomen," noun";

casus*

Aptd/xoi= numerus,
in

gift

tempos, "tense"; "rv{vyla. conjugatio,"conjugation";

"gender"; ZyKkuris

genus,

Outlines

Gudeman,

pp. 30-32.

"case";

in

grammatical terms

had

learned

translated

and
foil.,

knightly

office,
political

no

ancient

Dissertations

et

to

profoundlylearned

most

was

any

of

was

by Uhlig (Leipzig,1883);

by Cierbied, Mitnoires

first Roman

in the usages
"

curtailed.

chapters than

more

his

type of the

be

to

came

styleshim

somewhat

originalwas

fragments of

taste
patrician's

and
antiquities

Cicero

In the fourth

back

the true

in

friends,after the fashion


a

was

was

notices

and
training,

everythingrelatingto

authorityupon

language.

He

orators.

scholar,and

and

for his

orations

merely wrote

of the

was

oratory; though he sought

of natural

have

writers,although even

not

rank,

grammarian
we

writingsdo
deserve

of

terms

languages.1

of this Greek

He

59

text-book,

the technical

us

Stilo,of whom

Praeconinus

standard

in modern

contemporary

of the

many

to

come

employed

grammar

L. ^)lius

PERIOD

Greek, it was

ablativus.
Quintilian,

modus, "mood";

"number."

firstcalled "the

As
Latin

irpoauirov

the ablative
case"

case

son";
persona, "perdoes

not

(casusLatinus),and

pear
ap-

by

l6o

OF

HISTORY

literature

well

as

of

He

undoubtedly the

claim to be

likelyhe

as

regardedas
took

who

applied them

and
the

such

to

Latin, thus

is

of

teacher

scholar who

"

says

of him:

feel

surprisedthat

he wrote
could

so

much

find time

he wrote
Varro

at

was,

he

however,
in the

generalof Pompey
surrender
remained

So Auson.

(Paris,1861).

taries
commen-

Saliorum

and
even

signs;yet

of

read

time

to

Roman

any

that

write

ought to

we

anything;

hardly believe

can

century St. Augustine

much

so

was

learned,the

most

of
prolific

later

he

fact that

and

that any
In

composed."

one

fact,

least six hundred.1

squadron

and

the

all that he

read

to

In

we

First of

wrote

critical

Varro, the

found

that
to

with

the most

had

Varro

very

believes that he

from

lived.

ever

was

any

evidence.

comes

and
indefatigable,

most

had

the

becoming

Gudeman

Terentius

Marcus

nostra.

who

the Carmina

as

direct

greatest fame

His

works

of Plautus

no

memoria

Likewise, he

Tables.

this last there

pupil,Varro,

teachingsof Dionysius Thrax

the

edition

prepared an

his

classical philologist.It

up

ancient

Twelve

the

on

while

first of the Romans

Grammarians.

Roman
on

Latin,"

litteris ornatissimus

speaks
was

him

in

as

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

recluse.

mere

no

commanded

He

he served

against Mithradates;

war

in

his

Spain,and though
to

troops

he

20.

Cf
.

pelled
com-

was

self
Caesar, he escaped him-

steadfast to the aristocratic

Prof.Burd, xx.

as

Etudes
Boissier,

sur

cause

M.

until

T. Varron

Since resistance

the final battle at Pharsalus.

be

perhaps to
who

of

This

more

the

pleasing,since

privatelibraryhad

been

defiled

by Antony,

had

partlybecause

they

the habit

it was

too

is for this

most

valuable part of

Livy only in

that

of
to

been

us

of which

two

famous
and

most

See

The

assigned him.

munificence

and

Varro

of Asinius
are

of the books

that

the form

or

in it were

been

(34 B.C.).

celebrated,
"

Rome

in the

the

lost,and
there

Re

Rustica),

task

opened by

main
re-

which
the

had

private

last,five imperiallibraries,

first that

of State

Traiana, the
or

At

the

seemed

epitome;

an

works

more

publiclibrary was

written

and

have

we

of

has

completed

never

complete collection

Bibliotheca

Lanciani,Ancient

(Boston,1889).

Pollio

the most

for its
the

first

cause
partlybe-

whatever

only his treatise on husbandry (De

Suetonius, Julius, 44.

remain,

many
and

reason

Petronius

six hundred

Varro's

not

them

from

interesting.It

portionof

depicted

scholars to condense

most

that the greater

has

Philippicoration.

numerous,

of Roman

abridge long works, taking

just

plundered and

Cicero

in his second

were

Rome.1

splendid

own

been

which

scene

the

the Civil Wars,

works,
encyclopaedic

of Varro's

Out

"

hideous realism

with almost

him

gave

Varro's

destroyed in

his beautiful villa at Casinum

as

ship,
promote scholar-

to

founding a great publiclibraryin

agreeabletask
was

expecting

high-minded Caesar,

and
graciously,

most

tator
to the dic-

Rome,

to

scholar,and wished

Varro

received

the

But

death.

to

put

himself

was

returned

Varro
useless,

then

was

l6l

PERIOD

GR^ECO-ROMAN

THE

most

inscribed

founded

papers

and

by Tiberius
ments,
publicdocu-

magnificentof all,since
upon

thin leaves of

ivory.

Lightof Recent Excavations,pp. 178-205

1 02

OP

HISTORY

of

number

quotationsand
of Latin

the pages

his

This

and
had

research.

Ages, and

both

because
a

possess

have

and
from

the

books

were

Edited

in

the

point of

and

be noted

tury
cen-

into

of

years

also

his

are

quoted
a

in
of

mixture

language (one part

the book.

and

The

originof

because
treatise

of

words

the Latin

of

interesting,

three great divisions.


the

view

is most

and

we

seems

The

still
to

first

phrases,

languagelargely

The
etymologists.2

to
relating
chiefly
grammatical,3

next

the forms

six

and

by A. Spengel(Berlin,
1885).

Supra, p. 146 foil.

In these books

and

sidered
con-

knowledge

vast

years

Cicero) that

fact,a historyof

nouns

the

written in

subjectitself

dealt with

in

was,

of

to

arranged in

books

seven

gave

who
ancients,

much
pithysayings,

the Latin

on

portion of

been

of

To

his Satura

dedicated

was

which

(Menippece).

verse

It is the treatise
which

with

acquired by

a collection
Sententitzy

and

the

book

AniiquitatumLibri,divided

crowded

patientreading and

prose

The

survive the end of the sixth

not

his

was

its author

the Middle

his great

has practically
masterpiece,
perishedand, in

forty-onebooks,
which

much

"

truth,it probablydid
a.d.

out
through-

language (De Lingua Latino)

highestreputationamong
it his

from

taken

one-quarter of the whole.1

about
him

references scattered

and finally,
a very
literature,

Latin

the

on

PHILOLOGY

of six books

corrupted collection
treatise

CLASSICAL

and
"

verbs.

Varro
Words
"

examines
"

are

the

natural

and

arbitrarydivisions

naturally" divided

ogy,
according to anal-

arbitrarilydivided according to anomaly.

GP^ECO-ROMAN

THE

inflection of
the

as

and

nouns

only

have

Semitic
do

to

is

as

The

deal of information
and

Rome,

at

derive
On

the

about

he

hand,

his

which

{ut verba

remain

to

work,
has

us,

pointsof
in not

language

are

lating
partlyre-

ancient

usage

attemptingto

from

absurd

as

inter

still possess

we

the Greek.

etymologisesentirelyby

of his derivations

monumental

This

last eleven

a
incidentally
great

wisdom

prevalentin the Middle

were

which

curious

shows

Varro

other

that many

of syntax

They give us

vocabulary of

the

this respect

in

"

six books

ear,

Ages.1
in the scanty

even

studied

always been

Varro

treats in it

with

association

but
alphabetical,

is not

the fifth book

are

taken

up

by

another.

one

(aftera

short

fragments
with

great

division

Turning
1Thus

of

to the

Varro

places in

says

that

cams

cero),because
a

rich

they
man

that

so

heaven

is like

upon

their

author

is derived

from

stags

called

are

begins
lating
re-

names

locus

and

its

forth, followingthis
and

huge antlers; and

carry

that

introduction)with

places on

earth.

the

antith-

former, he regards caelum

signals(canere)at night ;
because

the

Its

words

based

groups

Thus

derivatives locare,locarium, and

by

the

places,discussingfirst the word

to

so

those which

as

the purely lexical portion (v-vii).


profit,
especially

arrangement

63

regarded these

above, partlyetymologicaland

seen

inflections.

to

Varro

speech

the laws

are,

grammarians. The

with

coniungantur)

se

verbs, since

real parts of

two

resembling the
books

PERIOD

as

because

cano

gero

(quasi

dives is from

divus,

ceroi from

that

dogs give

god in wanting nothing.

164
esis to

and

terra

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

humus, which

partialsynonym

its

humor, humidus, udus, sudor, and other


to

moisture,

and

him

to

the Anio

etymology

the

discusses

suggests another, and

word

he

of

impressionof

takes each

tc

have

been

set

forth

has

Latina
rather

Whatever

does

themselves

say

and

scholars

will

utterances

It may

books.

See

law,

the

be

are

always

the

positionas

most

to

the

authors

learned

the

seems

Miiller

De

notes

Lingua
of

book

childish etymologie
the Romans

originof

he

On
of

such
the

certain

lost,and

now

gives of

of information

source

resort.

receive

matters

to

which
Varro's

matters,
Romans

the

gives his

weight of unimpeachable authority.

that

Roth,

the

rather

occasionallyfull explanationswhich
of usage

the

completed form.1

as

his citations from

But

in

of Varro's

to hold

of

O.

give the explanationwhich


wont

were

K.

unfinished

itself in its

may

poets and

uses

we

though

only the rough

defines

and

lecture,and such

hypothesis that

an

one

he

various

word

one

both

this way

In

intention

the book

than

words.

his

have

we

question.

Tiber, he

so

of them

citingfrom

familiar,off-hand

the

And

Tiberis.

illustration of the

in

name

or

of amnis

sound

The

empties into

it,giving the etymology and

prose-writersin

ing
relat-

place-names,Interamna, Antemnae,

the

Because

Anio.

words

puteus (a well),lacus,palus,stagnum,

as

amnis.
Jiumen, stillicidium,
fluvius,

suggests

gests
sug-

Varro

Leben

published
Varros

an

epitome

(Basle,1857).

of

the

work

in nine

66

HISTORY

almost

wholly
the

During
served

to

Latin

and

OF

of

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

lexical and

Ciceronian, Augustan,

also the

and

illustrate the

explain and

plebeian form

Opilius created

of

the Latin
and

studyingthem.

of their
to

language by going

in many

Vetus.1

Glossarium

began

to

nineteenth

edit Latin

records
and

that
down

come

Plautus, Terence,
of which

seven

and

grammarians

Roman

Antonius

M.

texts.

nal
Cardi-

critics

the Annates

on

early

Gnipho (c. 114

Quintus) published

(or his brother

of

century, compiled his great

B.C.) published commentaries


Cicero

Aure-

study

oldest

cases

special glossaria {e.g. to

in the

for the
the

tinguish
dis-

The

Stilo and

to

Vergil,Sidonius,and others),from
Mai,

of archaic

results of their work

The

contemporaries have

in

us

back

it

Ages

speech.

scientific basis

Silver

meaning

glossographersPraeconinus
lius

character.

grammatical

of Ennius.

edition

an

of Lucretius.2
that

It is unfortunate

scholars

Roman

appear

to

details

exact

criticism of texts have

Roman

the

no

down

come

have

to

confined

Most

us.

themselves

to

the
writing of marginal glosses. They distinguish

various

last word

being

sometimes

1See

and
emendatio, distinction

processes:

which

Lowe,

means

brief

Prodromus

the

signa, and

See

Munro,

sometimes

Corporus Glossariorum

Lucretius,Intr. ii.pp.

adnotatio,

of notes, these

adding

1876).
8

concerningthe

foil.

notes

brief

Latinorum

com-

(Leipzig,

GR^CO-ROMAN

THE

in the

mentaries

treatise

wrote

down

to

critical

modern

and

signs,chieflyvariations

has

mentions

He

67

Suetonius

notes, part of which

in Greek.

written

us

word.

of the

sense

these

on

PERIOD

come

twenty-one
of the

combinations

diple,antisigma,and point (punctum)


obelus,asterisk,
yet they appear
for aesthetic and
for which

have

to

criticism
literary

there

also other

were

without

merely

mentions

critics

is due

the

good

deal

hears

is
subscriptio

begins with

the

the

by

the

added

note

usuallynot
of

sort

attention

444,
2

so

details

other

marked

It

It

usually

by
of

the

date,place,

regarding the

vision.
re-

subscriptiois

the

only

the text, but


of the

correctness

original.2
that

paid considerable

Romans

of these is of

is the

difficult

the

Inscribed

Epigraphy.

addition.

anacoluthon, or
x.

noted

be
to

an

one

manuscripts.

with
reviser,

critical recension

from

which

manuscript.

indicated

E.g. notae simplices.One

distinct

of

i.e. a guarantee
proof-reading,

It is to

revision
a

of the copy

study

Latin

the

subscript",of

to

of the

time, circumstances,or
This

Suetonius

that

symbols

followed
legi (also recognovi,contuli),

word

name

or
distinctio),
(/epio-ts

describing.1To

so-called
in

less for textual than

used

been

stones

on

which

importance

some

sign h, called alogus, and

expression, such

as

the

aequore

as

the
being

marks
iusso

an

en.

by Probus.

Subscriplionesare

found

in

manuscripts of

all

the

best

Latin

writers,includingCaesar,Cicero,Vergil,Horace, Livy, Persius,Martial,


Quintilian,Juvenal, and

Mela.

scriptionibus
(Breslau, i860).

See

Haase, De

Lat.

Cod. MSS.

Sub~

68

HISTORY

upon

every

the

walls
"

Hiibner

as

of

temples

hewn

afterward
Alexandrian

the

from

Rome

quoted by
of

cus,1and

the

by

Passing over

to

the writers

Ateius

is that of Marcus
of

especialmention
the

may

be
fairly

for his rank

education.

Suetonius,Gram.

Flac-

the

annalist

great

name,

(c.10 B.C.),tutor
deserves

philological
study
Verrius

Flaccus

the first Latin

2Ibid.
10.

was

(3 a.d.), the

compilerof

Infra,p. 169.

by

jurisprudence.

scholar who

in both

the

they are

collected for

the next

him.

studied

they are

Flaccus

Verrius

as

a.d.

200

who
(c. 29 B.C.),

to

come

Augustus, and

described

passionwith

Cicero, and

on

were

cause
beo-TijXo/coTras

Pedianus

Asconius

general historyof

and

of them

(300 B.C.) and

Roman

Praetextatus

(19 a.d.),we

the children

while

on

until the

not

was

Varro, Verrius

as

and

orators

historians,and

Berytus ;

commentator

Fenestella

which

of

until

b.c.

and

and
philologies,*

well-known

it

nicknamed

50

ally
liter-

city was

Greek

was
inscriptions

orators

so
that,
altars,

Philochorus

as

was

about

Probus

the

by

were

were
inscriptions

These

grammarians, such

the

legalpurposes

called

of

and

regular collections

scholars

study

records

Greek

historians,but

(200 B.C.),who

Polemo

some

stones."

that

Age
such

by

historyof

stored in

were

city,and

pediments

documents

as

the

by

and

her

upon

frequentlycited

At

PHILOLOGY

Hellenic

the

says,

written

made

CLASSICAL

preserved their public documents

Greeks
the

OF

GR^CO-ROMAN

THE

lexicon

trulycalled

written
Significatu,

the

words

order.

It

of

the

from

every

well

as

sacred

Latin

and

with

from

in

and

exhaustive

allowed

This

Paul

The

century

the

were

the

stillbriefer

the

by

at

Paulus.1

Yet

treated,they are

All the remains

was

have

been edited

and

the

the notes

Verrius.

the

both

remains

the most

study at

by Thewrewk

Diaconus.

of

by

there cites extensive

mutilated

perhaps

Paulus

knowledge

our

fragmentsof

badly as

remaining for

Paulus

as

of

from

itself compressed

was

Charlemagne (c.800

to

Gellius here

first hand

abridgedby

the monk

epitome by

many

is

arbitraryfashion

an

Festus

principalsource

originaltreatise

of information
1

quotations

each of the letters of the

to

abridgment by

remain, while

passages

and

this

originaltreatise;but

Festus

how

book

it was

a.d.

epitome by Paulus, dedicated


now

information

in its original
form

Warnefrid, usuallyspoken of

A.D.),is

it gave

elaborate

great work

only one

alphabet,and

or

alphabetical

legal documents, rituals,and

In the second

into

their

and historians,
poets, jurists,

"

ancient

formuke.

which

It

illustrated by citations

grammarian, Pompeius Festus, in

Verborum

De

twenty-fourbooks.

language

class of writers

as

lost.

now

it denned

more

and
topicsconcerninghistory,
antiquities,

and

grammar,

than

more

because
encyclopaedia

an

was

innumerable

on

in

lexicon because

title was

encyclopaedia. Its

an

69

written, though perhaps it might be

ever

was

PERIOD

These

show

by

Festus

of

valuable
second

de Ponor

Verrius
source

hand

of

(Prague,1891).

HISTORY

170

and

archaic Latin

CLASSICAL

OF

for curious

is to be

Verrius

remembered

system of education, which

appealed to

Romans

than

our

for another

dread

of

emulation

of merit

this

time, after

era,

that the Greek


as

be

to

of cultivation

with

its

the

rather

find

and

spoken

were

Latin

as

intimate

side

the

become

by side;

they chose

See

Latin
2

the

the

upon

with

Greek

Literature,
pp.

Suetonius,Gram.

17.

Henceforth
with
had

the
all

Greek

become

in many

of its

great numbers

Verrius

city.

Both

wrote

in Greek

in

took

languages

so

or

in

familiar and

of Cicero, for

phrases and

Greek

201-247

sphere of

world

of their most

; the pages

themselves

chapter on

came
learningbe-

the

in such

Romans

the Greeks, though they never

laid

the firstcentury

Roman

Greek

compositions(the letters

speech,busied

teaching,

littlelater,
complaining that the

Juvenal,a

studded

were

ambition

In

only familiar

not

were

flocked to Rome

capitalhad

Roman

the

than

in its institutions and

Greeks

we

among

and

beginningof

in
thereafter,

but
literature,

largelyRomanised
customs.

his

"

punishment.

a
substantially
singlefield.
higherstudies,

Romans

thing

for the first time

spiritof

reward

blended

so

that

subject

neglectand ignorance.2

of

at

was

of

and

the

on

prizesfor proficiencyin study, and

the

upon

chastisement
It

the

to

offered

Verrius
stress

information

antiquities.1

of Roman

rather

PHILOLOGY

example)

allusions; while

kindlyto

the Roman

reading and writingRoman

Flaccus

by Nettleship in his Essays in

(Oxford, 1885).

GR^COROMAN

THE

Halicarnassu

Dionysius, of

of Roman

meaning

and

One

intellectual

unity

and

the

of

and

Hellas

the X,atinpeople with that of the


Greeks.

As

and

more

grew

summarise
Educational

The
a

System,

of

progress

principalfeatures

the

Greek

on

part of it is native
1

Suetonius

is best

wrote

names

of articles of

court

words

many

of

It is not
See the

known

; the
known

an

which

prefaceto

more

for his

the

collection of

of them

the edition

of

are
were

by

early theory

of

highly intellectual
period

here

proper

to

the Graeco-Roman
of the

world.
may

be described
The

as

elementary

purelyscientific part

of it is

biographiesof

Caesars ;

edited

the

Twelve

antiquariansubjects,such

as

the

earlyimport of imprecations

miscellanies

courtesans,
in ten

books.

manual
The

of

ments
frag-

by Reifferscheid (Leipzig,i860).

written
Roth

his

clearly

literature in this

of celebrated

account

lost treatises

Latin

finallyaccepted

foundation.

Latin

clothing,the originand

abuse,

and
etiquette,
of these

Tran-

became

now

whole,

chieflyon
treatises,

yet he

and

the ancient

as
training,

structure

best-known

givinga generalconspectus

as

learningin

Roman

Greeks

peoples.1The

academic, it is

more

of

partlyin

more

thought and

Roman

literary

Suetonius

Rome

it did

uniting as

Romans,

the

of both

usages

system of education

visible in the

by

of the

summaries

of

scholars,Gaius

quillus,composed partlyin Greek


learned

lives

the

of

the
'PafialKij
investigated

customs.

historians

Roman

archaeologyof

master

parallelsin
in his Atria

and

Romans,

institutions.

of the

wrote

remarkable

Plutarch, that

portraiture,found
and

171

in the scientific study of Roman

historyand

Rome.

PERIOD

in Latin

and

(Leipzig,1886).

which

in Greek.

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

172

foreign. This represents,of

the

had

influence

Greek

scientific features
and

Andronicus

been

Ennius.

secondary and

by

Latin

both

classes of

from

the Greek

In

Greek

other

taught

their

In

the

titles borrowed

own

Plutarch's
to
as

it

as

Schools

Athens

at

few.

Most

in itself

This

simple and

very

important,

was

were

home.

at

sons

Tables
in

established

been

regarded as

was

States.

taught

was

be understood

had

teachers

of the Twelve

the firstperson

is called

of

tarian
utili-

Reading, writing,arithmetic, and

character.

B.C.1

The

magister litterarius); while

or

impliesthat the teaching was

these had

Greek.

were

obligatoryby law,

and

that

Roman;

was

elementary teacher

education

not

memorising

modern

(grammaticus,rhetor).

though it was

fathers

of Livius

(to use

Rome

at

the

to the three classes of teachers

Rome

advanced

early Rome,

in

words

system

ator
{litter

name

while

after the time

In other

significant.The

most

were

developed before

felt at Rome;

higher education

given at

names

very

historyof Roman

were

introduced

were

terms), the common-school


the

the

course,

simpler forms

which

education, m

PHILOLOGY

the

open

comprised nearlyeverything
elementary schools

after

in the

fourth

Spurius Carvilius

statement

that

or

school at Rome

to
referring

the

elementary schools the

course,

QuaestionesRomanae,

59.

was

(231 B.C.)must

as

44 ; vi. 25.

Livy, Hi. 44

v.

fifth century

secondary schools

the

stated

alone.

above,

174

HISTORY

History
and

and

that

seen

CLASSICAL

geography

valued

more

have

OF

as

about

time

as

were,

part of

even

PHILOLOGY

beginning

Period,DescriptiveGeography
and

form.

It

sailed

down

Ocean

and

the Indus
the Red

His

voyage.

then

was

the

Asia

globe into

the Great

expeditions;and
then

such
and

Posidonius

of

however,
great and

(c. 20

historical

with

work

is that

combines

is

the

the edition

by

and

and

southern

Fabricius

books

of

parts

Physical geography
in

their commercial

We

by

have

far
the

of

of

Strabo

had

learned

treatise

And
on

is the most

it

as

andrians,
Alex-

Nicaea,

only fragments,

geographers.

conquests.

lost, his

by

first

very

of Amasia

descriptivegeography

Greeks

in seventeen
(Ti](0ypacf"iKd)
1See

written

campaigns

scientific skill

of these

the Roman

work

Periplus,

earth,

The

zones.

Ptolemies

of most

what

knowledge of

the

Apamea (90 B.C.).

a.d.),which
To

Indian

matically
proved mathe-

Eratosthenes,Hipparchus

enduring

ethnology.

been

shape

for the

geographicalknowledge, so

used
as

of

andrian
Alex-

Greek,

the

so-called

research.

the

all

existed,was

to

laid the western

developed by

was

five

Greek

to

the

Carian

through

of Canidus

spherical shape

open

possiblyhave

not

littlelater,
Eudoxus

Alexander
of

around

We

took definite

Scylax,

is attached

name

the

divided

and

of

Sea, occupying thirtymonths

which, however, could


him.1

that

more

on,

liberal education.

the

went

he

with

added

though

his

geography
complete

(Leipzig,1883); and Antichan, op.

cit.

of

treatise
geographical
from

dry

the

wars

prepared
all could

in

Gaul

at

Rome

the

which

and

indicated

were

the

origin of

our

knowledge
or

in

or
Itineraria,

The

most

the

the

places throughout

whole

armies.

M.

modern
of

Vipsanius Agrippa,

from

It

it

intended

maps

of
interesting

between

date is about

250

known

Spain

and

S vols.

are

For

in science

(Paris,1805-19).

English edition
2

At present the
Britain

the so-called

is the

in Vienna.

all the world

the

as

should

pieceswhich

lost with

Its

slipsof

of twelve

out

so-

exception

part of Kent.2

RivallingStrabo
1

it consisted

marked
originally

to the Romans.

contain
of

which

copied in

in existence

now

Peutingeriana,preserved

parchment

greatlyto

particularexpeditions.

called tabula

a.d., and

was

map

often

made

on

important

This

was

were

for

such

great map,

contributed

Topography.

part, and

where
porticos,

Empire.
and

maps,

were

despatcheswhich

distances

Roman

During

(tabulae)

the

the

understand

Roman

Napoleon

notes.1

East, maps

displayedin

and

called

been

geography.

Augustus Caesar, made

of

order

by

the

75

to be

meant

was

French, with

into

and

them

see

from

came

historical

it to be rendered

caused

It

that it has

readable,so

or
political

of

sort

screed.

is,indeed,very far

It

antiquity.

monotonous

it is very

read, and
a

and

PERIOD

GR2EC0-R0MAN

THE

of selections

the

not

Introduction

equalling him
by

Tozer

to

his

(Oxford, 1893).

representation of

Antiquus of Justus Perthes

See

but

this

see
geographicalcuriosity,

(Gotha, 1893).

the

Atlas

176

HISTORY

in interest

Claudius

places,with

closed

which

"

and

geography
Pausanias

this

shows

time

Mela,

of

account

time.2

of

Stephanus

of

of
dictionary,
and

end

the

better

which

the

of China

Roman

the

writers;and
India

After

in

held

was

as

translated
2

See

The
vols.

with

remains

of

the

(Paris,1882);

1878). For

those

study

(Stockholm, 1897).

of

desirous

Cosmus

the

"

grammaticus, a

fairlycomplete
of

more

at

cation.
edu-

specialand
the schools

of

Athens, Rhodes,

by Frazer, 6 vols. (Oxford,1898).

commentary

minor

one

older

for the firsttime

their choice between

Mela

from

Regnum).

universities

Frick, Pomponius

geographical

occurs

received

were

the

Period,

is taken

studies under

have

scientific teachinghad
and

where

{Sinarum

of his

Romans

compiled

an

concise

Graeco-Roman

substance

book

to

such

rhetors

the

of

is

clear and
the

to

in

Pomponius

in the sixth century,

completing his

But

the

of

Byzantium

described
name

known

as

novel

which

topography.
a

itinerary

an

books,1

ten

as

great work

wrote

Spain,composed

the world

At

in

nothing

the

who

Hellenic

of

study

native

is

atlas

an

Ocean

the Indian

there

a.d.),

of Greece
(IIe/3t?77?7o-i"?)

invaluable

lists(c. 150 a.d.)

longitude,and

topography except

(c. 175

Alexandrian

knowledge, the

Ptolemaeus, made

After

sea.

of

PHILOLOGY

their latitude and

the first known

"

CLASSICAL

breadth

or

astronomer,
of

OF

nnd

Greek

seine

Chorographie (Leipzig,1880).

geographers

of the Latin

are

edited

by Miiller,2

geographers by Reise (Frankfort,

early cartography,see Nordenskjold,Periplus

GR^COROMAN

THE

Alexandria, or
the rhetors

Here

statesman.

taken

was

with

declamatio

or

suasoria,and

to

do with

had

appeal

that

to

with the

all this there

In

of prose,
to

the

controversia,

to

who, setting

desired

cultivate

to

sciences, of pure

the natural

field of

nothing

was

students

class of

numerous

the
specialists

as

ending

or
legalambition,
political

aside any

study

legalpointsand complicatedquestions

life.
practical

of

the

up

orator

an

simple narratio,passing on

the

beginning

which

rhetorical

to

publiclife as

student for

to fit the

as

77

schools of

The

Massilia.1

or

immediately directed

more

were

teachingso
and

Pergamum,

PERIOD

mathematics, of medicine, of philosophy,or of linguistics.


If these

in the

private instructor

Cicero, when

Thus

Greek.2

Greek

various

house

iElius) was

boy,

See supra, pp.

See

Griechischer

Unterricht

History of Paedagogy, English translation


Children

Ei-ucation

of

Petronius

satirises the

let him
fool away
the

was

at

(Quintus

studied

under

choose

ineffectiveness

forum, and what


they

advanced
in the

on

(Boston, 1886) ; Clarke, The

schools,as

ashamed

of

(1-4) when

private instruction

fore
good-willof the student,and there-

the

studies

is stillmore
are

1887) ; Compayr6,
(Leipzig,

(New York, 1896); and Munroe, op. cit.

Rome

dependent

their time

learned wrong

celebrated

stein,
(Wolfenbiittel,
1883); Eck-

in Latium

Der Hellenismus
Saalfeld,

teacher

father's

88-125.

Latciniscfier und

the

learned

some

the

he

on

the services

of his masters

Later,

born.

carry

in his

had

them

tutors, among

Roman

of

person

Antioch, while only one

of

Archias

they could

in Rome,

only by employing at great expense

their work
of

remained

persons

prematurely.
young

men

"

Now

they

as

jeered at in

are

the thing which


disgraceful,
to

admit

when

they

grow

boys they

they have

up."

178

HISTORY

Philo

the

of Rhodes

Diodotus

under

he

Asia.

It

Greek

and

his

was

Latin

fluencyand

rhetoric

trained himself

Stoic.

the

the

PHILOLOGY

he learned

and

the

attended

heard

Then

he

other

style. At

went

this time

he

of his

only one

and

quently
subse-

rhetoricians of

so

men,

young

Athens,

to

declaim

to

Apol-

in close thinking

philosophersand

practiceevery day
with

from

lectures of Antiochus

chief

attention to

serious

CLASSICAL

Academic, while

lonius Molo

where

OF

acquire

to

as

have

to

seems

in both

given
the

countrymen,

own

great lawyer,Scaevola.
The

theoryof

Roman

the first century


c.

a.d.), a

97

taught at
of

by

a.d.

very

Quintilianus (35-

Spaniard

indeed, the

was,

Spanish Latinity,representednot

but

the two

by

epigrammatistMartial.

was

his view
with

this

of the

orator

be
The

his pen

Elder
a

near

Seville.

trained

master

of

language and

Seneca

number

was

in

orator,

and

Trajan,

It

gives

beginning

that

to

him,

is the supreme

art.

grammatical studies,he
skilled in all the arts

and
professionalrhetorician,

of snasoriae

of

Oratoria.

an

generally,
oratory
be

the

work
Quintilian's

it evident

must

Period

and

Lucan

in the person

makes

and

century, indeed,

same

complete trainingof
He

lived

only by Quintilian

is entitled Institutio

the Romans

must
1

books

earlychildhood.

to

The

Spaniard,born

in twelve

as

In

who

so-called

epic poet

had its firstforeignemperor

Rome
who

the

Senecas,1

forth in

fullyset

was

Fabius

M.

cultivated

This

Rome.

education

which
conlroversiae,

we
are

Kiessling(Leipzig,
1872),and H. J. Miiller (Prague, 1887).

have

from

edited

by

GF^ECOROMAN

THE

he must

persuasion;but

of

must

be

the

historyof

his

inexhaustible

an

and

imbued
"The
of

moral

is the

Quintilian'streatise

discusses

he

he may

be

must

the

and

earnestness

perfectorator

it,speaking of

time, in

draw

upon

of

man

exalted

oratory is truly effective unless

no

with

his

this.

illustration,
allusion,ornament,

Finally,he

character, for

learningof

orator

an

as

of

store

anecdote.

than

more

is

absolute
The

perfectman."

it is

sincerity.
firstbook

because
peculiarly
interesting

earlygrammatical trainingof

minutely the alphabet,the parts

of

All

these

things he

illustrates by

examples and anecdotes,which


treasure-house

of his

some

modem

"That

it is

disgracefuland

facts

speech,
cisms,
sole-

the

at

I
a

can

number

slaves,even

to

of

later generations

to

is very

Latin

modern,

foundation

very

of

speaking of corporalpunishment

very

:
sensibly

"

scarcelyallow

punishment

by reproof,he

last etymology.

regardingthe

the tone

fit

only for slaves

will become

though this

; in the firstplace,because

place because,if the dispositionof

to be affected

has

says

in

been

at

boys should suffer corporalpunishment, even

be common,

of

precepts lie

school,he

custom

second

the book

teaching. Thus,
in

have

of curious

language. Throughout
and

and

influence of custom,

in

child,

word-changes,spelling,punctuation, barbarisms,
analogy,the

79

in law, and
country, in philology,

own

science,in order that

in

in the

much

also be

deeply versed

He

PERIOD

boy

is

so

; and

base

hardened, like the

if
lashings; and finally,

charge of his tasks be with him, there

who

person

will be

no

in the
as

not

worst

regularly

need

of any

l8o

HISTORY

such

punishment.

with

even

CLASSICAL

to

you

such

no

and

enervates

because

under

"Give

me

when

of ambition.

will

love of

I cannot

and

eager

will be
spiritless
to that excitement

siderations
con-

likelyafterward
Such

shame

youths then avoid others,

"

by praiseand who

boy

play

in

which

the

to

shall

studies,when

is natural

is

It is

always dull

of life.2
.

Therefore,as earlyas possible,


a child
do

nothing in
without

of

harum-scarum

self-control.

way,

We

must

Tenth

criticism
them

of

with

always keep

and

sums

the

Roman

made

being that
written

of

with

born

certain

Inst.
Quintilian,

Cf. "All
Adeo

work

he should
ing
noth-

the maxim

of the very

young.'" s

Quintilian'sgeneralliterary

much

Roman,

in Greek.

read;

This

for the

is temperate,

mellowness

no

consuescere

play makes

impartial,

of tone.

multum

Jack
est.

dull

parison
com-

criticism,

Oral. i. 3, 14.

and

in teneris

in mind

authors, carefullycomparing

the book

up

case

the writers of like genres

has
not

Book

taught that

and
nothing dishonestly,

Vergil: 'So important is habit in the


The

he

must

he is indifferent

his time

to

ward
Re-

fear any

never

who

one

fluence
the in-

quick.

boys displeaseme.

expect that
in his

is downcast

be cultivated under

must

such

and
sign of vivacity,

these

to

terror.

or

when

'
self-respect."

powers

In

early

boys while being

and

Reproach will stinghim

will incite him.

even

and

is stimulated

he fails. His

nor
indifference;

pain

boy

to

grows

Add

to

occur

brief dictum
following

boy who

of

cowed

employed, and

mention

mind

lost their

also the

be

he

pursued ?

to

the sway

depressesthe

they have

Note

unpleasant

are

shame

cause

be

must

have

you

when

can

things often

many

whipped which

him

treat

threat

difficultstudies
that

PHILOLOGY

Moreover, after

are

when

more

to

blows, how

manhood

OF

boy."

Its

con-

82

of

HISTORY

keen

OF

CLASSICAL

observation, and

Purpureus adsuitur
Difficile est

Scribendi

dicere.
ridiculus

nascetur

trucidet.

principium et fons.

est et

sapere

O.

missa

vox

reverti.

Holmes

W.

of

said

once

paragraphs are full of brittle sentences


and

independent units like

are

colony." The
"

of

poems
"

brittle sentences

of

knowledge
merely

century

in his

Essay

and

on

p. 180.

has

of the

the

from

The

Without

the

Ars

in

in his Art

Horace.

See

Epistlesof

commentary
Horace

in

deep

poet is

rather

in modern

Arte

by

Cook,

Aesthet.-kritische

best

to

times

Poetica,written

Poetique (1674); by

(1711); and

of

man

than

thought is elaborated

same

De

of it is

the

words

with

his

Poetica

essence

these

imitated

been

Vida,

Criticism

Weissenfels

(Gorlitz,1880).
edition

much

Boileau

by

less serious Hints

1892),

The

sentences

part of the

the

deals

who

scholar, Gerolamo

sixteenth

but

life.

of Horace

poem

Italian

Pope

of human

things.1 Very

JThis

but
ill-knit;

coral

full of these

also

are

on

apart,

fragments of

doctrines.

labour

hard

declaimer

is

"His

break

and
reading,to self-criticism,

to much
letters,

with

his

proportion and

injunctionto

an

which

the

Horace

Emerson:

and, taken together,these

the body
crystallise

lacks

mus.

picturapoesis.

Nescit

Dr.

recte

the

"

populo Medea

coram

belong to

pannus.

montes,

pueros

proprie communia

Parturiunt

Ut

of them

some

universal criticism

languageof

Ne

PHILOLOGY

Lord

The

Byron

Art

Analyse
English

is

by

the

in the

Alexander

in his clever

of Poetry (Boston,
der

Ars

by

Wilkins

(London, 1885).

Cf.

also

Poetica
in his

supra,

by

PERIOD

GRjECO-ROMAN

THE

first of

Flaccus, in the

Persius

of

ridicules the artificialcharacter


of the

student

which

in the form

sound

it

taught
also the

saw

of grammar,

critic of

lived and

he

writers,and

and
His

literarycriticism.

historian,both

modern

and

his Ars

Grammatica

rules which

were

character, he
teacher

of

his

noted

his

Juvenal,

school

in the

grammar

declensions,and
a.d.) contained

70

Born

those of

slave,originally

for his most

disreputable

extremely popular

remarkable

of

a.d.),

(c.35-70

less elastic than

nevertheless

because

speech,and

of

grammarians.

was

the

teacher

The

Palaemon

rigidand

by trade, and

of

Tacitus, the

Persius,

(published c.

more

earlyRoman

weaver

likewise

distinguishedfour

He

sense.

abundance

an

Suetonius.

the first author

other attractive

many

contemporaries were

Quintilianhimself,Q. Remmius
perhaps

The

pursuitof linguistics

Plinys, Petronius,

Statius, Silius Italicus,and

also

was

literature.

saw

likewise

Spaniards already mentioned,

the

literary
language

winning, gracefulwriter; he

language, and

of

period in

was

satires,which

his

the

83

day.

Quintilianwas
a

memory,

as

his

glib

giftfor servingup knowledge

trulyRoman

in set formulas.1
1

See

1887) ;
grammar

171

Marschall,
also

Be

Suetonius,

among

the

(Oxford,1895);

tnatik

Q.

(Halle,1859).

Remmii
Gram.

Romans
and

K.

Palmonis
23.

Cf.

in Lectures

Libris

GrammaHcis

Nettleship's study
and

(Leipzig,
Latin

of

Essays, 2d series,
pp.

Schmidt, Beitragezur

Geschichte der

145-

Gram-

184

HISTORY

Teachers
and

of

OF

been

collected

few

of

of their

and

this

subject. They

do

understand

even

Palaemon

Remmius
made

Vergil the

Homer

was

Maurus,

metres.

of

ethics,but

grammarians
they

grammarians

copy.

relatingto

the

After

little

show

(known

artes)

as

simplestrules of

prosody. Such

lived in the fourth

the works

are

Vergiland Terence,
in two

One

other, called
1

of them

Apart
Donatus

our

from
wrote

parts. The

in it he treats

and

devotinghis

grammarians stand

century of

Jerome's teachers.

Grammatics)

this last scholar

Two

prominence.

the

another,

one

and

Victorinus, Servius, Charisius, Diomedes,

Terentianus

In

genuine

for the Greek.

manuals

Their

orthography, syntax, and

Minor

only

of scholastic instruction for the

centre

merely school-books

of Marius

Ars

Keil, Grammatici

mainly responsible for having

independentresearch.

to

from

teachingswhich

the firstcentury a.d., the Roman

were

and

any

of the later

Some
the

is

world, just as

Roman

copy

have

copying displaysnot only their lack


knowledge.

of their

volumes

seven

grammarians

their lack of
not

the remains

be said,however, that

It may

these so-called

knowledge

into

during

numerous

very

of Quintilian,and

supplement by Keil.1
a

PHILOLOGY

became

grammar

after the time

treatises have

CLASSICAL

out

tion
atten-

with

served
de-

is .3"lius Donatus, who


era

his
a

and

was

one

of St.

commentaries
treatise

(Ars

on

Donati

first part is called Ars

only of the eightparts of speech.


Maior,
Latini

he

discusses

grammar

(Leipzig,1855-1880).

that
practicaltreatise,
Middle

through

the

Chaucer

"donat")

and
dictionary,

it

was

in

thought of

word

the

Bottin

un

as

(in

with the word

Webster"

"a

85

down

Donatus

synonymous

English

in French

as

much

so

and

to be

came

continuouslyused

was

Ages,

just as

"grammar,"

book

elaborately.The

more

PERIOD

GR^CO-ROMAN

THE

means

generically

means

citydirectory.1
The

other

merits

grammarian

Roman

Priscianus

was

of

of small

number

complete

and

come

down

us

tiones

Grammaticae, and

Its

from

literature.2 An

scholar Rabanus
of Donatus

is divided

(c. 140

said that he

See

Keil, op.

He

quotes

Middle

a.d.) and

especiallyfrom

was

See Skrzeczka, Die

infra,p.

the

mediaeval

the

For

on
largely

the

general

of scientific

Priscian

Grafenhan, op.

self
him-

cit. iv. p. 107.

Plautus, Terence, Cicero, Sallust,Vergil,


Juvenal

and

less

Caesar.

229.

Lekre

work

Apollonius

founder

of whom

Cato, Ennius, Lucretius,Catullus,and


See

quotationsfrom

the greatest authorityin technical

cit. iv, and

eighteenbooks.

by

Ages.8

Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Persius, Statius, and


from

into

of it

Priscian drew

was

that has

(c.776 a.d.)vied with the

Dyscolus, of Alexandria,4who

taught

is called Institu-

its full

to

epitome

Maurus

grammar,

syntax

many

compiling a

grammar

antiquity. It

throughoutthe

of
principles

After

a.d.

systematicLatin

importance is largelydue

ancient

has

grammatical treatises,he publishedthe

most

to

work

Constantinople, who

there in the sixth century

Latin

whose

des

ApolloniusDyscolus (1869).

freely

86

HISTORY

OF

undoubtedlya

Aurelius

work

of

grammar

than

formidable

^Elius Herodianus

son

to
rival,
dedicating

prosody in twenty-one

on

Priscian

was

often

so

manuscriptsof

thousand

PHILOLOGY

thoughin this respecthis

grammar,
was

CLASSICAL

has been

but
work

entirelyin

critical signs,as

with

grammarians

Thus, Quintilian was

probably

Suetonius

plainlyshows

This

of its literature

by

such

came

well-known

observed

the Ciceronian

Rome

and

of those who

imitated

were

by
Cooper

treatise

later

Italian birth.

Probus

Priscian

Syrian;

native

had

of

the African

as

the

was

no

Spanish

Period, represented

Apuleius, Fronto,
The

Gellius.

Augustan Ages

had

goldenLatin

changed

The
Latinity.

set the fashion

in

to

small

language at

rately,
painfullyenough,yet quite inaccu-

foreignbirth.

writers of

has well said

that Rome

us

the "silver" and later to the "bronze"


group

that the

of

or

names

Tertullian,and perhapsAulus
of

Vergil,Horace,

cosmopolitan. After

but

longer Roman,
Period

lologi
phi-

scholars his

likewise wrote

Spaniard;

Probus

Valerius

stantinop
Mauretania, though he lived mainly in Con-

in

Cassarea

He

Spaniard;

more

the field of text-criticism,

of Roman

not

were

that

the greatest Roman

will be

symbols.1 It

these

M.

for instance upon

Terence, Lucretius,Persius.
on

"

The

it stillexist.

of the later Latin

like many

almost

was

called

books.

copied

was
Contemporary with Quintilian

Berytius,who

Marcus

Of

this Dr.

"

Steup,De Probis Grammaticis

(Jena,1871).

F.

T.

GRiECO-ROMAN

THE

"There

and

surveying,medical
attainments
however
a

they wanted

enable

to

meagre

them

to; and their works

by the

also exerted

outside

birthplacewas
education

and

less

no

of

long residence

at the

whose

provinces became
of
the centres

of

men

genius; Spain and

of veritable

which
characteristics,

the

It is because

though born

reacted

find

been

so

many

Bishop

of

in the ancient

Empire, the

especiallybecame

literature,
possessingmarked
the

upon

literature of

of

the

Latin

grammarians.

The

very

correct

use

died about

Seville,and

learningas

his death, whither


Great.

His

relatingto

xxxv

was

he

well
until

as

last of them

636

who

had

grammatical writings are

two

to

Word

collection of

Formation

(New York, 1895).

been

the proper

Sermo

own

time.
before

Gregory

use

beside
glosses,

in the Roman

ing,
read-

trained

years

in

is
had

He

a.d.

in that of his

nearly twenty

the distinctions and

Cooper,

language,that

with

went

ious
anx-

of very wide

man

one

ship,
citizen-

Italy,were

confer

likewise wrote
See

had received Roman


of

visited Rome

never

the

itself in the production

Africa

strongly

eloquentspeaker,and

an

He

Rome

livingoutside

SpaniardIsidorus,who

the

of

peoplewho
and

acquirea

to

He

schools

Under

"

Rome."

we

fertile than

more

even

varying

Livy, born in northern

for his Patavinitas.

censure

speech, in spite of

capital,retained,to

degree,traces of their alien origin. Even


Italy,incurred

important influence

class of writers whose

numerous

Italy, and

correctly,

naturallycontained

strong colouring of plebeianvocabulary. An

was

etc., whose

write

to

87

architecture,

on

veterinarytopics,gastronomy,

too

were

much

growing proportion of writers

was

PERIOD

the

number,
of words.
numerous

tion,
Plebeius,Introduc-

88

HISTORY

treatises
him

OF

CLASSICAL

historical and

on

ends

originalresearch

their masters

themselves
Roman

to know

of

history. Hence

have

we

him

work

fashionable

possiblesort
and

of

"

"

of these scraps

by

Hercules

Disgracefulto

of Sudden
which

was

Supra, p. 158.

See

1883).

Ruske, De
Best

edition

had

got

by

jewelsworn

Gel-

century, Aulus
on

every

get

may

some

of the

topics
;

Rome

do not

at

"Why

are

idea of the variety

an

by Castor";
with

that

sources

many

upon

citation of

Damned

be

BitterlyRebuked";

Horse

One

Men

nor

Elder

"general information,"

the sick,to

fact that Women

instance, "The

by

us.2

to

The

torical,
grammatical,hisphilosophical,

subject

legal, drawing

unknown

grammarians.

in twenty books,

Atticae

his Nodes

earlier

paedists
Encyclo-

Naturalis

second

the

In

inform

the first of these,1and

of

for
prescriptions
women.

lius wrote

of the

Historia

mass

enormous

ranging from

now

his

in

Pliny (23-79 a.d.)

together an

series of

succeedingwriters borrowed.

many

language

the

subjectsrelatingto

Varro, already mentioned,,was


from

any
But

also liked to

they

supplemented the

who

the rules of the

spoke, so

all sorts

on

show

that

grammars

that represent original


sources.

or

desired
justas foreigners

which

theologicalsubjects. With

production of

the

PHILOLOGY

"That

Faint

Praise

the Stomach

as,

for

Swear

It is More

than

to

is Relaxed

be
cause
Be-

Fear";

"Concerning King Alexander's

Called

Bucephalus"; "Concerning the

Auli

Gellii N odium

of the Nodes

Atticarum

by Hertz

Fontibus

1886).
(Leipzig,

(Breslau,

I90

HISTORY

the

OF

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

works
greatest of these encyclopaedic

dorus, called
of

survey

Origines,in twenty books,

all

fact that it

subjectsof

knowledge.

Ages

which

Rerum,
and

it treats.

title is derived

readingof

his

monks

Isidorus.
read

to

As

nothing

work,

throughout the

of

Greece

and

sense
journalistic

lover of books,
while

was

having in

his

his walls

favourite

two

whatever

the pagan

compositions

knowledge
Roman

West

of

in

of

had

Europe

was

with

diverting. He

almost

was

great

cases,
libraryfourteen large book-

Isidorus

the

Greek.

Period

tures
the litera-

of twentydisplayed the portraits

authors.

ecclesiastics who

was

of Seville he allowed

picking out

Rome,

De

Middle

wide

except the grammarians; but he himself raked


of

put together

astonishinghow

Bishop

the

the various

similar

hint for those who

It is

from

reality
nothing but

his other

widely read

were

Romanorum.1

the

It is in

this and

furnished many

the Gesta

Its

Isi-

immense

an

"

professesto give explanationsof

compilation; yet
Natura

is that of

sixth

With
more

of

one

the

few

century still retained

him,
than

yieldingto

Goths, and Visigoths,and

was

in

fact, the

reached
new

Germans;

and

Graeco-

its end.

masters,

The

Gauls

the Dark

and

Ages

had, in fact,begun.
[In addition
La
Boissier,

see

pp.

See
224,

Fin

Dressel,De
225.

the other

to

du

Isidori

works

cited in the

present

Paganisme (Paris,1891) ; id.


Originum

Fontibus

La

chapter,
Religion

(Turin,1874), aQd

infra,

Romaine

d'Auguste

Genie

(London,

1903)

(London,

1863)

1873)

1877)

for

1880-81

1899)

York,
1

899)

880-1

800

(Leipzig,

1898)

1895);
33-124,

Eng.

and

trans.

in

Rom

of

the

Suringar,

1834-5);
Church,
Bemont

(New

of

the

Beginning
and

York,

Monod's

1906).]

664-670

of

Roman

Forschungen

der

(Innsbruck,

(Basle,

Kaiser

Philological

Oxford
trans.,

pp.
8

Invaders,

Empire

Roman

Historia

Norden,

The

Zeit

Critica

Die

of the

Antike
Middle

Medieval

Le

Subjects

History

Dichtern

zur

Eng.
her

and

History

1875)

(Leyden,

Latinorum

Italy

Curteis,

Latein.

Michaut,

pp.

Geschichtliche

Kortum,

Africa,

Hodgkin,

(London,

AM.

Roman

Rome,

Spdtem

Zu

Transactions

Boissier,
;

SchriftsteUerei

Nettleship,

1892)

Zingerle,

Die

Arbenz,

of

History

Classical

on

Teuffel-Schwabe-Warr,

1906)

Lectures

Literary

(London,

ii.

Literature,

Hardie,

Duff,

1909)

(Leipzig,

1904)

191

(Paris,

Antonins

aux

(Paris,

Latin

PERIOD

GR^ECO-ROMAN

THE

Society

(New

238-289

(Oxford,

vols.

from

375-

Scholiastarum

Kunstprosa.
Ages
Europe,

don,
(Lonpp.

THE

A.

The

The

of

gloom

general
as

The

of

even

of

spread
secured

of

of

became
and

"The

turned

its

and

Gauls,

Roman,

conclusively
is the

or

the

be

to

last

at

the

its

history

of

struggle

elements

government.
1

its

Brunner

continuous

Iberian

"

iii.62.
192

for

fairly
in

Juvenal,

Rome's

chant-princes,
mer-

jurists, its

vincial
prowere

emperors,
almost

the

rank

every

says

Tiber."

Africans,

whole

of

the

capital

The

men

even

(2)

it had

Roman.

for

a.d.

ceased,

Orontes,"

the

and

as

world,

able
notice-

(i) the

two:

soon

whole

Italian.

even

of

as

be

to

Empire;

the

in

centuries

are

its senators,

Spaniards,

that

history
and

the

knights,

governors,

but

Rome,

into

third

Roman

Syrian

course

its

Greeks,

decline

gathering-place

great

this

later

of

began

and

single century,

language.

"has

the

mastery

which

second

of

Christianity.

the

course

the

is foreshadowed

Ages

literary taste

causes

cosmopolitanism

Learning

Middle

as

immediate

AGES

Monastic

the

vitiation

early

MIDDLE

anything

has

shown

almost

the

Later

Empire

between

the

control

the

manic
Gerof

the

In

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

sphere of activityis

no

this

cosmopolitanism more

when, after the second


apparent than in literature,
and

a.d.,

to be

masters

the

either of

names

of
denationalising

long in the neglectof

very

literarytraditions.
Lucretius,and
Horace, and

Not

Ovid

all that

as

appreciate the
of
cadences

and

trained

an

was

of

the

the

writinghis

as

the

Age

as

many

of

It

is,

Africans,

be unable

to

of

delicate

more

of the

Latin

it

beat

jingleof the

250

a.d.,

Apologeticum

we

system;

of his readers

knew

educated,
un-

of

carmina

find Com-

in hexameters

syllabicquantity and

foreignwriters.

was

largelyforeignto the

earlyas

Carmen

highly

literature.

suffer, since in Latin

language itself also suffered


pens

the

the work

the basis of his metrical

that very
The

mark

the alliterative

frankly discarded

accent

Spaniards and

readilycaught the accented

more
or

Vergil,

even

diction, the exquisiteappropriateness

thing and

triumphalia. Hence,

that

and

Golden

first to

artificial

Saturnians

modianus

of

rhythms that

who

the

read; but

and
phrase and epithet,

writers

Prosody
always

niceties

this

itself before

foreignlanguage,would

or

best in the native

was

to be

indeed, evident that Gauls

learningLatin

result of

The

regarded as old-fashioned.

were

its

only Ennius, Plautus, Terence,

ceased

Varro

of

names

literature showed

Roman

century

Spaniards,or Gauls,

Africans.

Sicilians,or

Syrians, or

finds the great

earlier,one

even

93

accepted

and

it is

likely
un-

the difference.

in the mouths

Prepositionsgovern

and

on

what-

HISTORY

194

ever

cases

OF

to be

appear

heteroclite with

places; and

universal ; but

were

lost to the

and

it

of

of

of

not

come

second

and

read not

to

in

meagre

so

them.

third

now

of

It

lost,though

was

forty-eightbooks,

called

mainly lost except

only five.

on

epitomes,
of

elegantextracts;
so

of

many

all

one

books

ten

writer of

work
his

glosseswere

by

; Herennius

in

his

arranged by
on

own

Harpocration,

; and

abridgments

by Julius Pollux,

metres

in

epitome

of

who

Philon

"Philobyblos"), whose
in

been

SearpLKr)'larropiais

lost,though

orators

in

have

treatises in Greek

whose

used

much

Valerius

lexicon to the ten

five books

studied

age of

an

why others

the

were

subjects;Hephaestion,

(sometimes

writers.

centuries

abridgments, or

Mauretania,

survives;

and

explainswhy

'Ovofiao-Tiicov,
a
dictionary in

them

language

the great writers of

much

all; and

at

us

abridgments. Such

King Juba

far

are

productionsof the earlier centuries have

down

preserved

course

stylehaving been blunted

spicilegia.This

valuable

Of

genders.

readers

condensations,of scrap-booksand

the most

become

morphology and syntax

sense

abridgments of

and
fiorilegia

of

dance

perceptionsof both

and
the rhetoricians,
as

Nouns

the nicer distinctions of the

destroyed,the

Rome,

wild
of

that,the

was

convenient.

most

breaches

from

Hence

PHILOLOGY

surprisingfacility.Conjugations change

there is

these extreme

CLASSICAL

wrote

of

Byblos

books

Pamphilius, whose

were

ninety-

epitomised until they

were

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

in

important factor

blottingout

records
destroyingthe literary
failure

appreciateand

to

the

productionsof
The

injury.
hand,

teaching of

In the

value

to

what

toward

they cannot

of education

and culture

as

pagans

the

power.

St.

and

thoroughly familiar

with

was

even

him

made

by

his

charged
pagan

the basis of

fellow

with

authors;

of

minds

pollutedthe
explainingto
in

one

them

of

his
1

of

of
some

various

felt

Later, when

; adv.

men

St.

writings of

the

the
their

Jerome

"

appreciatetheir
in

was,

fact,a

scholar

classic literature;and
accusation

an

He

works

at

was

even

passages
he

on

at

of

openly

to
one

copy

Bethlehem

rebuked
xxx.

the

occasion

Vergil.1He

was

Rufinam, I. ch.

last

quotations from

monks

children

this

brought against

with

having

all

influence,

themselves

Epistles how

Epist.lxx

only

not

vulgaralways exhibit

having employed
and

toward

like St. Augustine and

Christians.

defilinghis

writingsof Cicero;

us

the

men

"

could

and

other

the

tianity
Church, Chris-

the

understand.

they

attractiveness

the

aesthetically
precious,but

thoroughlyperniciousin
because

more

in

only a negative

ignorant,who

appeared, they regarded

"

general

offensivelydirected

the

more

fine

was

was

earlydays of

was

what

Jerome

what

Christians, on

dislike which

suspicionand

The

of the past.

the

spread chieflyamong
failed

even

95

for literature and

taste

admire

aggressivelyand

was

precedingcenturies

their destruction.

that

perhaps

spread of Christianitywas

The

by
tells
in

196

HISTORY

dream

for his

in the

the

the throne

rather

than

Jupiterand

of

hell.

that

the

of

copy
his

like

ear

With

of

men

Its

block;
and

its

being

and

Epist.xxii.

Lecky, vol.

Maitland,
toward

teach

the

ii.p.

Dark

and

of the

scripts
manu-

of silence

vows

wished

monk

any

in

it by scratching

the animal

whom

the

zealots

like

resemble.3

type,

"

"

the

whole

and

slanders;

worship

and

snare

its

stumbling-

poetry licentious

of its gracefulfables,a

of

demons.

Tertullian

plain
in

201.

Ages, p.

the classic

rhetoric and

phemous
with blas-

demned.
sweepinglyand savagelycon-

was

obscene; the mythology


to

praises

burning

were

indicate

fiercer

philosophywas

historylies

enticement

to

the

believed

was

where

when

for

Vienna,

mind

fanatics like Montanus,

literature

of pagan

this

sterner

It

Livy, to

or

supposed

and

Tertullianus
mass

dog,

were

of

stillkept any

as

his

Pope Gregory

the classics

of

customary

was

"being

morning

"mingled

and
literature,

Vergil,Horace,

writers

pagan

to

it

imposed,

thus

of

scourged by

the

bruises.1

wicked."

monasteries

of the secular
were

writers

the

in

pollutingthe

Christ

such

In

with

classics and

praisesof
taught

awoke

Desiderius, Bishop

(the Great) rebuked

having taught the

Christ,accused

Christian," and

he

covered

were

of Cicero, being borne

of

that when

angels so

shoulders

PHILOLOGY

guiltyadmiration

nightbefore

Ciceronian

CLASSICAL

OF

403.

(London 1853).

writers,Julian

grammar

the

in
(classics)

Because

Apostate

forbade

the schools.

of their hostility
Christians

198

HISTORY

OF

pictedsubjectsfrom
and

papyrus

the

of

the classic

vellum

which

shared

myth-makers

Puritan

so

the

and

Church.
the

of the

course

covered

papyrus

with

ments

the

their

and

ritual of

them

fanatical

Theodosius, that part

which

then

books

stood

partlyburned

Nisibis

and

the

both

(c.600) is said

of

the noble

Palatine

he is

distinguishedfor
discreditably

was

; and

only traditionally
reported.

manuscripts of Livy
"

Vltalie,
i,pp.

libraryat
at

stantinopl
Con-

Pope Gregory

"the

gods.

the

Library

destroyed.1

See

oracles of God

because

Draper,

Hist,

Europe (New York, 1899); Lecky,


de

and

that

heathen

that

Library

volumes

100,000

(477);

again

389 (or391),

The

of

the

used

sacked, and

was

is

grammar"

Parch-

libraries

This, however,
Gregory

rolls of

of the Alexandrian

of

allowed

Catholic

masterpiecesof

In

partlyscattered.
one

gave

frenzy marked

and

mobs.

Serapeum

burned

to have

to be

Rome

and

greater

were

at

in the

they

Innumerable

originaltexts

under

many

wrapping goods.

pillagedby

were

so

the

(palimpsests)for religiouswritings. The


contained

seventeenth

desecrated,so

the great

used for

the

anticipation

an

bits,because

copiesof

scraped of

were

was

were

earlyChristians.

literature were

Roman

into

speciesof

same

writingsof

destroyed, and

saints

to
significance

The

the

It

cathedrals

many

and so, the rolls of

the sixteenth

pricelesscarvings broken
beauty

myths;

similar fate.

paintingsof

PHILOLOGY

contained

frenzy of

centuries,when
many

CLASSICAL

29-31.

they
of
ii.

are

ascribed
the

201

The

greater than

so

ing
say-

the rules

his zeal in burning

much

Intellectual
;

favourite

power

to

the

Development of

Guingerie1,Hist.

Litteraire

THE

Other

than

causes

diminished

from

of the Eastern

unfavourable
of books,

supply
of that

it

did, the learningof

the conquest
a

had

of

shut

off from

which

these

the loss of

facts must

so

ought

to

have

comparatively few
now

known

to

and

to

and

Rome

never

of

Finally,

641, destroyed

a.d.

considered

libraries
upon

papyrus

in

accounting for

and

also

early date

of

the

people,

the

for

that

nown
re-

the
are

might,

one

soon

hostilityof the

learning,the destruction

the barbarisation

predictingthat
would

Roman

of classical literature whose

intellectual darkness
in

in

preserved them,

classical

and
libraries,

safe

about

the
exist; the neglectof good literature,

the sixth century,


and

much

Byzantian

of the Alexandrian

manuscripts

growing ignorance
Christians

from

depended.

be

works

many

very

the East

the

Europe the supply of


of books

preservation

interest in it whatsoever.

still remained

the makers

All

Greek, and

Egypt by the Arabs

what

had

librarians ceased

Roman

cared

never

felt no

blow

and

in

written

librarians,who
now
literature,

The

separation

had

Empire

the collection and

as
dividing,

rendered

The

supply.

99

greatly

and

books

effect upon

collect works

to

of

the Western

learningof the West.

the

already mentioned

two

difficultthe renewal

more

at

the

world's

the

AGES

MIDDLE

amid

of

the

of the Western
the

be

the

of books

deepening social
World,

have

literarysplendour of

only a faint

again to be quickened into

and

In

Empire.

felt

Greece

dying memory,

livingfact.

That

this

HISTORY

20O

the

actuallynot

was

the energy,

CLASSICAL

OF

and
the influence,

itself would

historyof

to

seem

classical

have

the student of

the order

begun with

in

the

of

monks

had

in

the

followers.

find it recorded

Egyptian Delta, there


in the

was

notorious

class of monks
and

in

for its gross

contempt
1

See

Harnack,

and

Mohler,
Das

him

the

Eastern
so

rapidlythat

his

the head

of

singlecentury

beginning,the system
There

abuses.

sprang

about

life of idleness and

monasteries, the
the

door

tended

scandal.

Geschichte

Monchthum

open

In

des

(Giesen,1895).

munities,
com-

country,

profligacy.

all sorts

of licentious

fact,the
Monchthums

open

well-defined

bring the

to

the

up

of any

want
to

the

monasteries.1
fifty

frequently wandered
cases

we

Nitria,in

district of

the

had

Empire, having

himself

see

name

and

lived in small

regulationsleft
which
practices

from

Nursia,

who
called Sarabastae,

many
the

of

native

less than

no

from

East, almost

Yet

leadingin

were

one

the

importance

alreadyarisen

Within

in the

that

with

in

scarcelybe exaggerated.

firstdisciple,
Pachonius, lived to
thousand

whose

fact,one

Anthony and spread

St.

which

of classical
preservation

that took

Monachism

to

singleman.

event

an

Benedict,

one

extraordinaryvogue

Even

example of

possibleconnection

no

was,

529,

of Benedictines.

seven

largedegree due

very

palaeographycan

the year

founded

an

the

philologyor

and yet which


learning,

About

is in

case

in the sixth century occurred

Early

to

PHILOLOGY

whole

institution

Christian

Church

into
in

(Regensburg, 1866-68)

THE

its

persecutionsof

of many

entered

to

the Church

burdensome
had

who

of its own

from

escape

every

other

depraved

all these flocked

the

and

men

expectationof

Hence, almost
of

writers.1

The

the details

the

by

St.

Even

drunken
and

often

were

Gregory
the

The

All

these

by

gances
extrava-

at

of

the

one

as

licentious

Holy

tine
Pales-

Land

hot-bed

time

is

of debaucher

often became
love-feasts,
evils

who

Christianity
only a pretext

and

were

that the

of the oriental
men

jaded fancies.

pilgrimagesto

Nyssa

Agapae,or

in many

filled

of

faith in

new

given by contemporary

motley crowds

orgies.

condensed

their

to

authorities because

attracted such
described

of the

martyrs

of their celebration.

manner

brained
excitement,hare-

scandals

are

festivals of the

suppressed by

rakes

worn-out

sensation,vicious

the teachers

immediately,arose

which

to

"

fresh stimulus

"Men

impelledby curiosity,

women

around

of

new

governors,

or
militaryservice,

form

of

in

not

members.

municipal offices";

exhausted

danger
and

emperors

enthusiasts in search
and

201

its greatest

the pagan

but in the character

avoid

AGES

reallyfound

early years

the

MIDDLE

monasteries,which

made

for the

concentrated

were

the

professionof

practiceof

the most

filthyvices.
It
1

was

See

Primitive
Aevi

at

time

Jortin,Remarks

when
on

monachism

Ecclesiastical

as

History,5

then
v.

understood

(1751-53); Cave,

Christianity,
pt. I. ch. xi (London, 1687) ; Miiller,De

Theodosiani

Morals, ii,pp.

149

Genio

(Copenhagen, 1797); Lecky, History of European


foil. (Am.

ed.,New

York, 1884).

HISTORY

202

and

CLASSICAL

OF

practisedhad

fallen into

(529 a.d.),founded

Benedict

PHILOLOGY

his famous

Cassino,about halfway between


a

place destined

man

of

character,and

common

sense

the abbot

of

left it in

there;

well

as

his

very

of

monachism

then

that it was

enough

fast and

remaining hours

occupation and
this end

he

here

residence

go

in the

into

the

of
desirability

teaching and
1

The

date

in
is

515

that

their
rule

some

It is not

as

well

as

were

Some

rule

sary
neces-

scheme

of manual

above

all,it recognised

as

bodilyoccupation,

to
qualified,

copying manuscripts for

only traditional.

Regula

requiredcontinual

It

out

discipline.To

the universal

hours; and

mental

monks

saw

required

his famous

Church.

its details.

spare

permittingsuch
in

should be

stricter

monastery; laid

for the monk's

He

him

rational .and wholesome

in the year

Western

had

prevailing

suggestingto

idleness;but

an

made

type, and

understood.

ultimatelybecame

in the
to

in

of

certain times, while

provide for

to

which

of monachism

sing at

the

amount

been

found

he

that the monks

give them

composed

Monachorum,

as

left to

were

be devised to

should

labour

and

pray

had

He

of the Eastern

the defects of

was

was

unusual

an

piety.

useful

to

It

mind,
spiritual

giftedwith

experiencewas

not

Naples.

importance in

the license which

disgustat

but

St.

Monte

at

learning.Benedict

of

as

monastery

and

Rome

and

of littleeducation,but

unblemished

Order

be of the utmost

to

classical texts

historyof

disrepute,that

such

give

it

as

the
520.

engage

library.

St. Benedict

had,

of

the

permissiongiven by

the

fraught

he

did

his Rule

soon

with

the

not

and
specify,

so

received
results

momentous

literary

ecclesiastical

spent wholly upon

theological
writings;but

and

intended

and

age,

to be

of the monks

labours

203

thought of preservingthe

no

course,

learningof

secular

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

pretation
inter-

an

to

modem

scholarship.
In the year

rich and noble


of the

kings, and

entered

the Benedictine

himself

had

scholar and

in the Western

to

Empire

while
gave

him

far

the

writingsas

own

had

who

monastery,

his

tastes

taking advantage of

wrote

Be Arte Grammatica, which


treatise,

the

Middle

1886)

Ages.

See

the

on
was

Hodgkin, The

Church, Miscellaneous

he

and

the

remaining
the

care

after his

remained

changed,
un-

life

new

cultivate them.

His

but,
purely theological;1

were

enjoinedcopying and

the rule which

During his public life he

men

leisure of his

to
teaching,he began systematically
1

which

statesman,

; and

Rome

monk

with

and

ample

four

during his

studied

opportunityto
a

and

Greece

more

more

been

of the few

writer,one

the

had

of the world

man

earlier literature of both

retirement

the vesture

Cassiodorus

King Theodoric,

to

took

from

under

monastery of Vivarium

monk.

secretary

(529),and

founded

public life not only a


but

Cassiodorus,

urbi
familyof Bruttii,praefectus

Gothic

of
obligations

Aurelius

Magnus

senatorial rank, descended

patricianof

Roman

540, Flavius

train the

studies,and put

liberal

used
Letters

as

younger

text-book

of Cassiodorus

forth

throughout

(London,

Essays, pp. 191-198 (London, 1888).

HISTORY

204

monks

to

OF

to

the

and

collection

the

very

influence and
of his

laboured

he

this

in

this, he made

been

the

with

Order,

how

debt

is owed

generalhad
written

were

been

Thus

Benedictine

Cassiodorus

to

the

Herodotus

eleventh

Thucydides
ninth

to the

century,

manuscript of
See

"

of their

the

to

tenth

is

More

a
essentially

have

times, and

manuscriptsthat

original
composition,is

earlycodices

The

at

in existence.
found

in the

Florence,belonging

oldest

eleventh

this is

manuscript

century, that

incomplete.

The

of
of

to the

oldest

palimpsestpreservedat Milan,

Olleris,Cassiodore,Conservator

(Paris,1884) ; Montalambert, The Monks


78 (London, 1861).

writing-room

century, and that of Plato

though

Plautus

storehouse of

in modern

(or Mediceus)
century.

back

goes

success

present day.1 How

part of Sophocles,are

so-called Laurentianus

such

scholarshipwhich

the destruction of

Order

the

dates of the

^schylus, and

the end

copying of parchments.

the time

near

of great

man

scriptorium or

to

sessed
Pos-

every great monastery

Academy,"

traditions of

to

the
by recalling

seen

both

to
incessantly

making

honourably maintained

great

its

for the

set apart
especially

learned

secular

copies.

importantobject,with

with
classical literature,

than

the

possiblemeans

in careful

sort of Christian

of

largefortune,and being a

energy,

"

value

every

them

succeeded
actually

of his Order

the

preservation of classical manuscripts

long life for

that he

by

encourage

of
multiplication

of

PHILOLOGY

appreciationof

an

literature and

and

CLASSICAL

des

Limes

de

VAntiquitt Latine

of the West, Eng. trans.,pp.

71-

206

HISTORY

These

facts

OF

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

quitesufficientto

are

show

that with

exceptionthe only manuscripts of

an

that

authors

later than

the fifth century.

for the labours of the Benedictines

been

followed

have

would

example,the

their

been

scanty

so

of that literature and

St. Benedict

With

scholar who

and

Anicius

was

remains

Torquatus

fragments

Had

good understandingof

whole.
the Roman

Theodoric, King

Severinus

capitalin
such

the year

5000.

of treason,

rule.

cruelty. While
De
five

was

was

found

executed

(c. 524)
wrote

Philosophiae. It

written in

models, while the poetry

cised
exer-

littleoppression
he

was

confiscated,and

was

with

after

terrible

divided

close imitation

which

cused
ac-

titled
dialogueen-

his
was

of

his

Rome

end, however,

prison,Boethius

Consolatione

books, and

Latin

in

In the

his property

being imprisoned,he

made

esteem

the Goths, Boethius

Over

(or

to possess

gained the

influence that his countrymen

in the Gothic

This

Boethius

Romans

Ostrogoths,who

of the

cian
patri-

been his friend.

He

Greek.

who

conception

it not

of those

real

no

the last of the Western

Boetius) almost

classical

of classical literature

be mentioned

is said to have

Manlius

and

giveus

to

as

learningas
must

best

isolated

than

give anything more

copiesmade

are

the

scarcely

into

of the best

is interspersed
shows

palimpsestfrom the monastery of St. Paul in Carinthia of the sixth century


(bks.xi.-xiv.)
; of Pliny the Younger,
the ninth

Codex

a Codex
century ; of Quintilian,

(incomplete)
; of Suetonius,a
century.

Codex

Laurentianus

Bernensis

Memmianus

or

of the

(Mediceus) of
tenth

Parisinus

century

of the ninth

metrical

great

and

reverence,

Arabic

them

Anglo-Saxon, and

and

in
not

was

knowledge

Consolatio

found

Alfred

into

Queen Elizabeth

into

by King

one

by Chaucer

held

was

shows

The

numerals.

translations,
among

many

who

he

his work

in later times

first writer

(Hindu)

207

centuries

seven

even

is the

forgotten. He
of the

For

accuracy.

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

English.1
Europe had been

that western

Now

speakingevery
have

supposed that

into disuse.

the

language and dialect,one

Latin

language

justthe contrary

But

only stable language known

the

between

intercourse

of the

language

Latin

of

kings and princes. Finally,it was

the

language
knew

they

far

The

of

most

Hildebrand,

1885);

and

the
had

men

it

Church

quering
slowly con-

was

the

overrun

unknown, merely the


and

who

technical

provincesof

practicalpurposes
they were

from

it.

modern
Bo'etius

Grammar

translation
und

seine

was

is by

only.

any

real

their

historyof

faintest

possible

knowledge could

tried to get

studying,gloriedin

were

boast

for

how

and
who

tinge of grammatical
students

was

fit medium

to

brevity made

Church,

literature were

sunk
It

case.

Nevertheless,as the spiritand

Rome.

imparted to

the

was

have

Its

the barbarians
ancient

would

might

of that time.

masculine

dignityand

of

sort

by foreigners

overrun

be

smatteringof
Even

those

knowledge

as

who

of what

ignorance,and

regarded

the

made

pedantic.

James, (London, 1897). See,also,

Stellungzum

Christenthum

Stewart,Bo'ethius (Edinburgh,1891).

(Regensburg,

208

HISTORY

OF

of its rules

knowledge
One

reader

that

pearls. Gregory
at

of

cases

confine

the

11

Let

"

The

"

dogs

and

throat

priestof Cordova

the

teeth:

bared

Council

of

feelingabout
used
he

schisma

let the

word

of

Rome,

monk's."

and

the

as

of the

by

do
"

barking

as

who

monk,

evangelical

fourteenth

know

And

who

my

tury
cen-

of the

popular
Hussites
for

noun,

called

out

that

gender. Whereupon the

you

that

skinned

bespittled

feminine

it?"

word

ander
Alex-

"Because

is Alexander
"

fancy

of

Emperor Sigismund at

Well," said Sigismund,


I

same

Donatus,"

speech againstthe

of the neuter

noun

"

A monk."

late

the

the

ferocity.

and

remain

"schisma"

Gallus says so."


"

of

the

foaming

we

as

In

corrected

asked, "How

emperor

the

upon

with

is characteristic

Costnitz

the

while

anecdote

grammar.

was

was

almost

to

within

uttered

impure followers

Even

the well-known

which

heavenly prophets

verges

the

it indecent

grunting of swine, snarlingwith

the

of Christ."

he had

I consider

of

forcibly

and
place of prepositions

the

grammarians belch wind,

the

stillmore

spoken

ply their windy problems

and

servants

had

of

and
philosophers

he says,

tells

Great

vigour that

but
style,

the

words

with

of

Life of St.

dung-heap is, nevertheless,full

rules of Donatus."

thought

barbarisms

for
utterlydespise,

nouns

in the

(Wolfhard

own

able.
discredit-

his

earlier date.

an

his

PHILOLOGY

held to be somewhat

was

of these scholars

Walpurgis) speaks of
the

CLASSICAL

I
is

am

as

the

Gallus?

"

Emperor

good

as

any

learningis not, however,

of

ought rather

had

she
Mr.

J.

perform

A.

Symonds:

keep learningalive
their

at

the whole

of

who

powers

After

pleasure.

Europe
had

to

and

missionaries.

the

same

time

submit

Ages

who

races

the dismemberment
open

barbarians

this vast

field

degree,the

of

colour

conception of

blind.

the

the

Whatever

and

To

sealed book.

and

of Scholasticism.

cramped

had

spiritual

at

she chosen

antiquitynot been

The

that it

spiritwas
in the

slightest

classicism
scholastics,
free air of

paganism,

beauty,its abounding life and


richness

mediaeval

monks

conception of

one

as

who

distorted

criticism

was

ity
virilthe

the

sunlightis

is

congenitally

they studied they studied


Their

from

remote

as

were

in the

warped

spirit
and

by theology. If,for instance,they

Symonds, History of the Italian Renaissance, i. pp. 61,

187s).

Empire,

classic culture

to

even
appreciating,

classic sentiment.

its passionatelove of

from

of the mediaeval

feature

absolutelya

remote

Europe

worst

and

to

being propagated would

Christianitywas

lost the power

was

by

for their ministers

this task, and had the vital forces of

had

held

action of

the

to

undertake

The

that

much

so

of the

beyond the strengthof the Church, even

exhausted."

The

up

not

was

been

have

much.

so

fairlysummed

very

unlettered

use

that

We

difficult mission

the

the savage

thrown

was

To

spirit

againsther.

she did

in the Middle

to moralise

as

alive the

"

task of the Church

"The

and

been

have

to

keep

counted

surprisedthat

feel

to

200.

to

more

to be

of her existence

conditions

to

do

did not

the Church

That

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

62

(London,

HISTORY

2IO

famous
Vergil's

admired

it

because

not

CLASSICAL

OF

Eclogue,they admired

Fourth

itself

in

was

PHILOLOGY

beautiful

they thought it a prophecy of

but because

birth of Christ.

The

justas
explainedallegorically,

have

explainedthe

were

after

voluptas of

and
the

voluntas
defining

form

blended
of

nature

feats of

as

the

expressiveof

volumtas

the barbarians, education

rejectedthe

tleties,
strange sub-

Trinity in

the

God,

coined

the

mixed

remarkable

imagine what

to

of

Devil, then

the

expressiveof

as

the

scholastics

the nature

paganism

Middle

the

Ages.

period of

exactlywhat
age.

in the

been

decline

The
seat

of

the

in
(Constantinople)

lost its chief

began

Empire

330,

and

from

schools

other

difficult to define

properlywithin
when

the mediaeval

Constantine
Rome

to

ferred
trans-

Byzantium

because, after that, Rome

both
significance

guage
lan-

literature itselfwas

monastic

lies

the

written; and after

It is somewhat

time

to moralise

it retained

thoroughly extinct,the
taught

was

of its chief instruments.

one

was

that literature had

was

and

during the

task

Church's

literature while

pagan

in which

revived

of

ingenuitytheir etymologicalspeculationsexhibit.

Nevertheless,althoughthe

It

of

nature

It is easy

man.

of Ovid

Song of Songs.

of the

when
as
theologically,

defined

approaching

parts of speech. Words

in the

mystic numbers

even

of the

three Persons

verse,

commentators

they filled it full

they taught grammar,

verb, and

modern

Hebrew

sensuous

discoveringthe

the

of

licentious passages

most

were

If

piece

it,

and
politically

from

itself

the

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

and

and

flocked to another

only

not

backs

began

The

new

the

imperialcourt.

all. The

then

Empire, and

behold

to

of

world.

(c. 330

he

the

visit. Constantius

magnificenceof

"As

the

slopes,in

provinces,now

baths

eye

and its sublime


1

wrote

Ammianus
in Latin

now

columns

the Latin

request of

been

who

was

mistress

of this

astonished

of

his eyes

his gaze
so

of the

rested

on

the

magnificent as
structure

seemed

he
hills,

surpassedeverything

to

of the

temple of
resemble

Colosseum,

scarcelyaccessible

Pantheon, risinglike

with their
was

cityspreadingalong the

the summits

of which

the

on

Marcellinus
"

the

Marcellinus,1

have

to

the massive

mightily compact, the summit


to the human

capitalof

been

once

the vast

Now

on
on

in

account
interesting

between

that he had yet beheld.

entire

had

spectaclewhich firstmet

Tarpeian Jupiter, now

been

it only at the

seems

upon

valleys,and

declared that the

had

never

Rome.

Emperor gazed
the

it lost the

of its rulers

historian,Ammianus

the

by

decay, and

and
entertaining,

was

himself

Rome's

fell into

the former

saw

378 a.d.),gives an

-c.

upon

archives,and

city which

The

its gates, but

Constantius

journeyedto

princewhom

anxious

the

he

had

Some

Emperor

before he

several years

barbarian

the

carried away

visited it at

emperors

portent of destruction.

it the

over

Caesars

prestigeof

power

temples

Its

brood

to

The

more

Its officials

Henceforward

its civilisation.

populationdiminished.
there

upon

become

time.

advancing

foreigncity.

their

turned

language and

its

with

melancholy

more

records

Its

standpoint of scholarship.

211

fairydome,

gentlyslopingstairwaysadorned

himself

Greek

by birth, though he

often clumsy and often affected.


foreigner,

HISTORY

212

with

of heroes

statues

OF

CLASSICAL

and

emperors,

City, its Forum, the Forum

of

Odeon, the Stadium, and


Eternal
a

Rome.

ithard
with

to

refuse their

dazed

other

When, however,he

mortal

picture,nor

that

the

stupendous

again aspire

disappointed,and that

in

was

Pompey, the

fabric
to

wonders
of

if in

which

Trajan,

would

find

trance, surveying

neither

words

Being asked

rear.

of

throughout the

gods themselves

thought of Rome, the Emperor repliedthat in


he

of

of its kind

as

of the

Temple

the Forum

to

admiration,he stood

the

awe

the

architectural

came

other

any

exquisite indeed

world, so

besides

Peace, the Theatre

all the

unequalled by

structure

PHILOLOGY

can

what

he

respect only was

one

findingthat its inhabitants

were

immortal."1

not

long afterward, in

Not

witnessed

her last great

entered

the

(403).

of this

great city,which

in the

reign of Honorius,

imperialspectaclewhen

city to celebrate

Goths

any

the

There

is

his

was

stillthe most

which
curiosity

condescended

to

give it.

its wilderness

the

over

the

attitude

magnificentof

of

its emperors

Its very

from

time

and

marble, bronze,

only heightenedthe melancholy


diminishingpopulationnow
too

unwarlike

It is really
then

from

of the Middle

embraced
practically

of its

grown

to defend

too

gold,and

small

Res

and

to

we

must

In 395, the Roman

Gestae,xvi.

its

jewels,
with

crowd

its

its walls.

the entire Christian


1

of porticos,

decadence,

the year 330 that

Ages.

to time

beauty,its maze

giganticpalacesgorged with pictures,


statues,

Beginning

peror
em-

world, acceptingwith almost hysterical


gratitude

the visits of

streets and

that

triumphs

in
something pitiful

Rome

14 foil.

world

date The

Empire
from

East

HISTORY

214

OF

the emperor

from

that the Middle

in

CLASSICAL

Constantinople.Thus,

Ages began, either

capitalto Constantinoplein
of Gothic

which

in

power
date

to

End

The

the

through the gates

of

as

the

Period

Christian

triumphant

Muhammadans

the

the

not,

was

that made
as

they

had

medium

become

of

of

said,the

who

influence

in their

of

communication,

having

with

the

and
were,

and
forms

certaintyof being

patoisof Germany

into the

one

one

some

They

and taking on
unitingand separating,

and

new

idioms.

There

was

alone
soon

as

possessions.It

new

intelligible

which

Goths
could

Vandals

Jutland were

great crucible.

language.

the invaders

understood.

and

source

of the Church

Visigoths,Franks, Burgundians, and

and

great

language

"

leaven

shattered

had

One

(911-

something

of the Latin

speech of

settled

urgent need

periods,the

Empire.

the retention

into

Scholasticism

barbarians

far

Carolingian

tryingto bring about

Latin the chosen

also the

was

use

is often

as

poured

convenientlydivided

Period

Western

lay in

from

Ages, so

(300-751), the

the rude

It

Middle

Period

like order

of civilisation

the

is

at work

mastered

time

the Eastern

Europe,

of civilisation was

and

convenient

the first of these three

among

of the

the establishment

1453, when

(751-911),and

1476). During

say

Constantinople.

western

Early

may

the transfer

with
A

one

is the year

in
historyof scholarship

concerns

with

or

330,

Italyin 476.

and
Empire fell,

The

PHILOLOGY

were

All the

cast,

lects
diaas

simmering

new
continually

chaos

it

of

human

amid

speech,and

it the Latin

it.

used

selection; and

elements

it

which

reasons

together,

usage

of the Church

and

the

was

once

and

almost

reignof Theodosius,
in the

to his
intelligible

in Latin

intended
in Latin
he

for

Latin

the

Clotaire II

Gaul

535-600.

universal

ing
express-

these

language,the

addressed

There

Edition

Aubin,

to

down
Saxons
by

mouths

that it

were

Of this fact

the

Roman

senate

rough, but

still

stillcompositions
sixth

centuries,and

people. Fortunatus,1 writing

common

the

the

the

century, during the

and

fifth and

during the

come

into

people,so

common

rustica,rude

careful not

over

guage
only lan-

capableof

was

In the fourth

hearers.

the

has

the

employ

churches,

use

says in his Introduction

Leo

expressionthat

any

to the populace.
unintelligible

good

well-nighlost,

genuine vernacular.

the lifeof Saint

will be

been

requirementsof scholarship,

and

lingua Romana

written

of

the

wanting.

not

which

need

understanding of

proofsare

still

men

easilytheir conceptions. All

monasteries

more

Ages,

this

great prominence. It spread from

very

and

courts

and

the

"

Latin

had

should

they

they knew,

one

for which

confirmed

Dark

philosophyor theology,and

learningthat

accuratelyand

gave

teach

natural that

but

was

of

in the

even

and

write

attempted to
the

when,

Church

the

was

for the purpose

little later,the

21

language alone

fit instrument

and
stable,settled,
men

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

to

us

song

may

be

in very

the victoryof
celebrating

in 622.
and

popular

that

Krusch

In the

same

century,

(Berlin,1881-1885).

2l6

HISTORY

Baudemind

composed

reading,and
also

was

CLASSICAL

OF

the lifeof Saint Amandus

it in

wrote

universallyemployed

spoken

as

And

of

matter

gain

honour

that

ChilpericI. attempted

exists

Bishop of Tours,
Arbogastes.

of

Count

Latin

who

growth of

The

between

communication

constant

States,and it was

newly founded
of the

were

and

they made

Empire,

Latin

Latin of Gregory himself

The

It shows

the Franks.
literature

He

uses

and

s.

should

verb

See

Latin

as
interesting

Bonnet,

absolute

Le Latin de

Populaires

1843)! Nisard, Essai


in

sur

Latin

the courts.

Latins

know

not

and

ject
that sub-

confounded

are

(July
Douzieme

de la Decadence

of the

un-

before

i and

(Paris,1 890) ; Monceaux,

Mondes
an

Latin

probablyborrowed.

are

he pronounces
Tours

History of

like himself

does

him

anterieures

Formation

Grandgent, Vulgar

and

des Deux

les Poetes

the Word

writers

In

Gregoirede

Latines

of the

and

quotes Vergil, but

apparently

and

the Revue

the

bishops

in his

seen

men

He

other Latin

be in agreement.

Vulgaire,in

Olcott, Studies

educated

remembrance.

practicallydisregarded;

Meril, Poesies

1898), and

from

is

with

even

His citations from

the accusative

aspiratesare
like

fading

was

metrically.

how

and

The

language of

was

royaland imperialcouncils,

papallegatepresidedover

The

Court

kingdoms

the

great

There

all in Latin.

of the

nobles

Church

Papal

name

did

of Latin.

the

still

by Auspicius,

papal power

use

us

there

bore the barbarous

the

to

informs

and

Latin

men

ambition

an

verse;

and

of the

some

of Tours1

metrical

in

Latin

it written

was

fired with

propagate and protect the

deal to

Le

to

merely

Gregory

use.

letter written

public

public documents

but
necessity,

capable of succeedingwere
its

in

not

least

from

for

fairlygrammatical Latin.

public correspondence.
and

PHILOLOGY

Latin

15,

1891) ;

Siecle

du

(Paris,

(Paris,1867) ;

Inscription(Rome,

(Boston, 1908).

and

the

so

breach
due

was

would

Church

did

Church

Latin.

and

in not

the

course

mingling of

Church

yielding. Latin

and

sentences

sonorous

for the stateliness of

made

seem

Of

its

grace,

the

Church

Eastern

a
liturgical
language. Lacking
essentially

Hellenic

its officialtongue.

language as
well

Indeed,

the Roman

fact that the

the

accept the Latin

Roman

21

in

were

the Greek

largelyto

very

not

The

deliberations

between

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

of

some

is
the

majesticperiods

worship.

Latin

with the so-called barbarous

tongues, injectedinto itsvocabularya largenumber


of unusual

words, justas the syntax

Paratactic

expected,and
On

the other

things had

likewise

was

never

in the

Golden

Age, as

The

Jerome.

we

find what
rather

to

the

language.

come

should

than

refined and

among

calls the

"

Sardinians

and

lasted
the
"

apes

writers
Latin

plainly

seen

Persius

as

of literature

dailyspeech.

reversion to

corruption of

everywhere,

parts of Europe, and

regular.

vulgar Latin

be

the

sterility,
period of literary

called

absolute

an

surface

This

be

be

all these

language of

of men's

upon

to

prepositions.
that

may

in such

identical with the Latin

previouslybeen
comes

St.

of

use

remembered

enough

common

and

Therefore, when

usage

be

and
plebeianinscriptions,

Petronius

spellingwere

extensive

must

duringthe

and

we

illiterate

an

hand, it

been

even
ignorant,

in the

and

sentences

violently
deranged.

was

The

popular

what

had

plebeianspeech

sweeps

away

long,even

in remote

that
so
illiterate;

(simiae) because

book

of

Dante
their

2l8

HISTORY

CLASSICAL

imitation of Latin.

assiduous

there ceased
the

OF

be any

to

system which
than

In like manner,

definite standard

nicely balanced

wrought out, from

Ennius

is not

to

full of

but

new,

of Latin

accentual
Church

sort

same

rhythm

and

in the Christian

poets compose

hymns

familiar to their

succeedingages,

of western

but rather did the

of them,

that

of these

for

Before

rhymed

were

established

not

were

even

Indeed,

they retain their placein


such

older

"

literature.

in the sort of metres

"

accentual

an

again is common.

hymns;

Irae, Veni, Creator

Dies

to

the downfall

congregations. Some

very beautiful,and
of

rhyme

by

most

were

hymns

the

the

priestly

are

literature

example, as

Spiritus,and

as

carefully

so

rude dittiesthat

of poetry

soon

versification,

old

reallyvery

alliteration. After

culture,the

of

Ovid, givesway

Ennius, the populacechanted


and

so

quantitativesystem

Period
Hellenizing

the

PHILOLOGY

Mortis

the

Portis

Fractis,Fortis,this last by Peter the Venerable.1


A

good example

of semibarbarous

by Drager

in the Introduction

It is from

life of Theodoric

"

Rex

vocavit

vero

audito Boetio

ventino,ubi

creparent.
1

See

the

prose

his Historische

is

given

Syntax.

Ostrogoth(c.454-526):

"

Eusebium, praefectum urbis Ticeni,et in-

protulitin
in custodia

corde

accepta

to

Latin

in fronte

eum

sententiam.

havebatur, misit
diutissime

Sic sub tormenta

Duffield,Latin Hymns

ad

tortus

ultimum

Qui
rex

mox

in agro

et fecit occidi.

est, ita ut
cum

Cal-

Qui

oculi eius

fuste occiditur."3

(New York, 1889); and du Meril, Po"sies

Latines du
*

A very

Moyen Age (Paris,1847).


admirably written monograph, full of illuminatingillustrations,

is Clark's Studies in the Latin

ofthe Middle

Ages (Lancaster,
Perm., 1900).

As is well said

ity is

date for its beginning. It


writers

well

as

Latin

officialclasses,for it
law

courts, and

On

the other

languages;

so

"

mana.

It is

that the
the

be

it may

language of

Middle

as

the

cayed
graduallyde-

styledlingua

called

speech was

determine

with

who,

is the extent
even

the

way
"

Middle

standpointof

to

Ages.

to which

what

social and
we

now

townspeople and

justwhen
the

mon
com-

questionof peasant dialects,while

Latin

What
was

we

sometimes

better class of artisans and


1

are

of

term

'

the

literary

concerned

by people
of their

account

life,
correspondin

economic

small

on

ology,
phil-

Romance

understood

or nearlyso,
though illiterate,

positionin

lingua Ro-

spoken language among

the

into the Romance

transmuted

literary
language was

from
interesting

through the

Ages

Church,

has very littleto do with the transmission


Latin

must

secular instruction.

to
probablyimpossible

But

in

precisely
We

the

the peasants, it

common

ceased to exist

people.

mediaevals.1

and
religious

of both

hand, among

Latina, while

Latin

the

was

rather,perhaps,was

or

individual

and
tongue of all the professional

mother

the
practically

exact

an

match

throughoutthe

remained

that Latin

remember

the

set

find barbarisms

can

period that

of

barbarisms

of the

in Latin-

partlyof

matter

We

age."

Barbarism

impossibleto

was

classical

the

during

some

of

as

it is

and

2IO,

"

Dr. V. S. Clark:

by

relative term,

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

general

reading classes/

landholders,traders, and
craftsmen,

Supra,

p.

210.

"

the

the

Canterbury

CLASSICAL

OF

PHILOLOGY

220

HISTORY

pilgrimsof

the latter half of the first decade

centuries.

It is natural to suppose

understood

Latin

continued

and

people of
it

employ

to

this class

occasionally

ordinarymedium

ceased to be the

it had

long after

that

of Christian

of

munication."
com-

like

Something

definite

Latinized

York,
in

the

was

his

and

teach

subjectsthe

my

in rhetoric and

Charlemagne
Alcuin

also

improved
a

seat

of

of

Charlemagne, who

met

founded

largeschool.

the

taught

aid

had

smatteringof

Greek

and

be

noted

to
especially

are

of
principles
1

See

to

which

Muratori,Ant.

are

drawn

Emperor
his

in

work,

throughout France

school at York.

own

greatestscholar

the

knowing

Latin

Hebrew.

well,he
fairly
his works

Among
and

Rhetoric

and

he set up

At Tours

trained,was
Alcuin, though imperfectly
for,in addition

gladly

after his

learningmodelled

court

school (ScholaPalatina)

alreadyexisted.

those which

of his time ;

him

at

Later,

to my

first

at

schools

new

born

was

Alcuin

court

He

said,"Come

logic. To

established

chosen

liberal arts."

and
accepted the invitation,
himself

Albinus.

the head

he became

where

Italy,he

into Flaccus

name

the

educator, Alcuin, who

mediaeval

great

during

monarch's

This

(c.800).

reign of Charlemagne
adviser

learningappears

the

Grammar,

the

partlygarbled from

and

Cf. also du

ltd. Dissertatio XLma.

M6ri\,Po6sies

PoptdairesLatines,p. 264 (Paris,


1843). Poggio in his Historia Convivialis
mentions

the fact that Latin

(1380),and

that he had

heard before.

See

was

learned

spoken by the
from

them

Clark, op. cit.,


p. 15.

women

Latin

words

of Rome
that he

in his
had

day

never

HISTORY

222

Albinus.

The

CLASSICAL

OF

tongue.

Pepin. What

is the tongue ?

Albinus.

whip of the air.

The

Pepin. What

is air ?

The

Albinus.

guardian of life.

Pepin. What

is life?

Albinus.

joy of the happy

The

Pepin. What

living
;

the

; the

expectationof death.

is death ?

An

Albinus.

PHILOLOGY

inevitable event

an

probation of wills ; the

Pepin. What

is

Albinus.

slave of death ; a

The

uncertain
stealer of

journey; tears

for the

men.

man

passingtraveller ; a stranger

in his

place.
Pepin. What

is man

Albinus.

because
apple {i.e.

An

like ?
he

hangs between

heaven

and

earth).
It will be

like all the

mediaeval

classic

tongues, he had

indeed

his

ccelum
that

bachelor

is

walk

the

because
The

he derived

one

then
who

is

on

are

Littera

the

classic

fanciful.

m"lus

vowels

the bodies.

are

homo

coelebs

path

does

soul

the

and
spirit,
in the

(a bachelor) from

to heaven.

the way
called
is

pedes

for readers.

not

moves

The

because

the

because
leg-entibus-iter,

deserve

the souls of words, and


The

of

Thus,

Malus

penultlong,as againstmtilus (with a


a

Alcuin,

gives the sapientexplanation

line

them.

on

while

something

entirelythe

rather

was

hexameter

an

the littera prepares


has

lost

(heaven),and

parts of
metres

monk,

dialoguesthat

scholars,knew

knowledge

of
spirit

true

these

from

seen

to

(a mast)

short

have

penult)
long a

the consonants

itself and

also the

are

body,

the

while

the consonants
be

cannot

forbade

Alcuin

reportedthat

It is

to

they

the

read

to

one

any

So, while he did much

classic poets.

Thus

the vowels.

separatedfrom

when

pronounced

the soul.

by themselves, but

be written

may

223

apart from

is.immovable

body

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

for the

prepare

five centuries later,his immediate


great revival of learning,
influence

rather harmful

was

schools

spent their time

foolish

they

echoici

both

their

for

wrote

and

backward

versus}
reciproci

Church

poetry which

were

in

Examples
from

of these

Sidonius

same

and

verses"

how

of the

many

have

Alcuin

mention

by
the

sometimes

were

of

locked

not

were

paraphrased, or

in the classicalwriters,
as

quod

decurrit tramite

the

Pliny,

grammarians,

even

found

are

the

read

Puttingaside

the classical writers

bookcases, they

called

read at this time.

Cicero, Vergil, Statius, Lucan,


Where

Thus

they

forward, "serpentine

fathers, we

Horace.2

what

It is interesting
to know

classical writers

their

even

their cleverness.

amusement

own

lines of

or

versus,

but

constructingingenious

in

show

trifles to

Latin

dral
cathe-

The

otherwise.

they could,

what

taught

ablest scholars
but

than

and
up
else

the following

"

Praecipitimodo
Tempore

iam

consumptum

flumen

cito deficiat.
.

ix. 14.)
(Epist.
where
2

the

This

York.

if read backwards,
distich,
list is taken

One

might

Martial, Ovid,

Silius Italicus,
two

from

add

word

by word, givesa

poeticalaccount

also from

other

sources

by

Alcuin

second

of the

Library

Juvenal, a part

part of Persius,Phaedrus, Propertius,Seneca

playsof Terence, Tibullus,and Valerius

distich.

of

at

Livy,

(in part),

Flaccus.

centones,

made

patchwork variations,were

or

iv.) is imitated:

and

Dido

between

the conversation

Thus,

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

224

from

Anna

them.

(Aeneid,

"

Anna, dux
lux,

Mea

quis sit ambigo,

Iste

Quis honor,

Quis color,
quis intelligo
;

Voltu

Ut reor,
Ut vereor,
Hunc

connubia

nostra

Poscere,
Id

vere

Portendunt

somnia.

mea

had

If the learned

through men's

minds

beauty,

"

these

with

and

demons,

all

Great,

bold

some

knightand lover;

as

chivalryand

ful
powertold of

of wonderful

woman

imperfectmemories

stories about

faint

able
remark-

as

into hell and

down

fabliaux,and

"

ignorance

as
fire;
Vergil,

on

vi.); Venus,

tales of

part of innumerable

Troy
gone

were

legends,and

all confused

dwarfs

once

there (Aen.

saw

in

had

who

wizard

about

of

set the town

Helen, who

he

the

Troy, as

and

spirit,

antiquitystill floated

Alexander
of

the

was

names

of

Hector

conqueror;

what

The

the heroes

exploitsof

of the

echo

layman.

uneducated

of the

dense

how

to understand

hard

it is not

littleshare of the classical

so

flitting

minstrels' songs, and

magic,and

forming

giantsand dragons and

specimensof

which

are

faithfully

for
preserved

might suppose

that

would

have

Romans

the

one

of the

great architectural works

men
kept their historyin part alive,

the Colosseum, the


and explained
it entirely,
forgotten

had

and

of demons

the work

Teufelsmauer.

figuresof

heroes,

be talismans.

to

ascribed

were

spellso powerfulas
build

him.3

for

Goliardi,went
and

love

to

statesmen

compel devils to

written

known

hell and

wandering reprobates,known

The

as

singinghalf-lyrical
songs celebrating

about

wine.

A collection of curious anecdotes

in Latin.

posed
sup-

structures

from

come

Nevertheless,the CarolingianAge left deep


1

were

said to have

was

in

carved

the

of these ancient

Many

who
Vergil,

to

Naples

In

and

men,

the German

as

militaryworks

the Roman

Wiirttemberg as
Roman

much

sorcerers,

peasants of to-dayspeak of

triumphal arches

the great

Palatium, the Pantheon, and


as

Italy,where

in

Even
Niebelungenlied.2

the

ander
the Alex-

and

Faustus-legend

in the

Saga, and faintlyindicated


and

225

Romanorum,1

in the Gesta

us

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

Most

in almost

of them

have

borrowed

"morals"

childish Latin.

Some

from all

attached
of them

to

traces
and

sources

them, and

upon
written

they

in later centuries

are

were

borrowed

by Shakespeare,Chaucer, Gower, and Schiller for their plots or

themes.

See the

English version edited by Hooper

Howells,My LiteraryPassions,p.
2

See

1885);

14

(London, 1894) ; and

(New York, 1895).

Engel's bibliography of the older Faust-literature


and

for the

Niebelungenlied, Lichtenberger, Le

(Aldenburg,
Poeme

el la

Ligende des Niebelungen(Paris,1891).


3

and

See
New

Comparetti, Vergilin the Middle


York, 1895) and
,

(New York, 1900). On


Q

the

Eng.
Ages, pt. ii.,

trans.

(London

UnpublishedLegends of Vergil,
Alexander-Saga,see Spiegel(Leipzig,1851).
Leland, The

226

HISTORY

mediaeval
the

OF

CLASSICAL

far

North,

home

the

monk

margin

words

portant
im-

an

abbeys

and

manuscript of

undoubtedly copiedby
ninth

eighth or

found

are

teachers

out

and

oldest

The

originated

became

schools

Bernensis)was

in the

sent

Ireland

even

with
learning,

of

(the Codex

Irish

an

his schools

of great repute.

monasteries

Horace

that

so

be said to have

may

and

Universityof Paris;

into the

Alcuin

Europe.

PHILOLOGY

century, since

in the Erse

written

on

Irish

or

alphabet.
the first impulse toward

But

under
few

Charles

the

generations. The

decadence

is

seized upon

be

be

the

destroyedin

to

deepened

as

the time of the

absolute

See

The

West, Alcuin
linger,The
Universities
Books
and

and

year

Life of Alcuin
and

the Rise

over

the

Schools

of

and

this

horror
nearer

of the

conceive

peoples of Europe

Men

by Lorenz, Eng.

of Christian

to

was

"

nearer

to

us

approached.

Men

all learning
fellinto

"

the thousandth

eyes,

day brought them

that brooded

world

the horror

their

It is difficult for

new

century.

the

expectedcataclysm,

neglect.

profound gloom
as

every

for this

tenth

With

before

period of

which
superstition

in the

iooo.

year

approaching dissolution
that

in

belief that

the

the

reasons

found

all Christendom
with

within

out

immediate

partlyto

obsessed

were

died

Great

revival of classical study

trans.

ceased

to

build

(London, 1837) ;

(New York, 1892)

; Mul-

the Great

(London, 1877) ; Rashdall, The

of Europe during the Middle

Ages (Oxford,1895) ; Putnam,

Schools

of

their Makers

Charles

during the Middle

i. 466, 497.
Sandys, op. cit.,

Ages, i. (New

York, 1896) ;

to sell.

houses, to buy, or

227

They forsook their domestic

themselves

betook

and

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

to

the churches

saints;all worldlyinterests were

of the

arrived,it brought with

accounts

have

as

the

enacted,
"

with

down

come

wailingof

half-naked
fright,

of cities and

pardon

When

world

remained

great reaction

Many

came.

this
a

whole

had

been

the

great

them

with

every

form

ushered

fresh

revival of

movement

but

streets

despair
of blasphemous

lust

in, and

and
the

by the angel of death,


back

went

to

their old

life;

profound feelingof gratitudeand

enthusiasm

that

study must

the

activity.

new

second

impulse

be traced.

century, however, elapsedbefore much

made;

mad

; while

to

of

were

priests,

sort

the respiteby
signalise

to

of the

becoming

driven

was

iooi

still unvisited

Church, with

resolved
relief,

toward

year

that

scenes

the wicked

upon

plunged into

the

imperfect

stalkingthrough the

sins had

own

seemed

periodgive us,

diseased,many

off all restraint and

threw

crime.

It is to

of that

invoking damnation

defiance

but the

Such

courses.
us

hideous

seasons

the prayers

fanatics

those lost souls whose


of

to

women,

of the

lamentations

the

in their

the dreadful

terror.

only glimpses of the fearful

it were,

as

checked

been

in the

up

everything that could

out, the crops failed,the very

plaguebroke
have

When

intensifythe universal

heighten and

to

it

the shrines

swallowed

great dread that oppressedtheir souls.


year

and

ties
du-

with

the end

known

as

progress

of the eleventh
Scholasticism

was

century

fully

228

HISTORY

under

Scholasticism

way.

than

aesthetic

an

CLASSICAL

OF

PHILOLOGY

rather

was

Its

development.

chief

dialectic and

not

philological.The

about

the

philosophicalquestion of

but this

Nominalism;
wits and

better than

no

to the

and

time

lack

time

them

from

divisible into two


classical

of

went

in

and

treadmill; for

ready-made

the

solution of

the

the

the

and

first

for

second

new

the

the

first attempt,

restoration

of

for

within
The

Higher

few

end

tous
gratui-

Schools.

learning under

This

ments
establish-

generationsto

second

of

probably in

universal

the educational

as

the

established

Great

is

standpointof

period begins at

inasmuch

barbarism.

vexatious

more

the

from

Charles

made

died out

more

the fourteenth

to

world, to providefor

short one,

of Charles

and

more

souls

This

and

more

age.

primary education, and


periodis a

became

eighth century

when

Schools, and

historyof

intellectual cage.

an

periods,viewed

eighth century

in
only travelling

were

freedom
on,

learning. The

Monastic

Realism

but only vexingtheir


all,

at

bars of

of
spirits

bolder

The

way

volves
re-

little
after all,

reasoning,
was,

Ages

progress

beatingagainstthe

oppressiveas

the

movement

questionanythingfundamental.

Middle

of the

casuists

narrowness

the

are

problem, so that the dialecticians


great philosophical

circle,
making
and

free to

prescribedfor

Church

every
and

in

acute

not

were

whole

features

discussion,while it sharpened men's

labour that is done

the

schoolmen
The

them

made

intellectual

an

make

periodbeginswith
the

guidance

of

HISTORY

230

In the twelfth

In

the forms

interest

of

the

is the most

speech and

The

Not

the

model

great Fulbert

of

See the

McCabe,
and
St.

biography

Peter

Bernard,

Bernard
known

of
as

the

and

great

of

because

its

literary,

its character

with

Associated
"

rates,"
Soc-

(1091-1153);

foreshadowed

Chartres

reason

of

freedom

word
the watch-

drilled his
and

pupils
H61oise.

of Chartres.

(New

by Sparrow-Simpson (London, 1895);

York, 1901) ;

controversialist
Bernard

Cluny.

and

commentary

story of Ab61ard

the

eters
hexam-

composed

wrote

Aeneid,

Early History of

Clairvaux.

Bernard

with

of St. Bernard

Abelard

Origin

the

schools,

boldlyappealed to

Lucretius,

of the

bishop

was

these three

of it that

alive

keep

to

became
ultimately

of

associated

canon

Of

much

of St. Bernard

thus

this school Bernard


the

teachers

universities.2

the first six books

on

which
research,

of the nascent

on

famous

pupilsstyledhim

(1079-1142),who

of

Paris, and

humanism."

died in 1029;

who

at

dialectical than

of Fulbert, whose

of Abelard

In

preservation

remarkable

justlysays

againstauthorityand

as

in the

of

Latinity.

premature

names

and
and

the Great,

periodand did

Poole

"

of

number

of the

Charles

Laon,

at

and
theological

that

so

that

Chartres

less

was

much

are

by

were

at least of pure

the School

was

them

in the scholastic

ushered

it

learning. These

Chartres.

so

founded

for their influence


distinguished

are

of classical
at

PHILOLOGY

century three great schools survived

establishments

numerous

and

CLASSICAL

OF

the
The

two

and

Universities
and
writer
men

Compayr6,
(New

mystic,
of
were,

is

Abelard

York,

1893).

usually

called

beautiful

hymns

however,

is

poraneous.
contem-

THE

in the forms

of the

rules of grammar

and

at
introducing,

difference between

methods

of

good models

marked

which

has been

of the

of
originality

These
about

which

cathedral

being called

at

charters,with the

"

to be

has

exercises
an

of his

of

upon

Salisbury,is significant

Among

the virtues of the

things."

of the presence

students,such
generale.

of
an

These

incorporationby papal bulls


power

and

maxims,

centres

the earliest Universities.

of

veloping
de-

in prose

already said,formed

boasted

the

enlightened

insistence

ignorantof some

been

crowd

Any
famous

institution
ceived
finallyre-

and

royal

perpetuatingthemselves

by

dowing
en-

graduates with the right of teaching everywhere.

This

license to teach
as

soon

as

corporationit received
oldest

in 1093,

about

as

the

the

was

the studium
the

universitywas

teachingbody
at

freely,

their

degree,and

founded

of

first studium

of

sort

reading

poeticstyle,and

teaching. One

his mind

school which
to it

his

ultimatelyrose

teacher drew

the

that suggests the

way

quoted by John

schools,as

the

required,and

this is one,

grammarian

and

Everyday

composition were

verse

the

later age.

the course,

them,

grammatically, pointing out

the prose

his system in

he understood

these he commented

Upon

treatingthem

23

as

earlyperiod of

an

classical texts.

besides

AGES

MIDDLE

while

that
had

earlyas 1169.
same

time ;

the academic

generalehad

become

of Universitas.

name

Paris

originof

of

Bologna,
a

Perhaps
which

was

separatelyorganised

Oxford

became

sity
univer-

Cambridge, perhaps a little

HISTORY

232

earlier.
whose

The

CLASSICAL

OF

oldest German

foundation

dates

scholasticism

period of

medium

from

which

ends
practically

studied, it

read

or

appreciatedoutside

Chartres.

The

thought.

Latin

teachingof

disputation. It
the

classics

the

languagewas

studied

was
was

while its generalforms

of

few

the age

only as

was
a

narrow

as

its

as

vehicle for scholastic

spoken fluentlyby

filled with

either

were

like that of

centres

very littleread; while

were

in the thirteenth

be said that the classics

cannot

whole

greatlyused

language was
and

Prague,

the

During

1347.

of communication

were

of

universityis that

century, while the Latin


as

PHILOLOGY

all

vocabulary of

the
of

swarm

scholars,but

and

words

new

and philosophical,
and partly
partlytheological
expressions

The
legaland political.1
older
and

classical tradition
established

of

were

themselves
these

Europe. Among

in various

were

Salisbury and

something of
That
from

so

few

of

the Latin

the eleventh and

twelfth

Cf. such

and
haeceiias,
Latinitatis

words
see

Du

as

Italy

bishop
Arch-

became
whose

cessor
prede-

like

John

of

still knew
scholars,

Italy.

manuscripts have

many

and

who,

French

of ancient

love of classical

the

who

1093,
men

left

the

parts of Western

Anselm,

Lanfranc, together with

kept alive

Italians who

few

in the year

Canterbury

who

only persons

survived

centuries,is due

but
learning,

to
to

dating

us

no

spread
wide-

rather to the fact that

nominalismus, materialismus,realismus,quidditas,
Cange's Glossarium

(lasted., 1884 foil.),


passim.

ad

Mediae
Scriptores

et

Infinae

MIDDLE

THE

in the monasteries

by

copying
There

of penance.

way

AGES

imposed

was

also

was

of
books, irrespective

This

prideof

all the

the

desire

these

Among

scholar;nevertheless,to

libraries of Monte

the

and

which

in

in

Bobbio

read

to

as

sessing
pos-

them.
at

not

it is

largelydue

now

possess.

we

hoarded

were

the

especiallyto be noted

classic literature,
are

of

treasures

storehouses

pride in

the collector and

preservationof such manuscripts

the

the monks

upon

certain

any

wholly the pride of

pridewas

233

Cassino, Naples, Bologna, Milan,

Italy; Fleury, Tours,

Mont-

Cluny,

Chartres, Grenoble, Lille,Liege, Paris,Marseilles,


pellier,
and

in

Caen

Augsburg, Freystadt, Strasburg,

France;

Leipzig,Wurzburg, Mainz, Konigsberg, Zweibriicken, in


Leyden, Utrecht, and

Germany;

in

St. Gallen
Stockholm

in

So

true

quasi

to

extant

York

ascribed

remark
Claustrum

It

in

Spain;

in

to

sine

Holland;

Denmark;

Saragossa

armamentario.

which

see

Geoffrey
(est)

armario
interest

may

the oldest classical codices

are

land.1
Eng-

the
now

Clark, Libraries

See

1894)
Wattenbach,
Didionnaire
Das

Auge

sine

castrum

reader

the

was

Sainte-Barbe-en-

Seville and

Sweden;

in
in

Switzerland; Copenhagen

Oxford, Cambridge, Salisbury,and

and

of

Dordrecht

Buck

Dugdale,

Das
de

the Medieval

in

Geographic

(Leipzig,1879)

; and

Renaissance

Anglicanum,

Monasticum

Schriftwesenim

and

Mitklalter

Usage

du

Putnam,

8 vols.

Period

bridge,
(Cam-

(London, 1849) ;

(Leipzig,1875) ; Deschamps,
Libraire

(Paris,1870)

op. cit. (New

Wehle,

York, 1896-97).

HISTORY

234

List

Some

of

of

OF

CLASSICAL

the

Oldest

PHILOLOGY

Manuscripts1

Classical

I. Greek.

Antiope and Plato's Phcedo, 250 B.C.


Fragments of Euripides'
(FlindersPetrie Papyri, ed. Mahaffy, Dublin Academy,

o.

1890.)

Zenodotean),
Louvre

c.

Iliad fragmenta

of

Euripides,second century

Aristotle.
.

h.

a.d.

B.C.

B.C.

(Epicurus,Philodemus).

_,

century

a.d.

(discoveredin Egypt, 1905).

Hyperides, 150

/. Berlin

79

First to second

Bacchyhdes.

i. Menander
k.

non-

1
....

Herodas,

known.

(Paris).

(Banks, Harris),second century

/. Papyri from Herculaneum,


e.

classical text

and
(ante-Aristarchean

to first century, B.C.

d. Alcman, second
e.

B.C.

240

Fragmenta

Iliad

XI.

lines of the

few

b. A

specimens of

oldest

The

a.d.

(London, Paris).

fragments of the Melanippe of Euripides,third

to

fourth century.

Papyrus fragments of Isocrates,fourth century (Marseilles).

m.
n.

Codex

Ambrosianus

0.

Codex

Vaticanus

of the Iliad, (Milan).

p.

Euripides'Phaeton, and

q.

Fragmenta

of

Fifth

Cassius.

of Dio

to

sixth

Menander,

Fragments.

century.

Aristoph.,Birds (Paris).

II. Latin.

Fragments of the Younger

a.

b.

Manuscript of Vergil,fourth

Seneca, first century

to fifth century

laneum).
(Hercu-

Florence,
(chiefly

Vatican).
c.

Fragmenta

of

Sallust's

Historic,third

to

fourth

century

(Orleans).
d. Codex
e.

by

Codex

Many

scholars.

Bembinus
Puteaneus

of the

dates

of Terence, fourth to fifthcentury


of

Livy, sixth

in this list are

to seventh

(Vatican).

century (Paris).

though agreed upon


conjectural,

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

235

Palimpsest.

Persius,fragmenta in codice Vaticano, third

Juvenal and

to

fourth century.
and

Codex

of

Veronensis

Lucan

(Vienna, Naples,Rome), fourth century.

Cicero's De

Vaticanus

Livy.

Codex

Republica,fourth

Vaticano,fifth century.

in Codice

fragmenta

Cicero in Verrem,

(Vatican).

fifth century

to

Gaius, fifth century (Verona).

(Codex Ambrosianus), fifth to sixth century (Milan).

Platus

Seneca, fragmenta,fifth to sixth century (Vatican).

Gellius and

Fronto, fragmenta, fourth

(Vatican,Milan).

sixth century

to

Livy, fragmenta (Vienna),fifth century.

these and
and

other

By

Hellenic literature
Sanskrit

The

names

down

and

their

places in history,were

find

Smaragdus,

the

Comcedia
1

mediaeval

meanings of Greek

Almost

found

in

and

the

While

the

The

country

in Gaul

and

Irish
was

all

Greek

probably brought

was

unmolested
and

that

names

were

by

Eunuchus

of authors.1

from

Gaul

admirably conducted,
the

Italy

dwellers
there

was

upon

we

ignorant of

so

generalignorance of Greek

this

schools

the

Thus

blank.

think

to

as

Tragoediawere

Germany

Latin

in

them

grammarian,

words

only exception to

Ireland,whither

fifth century.
time

Orestes

statesmen

their time and country,


personality,

Their

actual

of

mention

the

authors.

eighteenthcentury.

and
poets, philosophers,
from

only

Europe.

that time than

at

of the

end

to the

of Greek

familiar

were

known

as

even

of Western

the memory

littlemore

was

part, Latin

most

eighthcentury, Greek,

the

had faded from


tradition,

was

for the

libraries were,

Greek.

not

preservedin

of the codices

said that most

It has been

the

continual

and

is to be
in the

for

Continent.
strife and

236

HISTORY

Even

when
of

OF

CLASSICAL

littleGreek

had filteredits way

the mediae vals

barbarous

the Latin

they used

which

of

wrote

Latin) coined

words

example, scribere
became

rex

Greek

Latin

the

Greek, resulted
understand
that there

kinds

of

as

There

there

the

only a

by

the

hear
and

of

deepening of

of

Greeds

Medii

Mvi

History of Ireland

monks

P antes

to

semble
re-

the theory
justified

who

'

knew
an

of

what

on

rushingat
not

was

one

agree

as

little
'

Irish monk

solitum

elaborant

being Greek.

quaint thingsthat

glimpse

were

made

ceived
con-

even

daylight. Thus

we

the vocative

of ego,

another

drawn

to

with

inchoative verbs.2

darkness, Irish scholars preserved the older

learningand carried it to Bobbio


De

of

is difficult to

of the five words

theycould

intellectual

have

mixture

forms

grammarians, who

long discussions

because

argot which

'

of the

of furious debaters

swords
a

out

Latin

compositionby

out

mediaeval

deeper darkness

an

sentence:

few

the Greek.

that the

garblingof

were

'

are

analogy of

kinds of Latin,or, indeed,as many

agrestes orgium,' two


These

the

on

in

remains

contains

century (whose

he discusses twelve kinds

might well

twelve

were

Latin

Greek.

which

and which

marian,
gram-

supplantedby charaxare,while

was

and

render

Thus, the

seventh

(from Opovos),
so

thors

with

in the

in which

new

For

work

into the knowledge

it to vitiate and

they wrote.

VergiliusMaro,
preceptor

PHILOLOGY

Studiis,i.

and
24

Pavia

and

St. Gallen.

See

(London, 1849)j Hyde,

Cramer,
Literary

(Dublin, 1899); Newell, St. Patrick, his Life and

Teachings(London, 1890); and Bury, LifeofSt. Patrick (Cambridge, 1905).


1

Hisperica Famina, edited by Stowasser

See

(1887).

Sandys, op. cit. i. p. 450, with the references there given.

238

fiction

is

work

This

historyof

the

in

important

as

history of education;

it is in the

as

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

dragged fiction

into the service of grammar

sugar-coat the

pillof philologywith

that

ground
find

of
separation

afterwards

was

the

had

hewn

this

wrote
at

hath

and

builded

her

Alcuin5

by

Maurus.8

famous

This

Hrabanus)

and

bom

was

at

Martianus

Prov.

ix.

Seven

was

asserting

even

(whosename

Mainz,

of

especially

was

is also written

cityhe

which

Alcuin,
and

continue

pupil, Rabanus

teacher

332

hath

she

seven

Alcuin's

(ed. by Eyssenhardt, pp.

quoted

he

classification and

This

Archbishop. Studying under

made

the

upon

house;

the number

by

known

soon

work

seven

pillars."

seven

was

and
through the writingsof Isidorus,4

favoured

first

groups

mysticalmeaning, since

of
mysticalinterpretation

down

later

was

compiled

he

336).

1.
a

the great nations


in

trio which

her

out

we

mar,
gram-

Wisdom

"

the text:

In Boethius

called the Quadrivium ; while

liberal arts, fixingthe number


that this number

the

on

form

Cassiodorus

Trivium.

story.

astronomy, which

and logicform
rhetoric,
as

tried to

and

myth

into two

the liberal arts

arithmetic, geometry, music, and


what

and

utilitarian studies.1

they are

its author

for

architecture

and

medicine

strikes out

Martianus

prose

mystic number,
of

not

antiquity. See

the

only among
an

Jews, but

interestingchapter on

among

the

all

subject

Hadley, Essays (New York, 1873).


4

Supra,

His

p. 190.

collected

vols, cvii-cxii.

works

Cf. the

are

to

be

found

monographs by

in

Kohler

Supra,

pp.

220-223.

Migne's PatrologiaLatina,

(1870)and

Richter

(1882).

the Latin

abridgment of

an

his

are

of
biographies

Middle

which

their master

which
is

He

Ages.
classical

be found

can

study,as

Trithemius, who

and

pupilsRudolphus

own

of Priscianus

development of

in the

connecting link

239

grammar

throughout the

used

much

was

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

in

wrote

Migne's

Patrologia.

remarkable
at

find

out

clearness

were

inimical

times.

chief

His

Minus, and

theology.
which

the

His

teaching.

and

with

set

So

of

down

had

sort
a

experimented

of wizard

knowledge
with

of chemical

the

or

of

c.

modern

the

Mains,

what

Opus
also

another

he

on

ing,
learnHe

thought

he

was

own

time

steam-engine as
Taking

that

well
up

of others
was

It is

and

in
rare

was

he

necromancer.

gunpowder

1214-1294.

his

to

audacitywhich

in his

compounds.
1

of

men

contemporary.

any

far in advance

sphere of physics,that

reaches

Bacon

great force

certain

can

of criticism

philosophy and

that

he

with

Opus

finally

(fragmentary). He

Tertium
on

born

writingsone

keenness

and

the

are

beyond

his fellows.

as

number

In his

originality
gave

vigorousstyleand

that he

Order.
vision

works

Paris,and

and

scholastic

Opus

was

thought much,

in the

to

compendium

among

of

the

appears

Englishman

an

Oxford

clasps hands
figuratively

and

wrote

at

in the Franciscan

that

which

Bacon,1

figureof Roger

Tlchester,educated

enrolled

Ages, there

of the Middle

the end

Toward

as

garded
re-

likely

he

had

with

his doctrines

HISTORY

24O
we
briefly,

thus

wisdom

littletime in

by neglect of

of the

knowing

them

familiar

with

standing in
that

foreign words
the

language that
but

ought

he

is

likewise with

These

of modern
Bacon

world

who

knowledge

very
a

be

says

which

only

with

the

language,

own

they deserve

them

acutely,

very

the

not

are

of

many

also his

relates.

text

the serious attention

publishers.
are

five

not

shrewdly

the

notes

having a purelycolloquial
knowledge
a

without

All current

in the Western

men

and Arabic

acquaintedwith Hebrew, Greek,

are

He

grammar.

be had

be familiar,not

to

subject to

that there

says

that

philosophy can

Bacon

golden words, and

are

declared

he

leave

and
translating

the

the

the translators

and

text; whereas

translator

that

inaccurate,because

are

understand

can
Scriptures
or

for

languages,

studyingArabic.1

thoroughlypursued without
translations

failingto

Greek,

Fathers

ancient

Furthermore,

of the

and

criticised the

studyingthe

ancients.

Hebrew

PHILOLOGY

that he

perfectknowledge

no

CLASSICAL

note

may

spending too
and

OF

which

is

foundations,and

difference
of any

which
scientific,
which

language and
down

goes

is therefore

the

between

to

the

knowledge

of

philosophical
linguist.Bacon, consequently,insists upon

grammar,

grammar,

he

forerunner

is the

times.

were

He

criticises

Referringto

the Arabic

unavailable
practically

and
of
even

still more
a

and

school
philological
the

translations
to

grammar;

errors

of modern

of translation to be

of Aristotle of which

the Western

in this

world.

the

originals

MIDDLE

THE

found

in

"

Every

Vulgate,and

the

ventured

have

who

has

one

the

does not

understand

the

of classical

case

hints that

hard

hits

he

the texts

fruitful in

be

asters
critic-

He

says:
he

alter whatever
he would

poets." Here,
of

those

the text.

change

to

thingwhich

"

to

were

241

impertinenceto

for the criticism

two

or

AGES

do

not

in

hint

Bacon

drops

of

Scriptures,

the

the
time

"

Valla and

of

Erasmus.1
Bacon

work

by

was

no

of others.

in the

the

Greek

accidence

Bacon.

Greek

lexicon

Nevertheless

read

was

of

was

there

read in

remembrance

that

Raimundus
traveller,

Pope and
of
1

and

has

also

littleGreek

was

Oxford

at

Latin

another

been

much

so

translation.

to

It is worth

noting that

in

Latine

au

Dublin
Dr.

of Greek

correctingand
xiii

Review

s.

for

Sandys
was

to the

It is

worthy
famous

and

Cf

school
Tartar

the

spent forty

Martin, La

Vulgate

(Paris,1888) ; and Gasquet in the

January, 1898.

observes

mainly

pronunciationthat

to

of Aristotle

scholar of this time

explaining the Vulgate.

d'apres Roger Bacon

known

establish

languages (Greek, Arabic,


Oxford

ascribed

persuade,first the

Universityof Paris, to

an

the verb

Franciscan, the

Lullius, tried

has

contains

paradigm of

oriental

years

then the

College,Oxford,

Christi

ending with

scholars of that time, and


as

manuscriptof which,

grammar,

written
beautifully

characters

grammatical

his interest in

libraryat Corpus

short Greek
TV7TT0).2

Greek

merely criticises the

who

one

showed

He

studyby writinga
now

means

he

(op.cit. i. p. 595) that

derived

from

the Greeks

invariablyadopts."

"Bacon's

own

of his time, and

knowledge
it is their

HISTORY

242

OF

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

the great oriental schools which


dialects)thus anticipating
,

thrive

to-day

gathered from

at

Paris

the

fragmentsof

and

as
interesting

showing his

had

glossaryof

of

sort

Greek.

He

corrects

as, for

of the

instance,that
books
fifty

Latin

he

work,

mental

common

errors

tells

has

described by
fairly

very

mind

of

Bacon

Roger

principlesof the

than

usual

time."

is

views

decay.

something
taken

are

apprehended, was

back

text

the

to

Altogetherhe

of science

philosophy,with
superstitionsof

Rashdall, op.

See supra, p. 188.

There

is

an

cit. ii. p.

edition

"

is

The

of almost
and
a

the
more

his

own

Charles

(Paris,1861) ;
son

grammar

Genie, ses
was

Bacon's

and

and

the

when
spirit,

of
spirit

ruins

of

properly

desolation

and

antique greatness

works

edited

comprehensive study
later

CEuvres

et

monograph
ses

published,with

University of Cambridge

understand,

96.

of

excellent

difficult to

of it. Its

of

out

1859).

very

very

certainlynot

It sprang

Greek

ing,
spell-

many

Per sonne,

the

in

singlesentence:

course

inductive

credulityin

Medievalism
and

us

strangelycompounded

was

of the future

propheticgleams
best

in

the

History,mentioned

Gellius.2

Hallam

from

the Greek

takes
by Pliny (viii.
p. 17),and altogether
of Aulus
many-sided curiosity

very

anecdotes,

some

seen

of Aristotle's Natural

are

activity.He

derived

He

himself

opuscula,

words
of

etymology.

Bacon's

his minor

unusual

number

quantity,and

Berlin.1

by

Brewer

of Bacon

(London,
is that

by Parrot,Roger Bacon,

Contemporains (Paris,1894).
notes

and

(Cambridge, 1892).

by

an

by
introduction,

sa

His
the

THE

often without

any

Ages

to

appear

of its

some

piercedonly here and


colour.

different from

this

So

and

new.

and

the Christian

have

we

us, since

so

As

rending sound

is not

process

and

Thus

of it has

of

we

have

may

appealed most
grandeur

of

is

it.

of

dark

hear

can

when

Yet

conscious

grow

chillingcold,

in

master

devastation.

it,we

that
stimulating,

its Art

while the

to

which

tian
Chris-

it often shocks

to

of destruction,but

one

Instead
warm

within

of continuous

beautiful

everywhere

end

past

pagan

was

the borders

standingon

patientstudy

give our

the

tiquity
an-

different

something

in the
spiritual

was

in the

was

very

gradual process

blending of

was
brutality

raw

were

highestthought of

into

what

fearful waste, from

almost

was

look at Medievalism

we

much

at first to be

seem

with

that which

with

the

Ages

present, combining what

antique world

teaching.

Middle

the

transformed

be

to

was

in the

which

ment
discourage-

lightand glintsof

rays of

true

of

environment,

savage

description.There

assimilation,
by

of

the

partlyby

by

realitythe

in

Yet

there

time

discouraged,partly

almost

an

Middle

The

wholly

pursuitswere

from

came

knowledge, though

own

having been

as

through lack of knowledge, and


which

243

of its value.

consciousness

intellectual

when

gloom

much

it drew

which

from

AGES

MIDDLE

rather

there

is

that

of

tact
con-

We

and
the
we

the

nation.
germi-

something

always noticeable.

been

rude, yet

the

originality

stronglyto

artists of modern

its Gothic

architecture

times,

attains the

HISTORY

244

heightof
the

by

out

the

for two

OF

CLASSICAL

sublime.

Even

its

not merely within


centuries,
men

from

As

to Leo

Kant

clash of

XIII.1

and
principalities

strife of

kings and

Professor

they

and

to secular

light.

government,
the

In

have

the

modern

between

world.

The

state

to

bring

to

the

out

men

Letters

of

into conscious

drawn

second

China, but would

of the civilization of

source

of the

Middle

Ages.

Church

destroyed much;

For

time,

Pica vet's remarkable


et

Comparee

des

of the

system

more

we

owe

the

but

Civilisations

the

entitled
Medievales

central

subjection

Carlovingian

thought and will

reflected and

more

great debt

fanaticism

from

monograph

of

Ages

necessary

of slavish

by the antagonism

Learning,

and

authority,were

monotony

Church-state

Middle

Generate

the

producingsystems

and

questions

of ecclesiastical government

viz.,the

under

them

develop

into the power

See

the great

unceasing conflicts

external
artificial,

empire, and

Ages.' On

empire of Charlemagne been

authorityand Church
from

"

"

Ages, Dark

raised and

were

"

privaterightand publiclaw, local government

government,

In

communities,

them

and

European

it is

what

been

the

"

right to political
right,of local

perpetuated,Europe might have become


never

thought,

incessant

'

call the Middle

to

full of

are

Had

consideration.

of

the almost

mercantile

central government,

to

great schools of the

side
political

the

to

powers

relationshipof individual

government

the

flourished

has

Burgess has admirably written

J. W.

the contrary,

and

wrought

as

of every mode

and

popes

have been wont

Men

of the

Philosophy,

has been revived


scholastics,

Catholic Church, but among

"

PHILOLOGY

of

the

free."

to

the

Early

eighth century

Esquisse d'une Histoire

(Paris,1905);

and

Perrier,The Revival of Scholastic Philosophy (New York, 1909). See also


Allbutt,Science and Mediceval

Thought, pp. 72, 78 foil. (London, 1895).

246

HISTORY

OF

Valerius Maximus.
Civili

CLASSICAL

he

because
place largely

As

Christians

"

the

to

small

than

of

this

mediaeval

to

possessor

it

was

word

v.

a
reality

Supra,

See

1902).
(Leipzig,

of

to

text

though

produced

number

dictate to their students

word-

then

often

abridged,

of these

like

compiled
glossaries,

of

sort

did

the substance

genuine

lexicon

of

scholar,about

come

into

use

mentary,
com-

twelve

produced

was

1063,though

encyclopaedia.The

not

one

for

Low
a

Latin

long time.

184.

monograph

Gottingen, 1854.

collection

bits

The

One

on

See

grammar

contained

in I. Miiller's

also

elaborate

description of mediaeval

glossariesin Lowe, Prodromus


A

to-day more

vocabularies.

containingalso

Dictionarium

the

exist

Sometimes

also

were

Papias, the Lombard

p.

there

the

was

century, has been edited with

Something

in

one

compilationsof

many

and
glossaries

another.

while

one

been

enlargedaccordingas they passed from

the ninth

earlyas

by

and

carefully
copied and

were

corrected,and

others.

There

teachers used

listswhich

the foremost

have

to

Bello

reading in

there
literature,

manuscripts.

rather

of lexicons,or

as

classical

Donatus

unusual.2

was

for

illustrationof the rules of grammar,

quoted in

were

believed

was

great work, of which

thousand

used

was

De

before Christ."

adjunctsof

grammar

Priscian's

and

Petronius

all the classics,


Vergilheld

Of

the schools.

of the

fragment of

The

fairlywell known,

was

PHILOLOGY

of these

the

Glossariorum

glossarieswas

Latinorum

1876).
(Leipzig,

begun in 1876 by Goetz

patronage of the Royal Literary Society of Saxony.

Handbuch,

under

the

THE

called

Papias

his

Erudimentum.

It

In the twelfth century

in 1491.

Gloucester, made

of

he

which

in

circulated

when
printing,

of

attempt

an

of

at

used

were

his famous

About

also of rhetoric and

but

extensive

lexicon of ecclesiastical Latin.

best dictionaries known


far

we

have

the downfall
thirteenth

which

had

which

outlived

in

a.d.

capitalof
between
See

the whole

the East
the

Mahn,

De

of

rather

the

were

from
civilization,

to the

for

beginningof
consider

to

us

New

Empire

was

here

in

came

a.d.

Vit, Preface

to

and

sand
thou-

lished
estabpractically

made

world; but

the

Rome)

than

more

Byzantium

the

the actual breach


395.

In that year

Lexicography in I. Muller's

Darstellung der

(Rudolstadt, 181 7).

manual

Ages wholly in

Western

Constantine

West
on

them

Ages.1

Empire by

Roman

and

monograph

(Nordlingen,1902) ;
1879) ;

Eastern

330, when

on

Constantinople(Byzantium)

the Western
The

tioned
men-

These

Byzantine Empire (alsocalled


at

last

based

Middle

Empire

It remains

its seat

years.

of the Western

or

the Middle

historyof

century.

the Eastern

to

1200,

Deriva-

criticism,with

regarded the

their relation to the

works

only a

not

was

year

Liber

two

grammar,

Thus

the

Balbi of Genoa, who

Catholicon, which

Osborn

dictionary,
etymological

an

Ferrara, compiled

by

until

issued at Venice

English monk,

an

Eighty-sixyears later,the

tionum.

trines
Doc-

manuscript

it was

called Panorama.

Hugutio, Bishop

247

dictionary,Elementarium

own

after the invention

AGES

MIDDLE

the Lexicon

Lexicographie nach

Handbuch,

of Forcellini
alien

ihren

i.

(Prato,
Seiten

248
the Roman

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

Empire

divided

was

took

Arcadius

Theodosius.

PHILOLOGY

between

the

Eastern

capitalat Constantinople,while
half,with

Western

his

tangled historyof

Thus

murder.

and

"

that

declared
on

from

395

to

the Turks),
a

existence

or

of

Western

and

or

the

at Tours

hurled

18

in

"

back

it

thousand

years."

unity

the
as

the

best

stormed

the

for
in the

between
time
to

purpose,

Saracens

Asia

died

whom

to

the
fact

and

sion
to attain cohe-

develop a

necessary

eighthcentury, or

Vienna

by

with

met

excuse

is found

barrier

militarypower

in the
from

of

ruled

who

of 107

out

that the latter had

of

being

as

mutilated,12

were

all,73

from

Empire

abdicated, 3 starved

prison,12

for centuries

sort

uniform

of revolts,schisms,

Byzantine Empire

hordes, such

shattered

Greek

the

disgrace. Perhaps

civilisation and
wild

murdered,

Europe, so
a

and

that of the 107 persons

in warfare

it formed

tedious

(when Constantinoplewas

were

20

monastery

violence

that

of

record

the last few

vividlycondemned

Taine

1453

death, 8 died

were

"

succession

computed

It has been

in

it

historyof

merely

was

neglecteduntil

giganticmouldiness, lastinga

and

long

misery." Montesquieu sweepingly

the

treacheries."

"

called

and

tale of weakness

Phocas

the

is the

Empire

it has been

Gibbon

Even

years.

received

strife,sedition, folly,
treachery,
misgovernment,

constant

and

Eastern

his

The

Rome.

of

sons

half,with

Honorius

capitalat

the

the two

Charles

new

repel

to

Martel

the Turks

who

in the sixteenth century.

MIDDLE

THE

If

look

we

into
carefully

more

in its later years,

there

everywhere

and

so

many

of the

Rome

in

its

people were,

as

alike alternated

In other

and

of assimilation,and

The

seen.

and

in Asia

boundaries

Again

and

For

wars

were

diverting account

from

were

childish

it had

Old

despots;

amusements

the Roman

its emperors,

than

Empire
and

such

power

the

world

had

yet

again the administration


Against

waged.2 Byzantium
of life in

Con-

as

extended, both

were

Armenians, and

the

hausting
ex-

great soldiers and

stimulated.

commerce

Hungarians, the Turks,


successful

of

of the

Europe.

reformed

was

most

effective armies

organised more

It differed

(741-773),were

Copronymus

showed

Rome

recuperationafter periods of

Some

warfare.
stantine

of

New

Its rulers

bloody strife.1 Yet,

the most

Indeed, the

words, princesand populace

the

between

spirit,

said of the Parisians," half

has been

tigerand half ape."

Roman

largelya historyof civil war,

oriental.

more

it to its centre,

visible.

characteristics.

being far

schisms,
religious

older

surprisedthat

be

not

same

historyof Byzantium

the

themselves

is very

Rome

must

we

of

traces

making

historyof Old

the

kind shook

violence of every

and

surviving and

249

shall find that while

we

civil wars,
are

AGES

Byzantium,

see

the

the

Bulgars,

itself

was

Marrast, Esquisses

Byzantines (Paris,1874).
1

See

Bury

Gibbon, The

and

(Cambridge, 1899) ; Bury,

(London, 1890) ; and


and

Decline

New

Oman,

York, 1892).

The

Fall
A

of the Roman

Empire, edited

History of the Later Roman

by

Empire

Story of the Byzantine Empire (London

OF

HISTORY

250

Rome

magnificentcity.
the

make

the

paintingsand

It

to

roof,and

wooden

suspend

Domes

plan.

it
of

St.

Sophia

Italy,and

types

why they suggest at

the

once

Minor.

many

in the

literal

painting
Most
It is

of

of the

the

of

art, there

frescoes

that modern

in

and

the mosaics

we

few

are

there

the

panels have
made

this

is

trace

can

of

remains

existed,first,

and second,
figure,
iconoclastic

were

of

and

Panel-

Byzantium.
disappeared.

now

priorto

can
archaeologists

Russia,

Empire originated.

artists

the

(with

Apostles in

which

Christians

Greek

this

origin,and

the Eastern

drawing

ground-

fact,the Byzantine

In

Orientalism

practisedby

only from

able

the great masterpieces

Mosaic,
Fresco-painting,

sense.

were

of

churches

their

in

an

oriental lack of skill in

because

kind

of the

Church

Byzantine Sculpture, partly because


an

placeof

Byzantine architecture

in many

as

Asia

forms

for other

As

and

everythingwhich

in almost

of the

in
especially

Grasco-Asiatic

were

styled
tendom."
Chris-

unit in

any

in

genius which

multipliedat will; and

well

Constantinople,as
Northern

it with

use

be found,

can

been

Greek

architectural

is characteristic

semi-domes)
wherever

and
even

were

flashed

was
then, by using loftypiers,

the dome

to

Imperial."

and

has

its fundamental

as

"

title of

the

expressionof

Greek

dome

the Roman

chose
the

the

was

ransacked

was

architecture

monumental

complete

Tiber

jewelsgleamed

public buildings. Its

all its
"

the

on

capitaldeserve

new

and

Statues

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

the twelfth

get any

good

tury
cen-

idea

of

the

AGES

MIDDLE

THE

earlyByzantine painting.

Ages, and

Middle

catacombs

century, the Italian States and

pupils and

thus

.throughoutItaly.
have

the

to do

with

manuscriptswith

spread

the

trained

Byzantine

influence

Arts, however, which

It is in the Minor

decoration, such

illuminatingof

the

as

colours,ivorycarving,tapestry

gorgeous

gold work,

that the skill of the

together

cameos,

embossing,chasing,and enamelling the


bits of

at

who

weaving, rug-making,and the carvingof


with

Kingdom

Norman

importedByzantine artists in mosaic

the South
Italian

of the eleventh

the middle

Toward

Rome.

at

the

throughout

artists

in the later frescoes in the

felt even

it was

know, however, that it

We

Christian

the

greatly influenced

251

most

site
exqui-

Byzantine artists

supreme.1

was

Byzantine
2

tracts

and

controversial

as

they deserved

the

kept on

See

writingeven

Texier

to

the

Eastern

and

after that.

These

are

Byzantin (Paris,
1892).
See

infra,pp.

254-257.

the

who

have

Five

historian.

mostly perished,

Byzantine

rians
Histo-

themselves

busied

Empire
there

tion)
excep-

innumerable

wrote

The

one

down

to

some

were

of them

have

its

who
siderable
con-

Zonaras, Nicetas, Nicephorus,

Pullan, Byzantine

Essenwein, Byzantinische Baukunst


J

do.

by the Turks, and

value.
1

save

one

which
treatises,

of writers

group

historyof

destruction

itself (with

priestsof Byzantium

and

form
with

in

littleto interest any

very

Scholars

has

Literature

Architecture

(London,

(Darmstadt, 1896) ; Bayet,

1894);
L'Art

HISTORY

252

OF

Chalcondylas, and

historyof

its

beginning down

as

privatenotes

French
and

and

memoirs

This

book

death.

of

the

has

consequence

production

of

fifteen other
works

in

been
the

Scriptorum Historic
Really

read

of

For

reader

rare

translation

The

most

Gibbon
2

In

I733)is

of

amusing

It

was

almost

in

other

any

There

are

united

Corpus

made

by

the

at the

vols.

of his Decline

by Labb6

collection

Byzantine

command

of

collection of authori-

Procopius, including his orations, the

of

(Bonn, 1838). There

of
and

badly executed, although parts of it

were

Niebuhr, Bekker, and

is

an

old and

(London, 1663).

Procopius were

transferred

by

Fall.

(Paris, 171
was

as

after his

Byzantine writings is

in 48 vols,

scholars

regime.

translation in the

Greek,

startlingpassages

36 vols.,edited
similar

piquant sayings

Procopius into English by Holcroft


or

was

of the

some

historians.1

Law

Asiatic

Dindorf,3

to the footnotes

of

he

the old

than

the

among

separate edition
to

which

and
interesting
style,

more

Latin

Iustinianus.

is referred

giveshis

Byzantine historywhose

lawyer,Tribonianus, an

it he

Byzantina.2

remarkable

Emperor

the

jotteddown

publisheduntil

not

the codification of the Roman

the

In

under

court

fresh and

publishedwith

are

he

one

us

Byzantine

writers

noted

reminds

Procopius was

It is written

Procopius is

1470.

reveal to

French

these
from

history."

the book

of

Byzantine Empire

the court-life with

which

doings of

first four

stories which

secret

relatingto

intimate;

very

"

Anecdota, or

The

the

the year

to

collector of scandalous

in his

PHILOLOGY

Procopius.

continuous

give a

CLASSICAL

1;

reprintedat Venice

begun

the brothers

done

at

Bonn

by such

Dindorf.

in

in

1828, but

distinguished

HISTORY

254

OF

CLASSICAL

PHILOLOGY

or
historical,
etymological. Thus

wrote

things,among

many

them

of great service to the student

are

and

literature.

and

beguiled his stay

books,

which

is

called

Remarkable
historians
of

one

sent

was

much

comments

so

and

of

had

but

in

alphabetical
order,but

1 1

93

of

that the whole,

literature.

which

as

in

with

Muller's

which

The

drew

Handbuch,
vols.

or

ix.

still
strous
mon-

strous,
mon-

lexicon,

arranged

and
skill,

are

is almost

subjectsare

is

paedic.
encyclo-

been

It is a grammar,

littlecare

foil.;Hergenrother, Photios,3

is

have

his book

was

of Lexicography

This

(c. 976).

Suidas

it

these themes.

growth

readingmust

range,

one.

in the

the erudition

his

something like

was

treated

Suidas

moles.
indigestaque

Krumbacher

he varied

its text
subject-matter,

who

upon

and

geography all

See

280

times, since, while

recent

the

to

sources

in its scope

and

of

Porphyrogenetus

book

This

959).

Lexicon

only partlyknown;

rudis

Assyria

of early
preservation

Constantinus

monument

The

for its

extremely important work

remarkable

to

valuable

and

ancient

History

is the

language

abstracts

and

that of the earlier authors


An

by making

Sometimes

arranged accordingto

was

Greek

ambassador

an

which

encyclopaediaof historycompiled by

to

915

the Historian's

of the

lost.

emperors,

(reignedfrom

volumes

two

Myrobiblion1 (MvpiofitfiXiov),
gives

the

the

(c.820-c. 891)

now

are

for its extent


was

as

there

by criticisms

synopsis of

us

He

of which

many

his abstracts

pp.

Photius

in

it is full

(Nordlingen,1897),

THE

MIDDLE

which

of serious mistakes

AGES

show

255

that Suidas

the work
of the critical spirit.Still,
it contains

valuable because
be found

is

sessed
pos-

extremely

information

that

can

else.1

nowhere

FollowingSuidas

Tzetzes,who

Ioannes

came

also

was

writer,mainly of scholia;for besides

very voluminous
of
allegories

much

so

not

was

the Iliad and

Odyssey in

ten

Homeric
(hence Chiliades),interpreting
he

rationalisticway,

thousand

works, and

the Pseudo-Homeric

his

verses

mythology in

prepared a commentary

the Iliad,

to

has leftscholia to

Hesiod,

to Lycophron's
to Oppian, and especially
Aristophanes,

to

Here

Alexandra.

and

that obscure

to

rhetoric of

the

the so-called

from

about

also
fond

was

The

1175

which

of

to

writing

valuable commentary

is based

fine

prefaceto

sound

upon
while

excellent sources,

best edition is that

Prolegomena

have

we

epitomised

commentary

of Bekker

25-95,

and

Pindar.

on

the stand-

(Berlin,
1854),but

Bernhardy'sedition,pp.

have

also

we

on

Homeric

body of this work itselfhas been lost.4 From

The

other
a

that

Eustathius,Archbishop of
politici.'

poems

his pen

He

Hermogenes.

Thessalonica,wrote

scholia and

He

mysticalpoem.2

versus

the Homeric

givesus the only clew

he

also the

see

Krumbacher, op.

cit.

562-570.

pp.
1

Supra, p.

Isaac
1

Tzetzes.

Supra,

1816), the
1840).
4

See

edited

See

p.

See
101.

Hart,
His

Chiliades

De

works

Tzetzarum
are

edited

was

written

by

his

brother,

Nomine, Vila,Scripiis(1880).
separatelyby

1826),and
by Kiessling (Leipzig,

Bekker
Lehrs

(Berlin,

(Leipzig,

Krumbacher, op. cit. pp. 526-536.

Krumbacher,
by

think that this work

Some

1 01.

Schneidewin

pp.

536-541.

The

preface to

(Gottingen,1837).

Pindar

has

been

56

OF

HISTORY

point of

literature,the

pure

scholia and

wrote

point that

translated

he

such

authors

the

of Cato,
(disticha)

the

important of all is

It

Planudea.

"

This

made

60.

it

To

Meleager
This

Garland."

The

of poems

by Meleager

poems

were

in the

sense,

thought,either tender

or

with

lightand colour.

and

continual

This

editions

centuries, until in the


edited

the

mass

of

compilation. Planudes
taste.
literary

to

century
made

did the same,

Nevertheless

Anthologia

anthologies,
about

made

was

up

and

Simonides.

were

matic
epigrama

and
pathetic,

single
all of

immensely popular,

was

made

and

great

they glowed and glinted

work

tenth

poems

or

that

were

'AvOoXoyia, or

Sappho, and

humorous

polished,so
exquisitely

them

two

brieflyembodying

"

on

other poets,
forty-six

and

all of the first order

Greek

cially
espe-

Most

of Gadara

title

the

himself

including Alcaeus, Anacreon,


The

earlier

originalAnthology

by Meleager

and

compiled with

he

called

on

gave

sayings

translation

of the

is

one

really based

was

the first having been


B.C.

which

is the younger

Anthologies.

Greek

Ovid,

Latin

unknown.

now

Anthology

which

and

taste

of

his

basing
is

of

Cicero, the

Metamorphoses

the

to

more

number

part of

manuscript which

valuable

much

Greek

into

of Ovid,

the Heroides

syntax, it is

on

Caesar, a

as

he

(i260-1310). Though

treatise

interesting
Byzantine

most

Planudes

is Maximus

writer

PHILOLOGY

CLASSICAL

it
a.d.

throughout
one

Cephalas

a
practically

though with

the Planudean

the

new

far less

Anthology was

MIDDLE

THE

the

only

257

Europe until the

in Western

known

one

AGES

It is the basis of the famous

century.

translation

(Claude de Saumaise)

by Grotius.1

In

found

libraryat Heidelberg the older and

in

the

collection of
for

1606, Salmasius

Cephalas. This, however,

hundred

one

and

in his

until there

appeared

skill and

No

that
artistry

Another

with

the

Infra,p.

In

Bibliotheca

Stadtmuller
notes

with the

contact

gamut

an

site
exqui-

was

ified
mod-

in 1270

The

First Crusade

Seventh

in 1272.

of

of thousands

Byzantines,and also

The

ended

and

indirectly
brought

Arabs.

1096- 1099.

years

sade
last Cru-

or

It is

impossible

Europeans could

have

be-

349.

vols.;revised

in

(Paris, 1872),
in

See

1894.

(London, 1877)

Stadtmuller

and

civilisation

Crusades, which

Turks, Saracens,and

that hundreds

13

the

Europe into

began

the embodiment

are

the whole

sweep

by which Western

from

occupied the

and artistically
fitly

of touch

sureness

1803.2

utterlyinimitable.

are

means

came

they

in

Jacobs

They

poems.

genius,and

feelingwith

of human

F.

included

was

edited
critically

it

was

language can

wonderful

of Greek

nor

edition of

the

modern

no

translate these

Western

Analecta;

it

finer

published

not

was

seventy years, when

by Brunck

teenth
seven-

has

brilliant poems

added
from

while

fine

Mackail,
the

edition is that

critical edition

Select

Palatine

ante-classical

period,so that,in all,not

less than

The

is called

Heidelbergcollection

recent

Thackeray's Anthologia

and
to

181 7.

Epigrams

collection

sources

three

down
hundred

through

Anthologia Palatina.

with

English

(London, 1891).

number

poets

begun by

was

Graca

in Didot's

are

of the
the

most

Byzantine

represented.

258

HISTORY

CLASSICAL

OF

acquainted with

come

the ways

impressionswhich
fact,the Crusades
of the

the advance

by bringing into
had

trade and

hitherto been

culture of the
had

them

fond
who

men

even

Greek

led to

philosophyfar

of

certain

thought which

of the Renaissance
of the Crusades."

See

Wilken,

Michaud,

The

ler,Geschichte
ersten

(New

for

(Berlin,1898)

der

1898).

has

Europeans

could

of

teach

they could

to

Some

in

liberality

Crusaders
"

been

be found

said,

The

tion
the civiliza-

oriental influence

trans.

Kreuzzilge(Berlin,1891) ;
Archer

Geschichte

des

(London, 1881) ; Kug-

Von

and

through-

1807-1832)
(Leipzig,

vols.

Kreuzzilge,7

1898) ; Rohricht,
; and

higher

Kreuzzilges (Leipzig,1900) ;
York,

to

are

History of the Crusades, Eng.


der

vasive
per-

in the sages

often

As

Byzantine and

Geschichte

the

than

skepticism.

Muhammadans.

roots

most

with

who

better

portant
im-

more

universities of their native lands.

verged on

became

rope
Eu-

industries,

Those

and
toleration,

even

So much

Arabs.

their masters, and

were

enriched

Finallyand

Europe.

philosophy found

of

them.

checked

hoarded, and by making

learn it in the schools and


This

to have

ceiving
re-

great quantitiesof money

Byzantines and

been

with

to have

the intellectual effect of contact

was

the East

home

new
establishing

circulation

and

art

without

own

generallyheld

the free cities of

who

their

they carried

are

and

customs

Muhammadans,

by promoting

which

and

older civilisations than

learningof

In

PHILOLOGY

Sybel,

Kingsford,

Geschichte
The

Konigreichs

Prutz, Kulturschichte
especially

der

des

Crusades
Jerusalem

lin,
Kreuzzilge(Ber-

THE

Middle

the

out

by
backs

in

they

large

in

engage

at

Greeks,

rate

and

they

Western

On

the

literature

amowitz,

Euripides

Hankius,

De

Cf.

also

of

op.
the

notice

Early

nearly
filling

of

half

i. pp.

the

true

at

dispelled

was

in

what

to

should

Middle

page.

was

Dr.

36

Ages,

in

devoted

while

is

put

op.

1900).
his

1677).
antine
ByzIt

is

Outlines

five

nearly
the

scholarship

off

with

mere

and

cit.,

Harrison's

(London,

Gudeman

have

years

Frederic

Wil-

cit.;

(Leipzig,

Greeds

Mr.

p.

op.

Gibbon,

193-219;

Ages,
that

thousand

But

influence

Krumbacher,

Scriptoribus

Middle

the

of

awoke

see

387-439

pp.

Philology

scholars

for

i.

inexplicable,

Classical

Europe

cit.

strife.

Ages

Byzantines,

Rerum

in

Byzantine

the

political

to

earth.1

new

Byzantinarum

though
of

order

in

mankind

Herakles,

Sandys,

History

when

their

learning

direct

represented
turned

who

manuscripts

Middle

the

und

History

the

and

and

heaven

new

of

mist

or

exercise

to

were

Europe

old

the

part

taste,

controversy

preserved

any

most

of

the

on

259

the

than

measure

the

for

was

rather

theological

when

time

It

Ages.
erudition

of

men

AGES

MIDDLE

of

teresting,
in-

the

to

pages

of

ern
West-

graphic
biblio-

VI

THE

The

RENAISSANCE

Renaissance

the

"

remarkable

most

intellectual

that

movement

regarded

the

Yet

The

and
mental

this

to

burst

forged

only

which

all the
for

it,and

to

freedom.

It

the

of

effects

so-called
of

and
sprang

the
up

it

and

in

in

lectual
intel-

an

antiquity,

Europe
ages

struggle up
was

which

It

In

the

In

schools
the

restored

of

Netherlands
the

and

beautiful
260

of
to

it

that

the

lectual
intel-

felt

be

it

Vinci
soon

Flanders.
classic

in

threw
over-

directly

way

inspired the
Da

had

dence,
indepen-

philosophy

art

painting

waking

sunlight of

religion it paved

Reformation.

narrowness

tradition

ultimately

were

found
pro-

prolonged lethargy,

into

view.
a

the

was

of tiresome

activity.
In

the

great declaration

human

rather

against

from

ological.
archae-

imperfect

Italy was

Michelangelo, Rafaelle, and

great

often

too

than

of classical

mediaevalism.

of

scholasticism.
for the

revolt

fetters that

of

is

"

more

narrow

began

in Western

sphere

every

is

routine

humanity

seen

great models

far-reaching

of

ever

exclusivelyliterary,artistic,and

Renaissance

and

the

to

almost

being

as

has

being primarily nothing

as

reversion

"

world

in

terpieces
mas-

Italy,

afterward
In
models.

tecture
archiIn

262

HISTORY

ideas,moreover,

OF

destined to

received

coming

age

It may

thus

from

began

in

play an importantpart
their

germinal expression.

that Dante

initiated the

considered

'

The

as

separate

the

Renaissance

Italy(1250-1453),and

Its first sign was

richness

of

in its first
marked

was

time

world, and

the pagan

by

of the

scholars and

in 1453, many
their

learningand

of

matter

century before
be

seen

and

Symonds,

See

striking

had before his

the

The

we

fall of

A Handbook
Scartazzini,

Some

wrongly
the Turks

knowledge

and

of the

in

His
to

began

at

as
Constantinople,

brilliant career,

shall mention

and

Renaissance

fled westward

writers

of
protagonist

Renaissance

Federn, Dante

the

ascribes

Renaissance

fact, the

of the true

Petrarca, whom

in

Constantinopleby

their

by consideringthe

Dante, but

in the

parted
im-

Greek

in Italy. But,
peoples,especially

classics to the Western


a

classical

see

verse,

Byzantine Greeks.

say that after the capture of

as

we

of those who

which

popular error

the influence

to

own

spread
wide-

largenessand

the
this

period

for the mediaevals.2

written
a

Dante's

dull formalism

to the

It is

passionfor

vigourand magnificenceof
contrast

ment
move-

movement

revival of interest in classic literature and


ideals.

in the

intellect in its entirety,


though he did

lead the Revival

in this evolution."

PHILOLOGY

him

trulysaid

be

of the modern
not

CLASSICAL

this

can

easily

merely

not

of

period,Francesco

littlelater.

least

We

have

Italy,p. 69.
Time, Eng.

Dante, Eng.

trans.

trans.

(New

York, 1902) ;

(Boston, 1897).

also

that

seen

Roger Bacon, who flourished

century, composed
after the

Greek

to

seem

small

Greek

have

had

excited
Nor

set.

cramped and

Europe,1but they

in

mediaeval

the

One

crude.

its culture

such
that, after recalling

names

of

and

England.
and
almost

teachers who

could

hardly

say

Gregory

the

of

The
a

Renaissance

desire.

new

in its

pagan

thirst for mental

Their

the

had

concern

splithairs

of the

weary

the

feelingin

new

of Padua
sigilo
and

new

best to him.

seems

in

Bohemia,
1

and

of life,
and

many

had

its
most
al-

been

with

the

mysteriesof

it

was

faith.

narrow.

very

but finally
men
dextrously,
and

largerlife

William

shook
must

the

Wiclif
other

rightto
in

Mar-

the individual

and

organise

England, and John

independentminds

Boethius, Isidorus,Alcuin, Rabanus

the

expresses

Nominalism.

think

into

for them.

mean

importance of
a

grew

themselves

of Ockham,

philosophy of

that the individual has

as

ration
inspi-

new

guidance of the priesthood,and

ingenious,but

teaches

mediaevals

The

of hairs
splitting

Englishman,

and

secular and
essentially

was

been

most

realisation of what

So

It

freedom.

philosophywas

It could

rather

means

the great

in France

its love
irresponsibility,

wholly under
their chief

best known

were

very

necessarily

Great, of Cassiodorus,Alcuin,Charlemagne, and


scholars

mind

those

as

his

few Greek

great interest outside

no

was

pronounced

Byzantines.
known

been

in the thirteenth

and

grammar

of the

manner

of eminence

teachers

263

RENAISSANCE

THE

Huss

organised

Maurus, Bacon,

et ai.

264
their

at

the

of

PHILOLOGY

individual

the

individual

rightof

A brief survey

of the

what

Christian

It

passion of

the

against the

dimness

reverted

with

and

almost

an

He

saw

he

His

poetic instinct

took

writingsof
satires.

his

For

and
he

the

But

an

in

Germany

in

his

can

and
politics

which
the

art.
1

the

and

to

life.

dull

Vergil,and

from

it

his

Italian

Africa.
was

in

the Ciceronian

Its

received
realised

fact
significant

so
long
spirit,

petty republicsand

(1304-1374.)

ders.
Flan-

clumsy

led to the Renaissance

national
The

and

rejectedthe

scarcelybe

us

dom
free-

of human

entitled

War, and
now

it recalls to

Italyof

view

went

Latin

He

predecessorsknew,

Apart

Punic

that

the

widelyand

vocabularyfrom

Latin

epic in

Second

enthusiasm

renewal

both

and

their barbarous

writers.

of the great motives

one

travelled

he
inspiration

enlargedhis

took

the pagan

He

exquisitetaste

Augustan

understood.

and

own

composed

subjectwas
an

intensityto

comprehensive

more

who

ning
begin-

medievalism.

of

than

the scholastics with

his studies he

with

fierce

largerworld

and

at the

give

learning.1Possessing

bareness

of France

men

Scriptures.

Catullus,he openly revolted

spontaneityof thought.

visited the learned

verse,

and

he

was

first positive
steps in the revival of
the fire and

the

actuallydone

Renaissance.

true

Christianity

to

activities will

Petrarca's

was

the

They taught

of
interpretation

of Francesco

understandingof

an

CLASSICAL

pleasure throughout Europe.

importance
and

OF

HISTORY

or

that
was

stifled
small

THE

had
principalities
time when

and

almost

blotted out

the great Roman

the world

and

when

and

Africa

Empire

Rome

Asia

Minor.

for Italian

that sentiment
a

until

vital

thing down

in

the

1870

the walls of Rome

capitalof
As

and

its verse

is

of the

of

Latin
a

more

Petrarca's
texts known

of which

which

Wherever

manuscriptsof

to have

he

remains

at

in this poem

are

the most

War,

many

to

many

significant

book,1 which

the Renaissance

is

itself.

be mentioned.

To

apparent that the classical

formed

but

small

part of the
once

existed;

himself to the task of its recovery.

set

in his

travels,he

classic authors, and


1

through

Punic

to guess

of literature that had

went

actuality

they employed, and

perhaps

it began to be

to his world

he appears

main
re-

poets of the Renaissance

lines in the ninth

great and splendidmass


and

to

citythe splendid

the Second

yet there

importantfact
mind,

inspired

Italyburst

long time

and striking
spirited
prophecy of
One

it

gave

that ancient

words

the

of nine

one

this fact

destined

was

United

epic on

they often guessedwrong;

of all is

stillobligedfor

splendid passages

Gaul

powerful State.

Latin

quantitiesin

recollection of

of Sardinia

imperfect. The

periodwere

and

Spain

to

of

mistress

of all Italians and

made

and

to Petrarca's

been

of the

through the succeedingcenturies

King

new

had

unity which

graduallythe Kingdom

when

the memory

law

gave

thrilled through the minds

now

265

RENAISSANCE

ix.

273-282.

with

some

searched
measure

for
of

266

HISTORY

At

success.

Cicero and
a

unknown.

CLASSICAL

he

discovered

PHILOLOGY

two

part of Cicero's letters.

portionof

as

Liege

OF

the Institutio of
More

At
"

its way

the very close relation of Latin


for the

achievement
later

much

and

Greek
made
there

discoveryof

than

practically
all the

and

teachinghim,
a

that time who

at

which

of Homer

copy

derful
won-

the
both

to

language. Unluckily

died without

he

"

Petrarca, like Cato,

age,

the Greek

in Florence

one

no

was

Greek,

edged
acknowl-

relation of Sanskrit

his old

In

Latin.

to

rest

time, as strange,in fact,as

the

effort to master

an

read

then

of

he found

discovery,he recognised and


philological

of

Verona

Quintilian,

important in

orations

new

had

capable

was

learningenough
been

him

sent

to

from

Constantinople.1
Petrarca
that

his love

degree

the first true

was

for classical

hundred

that had

years,

spiritand

his

his
Epistolce,
the note

to waken

as

Petrarca

of Homer
the aid of

styleof

of classicism

Calabrian

and

the task

Greek,

to

the

his death

he

return

Before

purity,and

remarkable

clearlyand

one

Boccaccio
disciple
was

very

Leonzio

in

dialogueshe

so

splendidly

genius of Italyonce

the dormant

Latin, and

so

of Dante.

preceding seven

and his
Viris Illustribus,

De

urged his friend

into
a

Latin

that

was

in the

classical age.

life of the

attained to

done

been

as

least

in the

not

to
struggledpassionately

he

had

struck

antiquitywas

by medievalism,

overlaid

Despising all

of the Renaissance, in

son

to render

more

to

this copy

imperfectlyperformed with
Pilato.

missionaryof

noted

from

city to city all


of

host

the

and

monks

communicating
with

and

his

by

His

beauty of

he

time he became
in

leius.

It is

professedlya

of

There

translation

2d ed.
*

self
him-

to moderns

of

son

he

into the gay

and

sance.
Renais-

the

taken

soon

was

life and

learning.At

to

natural

then, under

was

by

the

King
same

spent

and

Apu-

copying manuscripts of

likelythat

the

tales,gave

Decameron, which

book

is

Boccaccio

is,in

ment
arrange-

collection of Milesians,that is to say,


as

know

we

critical edition of the


On

Petrarca

(New York, 1898),and

(Paris,1907).

Terence

latter author, whose

collection of Milesian

(Oneglia,1874).

I3I3-I37S-

by

interested in classical study and had

(Paris,1867) ; Geiger,
Petrarch

is best known

of culture

manner,

is

Caesar,

felt both

been

French, but

was

short,witty stories
1

had

enthusiastic

the firstsuggestionfor his

and

and

Cicero

of

them
impulse,and stirring

new

flunghimself

centre

time

of

cityof Naples, which

the

taught the Latin, not

but

that

an

was

mother

Italy,where

much

the

him

inspiredmaster.

Decameron,

Robert,

he

Boccaccio,2who

Giovanni

his

them

Travelling

movement.

new

schoolmen,
to

the

Italy,he gathered about

whom

enthusiasm

new

the

over

pupils to

(or

accomplished Latinist,was

Malpaghini),an

most

da Ravenna

giftedsecretary,Giovanni

life.1 Petrarca's
Giovanni

267

RENAISSANCE

THE

them

Africa by

Petrarca

Corradini

himself,see

(Leipzig,1874) ;
de

But

now.

with

an

from

Italian

Mezieres,Pitrarque

Robinson

Nolhac, Pitrarque

et

and

Rolfe,

VHutnanisme,

268

the

HISTORY

standpointof

styleand

Latin
various
Varro

CLASSICAL

fact that he

wrote

in

turn

preached

culture

at

cities.

Leonardo

Venice, Mantua,

Aristotle,Demosthenes, and

of them, Colutius
the

cityof

and

popes

Latin

sonorous

style. The

interest which

for

do with

(Cyriacusof Ancona)

part of

every

and

seemed

to

object in
1

See

coins,and
him

these

1890).

ments
publicdocu-

antiquityled
feel

to

than

thus

Italy and

the
of

Ciriaco

islands,

as
inscriptions

what

87-97,

Werke,

und
*33

"

pp.

742

his

was

"I
journeyings,he replied,

Leben

He

sculpture,gems,

asked

Korting, Boccaccio's

thing
every-

siasm
strong enthu-

Greek

significant.When
endless

of

remains.
literary

of such

cit. pp.

One

masters

were

taking note

1880) ; Symonds, op.

labours.

pertainedto

besides manuscripts, bits


collecting,

medals,

Barbaro,

Cicero,and

of

who

classical

rather
archaeological

ransacked

ian
Ital-

of securingfor
princesthe necessity

the classic

de' Pizzicolli

cal
classi-

chancellor
(Colucciodi Salutato),

secretaries

to

Giovanni

other

Plutarch; while

scribes and

had

of

excellent translations

themselves

which

and

on

say)

gospel of

in 1375, first used in the

of his office the

forced upon

the

in the enthusiastic

Salutati

Florence

excellent

in Latin

those of

Rome,

made

Bruni2

an

tant
impor-

(let us

manner

and
disciples

and others shared


Strozzi,

to

the

His

their

to

of treatises

Suetonius.1

Malpaghini

is most

attained

number

subjects,quite after
or

PHILOLOGY

Boccaccio
classicist,

of the

because

of

OF

foil.

go

to

(Leipzig,

Cochin, Boccaccio,etc. (Paris,


*

1369-1444.

HISTORY

270

Medievalism.1
of

OF

He

CLASSICAL

also to harmonise

strove

Christianitywith

employed

PHILOLOGY

of

those

all the facilitieswhich

in other countries

the

ings
teach-

paganism.

Strozzi

his great commercial


him

gave

for the

terests
in-

discoveryand

purchaseof manuscripts.
all this,
that it was

clear from
It is perfectly

Constantinopleand

of

that

about

brought

end of the

Italian

classical

and
for

power

the

despoticrulers

of

parallel.It

new-made

a
was

after

one

The

research.

another,held

Salerno

learningand stimulated by
by the

younger

Council
men

like Nicholas
art

was

V., Pius II.,and


an

the Italian humanistic

form

of

fine art and

import. Under

rivalryof the

passed into
(1431-1449),
Leo

thus

all these

to have

the

Bologna, Padua,
breath

X., in

free hand

whom

In

be said

to

concealed

of the

new

schools founded

new

the control of

absorbingpassion.
impulse,may

to

and encouraged
libraries,

republics. The Papacy, with

of Basel

learningand

the

Milan, made

in

power

reinvigoratedby the healthful

were

Even

sort.

universities of

ancient

with

that he provided

de' Medici

of existence for talent of every

means

united

who

of the chief aims

one

maintained
placesfor scholars and artists,

and

culture.

new

for the best in literature

taste

tyrant like Cosimo

bloody ruffians who,


learned

had been passing into the control


responsibilities,

without

art

antedated
spirit,

democracy, but having tired

unscrupulousnessof character

brutal

scholars

the thirst for

rapid spread of the

rich under

cities,grown

extraordinaryseries

of that

the

to

favoured

of its

somewhat

Greek

Byzantine Empire by nearlyeightyyears

"Circumstances
The

of
dispersion

Renaissance,since

reversion

learning,the
the

the

the

the downfall

not

after the
a

series of

the interest in

under
fact,learning,

have
much

taken

on

the

of its serious

favouringconditions it is not strange that


1

Infra,p.

271.

RENAISSANCE

THE

flippancyof character

certain

seemed

the

natural

things of

human

life.

had
natural

largelygiven
Everything

to

way

formal

became

many

Here, then, is

opposed

to be

to-daymark
and

gentleman

what

the

The

the

bound

men

words,

whom

one

Returning

See

Voigt,

infra,p.

Jahrhunderl
Culture

des

of

Gasquet,

Renaissance

of others,

to

the

fine

characteristics

would

describe

an

as

Humanism

objectionto

every

dogmatic

were

imposed

to

check

no

all

though they were


was

fine and

relations

between

Byzantium

and

in the first place that the Renais-

272.

Humanismus,

the Renaissance

The

the

love of what

common

Wiederbelebung des

Die

and

of the

readilysee

can

gests
sug-

meant

key-note of

The

mediaevals

course

beautiful.2

graciousand

we
Italy,

we

The

aesthetic tastes

togetherby

of

careful cultivation,
and
geniality,

scholar.

Humanism

by

mind

Roman

in other
the

is meant

Humanism

to

"

dogmatism.

degree.
upon

tianity,
allegianceto Chris-

of

in

is a toleration of individual tastes


of

experiment.

followingthe ordinary forms

with

urbanitas

certain

form

their

limits.

no

aesthetic

of

name

knew

in

Medievalism.

to

breeding combined

which

that

reallyinterested in philosophy than

seen

humanitas, which

joy in the

'

devotion."

as

more

increasinglylax

doctrine,and

the

renouncing

way

caccio
Boc-

lightnessof

century later,this sincerityhad

over-refinement

an

The

expressionof exuberant

in
permissible

was

in any

Without

erness
be associated with the clev-

to

came

fifteenth-centuryscholars.

the

of

271

Eve

in

3d

klassischen
ed.

Allerthums

oder

das

(Berlin,1893) ; Burckhardt,

Italy,Eng.

trans.

(London, 1898) ;

erste

The
and

of the Reformation (London, 1905) ; Emerton, op.

cil.

HISTORY

272

antedated

sance

(1453). I*

OF

CLASSICAL

the sack of

indeed, of

1S"

literature that the


of Greek
an

of

destroyed in

burned

year

1400

to

demand

became,

monk,

when
his

was

rendered

ducats

Italian,and
version

the

sum

of

to

of Homer.
court

from

It

($1200)
Guarino

thousand
Even

Rome,

he

the

his

who

he
for

thousand
He

gold florins

took

from

gave

to

portatio
im-

greater

Nicholas

V.,

manuscripts,
and

patron.
classics

He

tained
main-

service,and
him

the

agents

wholly
Perotti

for

five

translatingPolybius into

Latin.

when

it is
taken

were

Greek

Latin.

employed by

was

for

the

in Greece

even

collector

lucid

copyistsin

Polybius into

of ten

an

Thus,

all

and

were

procuring codices.
hundred

have

idiomatic

foreign countries

Italy

to

supply

it was,

Italy,and
them.

of

to

of

As

munificent

purpose

into

been

increasinglybrisk

an

into

books

deeply into debt

run

Pope,

hundreds
in

was

texts

had

brought

remained

least 120,000

at

there

1450,

still

pillageof Byzantium, where

for translations

as

have

the fanatical Turks.

by

of Greek

It

treasures
literary

the

Recovery

the Renaissance

the fifteenth century to

said that
traditionally
and

in the

Constantinoplewas

Had

of Italian scholars must

be

who,

while

Turks

sical
importance to clas-

utmost

city.

of the

early part

demand
to

the

general interest

independent Grecian

in the

Constantinopleby the

manuscripts began

postponed,many

PHILOLOGY

the

with

gold florins
also

promised

for

metrical

plague drove
him

for

all his

him

like

Filelfo

ing
render-

and

his

copyistsand

RENAISSANCE

THE

should

translators lest he

numbered

of books

and

the

became

273
of them.

lose any

death two

at his

of

nucleus

His

thousand

the Vatican

florins,
manuscriptsto the
the safe

erected

massive

Urbino

thus laid the foundation

and
building,

purchase books, and


kept some
was

Even

as

as

soon

of the most

of literaturewhich

all of

nander.2

called Federico

The

complete
Borgia.

of

lost.

Thus

We

Petronius,for

now

known
T

The

listof Greek

all of

to

His

he

library
wide

prising
authors, com-

and

all of Me-

of all the great


catalogues

probably
for the

lost.

mediaevals

have

and

of books

that

prove

may

of Bac-

MSS.

authors

possessed

perhaps

by

yielded parts

missing books

others of whose
See

recovery

Egyptian papyri

recentlythey

Menander,

exist.

lost at the sack of Urbino

ultimate

The

look for the

now

may

hope

very

Menander.

Sappho, Alcaeus,and
are

manhood

foreignlibraries,
includingeven

was

wholly

as

to

di Montefeltro.

Scholars

source.

of

Menander

regarded

chylides and
now

Italyand

Also

valuable

begun

includinga

age,

of

not onlytheology,
but
represented

were
possession

been

he reached

as

Sophocles,all of Pindar,

In his

libraries of

have

boy he had

completeof the

philosophy,medicine, and

Cesare

that of Frederick

was
a

of

Italian collection

noblest

at work.
fortycopyistscontinually

one

range

The

existed at this time

(1444-1482).1

For

Republic,in 1468,

Venetian

the great Library of St. Mark.

which

gold

of six hundred.

number

keeping of these,the

dinal
Car-

part of

thirtythousand

of

cost

volumes

Library.

Bessarion, the translator of Aristotle and

Xenophon, collected,at

tion
collec-

of

Livy, for

for the

writingsonly

of

lyricpoets

the veriest

Burckhardt,op. cit.i. p.

the MSS.

268.

like

fragments

HISTORY

274

those

OF

far away

so

then

"

type of humanist, and


would

do

well

knowledge
only

two

is to

Petrarca, and

Dante,

"

The

no

life and

present writer has himself

who

reallyknew

who

have

of their

often

which

Renaissance

sympathy

and

But,

after

classical texts

the

One

went

may

the

more

the

are

they
shed

with

and

creatures
to

the level

to-day for

wish

actuated

the

new

wide

same

comprehensive learning

same

that

in the fifteenth century.


services

rendered, not by

by less distinguished
persons
spare, gave

classicists

literature

general

the classics down

all,the greatest
were

be

to

learningthrough the

These

art.

shall be

the great Revival

marked

of

of

blind
pur-

thingswhich

one

classical

dragged

ignorance.

own

and

sources

politicsand

too

with

because
nothing of the classics,

varied, multicoloured

history and

profits

millions

in contact

supposed

were

interpretative
lightupon

an

their

they narrow

altogetherignorant.

come

the thousand

ignorantof

were

the true

was

filled with
be

should

one

ignoramuses who
but

literature

which
specialty

was

classical scholars

often

of

his

they ignore the great golden world

outside, pulsating with

things of which

Here

modern

Too

corner

three,and

or

Boccaccio.

one. that

small

noting that

say, contemporary

emulate.

to

to

It is worth

only ancient works, but what

not

that

modern,"

PHILOLOGY

Oxford.

as

collection contained

CLASSICAL

freelyof

in the

popes

and

who, having
their time and

forth like seekers after hidden

recovery

princes,but

little money

in

to

These

labour.

treasure

of

search

RENAISSANCE

THE

for them, in their enthusiasm, all the romantic

had

that

zest of

of

Crusade.

new

Europe

caught

their

threshingout
of
and

North

the

Lucretius

Duns

to search

the

The

The

ever.

of Medievalism.

singlescholar yet

some

Renaissance.

as

monasteries

schoolmen

The

still erasing Vergil and

make

for Rabanus

room

still

were

chaff.
mouldy theological

were

to

sleepyhaunts
the

among

ists
copy-

Catullus
and

Maurus

the scholars of

came

that

parchments

the cellars,
and
scriptoria,
for any

pagan

revival,the

new

Scotus.

Into these

in the

there had

somnolent

stillas

were

that while

still plunged in the dulness

was

spiritof

the

of the

the ardour

here and

Only

be remembered

It must

with

ablaze

Italywas
rest

275

scroll

Rome.

The

or

lay in dusty bundles

sometimes

even

that contained

scrap

story of

these

Italy,
eager

the outhouses,

the Latin

of
explorations,

of

the

difficultiesencountered, of the rebuffs

experienced,of

disappointmentsundergone,and

splendiddiscoveries

achieved, would
related here.

however,

so

read
One

learningand
of
shown

more

he

"

what

unknown.

gratitudeto
The

him

it cannot

this

the recovery
a

of

we

in the

of

period is,
priceless

Many

cause
be-

revival of

call the

may

scholars

by callingthe

Age

be

passing mention,

rendered

in
especially

the fifteenth century

historyof

least

justifyat

hitherto

but

romance;

with

services which

texts

their

to

in the

name

closelylinked

manuscripts,as
of the

like

of the

the

vation
exca-

have

first half of

Poggio Bracciolini."

276

HISTORY

Gian

who,

Francesco

as

his fees he

da Ravenna
Later

became

and

Church
and

on

which
and

he

which

made

are

In

very

wrote

that of

as
a
essayist,7

fluent and

and

His

their

of the

translator

Historyof Florence.

He

Imitating Seneca.

Collectivelystyled Facetia.

from

of great

man

enthusiasm

he

He

is

as

able,
remark-

orator,2

an

readable

the

now

epistles,9

Greek,8 and

anecdotes

for these

chieflythe clergy.
8

Latin

scurrilous controversialist,4

indecent

however,

city in

intense

an

though

the

to

Historiographer,in

writer of very

Latin, that

quaintness

Chancellor

distinction

won

380-1459.

attacked

in

journeys

was
literary
activity

keen

witty though

easy

annals

sympathy,

It is not,

the

these

Livy. Poggio was

as
a
satirist,5

of

made

was

in that era, for he

compiler

Curia,

of

from
interesting

he

1453,

as
historian,3

an

as

and

Florence, Prior, and

of

Roman

that the notes

so

for classical literature.

as

Greek.

Switzerland,Germany,

wide
versatility,

an

Chrysolorasin

their official visits to

upon

even

Giovanni

"

of the
great dignitaries

capacityhe

modelled

for instruction

the

naivete\

Republic

as

the

to

secretary

England,

even

Florentine,

of his time

Manuel

capacityhe accompanied

this

was

able to pay

was

greatest teachers

in Latin

he

scripts.
gained his livingby copying manu-

man,

of the

two

PHILOLOGY

Bracciolini

Poggio

young
From

under

CLASSICAL

OF

and

things,nor

Orator Publicus

Against Filelfo (q.v.).

Especiallyregarding his

translated

grams.9
epi-

for his

remembered.

as

His

of Florence.

travels.

Xenophon's Cyropadia.

278

HISTORY

the

Pope that

was

OF

in

CLASSICAL

Cistercian convent

at

persuaded Cardinal

once

special
messenger

in search of

bestirred himself

and

The

treasure.

because

he

it shows

The

for their

the city.

St. Gallen

of

Thither,partlyfor

findingbooks, of which

collection in the convent,


of the well-stocked
and

You
but

very

library,we

of

the

look upon,

to

and

This

hand

in

to him:

the Romans,

thirty-twodays
Camillus

and

was

of

sent

There

dismal

serve,
they de-

as

dungeon

condemned

felon with

and

to

be
to

the

at

nals
crimiindeed

Quintilianwas

begging

rough beard
garb against

stretchingout his
be saved

from

to the

Poggio copied with


Quintilian,
it to Leonardo

called the second

receive the title of the second

restored

housed

not

countenance

seemed

yet

as

so

fate."2

completemanuscript
"As

He

sentence.

callingon

undeserved
1

ragged like

hair,protestingby his

of his
injustice

hand

and

large

filthyfrom neglectand

thrust.
.

was

Quintiliansafe

are

from

partlyfor the sake

place into which

"

hardly have been

matted

and

tower,

"

steps. In the middle

our

foul and

most

very

miles

that there

discovered

that the books

lying in

were

bottom

rightside

know

must

would

heard

directed

we

libraries
were

twenty

and

sound, though covered with dust and

age.

you

had

count
ac-

interesting

famous

some

amusement

we

is

Poggio writes:
lies

this

secure

they contained

sake.

own

to

l
Quintilian

which

de' Medici

Poggio'sown

in the .most

even

probably lied,for

found.

discovered
that

monastery

be

not

of the North, the books

of

there

send

to

it,while Cosimo

Dane, however, had

how

littlevalued

Orsini

despatched agents

manuscript could
of

"

Roskilde

at

manuscript of Livy containingall of the lost books.

Poggio

the

PHILOLOGY

author

Bruni, who

founder

of the works

of

own

back

wrote

Rome,

which

his

so

you

may

have

world."

is a life of

Poggio

in

1837).
Englishby Shepherd (Liverpool,

THE

Side

Desirous

it is

to

the

open

Boccaccio

open.'

place which

held

entered,and

He

visit to Monte

books

and
and

open

found

great

saw

grass

various

and

had

pared all around


Coming
these

valuable
was

money,

were

which

the

books

that

time

those

works

by
by

of

collector

Bruni

Gherardo

Venice

was

with

the

Giovanni

Quoted

from

all the

in different ways.

whom

he

to

to

why

met,

The

gain

little

making psalters
charms

into

made

were

(1409),of

volumes

Benvenuto

at

Greek

da

Cicero's

rhetorical

(1425),and

In

1423,

he

had

of

Nicholas

by

classics the most

which
these

Lodi

this

about

Cicero's

Plautus

of

Aurispa.

Constantinople. Among
1

key.

disgracefullymutilated.

that

Lanbriano,

Of

238

or

began

fairly
complete manuscriptsof

Leonardo

(1429).

the

to women."

fairlycomplete manuscript
Treves

snipped and

margins they made

discoveries

famous

up

another, and

were

monks, in order

boys. The

to

Go

foreign works.

in the habit of cutting off sheets and

were

letters

Others

the monk
so

the

and

The

that

door

then

and

tome

mutilated

been

found

Astonished, he

of ancient

asked

had

him

given

they sold

Other

and

text

he

'

the windows, and

lost several sheets.

disposed of them

and

volumes

the cloister,he

to

answer

of first one

modestly

favour.

without

was

dust.

"

he

...

as

but

sproutingon
with

steep staircase

up;

treasure

thick

the leaves

turn

of them

Some

so

benches

many

gladly went

Cassino

libraryfor him

stiffly
answered, as he pointed to

monk

set the similar

may

saving the collection of books

of

the monk

asked

279

this narrative,we

of Boccaccio's

account

"

side with

by

RENAISSANCE

he

of

famous

arrived

purchased

at

in

the celebrated

Codex

Imola, by Symonds, op. cit.,


pp.

133-134.

were

280

HISTORY

Laurentianus

OF

CLASSICAL

written

in the tenth

in the Laurentian

of

Argonautica

also the

Iliad

Museum

the

great

Plato, Xenophon,

was
collecting

It

began

to

name

of

by

that

this time

known

be

in the

Manuel

pursued

his

died, in Germany
of Plato's

Republic; and

much

spread the

to

There
of

text

Greek

of the later

some

of the

Byzantines

already been

the

to

made

He

North,

covered
or

paper

the

with

other

shape

of

of classical
in the
who

where

made

book,

the

were

name

scholarship,codex

libraries of

Voss

writing on,

Europe.

; but

Britannicus

e.g. the

log of wood,
and

Theodorus

substituted
codex
is used
Codices
Codex

oftener

after the

from

the British

was

are

wooden

times, when
and

applied to

it.

manuscript

sometimes

Museum.

of

parchment
In the

edition

named

they

tablets
or

put together in

Vossianus, named

placeswhere

an

Dionysius,besides

for wood

of any

wrote

translations

later meant

in after

he

Plethon, did

philosophy.

and

grammar,

materials

possessed them,

scholar
Codex

for

wax

tioned.
men-

literal translation

his contemporary,

The

West.

Florence,Venice, and Rome,

Platonic

Codex, originallymeaning

Strabo,

individual.

other

Aristotle,Theophrastus, ^Elian, and


1

thenes,
Demos-

manuscript-

Gaza, in the early part of the fifteenth century,

elementary

were

field of

any

journeying
(1415).

tained
con-

Sophocles,and

Diodorus,

countries

in

It

Procopius.

Chrysoloras has

taught Greek

He

and

found

served
pre-

Cassius,and

in the

treasure

never

about

was

of

mass

of

complete

Arrian, Athenaeus, Lucian, Dio

now

Florence.

at

Apollonius Rhodius.

(Venet. A),

besides

So

century and

plays of ^Eschylus,seven

six
the

PHILOLOGY

language

preserved

after persons
after the

had

been

Dutch

kept, e.g.

turning the
into

Greek.

and

stood

plodding

Francesco

the De

Amicitia

latter

the

Greeks

slow

were

drawers

of water

to

the

who

and

hewers

were

such brilliant Italians

siglioFicino) ;
tianus ; and

The

of many
their

and

the

to

vices, the

of

of

the

Latini

have

in

Sermonis.

Laurentius

Ficinus

one

finds

made

the

Latin

from
1

Middle

with

any

and

the

illuminating

the

from

place

greater Sophistsof the

Valla, though scurrilous like Poggio,


a

It

volume
was

which

he

called

a
essentially

Ages and

later,it

assurance,

since

whose

makers

the

barbarisms

1499-1584-

subject

displayed the virtues

Filelfo,roving

of

Poli-

(PietroVettori).1

treatise

Elegantice
on

Ciceronianism.
on
purityof diction,practically
the

(Mar-

lives,their achievements,

enthusiasms,

like

1444

been

in their

Renaissance.

Socrates.2

prepared

Victorius

controversies,one

place,seems

time

on

Petrus
especially

volumes, and

and

tor
transla-

immensely erudite Angelus

just mentioned

men

ardour

the

or

Marsilius

or

as

teacher, witty

his brilliant contemporary,

(Lorenzo della Valla);

Valla

to

came

collector of manuscripts, and


controversialist,
or

Italian

unimaginative

Filelfo,itinerant,lecturer and

of Homer;

of Cicero

said, however, that

essentially
Byzantine. They

"

and

and

high above

The

them.

of wood

be

It must

humanists
teach

Senectute

De

28

RENAISSANCE

THE

had
of

the

ing
Dur-

difficult to write

was

there

sifted out

style,

were

the

no

cons
full lexi-

classical words

preceding centuries, nor


"

Supra,

pp.

49-51.

282

HISTORY

there

were

what

he took

such

and

such

or

is to

say,

Valla's book

was

Italians the

upon
than

hundred

to-day

Even

much

so

that

it had

years
it may

reached

he

attention

made
to

the

wonderful

studies in both
best

de

tutor
See

la

at

to

his

258-265.

Cicero's,and

in less

its fifty-ninth
edition.

with

Thucydides;

Monte

at

careful

sons,

Puliciano,

He

Florence
years

began

his

under

the

of age,

he

celebratingthe victoryof
At

tournament.

poems.

Valla

profit.Valla,

his time.

Greek

Lorenzo
and

seventeen

de' Medici

afterward

gave

he
made
him

(Vienna, 1870) ; Nisard, Les Gladiateurs

Republique des Lettres,etc.

(Leipzig,1893) ; Schwahn

imposed

from

name

lines

two

Vahlen, Lorenzo

that it

scarcelyfifteen

1400

exquisiteGreek

wrote

him

of

when

the Medici

of

one

poem

and

Latin

Ciceronians,and

Quintilian with

of

reputationin

teachers,and

wrote

his

took

That

doctrine.1

and

text

Politianus,who
had

edition

an

it

words

sure.

Herodotus, and

likewise,translated Homer,
while

was

to

be

taste

consulted

be

phrasesand

guide
and

sentence

rightbecause

was

and

care

Latin

such

could not

one

with

and

word

but

barisms;
bar-

the basis of Cicero's

on

sentences

indicate

to

attempt

that such

quitecorrect,

executed

was

not

phrase or

Other

in the syntax of the

wrong

be

might

taught authoritatively

safe stand

say

Ciceronian.

was

was

did

could

Latinity. He

PHILOLOGY

which

what

Valla

language.
but

CLASSICAL

grammars

any

rightand

was

Latin

OF

(Paris,1889) ; Wolff, Lorenzo

(Leipzig,1896) ; and

Valla

Symonds, op. cit. pp.

villa where

charming

Florence

from

Being
he

Rome,

to

the

by

manner
flattering

could

he

conditions.

favourable

283

RENAISSANCE

THE

study

sent

but

he

the

from

being

he
translator,

all

"

that Politianus

study

to

under

and

Michelangelo.

was

perhaps the

recalled the

which

pages

His

of Tacitus.
its

beauty

of

Latin

he

One

is

expressionand

rightlysay

brilliant scholar of

only

not

was

reproduce

to

write

with

and

to
especially

for the

Grocyn

"

may

eleganceof Livy
verse

them

among

of Greek

able

could

of

pupils flocked

him,

most

original. While

periodsof Cicero,

noble

chair

teaching Greek.

the first periodof the Renaissance, since he

vigorous but

gold

200

inimitable,

was

and

Europe,

over

English teachers

first two

the

also

Florence, and

great cities

Linacre

and

in

spread

fame

His

received

and

a
work, filling
preferredprofessorial

literature

Latin

As

reward.

as

the most

in

the request of His

At

Pope.

the most

ambassador

an

as

received

was

Holiness,he translated Herodianus


crowns

under

glow

the

equal ease
the

strength

be noted

for

of its author's

imagination.1
As
and

for

critic of his century.


for

and

and
ness

Victorius,he stands

he

at

was

various

teacher of Greek

commentaries
the

work
1

See

on

of

His

his

and

as

the greatest

lifewas
times

Latin.

He

Cicero, which

one

of wide

ence,
experi-

soldier,a diplomat,
made

text

editions

surpassed in

contemporaries. Like

Gresswell,Life of PolUian

philologist

acute-

Politianus,

(London, 1805).

284

HISTORY

translated

he
with

notes

CLASSICAL

OF

of the works

some

put forth

were

PHILOLOGY

of Aristotle.

Editions

Sophocles,
parts of -^Eschylus,

on

Xenophon, Terence, Sallust,Varro, Isaeus,and


his most

But

Grecians.

known
is his

Varies Lectiones,in

shows

beyond

the vast

and

remarkable

of his

extent

Victorius

Aristotle's Poetics.

done

twelve

years

years

later.

In

poetic prose,
makes

forms

always an

verse

that the

notes

gam

Aristotle

two

forth to

great

the

the Italian
New

(1564) in

treasures

The

immense

of

poetic

Professor

his Arte

Spin-

the

lore.2

perhaps
the

best

dawn

enthusiastic

By

shine

of the first

restored to Western

of ancient
pp.

is

Poetica.

Victorius

closingyears

witnessed

it had

Creuzer, Opusc. ii.


Victorius

the

watched

It had

immense

Petrus

to

It had

Period.

culture,and

See

notion

defining the

of Politianus and

names

of pagan

the

ten

"

Renaissance, which

Learning.

did

phrase poeticprose" is used, perhaps

give splendour

period of

attacks

in

had

Roborteli

as

essential.

for the first time, by Minturno


The

criticism

Castelvetro

as

his criticism,he

his

interpretedthe

He

much

before, and

because

the honour

Europe.

KaOapaL? in 1560, very

famous

It

being sought out by

in
especiallyinteresting

was

expositionof

and

in

all countries

from

students

had

reading.1 He
of

(1582).

of his criticism

acuteness

being painted by Titian, and

of

production

books
thirty-eight

questionthe

all

less

some

the

called
of

the

revival

Europe

end

of

the

21-36 (Frankfurt, 1854); Riidinger,

(Halle,1896).
demand

for

manuscripts of lost authors

rather

natu-

286

HISTORY

who

CLASSICAL

Gutenberg or

name

we

OF

is said to have

Mainz

in

Germany

Coster

Schoffer.

about

1430,

and

1448.

We

the End

There

that

it is that

regularpresses

immense

of every

scholar,it paved

set

The

for

of book

centres

with

remarkable

productionwere

printingestablishments
seventeen

and
classics,
into the hands

and sixteen at
names

Auerbach

John

Cologne, the

Aldi

at

at

Venice

Age of the

See Prutz, The

See

See Brunet, Manuel

Renaissance

The Invention

Printing Press

Libraire,
etc.,8

truckverkunst (Vienna, 1882).

and

great

twenty-two

were

at

Augsburg,

Strassburg.2The

continuallyappear

in

Schoffer

at

and

(1492-1516), Zell

at

Froben

(New York, 1902).


ed.

vols.

(Oxford, 185 2-1 866).


(Paris,1880) ;

ofPrinting (New York, 1878) ; Hoe,


(New York, 1902);

of

Before

,3John
(1490-1597)

3d
Cotton, TypographicalGazetteer,
de

use

Mainz.

Fust

Basel

parative
com-

Cologne,

Venice, Rome,

historyof earlyeditions,were

Mainz,

The

rapidity.The

Cologne, twenty

whose
printers,

famous

most

the

Nuremberg,

at

of

learning,

generaland

century, there

at

about

up

of

men

Strassburg,Nuremberg, Augsburg, and


the close of the fifteenth

known

introduction

scientific study of classical texts.1

printingspread

able
mov-

1450 marks

the best-known

the way

at

of Fust

names

that the year

for critical work

by puttingthe apparatus

small

were

importanceto

copiesof
multiplied

it

made

Coster

printingwas

of the Italian Renaissance.


of

workman

from

also the

are

therefore,
say

may,

printingwas
for

then to have

Certain

and

the unknown

or

stolen the invention

printingpresses.
and

PHILOLOGY

Short

De

Vinne,

Historyof the

Faulman, Geschichte

der Buck-

at Basel

(1496-152 7),and ChristopherPlantin


firstpress to be set up

(1554-1589).The

in North

dates from

America

stillsurvives under

times

ancient

of the

name

swept

countries,where

its influence

Renaissance

in

was

rather

but

which
antiquity,
Southern
in the

UniversityPress.1

it modified

earlydays of

ways;

calls into

its service

suit the

to

The

editio

Cicero,De

development of

ancient

printedLatin

Constantinus

books, Greek

of Lascaris

was

set

up

The

See

first work

Lascaris
words

epoch,

World

New

had

Aldus

find,as
lation
accumu-

that
2

Criticism

study
which

graphy,3
Palaeo-

"

the

of

knowledge

of

is interesting.
Thus
Rome

and

printedin

was

Greek

the

copy

of

the

was

(Milan, 1476). Theretofore,in


been

according to

times,and gathered togetherby


2

printed at

was

The

new

ancillarystudies

many

in 1465.
Officiis,

of
'Epur-fifxara

work

any

the
first,

Rome,

firstprintededitions of classical authors

princepsof

to other

we
scholarship,

Epigraphy/ Numismatics,
1

much

spirit

forms.

many

study; the expansionof

the

in various

freer

the

the civilisation of classical

and

Greece

of material for

so

classical

In

Europe.

took

realitynot

harking-backto

Mexico

Collegeand

Italy,surgingon

over

in the

cityof

Harvard

1638 at

great impulse toward

first

Hence, the
of

the

England was

in the British Colonies

the firstto be set up

in 1540; and

in

established in the

Hemisphere was

Antwerp

at

first press

The

in 1477.

Caxton

that of William
Western

287

RENAISSANCE

THE

inserted with

its parts at various

into

one

Spingarn,History of LiteraryCriticism

book

This

pen.

places and

(1495).

in the Renaissance

(New

York, 1899).
3

As

with

As

with

Giovanni

Aurispa.

Cyriacus of Ancona,

give a greater reason

and

truer

who

said that

knowledge than

seemed
inscriptions
even

to

books themselves.

288

HISTORY

and

Graphic
invention

OF

for

means

learningaccessible

PHILOLOGY

and
Arts,1 Architecture,2

Plastic

of

CLASSICAL

the

making

to every

apparatus criticus of

one.

Thus, the Renaissance, though not,


it,

intellect and
was

all that

times

and

of

metaphor

As with

As

It

classic forms

or

For

critical

and

in

of the

Greek

the

goldenline:

"

renascitur orbi.3

Michelangelo and Bramante.


of the greatest architects

more

than

any

history of the Renaissance

other,revived

of

the Roman

see

Voigt, Die

Wiederbe-

Alterthums,3d ed. (Berlin,1893) ; Burckhardt,


in Italien

(Stuttgart,
1890-1891); id.,Kultur

Italien,8th ed. (Leipzig,1901) ; Symonds,

in

The

naissance
Re-

Pater, Studies in the History

(London, 1888) ; Vernon

The Italian Renaissance

Propugnatoridel

of

with

renovata

who,

1884) ; Scott,The Renaissance

modern

to

centuries

It

first associated

was

Italy (London, 1887) ; Walter

Renaissance

sake."

own

restored

the

of architecture.

Geschichte der Renaissance


in

thingsof

the

later with

he

was

lebnng des Klassischen

der Renaissance

Man,"

that

(1377-1446),one

Brunelleschi

the Renaissance.

and

scribes
de-

Sandys points out

in this

iterum

Roma

Donatello

with

Michelet

under Charlemagne,by Modoin,


learning,

Bishop of Autun,
Aurea

Dr.
birth

new

earliest revival of
the

the

gloriousin

was

their

sunburst, which

culture.

Roman

love of the

imaginationfor

the

intellectual

an

"

said,

Pater

as

World

the

discovery of

the

Walter

as

was,

"

the
finally

Lee, Euphorion (London,

of Art in Italy(London, 1888) ; Einstein,

England (New York, 1902) ; Miintz,Precursori

Rinascimento

(Florence,1902); Sandys, Lectures

on

of Learning (Cambridge, 1905); id.,op. cit. pp. 1-123);


Saintsbury, A History of Criticism,i. pp. 456-466 ; ii. 1-108 (London,

the Revival

1901-1902);

and

of the Renaissance

for

convenient

summary,

(Boston, 1893). See

De

Pearson, A Short History


Vinne, Notable Printers of

Italyduring the FifteenthCentury (New York, 1910).

VII

DIVISION

As

have

we

The

first

the

extended

century

Renaissance

down

the

twentieth
the

(2)

their

down

the

of
Period.

there

each

having

1882)

Nisard,

; and

edition, 45
v

see

that

selves,
our-

of

results

into
the

and

(4)

Dutch,
This

is

or

which

so

as

but

different
many

distinctive

Italian,
the

man,
Ger-

spicuous
con-

were

roughly

followed
the

the

convenient

great personalitieswho

Biographie

lasted

we,

the

periods (i)

English

op. cit.,passim;

Michaud,
vols.

the

the fruits of Italian

tinge of

called

have

down

continuing

as

the

Europe.
be

to

ian
Ital-

scholars, therefore, would

developed

were

said

experiencing

Renaissance

throughout

until

See

we

of

properly

be

respective periods;

fiftyyears

it

In

distributed

the

Italian

the

and

whole

its effects

Cosmopolitan.

grouping
in

set

the

(5)

is

it may

calling
the

the

over

since

Many

(3)

French,

of

day,

living

century,

inspiration given by

is what

more

Renaissance

and
mode

or

revival.

great

regard

rapidly

present
still

are

PERIODS

the

itself; but

the

to

that

already,

seen

scholars

INTO

we

the

may

ning
begin-

Post-Renaissance

culture
of

countries

schools

gradually

of

Europe,
learning,

nationality.1

Pokel, Schriftstellerlexikon
(Leipzig,
Universette,Ancienne

(Paris. 1843-1865).
289

et

Moderne,

last

VIII

THE

While

the

needed
be
the

schools

the

be

not

the

North.

splendid work,

the

period

itself is

his

Professor

life,as

Erasmus-legend,
writings
the

which

author

There

remain

voluminous

different

himself
also

and

and

has

was

ever

has

Emerton

never

1500

The

it must

taken

are

each
it

of

Desiderius

form
per-

memory

Erasmus,

lived, and

whom

in

The

from

to

the

to

was

his

stamp

said,

New

according

of

to

to

principles

with

vividly personified.

been

movement

mission

thus

should

therefore

dealt

whose

they

who

Europe.

temperament

who

since
have

be

must

transition,

greatest humanist

countries

its fundamental

after

He

this

other

intellectual

Northern

and

of

the

scholarship

personality

great

of

Italian

imitative, and

instinct

Humanism

500

this

accepted, they

national

upon

commanding

Italian; but

of

ERASMUS

country,

every

peoples

must

be

peoples

the

of

and

remain

should

in

interpret

to

Learning
not

felt

someone

able

OF

impulse given by Italy and

quickly

was

AGE

facts

form

about
of

sort

in his

passages

styled autobiographical, though

letters

from

ready writer);

correspondents
290

them

allowed

so

"

his

pen

(for he

representing

people

of

called.

be

to

every

at

was

least

grade

in

ERASMUS

from
life,

by

added

be

may

the most

than

was

that the

fame,

The

the

of

Age

he

they both

died

when

taught in

the well-known

Bois-le-Duc, where

of his life.

was

In

The

Gerard
This

1492

father

of

; hence

the

Erasmus.

The

Cloister and

The

book

the

later Middle

which

is
every

at

"

of Erasmus
himself

Ages

that

pale and
page

is

to

and

the

has

he

and

three

some

Gouda,

near

novel

serious

earlyRenaissance
fused

by

beside
introspective

left the

Dutch,

this

into

and

Gaert

or

Desiderius

by Charles Reade,
of the elder Gaert.

reader,since

genius
alive.

of

it displays

detail,while

in minute

the

mon-

Gaert Gaert's.

was

Graecized

fictitious account

author's

later at

"

his native

singularlyconsistent

displaysthe

was

the discomfort

in the vernacular

the most

been

He

age.1

stay there,he took priestly

Latinized

Hearth, givesa

who

parents until

wasted

and

in
called,

was

cording
Ac-

Deventer, and

"

knowledge

something

Rotnola

the

his

by

narrowness

of his

be commended

may

yet its careful

for

accurate
powerfuland historically

The

called almost

illegitimate
son,

significant
year!

name

1536 constitute

entered the monastery

Erasmus

widespread

so

Rotterdam.

at

an

school

years
"

Erasmus

name,

into

ten

to

honour

an

master.
villageschool-

fifteen years of

was

the

he
Finally,

during the

orders.

born

he says that he

sufferingfrom

years,

and

he

less

itself be

may

cared
nevertheless,lovingly

was,

i486

regarded

was

no

It

Erasmus."
was

tradition

to

from

fifty
years

Erasmus

Erasmus

his influence and

Desiderius

Desiderius

thrones.

on

writer to

same

periodwhich

sat

preciousand

great became

in themselves
"

less

letter from

So
his

letter from

king as being no

those who

lowly to

that

291

great writer

George

Eliot's

masterpieceof Reade, in

and
virility

erudition.

HISTORY

292

OF

CLASSICAL

his abode

astery, and, taking up


should

we

regard for

termed

writing,and

he would

and

and

where

passed to Louvain,

Italy.

who

himself

was

the

of

sure

the

North

North, receivingin

the

North

culture

offered

was

his

was

native

though

he

readershipat

tongue!

lived

no

German

Italy,his knowledge

world

over

which

he

he

; and

only language

It

times

at

French; that, though


knew

be

may

with

which

he

spoke

with

always

it,because

Dutch

the

language
that,
little

frequentlyin Germany,

was

greatlyhe

that, however

the

understood

Paris, he

he

that when

is, indeed, quite certain

of Italian

was

fact

he declined

Louvain

in

true

ized
thoroughlydenationalin the

seen

familiar
sufficiently

not

was

in every country, and

friendlygreeting. How

Erasmus

his

through

home

cosmopolite,equallyat

"

man

however, in fact,a genuine citizen of the world, a

was,

he

England,

to

genialand brilliant scholarship.He

of his

the foundations

lated
stimu-

was

fact: that the

curious

Italian

of

son

mind

His

spent three years of his life

he

note

spread

to

was

favours, the rightof living

he

in

we

brought him,

would.

Basel, to Freiburg,and
here

which

he

to

But

having

time, he might

that

at

income

an

many

travel,for

by much

But

career.
literary

conditions

making

fame

Paris, he began what

at

independent scholar, teaching and

an

thus

togetherwith
as

as

the different

be

better

describe

now

PHILOLOGY

was

very

language

admired

slight. In fact,

of

the

reigned as

king,

the utmost

fluency.

"

he

sort

cultivated
of Latin,

Its syntax

was

HISTORY

294

cultivated

of

OF

he

well

knew

associated

with

the Aldine

writings fall

in

that forms
of

several
which

he made

The

philosophy.

of Erasmus

Aristotle and

Latin

and

Terence

than

these

in

and

A second

the

parts of Cicero

that such

suggestedby

Lorenzo

Testament.2

Erasmus, in

the Bible could

See supra, p. 286.

Supra,

recovered

pp.

by

241,

Erasmus

made

be

281-2.

of

Livy.

the life-

Plutarch.

More

tractate

exegesis.

Of

quiteepoch-making,

prefaceto

1505.

of

important

We

Testament.

trained

by Valla

have
been

to the New

this work

correct

no

except by

This

spirit

the works

his Annotations

fact that

in the year

in Biblical criticism and

phase of

of

in fact

Valla,in

the obvious

the

stupendous undertakinghad

alreadyseen

pointed out

is to show

Patristic writers,he edited

and

achievements, and

in the

up

in part, of
translations,

Moralia

includingthe

sprung

while
religion,

his critical revision of the New

was

circle

first,he

At

of his works

with

Demosthenes,

authors,not

of the

heads.

in his editions

is found

Euripides, Lucian,

Aldus
publisher,

had

drift of many

genuine pietyis everything.

work

like manner,

fun of the scholastic method

of little value

are

in

famous

Press.1

under

Church, and

Catholic

the

all the members

of the abuses

some

and

friend of the Venetian

and

criticised

around

Basel;

at

Manutius,

His

PHILOLOGY

gathered

Froben,

intimate

an

was

who

men

publisher,John

CLASSICAL

of

Valla's,

translation of
and
linguist,

seems

It represents the

to have

been

starting-point

ERASMUS

revised and

later

for such

School, and

in 151

the ancient
it in

that he has annotated

and

at

to

once
2

seven

"

that he has

says

with

Testament

collated the New

carefully

Englishman, John Colet,the

to the

he writes

"

be

to

began

undertaking; for

an

of St. Paul's

founder

Evidently,he

compared.

equip himself
years

manuscriptsought

originalGreek

that the

295

already

Greek

scripts,
manu-

than

more

sand
thou-

places.
work, when

The

in its

own

never

attained

My

while
of

it

time

criticised

was

the

Greek

studies

I have

not

the

of Greek

himself

earlyyears.

in his

the Greek

Latin
Greek
to be

also wrote

Ciceronianus,in

instance, Guillaume

who
philologist,
See his

was

as

critical works

his translations
on

some

of his

Bud6

of

some

said:

once

courage,

or

the

help

Greek

the

course,

he rendered

into

Gaza, while his

learning.2 It

is also

published a dialogue called

to

Latin
a

protesting
style,
of

pedantic imitation

(Gulielmus Budaeus), the

distinguishedGrecian, much

Life by E. de Bude

Such

he

Latin

againstlimitingmodern
*For

afterward

he discussed

which

without

of Theodorus

1528

that

imperfect." This, of

the climax

that in

noted

"

Erasmus

for my

securingbooks
that

Long

grammar

mark

texts

is

much

too

of

means

in Latin

amplest erudition
was

almost

are

He

master."

chieflybecause

knowledge

sure

and

to criticise it now,

easy

contemporaries possessed.1 He

his
"

It is very

in Basel.

of Froben

the press

publishedat

completed,was

superiorto

French

Erasmus.

(Paris,1884).
and

of the

editions

Greek

already mentioned, besides

Fathers.

his

'

296

HISTORY

the

vocabulary

interestingas
Italian
and

the

With

and

schools
In

and
"

the

as

later another

Erasmian

method, called

proposed,3and

vowels,rj, iy v,
machine.

since Greek

remains

it

pronounce
but

that the

to

differ very
a

as

Greeks

largelyfrom

it

Erasmus,
1

Infra,p.

See

By Johann

W.

was

regarded

which

is known

Somewhat

the Reuchlinian

Method,"

for its "Iotacism"

the

vi, all have


have

because
of i

sound

argued that,

been

day pronounced

of that

in since the classical

Greeks

educated
the

to

it ;

period,
known

was

pronunciation.

ancient

countries

have

held

was

largelythat

Latin

of the

in

the

time

of

Italians,a fact made

303.

erudite

an

countries

Pronunciation."

standard, most

G. Clark

also

pronunciationwhich

States,and

pronunciation of

the

Greek.2

method.

to the Erasmian
to

his

livinglanguage,scholars ought

common

arise in

and

Latin

in all the Northern

"

the

also wrote

he

year

might

pronunciationof

so

As

It

the

as

et, and

changes had crept

many

Hence,

known

was

in the word

same

was

between

presentlyto

were

established

in the United

This

Ciceronian,
strictly

was

pronunciationof

practically
adopted

after him

the

the

Cicero.1
break

coming

which

the correct

Europe

of

the

regardto Greek, he

has been

was

phraseology of

countries.
on

PHILOLOGY

Latinity,which

of

other

treatise

CLASSICAL

marking

School

Northern

of

OF

as

in the

second

of Philology,i. 2

(Ioannes Capnio), an

Reuchlin
Hebrew

(English)Journal

scholar,who
in

lived

learningonly

to

admirable

in the

him.

time

of

98-108.

Grecian, and
Erasmus,

and

ERASMUS

evident

himself

Erasmus

by

in his

of

use

Scholars

might lecture.

universities he

because, coming from

all the

before

retained

of

countries

for

generaltradition which
time after.1

some

nevertheless
which

is

accomplished an

prodigious when

pleasure,

of

work

amount

serious

gathers it together and

one

this is

place to speak; and yet they give a

no

whole.

fond of social

views itas

works
Concerning his semi-theological

pictureof
toward

all

of
failings

Encomium

his
especially
in

abound

See

Die

Pronunciation

life,and
the

early

which, with keen

wit,

life. In

Such

Praise

were

his

Latini

be

of

des Griechischen
trans.

etc. der Lateinischen

classed

as

inimitable

GrceciqueSermonis

Aussprache

Corssen, Ueber Aussprache

as

letters,and

he chose to

give in

(Leipzig,1888) ;

(Cambridge, 1890) ;

Sprache (Berlin,1870).

(a) theological;(b) satirical;(c)

(g) expositoryin
a

wit.

Pronunciatione

educational;(d) philological;
(e) critical;
(/) literary;as in
numerous

Adagia

ofFolly(1509),and

flashes

of Ancient Greek,Eng.

writingsmay

acteristi
char-

or dialogues
Colloquia,
(1524),2which

Recta

(Basel,1528) ; Zacher,

*His

clergy.

livelysatire,and

De

with

books

Morice,or

famous

Erasmus,

Blass,The

the

very

attitude toward

to do

he wrote

career

satirised the

(1508),his

his mental

thingsthat have

part of his

and

tain
main-

to

disturbed
seriously

not

was

Erasmus, though easy-goingand

for

Europe and

everywhere, this intercourse tended


fraternising
a

ever
what-

essential features of it,

the most

practicalpurposes

tion
pronuncia-

one

country he might be, and

in whatever

all

297

such

lectures and

unconventional
delightfully

way.

his very

discourses

298

HISTORY

follow

not

him.

sympathy

no

would

wrongs

the Church
the

with

religion.This
how

Rome.

His

poet who

but

in

modus

in the

Horace

praisedthe Golden

"Est

break

to

and

mention

have

been

Mean,

and

seen,

wisdom

he

here

of

with
died

forms

in

because

unfeignedly Erasmus

was

it admitted

that all these

the

refused

papal Rome,

might well

motto

believed

through

fact deserves

trulyas

could

while

sense,

greatlyheeding external

truly and

as

"

Church, and

temporarilyto be

itself. Therefore, he
of

the

Papacy, Erasmus

were

right themselves

splendid traditions

shows

the

Luther,

Catholic, although not


his

with

tranquilgood

certain abuses

that
had

His

PHILOLOGY

broke

independenceof

his

declared

CLASSICAL

Luther

Martin

when

But

OF

was

it
manist
hu-

Augustan Age
that of the

genial

declared:

who

at

"

rebus,sunt certi denique fines,

Quos ultraquecitraquenequit consistere rectum."


Professor

genius;yet who
what
that

but

very

was

of

sane

in

score

He

which

a
king of letters,

and

man

was

of

his

so

to the progress

of classical

of

philology. All

plished
accom-

at

absolutelythe

peculiarly
winning

felt all

over

Europe.

extraordinaryreading,

mind,
yet brilliant and original

of ways

was

Who,

Erasmus?
been

have

exercised,
by

influence

that Erasmus

great genius could have

could

particularmoment,

an
personality,

He

admit

accomplished by

was

of his Time

Man

does not

Emerton

contributor

learningand
his

influence

fication
the uniwas

for

ERASMUS

There

good.

to his

different ways

was

expressedby

Erasmus

"

I used

from
a

Principes

penned

were

"

free the

to

all these

seriously

was

that

to

risinggeneration
inspireit with

for

I wrote, not

studies.

Editiones

Important

it

sentences

but
Italy,

for

the Netherlands."

and

and

depths of ignorance,and

thirst for better

Germany

performed in

one,

best endeavours

my

the

in two

friend of all

was

before his death

in the year

him

serious

his

personalpride

no
"

he

he

which

work

The

had

He

accomplishments;

own

the world."

by

his character, and

upon

always noble.

were
aspirations
as

blot

no

was

299

of

Century

Fifteenth

the

I. Greek

(Id. 1 -xvnr.),togetherwith

Theocritus

1481.

Hesiod,Works

and Days.
Valla's Latin

(ed. Chalcondylas)

Homer

1488.

trans,

of the

Iliad

was

printed as earlyas

Hesiod, Opera omnia

1495.

1474.

(Aldus).

1495-98. Aristotle (Aldus).


1

Opera, ix,1440

Erasmus,

the studies of his character

(London,

Erasmus

Emerton,

1901).

Erasmus
See

also

Erasmus

work

by

De

on

162-167,

and

1890) ;

by

Froude,

Nichols, The Epistlesof


Education, (New

pp.

and

Sandys,

(Paris,1872) ; Nisard,

Laur

P. S. Allen

1894) ;

(London,

Erasmus

ward,
(1901-1904); Wood-

York, 1904);
on

(Oxford, 1906);
(London,

Erasmus

Erasmus

Lectures

and

See the lives of Erasmus

(Cambridge, 1899) ; Pennington,

Italie (Paris,1888) ;
pp.

and

i (1484-1514),edited
Epistolce,

Erasmi

Jebb,

(Basel,1540).

De

Nolhac,

the Revival

177-178 (Cambridge, 1905).

of

Erasme

en

Learning,

HISTORY

300

OF

Euripides,

1496.

Med.,

Apollonius
1498.

Aristophanes

1499.

Aratus

II.

CLASSICAL

{In

PHILOLOGY

Ale,

Hypp.,

(Lascaris),

Lucian

(excl. Lys.

and

Astronomi

vett.

Androm.

(Lascaris),

(in Florence).
Thesm.).

Aldum).

ap.

Latin.

Cicero,

1465.

First

Officiis.

De

author.

Cf.

Lactantius

art.

printed

edition

"Typography"

in

of

classical

Encycl.

Brit.

(Rome).

1469.

Caesar,

Vergil,

1470.

Persius, Juvenal,
Tacitus,

Livy,

Lucan,

Martial,

Juvenal,

Quintilian,

Sallust,

Gellius

Apuleius,

(Rome).
(Rome).

Suetonius

(Venice),

Horace

Terence

(Strassburg).
1471.

Ovid

1472.

Plautus

Bonn),

(Rome,

Merula),

(G.

Lucretius

1474.

Valerius

1475.

Seneca

(Venice).

Tibullus,' Propertius

Catullus,

(Venice).

Statius
1473.

Nepos

(Brixiae).
(Bonn).

Flaccus

(Prose

Works),

Sallust

issued

(first volume

octavo).

(Tragedies)

1484.

Seneca

1485.

Pliny

1498.

Cicero, Opera

See

Brunet,

Manutius

pp.

lxviii

the

Manuel

und

seine

and

647

Younger

at

Ferrara.

(Venice).

Omnia.1

de

Libraire,

Zeitgenossen
(Paris,

1875).

8 vols.

(Paris, 1880)

(Berlin, 1862)

Didot,

Schiick,
Aide

Aldus

Manuce,

in

HISTORY

302

of Humanism

into

language all
Oxford

and

Utrecht

in

in

the

CLASSICAL

Europe.

over

Holland,

of

scholars

who

Nevertheless, the

epoch.

papal

sword

drew

England
and

France

The

so.

world

not

was

Young

their

Utrecht.

to

to

went

The

young

in
for
1

See

The

it had

as

had

Europe

in

Italy;

Catholic

were

gether
alto-

not

while

Holland

the
and

scholarlyunion,
yet, but liberally

as

took
scholarship

The

days of

they went

now

the

and

Germany;

learned
Erasmus.

formerly visited Italyand


to

Paris

Leyden

or

student,accordingto his faith,

studied

at

Catholic.

became

Italy,its scholars
Nisard, Les Gladiateurs

Protestant

belonged to

been in the

where
university

Frenchman
that

had

different countries.

German
or

of

were

subject.1

the fact that

studies; but

school

universities

As

united

Englishmen

to pursue

way,

in

abuse

and
political

lay in

different forms

on

rage

flash in

and

Jena

treatises

theologicum could

might

its own

difference

Leyden

of

Wiirzburg, Gratz,

same

what

togetherin

went

of

learned

love of

Luther

might

from

the

on

odium

the

Universities

fulminations
theological

scurrilous

written

eliminate

their

Louvain,

most

had

the

England,

side, while

the

earlier

in

out

Innsbruck, Paris, and


with

Thus,

Marburg, Konigsberg,and

thundered

Protestant

mingled

PHILOLOGY

yelpingsand vituperation,
vile
scattering

Cambridge

Germany,

on

OF

national
had
de la

that faith
one

or

taught.

was

another

of

the

ship
Thus, classical scholarrather

remained

than
true

to

universal.
the

early

Ripublique de Letlres (Paris,1889).

PERIOD

THE

the

Not

word,

when

diction

and

orator.

to

that

tolerated,save

was

absolutelyto have
of

rhythmic cadence

the great Roman

Cardinal

Pietro

perfect imitation.

probably the

was

lived.1

His

Latin

in every

shade,

It is related that he would

casual

of

different from

his

whose

Erasmus,

in

individual touch
had

could
the

feel in all that

the most

and

the

the

his

of
geniality

fellow

themselves

on

stylealone.

conceived
delightfully

1470-1547.

See

Symonds,

1477-1547.

See

Joly, Elude

The
sur

Sadolet

the
very

said.

been

that

so

pungent
the

This

writings.
one

wit,
self.
him-

man

What

Italian

in

School,

they wrote

in the Ciceronian

Renaissance

with

Cardinal, Sadoleto,2

of the
distinguished
representatives

spoke was

Bembo

and

"

and

personality

all his

his own,

Erasmian

was

was

own

and

wrote

popularityto

of
specialcharacteristic,

But

of his gave

sympatheticmood,

wasted

he

everything that

mar

colloquialstylehad

syntactically
correct, while yet allowinghis
appear

Latin

he

Latinity. Herein

note,

master

should

he

so

Cicero

in every

speak

not

scholar,lest by doing
own

of

perfectimitator

most

recalls the Latin


inflection,

perfectionof his

He

purityof

Thus

in every

to

the

taken

ever

any

line

pains were

this

model.

of Cicero.

wholly that

was

phrase,nor

be shown
the

nian
Cicero-

It is extraordinary
to learn what

secure

Bembo

Its Latin

nor

it could

remained

degree, following closelythe precepts

last
Valla.

of Lorenzo

303

that the Italian School

Renaissance, so
to

NATIONALISM

OF

Italy,ii. pp.

(Caen, 1857).

and

manner,

409-415.

but it had

CLASSICAL

OF

HISTORY

304

force,no personalpower

no

felt that the writer

One
and

much

too

afraid

of

making

contenting itself
they read

whom

and

literarypoint of

and

It

view.

school

of

the

of

authors

reread

self-conscious,

too

slightsliphere

remained

the

with

literature,

from

school

there.

or

Golden

annotated

was

the listener.

to attract

speaker was

or

the Italian School

Hence

PHILOLOGY

of

Age,
strictly

style

style

"

always,and, therefore,stylethat degeneratedinto puerility.


classical

As

of

West

learningpenetratedthe

Italy,it

likewise,began
and

also

took

and
It

in

1483, that

passed through
complete
the Aldine

work

was

of

same

the

re-edited

Bude

and

much

In

1497

character

scattered

were

others.

dozen

size

in

much

issued

was

speedilyfollowed by

was

of

name

Constantine, and

dictionaryof

Calepinus, Bude"
others.

Most

(Paris, 1529;

dictionaryis

This

publishedafter

the Renaissance.

explanationof legalterms.

as

more

from
cons
lexi-

important

Robert

it

(Budaeus),
is
It

Etienne,

the first to have


It is

first

Basel, 1530).

enlarged by

(Paris,1548).

in its

increased

editions.

this

laries
vocabu-

printedthe

Crastenus

several

Press, and

bearing
Gessner,

representedhalf

Ioannes

the

aids for

and

Italy,
although many

vocabulary,which

Greek-Latin

the

each

It,

critical element,

produced, they

were
glossaries

in

of the

instruments

provideboth

fragmentary,and
was

touch

scholarlyactivity.Thus,
and

independent form.

more

show

to

desire to

on

and

North

countries

been

exact
particularly

Robert

Etienne, or,

as

"

English,

and

Robert

Stephens"),was

learning;and

of

man

important figuresin

Etienne, or,

his most

work, being based


original

long time

It

531-1536.

better lexicon

yet for

Henri

Etienne, in 1572, published a

remarkable.

It

no

was

Greek

words

with

work

compilationof
was

1856 foil.).To
the most

this

was

at

now

198

to
recognition
See

it remains
of Greek
of

the mother

Collegede France,
and

day,

least the centre

Egger, VEelUnisme

et les

Ouvrages de Henri

was

Dindorf

by

they

Francis

vols.

(Paris,
as

being

to the world.

of scholars,

flocked.

I, gave

men,

The
shelter

constituting

(Paris,1869) ; id.

(Oxford,1889) ; Feug"re,

Etienne

Lefranc, Histoire du Collegede France

by

brilliant group

France,

Pattison,Essays, i. 62-124
foil.;

la Vie

100,000

It

unrivalled

very remarkable
en

than

more

known

which

to

established

many

five volumes

authorities.

last of all

"

complete lexicon

France
or

re-edited

is most

and
industryand scholarship,

remarkable

times

many

Europe.

to

that

in

lexicon

references to

entirely

an

known

was

(Thesaurus Lingua Grcecce).It defined


Greek

in

vocabularyof Bud",

the

upon

tionary
dic-

appeared

not

was

in

Cassius.
Latin

his

(ThesaurusLingua Latino),which
1

very

editions of

Dio

important productionwas

parts during the years

as

classical studies

Horace, Dionysius Halicarnassensis,and


But

two

carefullycollated

father issued

The

France.

printer

once

Stephanus,1were

historyof

the

at

his son, Henri

called himself,Henricus

he

305

Stephanus (absurdlystyledby

he called himself,Robertas
the

NATIONALISM

OF

PERIOD

THE

Essai

pp.
sur

(Paris,1853); Pokel,s.v.; and


(Paris,1893).

306

OF

HISTORY

what

roughlycalled

be

may

Philology.

Etiennes

of

range

School

of

scholar

his

the memorable

stillin vogue,

are

edited;Bernard

greatest

(Dionysius

Muretus),3

Antonius

Charles

period;

du

Latin,whose glossaries

Low

on

have

and

the

ment;
Royal PrintingEstablish-

of any
greatest stylists

Fresne, sieur du Cange,4 a writer

the

of Adrien

Lambin

(Marcus

Muret

With

names

was

Denis

time;

also of the

Antoine

of the

criticism

encyclopaedic
knowledge.

Lambinus),2 Director
Marc

of Classical

for its acute

noted

(Hadrianus Turnebus),1 who

Greek

one

PHILOLOGY

the French

was

be reckoned

must

Turnebe

school

This

its wide

and

CLASSICAL

been

times

many

re-

Montfaucon,8 the founder of scientific

de

(Casau-

Palaeography; and greatestof all,Isaac

Casaubon

bonus),6whose

surpassedby only

of his

man

one

See

(London,

i. pp.

171

for centuries

or

after.

Clement,

Adriani

De

(Paris,1899).

Mattaire, Historia Typographorum Aliquot Parisi-

7); the appendix

(Zurich, 1861), 3d

478-491

and

Pokel, op. cit.,s.v.;

Praejationibus,
p.

1520-1572.

ensium

time

own

See

1512-1565.

Turnenbi
2

prodigiouslearningwas

to

Onomasticon
Orelli,

ed. ; and

the

Ciceronis,
Munro's

preface to

Lucretius,
pp. 14-16.
8

15 26-1

585.

and

His orations

part of his other works

printed;

are

edition,ed. by Frey (Leipzig,1887-1888); Pattison,Essays,

Teubner
i. 124-132,

last ed.

(Oxford, 1889);

and

Essai

sur

Dejob,

Marc

la Vie

et

Antoine

Muret

(Paris,1861).
4

See

1610-1688.

Hardouin,

les

Ouvrages de

du

Cange (Paris,1849).
5

1655-1741.
2

"

vols.

1892).

remain

de

Broglie,La

Societe de

VAbbaye

de

main,
Saint-Ger-

(Paris,1891).

1559-1614.

always

See

The

standard

that of Mark

life of Isaac

Casaubon

must

Pattison,ed. by Nettleship,2d

apparently
ed.

(Oxford,

Turnebus

and his mind


and

Greek
Varro

de

Lambinus

is to

of which

of the great

eleven years
of

his

epoch-making

and

admirable

few had

Lachmann

ward
after-

Lambinus

spent

to

the collation

of Greek

Professor

such

much
to this

ety
sobri-

profound learningwith
that not

only his editions of

contemporaries had

such

profound knowledge

apoplexy,caused by

of the material

splendidscholar of

of

an

vast
thor's
au-

the murders

commentators

which

Horace

cal
of classi-

in the minds

night. Modern

tion
edi-

an

At the end of that

Library.

specialone

his

died of

of St. Bartholomew's

givingcredit

very
of

Few

style. He

to Lambinus

his

results,so

his memory

learning,and

himself

dark,

been

those also of Plautus, Cicero, and

Lucretius,but

scholars.

work.

as

critical

the

the world

to

the

his time, whole

had

what

called to Paris

was

Latin, and employed


and

make

the Vatican

first made

But

which

devoted

and

in Rome

(1561),he

read.

he gave

Epicurean,upon

manuscripts in

time

having

as

lightupon

threw

critical

and

notes

left

brilliant and of great value.

impossibleto

of Lambinus

on

likewise

He

Before
intelligible.
fairly

been

based

period,

commentaries

wrote

Horace.

on

were

emendation
by judicious

and

he

remembered

be

of Lucretius
had

of this

Grecian

of
Adversaria, consisting

of
many

mind

authors,

Lingua Latina, and

comments,

passages

307

critical. Beside editingseveral


intensely

was

Roman

thirtybooks

text

celebrated

the most

was

NATIONALISM

OF

PERIOD

THE

they use

the French

owe

without

sance.
Renais-

308

HISTORY

His

in

in

and

Rome,

editingvarious

PHILOLOGY

Muretus, spent several

contemporary,

companion

CLASSICAL

OF

became

well known

classical authors, such

Tibullus, Propertius,and
volume

produced

renowned

for the

eighteenhe

of

in the

seemed

splendid as

indeed

in schools side

of the

as

most

was

the age

in Latin
read

were

late

of

and

ease,

They

various editions

and

eighteenth
century,

he

his orations

Paris

side with Cicero

by

critic he

style. At

of Cicero.

those

As

great fluencyand

Universityof

afterwards
as

his Latin

with

Latin

wrote

tullus,
Terence, Ca-

Lectiones,but

Varies

purityof

for his work

as

Seneca.

his

as

years

the end

as

made

were

of them.

Isaac

was

which
his

"

the

family often

lives from

their armed

hiding

in

had

cave,

At nineteen

Greek.

he

University)of Geneva,
Cretan.

Portus,

learned

pupilas

three

he became

is the most

born

was

in

to flee from

opponents.

sent

was

When

Portus

his successor,

Professor

to the

he

where

learned of all

Geneva, the

son

of

In these troubled
home

Pattison

received

Isaac

of

tion
he received allhis instruc-

the age of nineteen.

until he reached

while

He

whom

Huguenot minister,from

years

live to-day." He

who

the title

deserved

who
,

a iroXvtarayp.One
being essentially

bore of

declared
contemporaries

men

(Casaubonus)

Casaubon

Varro

scholars

greatest of the Post- Renaissance

of the

One

to

save

their

relates that,

his first lesson

Academy

studied

in

(now the
under

Greek

died he recommended

his

and thus at the age of twenty-

of Greek.

Four

years

later he

HISTORY

3IO
At

and

Geneva

These
and

hand,

volumes

them.

his memory

but it was

in

agreeableto

the

with

wrote
"

his

Chanceler

before me,

It

over

to

He
not

in
were

danger of

some

In
not

to return

The

had

being regardedas

He

especially

was

fond

Mr.

logical
of theothere

Casaubon

paid

King James

English people could hardly


became

English,and

course,

of

stored in Paris,was

been

his

very unpopular.

was
scholarship

Consequently,he

assault.
ruffianly

from

made.

out

"

the mob.

France, of

him

pension, the King

his

England,he

renegade who

was

had

windows

stoned

were

after he

always

was

night his

At

broken, and by day his children

streets.

exceedingly

was

personalintervention

speak no

appreciatedby

in

barnes."

my

England.

could

own

books, he

sought

was

such favour,and Casaubon

understand

his

occasion, when

one

paying

which
library,

that Casaubon's
sent

the

by

him

countries

Excheker, I will have

wife,and

also

was

and made

fact,on

hand:

of my

my

of smaller

case

King (James I), who

own

tances.
great dis-

while tiresome,fixed
practices,

about
difficulty

some

he walked

that his final home

In

volumes

necessary

and
all the universities,

at

discussion.
was

in the

Such

England

libraries of

no

with
copiedlaboriously

learning.Many

welcomed

was

he

were

borrow

homes

the texts themselves

in his

exact

to whose

it is said that

memorised

PHILOLOGY

obligedto

was

scholars

other

CLASSICAL

Montpellierthere

at

He

importance.
from

OF

had

in the

cided
dedefinitely

equallydisliked,
sold his

religious

belief for

of
publication

Casaubon
as

was

was

familiar with

such
classics,

contributed

little to Classical

memorable

books

Paris, and

at

It
great difficulty.

authors, and
little for

given to

was

succeedingscholars

brought out

as

earlyas 1592, and

1598.1

an

His

him

to take

comment

on

in the way

of

an

he

England,

his stay in

under

done
up

most

them

so

of

number
to

as

leave

exegesis. Thus

extraordinarily
complete Athenaeus

exhaustive

edition of

Persius2

three editions in the

remarkable

course

of

introduction

Historiography.
his annotations

Po-

fact,his

In

reading was

his Suetonius

Persius and

antedate

by Scaliger"divine"; while

is

those

as

edition of the Characteres of Theophrastus

he

in

his

thoroughlyto

so

as

Philology.

those which

were

time when

'

Dionysius of Halicamassus,

the four years of his visit in

lybius. During

which

of his powers.

out-of-the-wayauthors,such

with the better-known

nessed
wit-

encyclopaedic
knowledge. He

Augusta, and

of the Historia
as

of

man

which

great controversial work

nevertheless,wholly unworthy

was,

31I

died in the year

He

English gold.

the

NATIONALISM

OF

PERIOD

THE

Less

of other

full and

few years.

of less

authors,but

passed through
In his

Polybius8

subject of Greek

the

on

called

was

lastingvalue

he deserves

were

great and

enduring credit for having been the first to study Roman

Incorporated

into

Published

in

1605,

in

1609.

Schweighauser'sedition (1840).

time.
"

Published

and

pillagedby

every

commentator

since

that

HISTORY

312

satire,1
remarkable

CLASSICAL

subjectwhich

"

OF

du

has

been

remarkable

Cange,

School of classicalstudy,we

Charles
lexicographer,

who

did for Low

Latin

of his books

had

not

the

hand.

To

enumerate

the two

by

The

incredible if

be

firstof them

is

here be

deserve

the writers of Mediaeval

to the writers of Late

the words

Greek.4

that he

mention.
especial

Into

could

like glossary

these tomes

find in

all written

which

prevailedin

afterward.

His

the

in

Middle

sources

the

Ages
drawn

were

mixed

and

for

from

added

scholars have
until at present every

his pen

From

issue is

also

came

His

Historians.

to them

Greek

in each

Satira

The

Glossarium

ad

Media
Scriptores

Glossarium

ad

Scriptoreset InfimceGracitatis (1688).

by Rambach
et

tine
Byzancom-

(1605).

edited

decade,

hardlyso

De

originalwas

ceeding
suc-

Antibarbarus.

et Romanorum

archives

theywere,

an
practically

glossarywas

time

some

excellent edition of the

an

SatyricaGrceca Poesi

almost

many

language

the

of Paris ; and, therefore,


ponderous though

he

ments,
legaldocu-

and
charters,manuscripts,diplomas,titles,

printed documents,

own

but
impossible,

Latin; 3 and

and Low

his

modestlycalled it,to

he

as
glossary,

up

that ithas been

would

would

he isbest known

which

gathered all

himself

original
manuscriptsall written by
them

an

ing
Hold-

tongue.

so
unremittingindustry,

said that the number

Fresne,

Valla in

lucrative office in Paris,this scholar gave

for twenty years to

we

du

what

earlier century had done for the Ciceronian


a

since,of

interest to all classicists.2

the

sieur

and

was,

the French
Stillrepresenting

have

PHILOLOGY

(Halle,1774).
InfimceLatinitatis (1678).

PERIOD

THE

His

of his death.

in fact

and

his Latin one,

pleteas

the French

Government,

writingsof

Du

contained

now

are

of recollection

Worthy

period,Bernard

de

Montfaucon,

through illhealth

There

few

are

From

1698

in

monuments
was

the

to

spent

in

volumes)
in the

same

was

719, and

of

by Favre,

antiquities. It

in less than

sold, and
year,

with

a
a

two

edition

new

velle Biographie Cinirale,s.v.

to

10

entitled Analecta
he is best

But

folio

that

membered
re-

volumes,2

wholly

was

Palaographia
to

vols."(Niort,
1884-1887).
first

months
of

his

Figures. This

was

supplementary

full list of his contributions

of his time in

complete Glossarium

most

L'Anliquiti Explique'eet Representee en


storehouse

scripts.
manu-

contributions
interesting

last and

is that edited

to

antique objectsand

study of Archaeology;and

Latin

study.

abbey

numerous

something

of the most

one

by birth,

one

in ten

of

him

the world

to

of this

present much

most

work

his work

by

Hardouin, op. cit. The

the mediaeval

1701, he

to

Archaeology by

gave

It

which

career

annotatingtheir

drawings made

in which

wonderful

his

of

Bibliotheque

nobleman

completelyfinished.

(1688) never
,

the

were

lifeof seclusion and

His first publication


was

See

finally,

Frenchman

from
passed successively

he

another, examining and

to

incidents in his

variety,since

made

in the

another

was

but forced

new.

valuable

how

knowing

and

in Paris.1

Nationale

GrcEca

years

the year

Cange, collected the greater part

manuscripts,which

Rome.

313

publishedin

was

only four

lived

son

NATIONALISM

OF

brought

book
out

the first edition

2500

volumes

edition of five

Archaeologywill

was

more

be found

was

by

scription
sub-

(18,000
printed
volumes.

in the

Nou-

314

HISTORY

GrcBca has

never

had

of Saint

Germain,2 the

Order
been

inmate

an

Mabillon

and

to

manuscript by comparison

with

which

he gave

tine
Benedic-

abbey'scharters

the work

determine
others.

tioned
justmen-

distinguished
the date

of

listof

difference

The

Greek

in the fact that the latter dealt with

alone,of

abbey

and that of Montfaucon

of Mabillon

the work

between

the

could be

false documents

genuine ones,

of the beautiful

wrote

how

from

Palaeography,1

on

of
validity

The

attacked,and
how

earlier

earliest seat of the learned

in France.

to show

work

appeared a

by Jean Mabillon,

written

PHILOLOGY

superseded. Somewhat

yet been

(1681),there

had

CLASSICAL

OF

lies

manuscripts
Mabillon

11,630,whereas

had dealt alone with Latin.

though it shows
who

one

ha