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EFFICYCLE SAE INDIA 2013

Design Report
PHOENIX
Rajiv Gandhi Institute
of Technology,
Kottayam
KERALA
South-2 Zone

PHOENIX

E-COZI

Team structure
STEERING
BRAKE
SYSTEM

Jithu KS
Jeeva Mathew

Jithu KS
Kiran Kumar C
Anuvind Surendran
FACUTY ADVISOR

Mr. Antony JK

TEAM CAPTAIN

Zahir Ummer Zaid

POWER TRAIN

Zahir Ummer Zaid


Anuvind Surendran

DESIGNING AND
TESTING TEAM

Zahir Ummer Zaid


Anwar Naseef

VICE CAPTAIN

Kevin Sebastian
Thoompunkal

SUSPENSION
Mareena Antony
Kevin Sebastian Thoompunkal
Vinu Krishna

ELECTRICAL

Arun Mohan
Mareena Antony

Introduction
PHOENIX E-COZI is a recumbent tadpole trike with side-by-side
seating which incorporates modern technology so as to make it
passenger friendly . The complete designing process was based on
the theme of Safety and Comfort. Tadpole design is preferred to
delta design since tadpole has advantages of better driver safety,
dimensional stability, aerodynamics and ergonomics. An innovative
Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) has also been incorporated
for better performance and easiness. With strong chassis designed
to withstand impacts and covering to protect the rider from debris,
wind current and rain, PHOENIX E-COZI makes sure that no
where it compromises safety and comfort.

Design Methodology

The vehicular design and the subsystem designs are performed after
profound research into the particular field.
The subsystems are separately designed, validated and accepted after
rigorous comparisons and market analysis.
The components to be procured such as the differential, electric motor
drive system, electronic components like sensors and switches are selected
based on the market availability. The companies have been contacted to
know the feasibility of availing us with the components, the following are
the companies which had provided us with the specifications regarding the
components:
1.) Samagaga Industries, Taiwan (DIFFERENTIAL)
2.) Falbrook Technologies, USA (NUVINCI HUB)
3.) Tachometric Controls, India (BLDC MOTOR,DRIVE SYSTEM and
EPICYCLIC GEARS)
4.) Keltron Ltd.
(ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS)

Project Plan
The Gantt chart was prepared to aid us in arriving at our
final vehicle design and specifications.
The duration for the event was speculated from 11th
February to 8th June, allocating considerations for the
academics and activities
Our design methodology of designing the chassis with
reference to the requirements of the subsystems like
steering , suspension etc. was adhered while preparing the
plan

Gantt Chart for Project Plan

Gantt Chart for the Vehicular Design

Technical Specifications
Chassis

Designed with priority for Safety and Comfort

Vehicle configuration: Recumbent Tadpole design

The design is justified for the following reason:


1. Recumbent seating position is more ergonomic than the upright position.
2. Recumbent design aids in obtaining a low center of gravity, which in turn increase the
stability of the vehicle.
3. The tadpole design has reduced chances of toppling when executing turns.
9

Geometric views of the completed chassis

10

The Chassis design imparts the following specification for the vehicle:

Wheelbase: 1650 mm
Track: 1200 mm

Chassis Exoskeleton figures

Chassis Exoskeleton is fabricated from Nominal Pipe Size(NPS) 1 Schedule 5


pipe ,with the following specs:
O.D= 48.26 mm , thickness= 1.65 mm

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The strengthening members are fabricated from NPS 1 Schedule 5,with the
following specs: O.D = 26.67 mm , thickness = 1.65 mm
The utility box of the prescribed dimensions is position in the front of the vehicle to
balance the load distribution

A metal sheet will be provided on the underbelly of the vehicle for the safety and
comfort of the passengers, which helps in developing a neat floor space

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Material Selection

Owing to the benefits such as high corrosion resistance, fire and heat resistance,
strength, toughness, better hygienic quality, aesthetic appearance, ease of fabrication
and 100% recyclability stainless steel was selected.
We have various grades of stainless steels : Austenitic (200 & 300 series), Ferritic and
Martensitic (400 series and above). Owing to wide availability, good general corrosion
resistance, good cryogenic toughness and excellent weldability properties AUSTENITIC
grade stainless steel was opted.
COMPARISON BETWEEN STAINLESS STEEL 200 AND 300 SERIES GRADES
Properties

200 series

300 series

Chemical Composition

14.8-18% Cr, 7.2-9.4% Mn,


0.75-2% Ni, 0.12-0.25% N

18-20% Cr, 8-11% Ni,


2% Mn

Strength

40% higher yield stress than 300


series

Both tensile and yield stresses


are lower

Corrosion resistance

Lower but comparable with 300


series (due to less % Cr)

Excellent

Weldability
Aesthetic appearance
Cost

Good and comparable


Comparable
Low

Excellent
Excellent
High, precisely around thrice
(from latest Ni market values)

Availability of the stainless steel pipes of required size in the Indian market is the sole reason
for SS grade 202 being selected in the 200 series.
Properties of Stainless Steel:
Density= 7.8 kg/3
Nominal Yield Strength= 310 MPa
13

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Analysis of the Chassis


1.) Deformation analysis under an frontal impact load of 2000N

15

2.) Equivalent stress under the frontal impact load of 2000N

The stress value is within the limits of the tensile strength of SS 202.

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Power Transmission

For better ease in motoring, an all-wheel drive system is implemented in the vehicle
The drive-train layout is as illustrated below:

For the ease of interpretation, the drive-train layout has categorized into two:
1.) Pedal Drive-train
2.) Motor Drive-train
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Pedal Drive-train

Both the passengers are provided with 160 mm pedal cranks which transmit power
to the rear wheels via an intermediate shaft as shown in the illustration

Pedal-crank length = 160mm

Center-to-center Distances:
Sprocket 1- Sprocket 2= 472.367 mm
Central Sprocket- NuVinci Hub= 989.586 mm

The conventional limit that the center-to-center


distance between the sprockets are at
maximum up to 50 times the pitch of the chain
used.
Chain 1(Sprocket 1-2)
pitch= 472.366/50
= 9.447mm

Chain 2(Central-NuVinci)
pitch= 989.586/50
= 19.7 mm

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The calculated pitches of the chains are compared with ISO 2403-1991 standards of
chains.
Chain 1- 06 B (pitch=9.525 mm)
Chain 2- 12 B (pitch=19.05 mm)

Chain Drive Design Procedure( Chain 1 )


Step 1- Approximating the velocity ratio of the sprockets as 2
/ = 2
/ = 2
Step 2- From the reference table( table 21.5, bibliography: A Textbook of Machine
Design by J.K. Gupta) ,which tabulates the minimum number of teeth against velocity
ratio,
No. of teeth in the driven sprocket(Sprocket 2)= 27
Step 3- From the approximated velocity ratio,
= 227 54
Step 4Designed power = rated power service factor
The rated power to be calculated is obtained from the following graph , which was
plotted for an experiment concerning the electric power generated by using a pedaleddynamo performed by Pedal-Power Generators LLC

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the maximum power developed is estimated


at 175W.
The service factor( ) is given as follows
= 1 2 3
where,
1 =load factor( 1.25,for variable load )
2 =lubricating factor( 1.5,for periodic lubrication )
3 =rating factor( 1,for operations up to 8 hours per day )
Here, =1.875
Designed power 175 1.875 = 328.125W
Step 5- Power rating-vs-rotational speed of driven sprocket is used to obtain the
rotational speed of the driven sprocket, which is interpolated at 150 r.p.m
pitch line velocity of driven sprocket( )= DN /60
where, D= pitch diameter of sprocket and N= rotational speed

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Pitch Diameter is given by the following equation


D= (pitch)cosec(180/no.of teeth)

= 82.04 mm
= 163.815 mm
Considering the market availability of these sprocket the following specifications are
fixed
= 80 mm and =160 mm
3.1482.014150/60 = 0.64 m/s

Calculating the length( L ) of chain required


L(no. of chain links)(pitch of the chain) = K p
The center-to-center distance( x ) is given by the following equation

((1 +2 /2) + (

1 +2
2

8((2 1 )/2)2 )]

Solving the above equation for the value of K , as the values of x, p , 1 and 2 are known.
Chain 1K= 139.804~ 140
Length of Chain 1 = 1.33m

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Chain 2-

K=124.9 ~ 125
Length of Chain 2 = 2.37 m

Layout Diagram of the Chain Drive

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Rear Hub Transmission- NuVinci N360

- Roller-based tractive continuously variable transmission (CVT) system


- Uses a set of rotating and tilting balls positioned between the input and output discs of a
transmission. Tilting the balls changes their contact diameters and varies the speed ratio.

- System offers seamless and continuous transition to any ratio within its range
- It is referred to as a tractive drive When this fluid undergoes high contact pressures under
rolling contact between the two very hard elements, the spheres and the disks, the fluid
undergoes a near-instantaneous phase transition to an elastic solid. Within this patch
of traction the molecules of the fluid stack up and link to form a solid, through which shear
force and thus torque can be transferred. Note that the rolling elements are actually not in
physical contact
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The system was used for the following reasons


- ease of operation when compared with derailleur gear system
- less maintenance as the whole unit in enclosed as a single closed unit and the
lubrication can be filled in it
- compactness of the unit
The gear ratios are controlled using a wrist-twist bar device.

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Electric-motor drive

A 400W BLDC motor is used to power the front wheels via a differential unit.
The BLDC and PMDC motors were compared
BLDC MOTOR
Higher speed range
Power loss at brushes can be avoided
High Output Power and Efficiency
Maintain or increase torque at various speeds
Longer life
Compact size and low noise operation
Low rotor inertia
Improves dynamic response
Less or sometimes no maintenance required
(due to absence of brushes)
Higher cost of construction
(Total cost becomes comparable)

PMDC MOTOR
Low speed range
(due to limitations imposed by the brushes)
Power loss at brushes
Moderate values
As speed increases torque decreases
(due to increased brush friction)
Shorter
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is generated
by brush arcing
Higher rotor inertia which limits dynamic
characteristics
Periodic maintenance required
(brush cleaning and replacement is essential)
Lower construction cost
Maintenance cost is higher

Based on the above criteria Brush Less DC (BLDC) Motor was selected.
Analyzing our requirements of providing 400W and motoring the estimated 350 kg
vehicle( fully loaded with two passenger each weighing 115 kg), the motor with the
following performance curve was selected
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The motor specifications(as given by the manufacturer, Tachometric Controls Ltd.) are
stated below :
Voltage rating: 24 V
Rated Speed: 1500 rpm
phase resistance : 3 ohm
Max. torque: 3 Nm
phase inductance : 10.07 mH
continuous current : 1.81 A
weight : 2.6 kg
rated phase current : 1.81 A
max current : 5.45 A

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As the torque value of the motor of this range are insufficient to power the vehicle, a
planetary step-down gear unit is employed to amplify the torque to at least 15 N.m

A planetary gear set of step-down ratio of 6:1 is used to increase the torque to 18 Nm
An increase in torque is obtained by either locking the rim and using sun gear as
input and carrier plate as output or locking the sun gear and using rim as the input
and carrier plate as the output

The motor is provided with a thumb-operated throttler control device.

Battery Pack:
Four batteries each rated at 12V, 35Ahr is arranged in series to provide a net
rating of 48V,35 Ahr.

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Operating power of the Battery-pack:


Pack rating- 48V,35Ahr
Motor rating- 400W
Current drawn by the motor Motor rating/ Battery voltage = 400W / 48V
= 8.333 A
Theoretical Runtime Battery Ampere-hour rating / motor current = 35 Ahr/ 8.333 A
= 4.2 hours
At 40 % loss,
Actual runtime 4.2 - (4.2(40/100)) = 2.52 hours

Differential unit is employed with two universal joints on each half-axle to


compensate for the independent suspension and steering system of the front wheels

Contrary to the figure shown above the differential unit would have a direct drive
from the motor in order reduce the complexities of a derailleur gear system.

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The layout of the front-wheel power system is as illustrated

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Seating System

The recumbent seating system preferred over the following reasons:


- Comfort: the upright seating position strain with riders body in continuous drive,
as the rider has to support his body by clinging on to the handle-bars; on the
contrary, in the recumbent design the rider in always in self-supporting state, similar
to that of sitting in a chair.
- Center of Gravity: upright position necessitate the riding position to be at a higher
altitude, thus shifting the CoG to a higher point; on the contrary, the CoG is located
a lower point because of the reclined riding position.
the given plot was considered while deciding the seating position.

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Given layout has ergonomic advantages as the torso rests on a section which is
inclined at an angle of 30 degs with the vertical and the thigh rests on the section
which is inclined at 6 degs with the horizontal
The H-point is determined at 661.954 mm above ground, which is within the limit
prescribed in the rulebook.
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The seat is mounted on to the chassis by suitably placing it on the cross members
and exoskeleton of the chassis
As per the rulebook instruction, 3-point seat belts are provided in the seating
arrangement.

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Steering System

Based on the fact that by implementing the steering system on the front wheels,
the tractive force available for steering( cornering traction ) is increased when
compared to a single steerable-wheel(rear-wheel steering),the vehicle is designed
front wheel steering system based in Ackermann geometry.
The Steering system is designed to achieve 100% Ackermann geometry, with the
specifications as shown in the figure

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The steering mechanism employed is the Articulated Steering Mechanism, which


is illustrated in the following figure

Handle bars will be used as the steering ratio is 1:1


Adhering to the rulebook, the steering system has been designed to possess a minimum turning
radius of 3.9 m in the outer wheel

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U-joints will be employed to position the steering shaft at a convenient


position, considering the accessibility of the driver

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Allowances had been provided in the chassis exoskeleton to facilitate the steering
angle of upto 35 deg

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Braking system

Mechanically actuated disc brakes are provided on all wheels


As 26 MTB tires are used, the commonly available 160mm disc are used
Using a split-cable system, the front-wheels brakes will lock at the same instant, thus
eliminating any of the side-wise erratic movements during braking.
Brake Calculation
Stopping Distance(s)= 2 /2 m
where = velocity (m/s)
= coefficient of friction between the tyre and the road
g= acceleration due to gravity(m/s^2)
CASE 1: under top-speed condition (= 40 kph)
normal condition( = 0.8), s=7.9 m
extreme condition( = 0.3), s= 20.9 m
CASE 2: Brake-test Conditions
2 2 = 2
/
Considering the 5m available for bringing the vehicle to
a complete halt,
=0 m/s , = 5 m

u = 50m/ 15 seconds
= 3.33 m/s

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Acceleration (d) during the braking of the vehicle= -1.10 / 2


Acceleration in g-units(D) | d |/g = 0.112g
Braking force required( ) = mass of the vehicle*deceleration N
= 3501.10 = 384.5 N
Braking Torque( )=

N.m

where is the static laden radius of the tire and is the ratio of the radius of the brake
disc to the static laden radius of the wheel.
here,
= 0.3302 m and = 0.08 m / 0.3302 m 0.242
= 524.6 Nm
Friction force()= mass of the vehicle
= 622.22

Real-life deceleration & Stopping distance


The deceleration used in calculations is a steady state one called MFDD (mean fully
developed deceleration). It assumes the vehicle is either braking or not. In practice it
takes a time for the system pressure to rise and the friction to build up. This is not the
driver reaction time but the system reaction time. Where a calculation requires a
stopping distance or an average stop deceleration then this delay must be taken into
account. For calculations a linear build up over 0.6 second is used i.e 0.3 second delay.
= /(/ + 0.3)
where is the average deceleration for the whole stop( in g-units ), is the test
speed(m/s), is the deceleration(MFDD)(in g-units)

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Here under given conditions,

= 0.177 g -1.15 m/s


Stopping distance (s) = 2 /(2 )
= 4.8 m ( which is within the limit prescribed in the rulebook)

Weight Transfer during braking( )

where, is the weight of the vehicle, is the coefficient of friction, is the height of
the center of gravity and is the wheelbase.
for the vehicle, = 114 kg
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Suspension system

with passenger comfort as the top priority, the vehicle features the following
suspension systems
front wheels- Double Wishbone suspension
rear wheel- Double-sided Swing-arm suspension
The reasons for providing the suspension systems are:
1.) Passenger comfort
2.) Roll stability in execution of turns and thus the safety of the passengers
3.) Reduce the undesirable shocks on the vehicular frame, thus increasing its
reliability and durability

Front Suspension
- features the following illustrated geometry
- unequal wishbones in non-parallel arrangement
- geometry is designed to have the lowest possible distance between the roll-centre
and the CoG, thereby reducing the roll-angle of the vehicle when under the action
cornering forces
In the suspension geometry, the distance between the roll-center and CoG is 0.38 m
i.e, the roll-force creates a torque with an arm of radius 0.38 m.

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The geometry provides neutral camber, which was validated given the 1.95 width of
the tire and also the increased rate of wear and tear if camber angle was nonneutral.
The Kingpin inclination of 3.938 deg. is provided to produce a scrub radius of
0.07m,which helps in achieving appreciable self-centering ability of the steering
linkages and the directional stability of the vehicle
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the upright is designed so as to facilitate a caster angle of 3 degs ,further increasing


the returnability of the steering system
The wishbones are fabricated from NPS 1 schedule 5 pipes
The coilover-springs of the suspension system will be attached to the upper
wishbone, rather than attaching it in the lower wishbone with an offset from the
center; the reason been that itll be compromise the efficient operation of the system
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Wishbones and uprights are fabricated in the below illustrated geometries

The Upright is manufactured from 0.01m thick steel plates and the geometry is
fabricated by welding.
The wishbone attachments are positioned to facilitate the 3.98 deg. Kingpin
inclination.
The coil-over springs are selected on the basis market availability and vehicle
requirement.

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Analysis of the Upright under a vertical bump-force of 4g(considering a


static loading of 500N)

1.) Deformation

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2.) Equivalent Stress

45

Analysis of the Wishbone under a vertical bump-force of 4g(considering a


static loading of 500N)

1.) Deformation

46

2.) Equivalent Stress

47

Rear Suspension System


-a double-sided swingarm with a monoshock suspension is employed for the rear
suspension
-the monoshock coil-over spring provides exceptional ride quality

-the coil-over unit is attached to the swingarm at a distance calculated by considering


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the motion ratio and the deflection of the spring at different attachment points.

Double-sided Swing-arm
-

the coil-over spring for the rear suspension is that of Honda Unicorn with spring
travel of 3 inch.
Tire Specifications
Based on the market survey, cost analysis and reliability, the 26 MTB tire with
1.95 tread are used in the vehicle

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Safety Features

a front bumper, comprising a large-diameter steel pipe, is fitted so as to


absorb the initial shock of a frontal impact
The rear portion of the chassis is strengthened with triangulating members
in order to resist the shock of rear impacts.
the chains are provided with chain-covers to avoid any related injury
3 point seat belts are provided to arrest the occupants to the seat during a
collision
A kill-switch helps in ceasing the power supply to the electric motor, it can
be used in the case of an emergency
The chassis exoskeleton itself acts as a shield, developing a very secure
cabin space
The chassis is shaped in a pedestrian-friendly manner, as the two front
wheel fit closely and are not exposed.
The front fibre-glass fairing protects the passengers from speeding
particulate matters
The metal-sheet floor space protect the passengers from road features
such as mud
50

Ergonomic Features

The recumbent design facilitates a very comfortable riding position with


zero-strain developed by the body in supporting itself.
The pedaling position is carefully determined to extract maximum power
with minimum exhaustion for the passenger
The innovative and simple rear gear system( NuVinci CVT ) relieves the
driver from the complexities of the derailleur gear system.
As the electric motor is directly connected with the differential, the motor
operation doesnt require any gear selection, but just the press on the
throttler.
The chassis design provides a good line-of-sight for the occupants.
The metal-sheet floor and the front fairing augments the comfort of the
passengers.
The KERS used in the vehicle aids in reducing the effort applied by the
driver on the brake lever, as the reversal of the motoring action itself helps
in decelerating the vehicle.

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INNOVATIONS
An innovative Kinetic Energy Recovery System is employed, which utilizes the
4th quadrant operation of the BLDC motor.
-apart from the BLDC motor, its controller drive and the battery, the other main
components involved are:

Power conditioner

Change-over switch

Brake lever position sensor and twist-throttler sensor


Power-conditioner: is a high gain amplifier, which instantly multiplies the voltage
induced by the motor operating with 4th quadrant characteristics. Its operation is
controlled by signals from the brake-lever sensor and twist-throttler sensor.
Change-over switch: is an electronic switching device which operates in
accordance with the signal from the brake-lever sensor.
Brake-lever position sensor and twist-throttle sensor: are highly sensitive
electromagnetic-position sensors with reed switches and magnets.
Working
Under normal motoring conditions, the device connects the terminal of the BLDC
controller unit with the terminal of the BLDC motor. When braking or
decelerating, the brake-lever sensor/twist throttle sensor sends signal to the
switching device, which cuts the supply of battery voltage to the BLDC motor.
52

The BLDC motor would be operating in the 4th quadrant due to the
braking / deceleration, the voltage so induced is directed to the
power conditioner, which in turn charges the battery. Thus
harnessing the energy dissipated during braking and deceleration,
constituting the KERS.

53

Fabrication Plan

The Gantt chart was prepared for the fabrication of the vehicle, considering the
market availability of the components and the duration for synchronizing the
different systems.

Tasks

Start Date

Duration (Days)

Virtual Round

7/13/2013

Speculative date for announcing virtual round result

7/31/2013

End Date

Raw material procurement

8/1/2013

8/7/2013

Construction of the chassis exoskeleton

8/8/2013

15

8/22/2013

Fabrication of the suspension linkages

8/23/2013

8/29/2013

Fabrication of the steering linkages

8/23/2013

8/29/2013

Fixing suspension

8/30/2013

9/2/2013

Fixing steering

9/3/2013

9/6/2013

Fixing of strengthening members

9/7/2013

9/10/2013

Seats and pedals fixture

9/11/2013

9/14/2013

Power train set up

9/15/2013

9/21/2013

Miscellaneous electrical works

9/22/2013

9/25/2013

Fairing and sheet metal works

9/26/2013

9/28/2013

Tyre

9/29/2013

10/2/2013

Road Test

10/3/2013

10/9/2013

Speculative date for main event

10/16/2013

54

Gantt Chart for Vehicle Fabrication

55

College Facilities

The mechanical engineering lab at our institute houses a well equipped CAD lab and
all fabrication departments like fitting, welding ,lathe-machining workshops.

56

Design Validation PLAN


PROCEDURE NO

DESCRIPTION

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

RESPONSIBILITY

TEST SOURCE

Dimensional Analysis and Tolerances

Strict Adherence with the


Engineering Drawings

Kevin Sebastian

Protyping and CAD


modelling

Chassis Fabrication

Efficient utilisation of raw materials

Anuvind Surendran

Engineering Drawing

Steering System

Ackermann Geometry and specified


mechanism is satisfied

Anwar Naseef

Software Analysis

Suspension System

Permissible suspension travel is


maintained

Kiran Kumar C

Software Analysis and


UTM machines

Powertrain

Proper positioning of sprockets and


chains

Zahir Ummer Zaid

Theoretical Analysis
and Protyping

Brakes

Perfectly timed locking

Jeeva Mathew

Visual Inspection

Tires

Balancing alignment and inflation


rates

Mareena Antony

Visual Inspection

Safety

Proper Installation of bumper,


Fairing

Vinu Chandra

Visual Inspection

Electrical and Electronics

Proper Mounting

Arun Mohan

Prototype

10

Development of KERS

Proper Design

Jithu K S

Circuit and sample


testing

57

COST REPORT
STRUCTURAL
MATERIALS

ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENTS

POWER TRANSMISSION
EQUIPMENTS

OTHER EQUIPMENTS

COST REPORT
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

5000.00

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS

21000.00

POWER TRANSMISSION

45890.00

OTHER EQUIPMENTS

5480.00

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST

77370.00/-

Market Plan
Unique Selling Proposition

"A

healthier you, a wealthier you, a


safer you
for a greener tomorrow"

Get to your work and back home at half the cost by burning a few calories to stay
healthy.
Why buy petrol/diesel when you can charge the battery at low cost and be on your
merry way.
Parking has been never this easy.
With no doubts, one big thing which will surely revolutionize the three wheeler
market and make a lot of heads turn.(Sporty and eye catching design)
Safe and cozy, no reason why one shouldnt buy it.
No harm to Mother Earth.
Get the advantage of the latest Kinetic Energy regenerative system (KERS).
Uncompromised Safety and Comfort

60

Potential Markets and


Customers
Large institutions with huge campus area
i) Industries
ii) Educational Institutions

Small scale entrepreneurs


i)

It can be used for short distance journeys (with no carbon


emission) in towns and cities for delivery purposes without
burning out any fuel in traffic curbs.
ii) Carrying goods at low cost thus maximizing profit.
iii) Can replace existing non stable rickshaws with much more stable
and safer tri-cycles.

Tourism Department
i)
ii)

Two men boat riding can be replicated with the PHOENIX E-COZI
Scenic tour in Natural Parks and Sanctuaries without polluting
the environment.

61

Concepts ,Contribution And


Why go for Phoenix E-Cozi
Zero Emission.

High efficiency.
Increased safety , stability, and speed control than ordinary
cycle.

Cheaper alternative to scooter for short trips.


Use of recyclable materials and hence eco- friendly.
Increases the battery life with the use of various electrical
systems like the regenerative braking system.
Power surge using Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS).
Aerodynamic design with ergonomically designed seats.
62

Variants
Single seated models.

High torque motor models can be added for high inclination


conditions.
Variation in the electrical charging model.
Amphibian version of the vehicle

63