Sei sulla pagina 1di 84

HSC CHEMISTRY

Marilyn Schell
Margaret Hogan

Science Press 2007


First published 2007
Reprinted 2007 (twice), 2008, 2009
Science Press
Private Bag 7023 Marrickville NSW 1475 Australia
Tel: (02) 9516 1122 Fax: (02) 9550 1915
sales@sciencepress.com.au
www.sciencepress.com.au

All rights reserved. No part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Science Press. ABN 98 000 073 861

Contents
Introduction

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Points
Production of Materials

vii

The Acidic Environment

ix

Chemical Monitoring and Management

xi

Industrial Chemistry

xiii

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

xv

Questions
Production of Materials

The Acidic Environment

45

Chemical Monitoring and Management

101

Industrial Chemistry

157

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

207

Answers
Production of Materials

251

The Acidic Environment

273

Chemical Monitoring and Management

299

Industrial Chemistry

325

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

345

Appendix
Data Sheet

361

Periodic Table

362

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

iii

Contents

Notes
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Science Press

Contents

iv

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Introduction
What the book includes
,QWKLVERRN\RXZLOOQGW\SLFDOH[DPLQDWLRQTXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVIRUHDFKGRWSRLQWLQWKH%RDUGRI6WXGLHV
syllabus for the following topics in the Year 12 Chemistry course:


3URGXFWLRQRI0DWHULDOV

7KH$FLGLF(QYLURQPHQW

&KHPLFDO0RQLWRULQJDQG0DQDJHPHQW

,QGXVWULDO&KHPLVWU\

6KLSZUHFNV&RUURVLRQDQG&RQVHUYDWLRQ

Also included are typical experimental results for students to analyse if the third column of the syllabus indicates
WKDWVWXGHQWVVKRXOGFDUU\RXWUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQV
Format of the book
The book has been formatted in the following way:
1. Main topic statement (column 1 of syllabus)
1.1etc Syllabus requirement from columns 2 and 3.
1RWHWKDWWKHQXPEHULQJRIWKHVHUHTXLUHPHQWVLVWKHDXWKRUVFKRLFHDQGKDVEHHQXVHGWRPDNHUHIHUHQFLQJ
TXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVFOHDUHU7KHLQGLYLGXDOUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHQRWQXPEHUHGLQWKHV\OODEXVWKH\DUHVLPSO\
EXOOHWHGKHQFHRXUXVHRIGRWSRLQWVZKHQZHUHIHUWRWKHP
1.1.1 )LUVWW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQW
1.1.2 6HFRQGW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQWHWF
7KHQXPEHURIOLQHVSURYLGHGIRUHDFKDQVZHUJLYHVDQLQGLFDWLRQRIKRZPDQ\PDUNVWKHTXHVWLRQPLJKWEH
worth in an examination. As a rough rule, every two lines of answer might be worth one mark. Note that in
PDQ\DQVZHUVWKUHHOLQHVKDYHEHHQSURYLGHGDVWKHDPRXQWRIZULWLQJUHTXLUHGH[FHHGVWZROLQHVEXWWKH
chemistry involved is worth only one mark.
How to use the book
&RPSOHWLQJDOOTXHVWLRQVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDVXPPDU\RIDOOWKHZRUN\RXQHHGWRNQRZIURPWKHV\OODEXV
You may have done work in addition to this with your teacher as extension work. Obviously this is not covered,
but you may need to know this additional work for your school exams.
:KHQZRUNLQJWKURXJKWKHTXHVWLRQVZULWHWKHDQVZHUV\RXKDYHWRORRNXSLQDGLIIHUHQWFRORXUWRWKRVH\RX
NQRZZLWKRXWKDYLQJWRUHVHDUFKWKHZRUN7KLVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDTXLFNUHIHUHQFHWRZRUN\RXVKRXOG
spend more time revising later, and allow you to spend your study time more productively.

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Introduction

Verbs to Watch
account/account for
State reasons for, report on, give an account of,
narrate a series of events or transactions.

distinguish
Recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or
different from, note difference between things.

analyse
Identify components and the relationships among
them, draw out and relate implications.

evaluate
Make a judgement based on criteria.
examine
,QTXLUHLQWR

apply
Use, utilise, employ in a particular situation.

explain
Relate cause and effect, make the relationship
between things evident, provide why and/or how.

appreciate
Make a judgement about the value of something.

extract
Choose relevant and/or appropriate details.

assess
0DNHDMXGJHPHQWRIYDOXHTXDOLW\RXWFRPHV
results or size.

extrapolate
Infer from what is known.

calculate
'HWHUPLQHIURPJLYHQIDFWVJXUHVRULQIRUPDWLRQ

identify
Recognise and name.

clarify
Make clear or plain.

interpret
Draw meaning from.

classify
Arrange into classes, groups or categories.

investigate
3ODQLQTXLUHLQWRDQGGUDZFRQFOXVLRQVDERXW

compare
Show how things are similar and different.

justify
Support an argument or conclusion.

construct
Make, build, put together items or arguments.

outline
Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features.

contrast
Show how things are different or opposite.

predict
Suggest what may happen based on available data.

critically (analyse/evaluate)
Add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge
DQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJORJLFTXHVWLRQLQJUHHFWLRQDQG
TXDOLW\WRDQDQDO\VLVRUHYDOXDWLRQ

propose
Put forward (a point of view, idea, argument,
suggestion etc) for consideration or action.

deduce
Draw conclusions.

recall
Present remembered ideas, facts or experiences.

GHQH
6WDWHWKHPHDQLQJRIDQGLGHQWLI\HVVHQWLDOTXDOLWLHV

recommend
Provide reasons in favour.

demonstrate
Show by example.

recount
Retell a series of events.

describe
Provide characteristics and features.

summarise
Express concisely the relevant details.

discuss
Identify issues and provide points for and against.

synthesise
Put together various elements to make a whole.
Science Press

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials
Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

1.

Energy and raw materials


from fossil fuels



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)
Molar heats of combustion of alkanols



1.1

Ethylene (ethene) from petroleum

3.9

Calculating molar heat of combustion

23



5HDFWLYLW\RIHWK\OHQHVGRXEOHERQG

3.10 Ethanol as a car fuel

24



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)
Alkanes and alkenes with bromine water

3.11 Ethanol as an alternative fuel

25


1.4

Ethylene as a monomer

 )
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Fermentation of glucose

1.5

Polymers, e.g. polyethylene

3.13 Conditions for fermentation

26

1.6

Industrial production of polyethylene

3.14 Chemistry of fermentation

26

1.7

Modelling polymerisation

 (TXDWLRQIRUIHUPHQWDWLRQ



1.8

Vinyl chloride and styrene as monomers

4.

Energy from redox reactions

27

1.9

Properties and uses of


polystyrene and PVC



)LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ*DOYDQLFFHOOV





Materials from biomass

11

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)
difference of metals in an electrolyte



2.
2.1

Products of the petrochemical industry

11

4.3

Displacement of metals from solution

28

2.2

Development and use of a biopolymer

11

4.4

Activity of metals and displacement

28

2.3

Condensation polymers

13

4.5

Oxidation states

29

2.4

Formation of condensation polymers

13

4.6

Redox reactions in galvanic cells

30

2.5

Cellulose
a condensation polymer in biomass

14

4.7

Construction of galvanic cells

31

4.8

Components of galvanic cells

32

2.6

Cellulose a source
of commercial polymers

15

4.9

Calculations using the redox table

33



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3.

Ethanol use and manufacture

17

3.1

Dehydration of ethanol

17

3.2

Hydrolysis of ethylene

18

3.3

Modelling the dehydration


and hydrolysis of ethylene

18

3.4

Industrial production
of ethanol from sugar cane

19

3.5

Ethanol as a solvent

3.6
3.7

4.10 Chemistry and uses of batteries compared 35


 $SSOLHGTXHVWLRQ



5.

Nuclear chemistry

39

5.1

Stable and radioactive isotopes

39

5.2

Recent discoveries of elements

40

5.3

Production of transuranic elements

41

5.4

Production of commercial radioisotopes

41

5.5

Detection of radiation

42

20

5.6

Radioisotopes in industry and medicine

42

Ethanol as a fuel
a renewable resource

20

5.7

Radioisotopes uses and properties

42



5DGLRLVRWRSHVEHQHWVDQGSUREOHPV



Naming alkanols

21

Answers to Production of Materials

251

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

vii

Production of Materials

Notes
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Science Press

Production of Materials

viii

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

The Acidic Environment


Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

1.

Indicators

46

3.10 Calculation of pH

68



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)
Natural indicators



3.11 Strong and weak acids ionisation

70

 6WURQJDQGZHDNDFLGVHTXLOLEULXP



1.2

Indicators colour changes

47

3.13 Strong and weak acids calculating pH

71

1.3

Prepared indicators

47

3.14 Acids as food additives

72

1.4

Acidic, basic or neutral

49

4.

Acid/base theories

73

1.5

Acidity/basicity of household substances

50

4.1

Using secondary sources

73

1.6

Uses of indicators

51

4.2

Acidic oxides and the atmosphere

53

Development of ideas about acids and


bases Lavoisier, Davy and Arrhenius

73

2.


2[LGHVRIQRQPHWDOVDVDFLGV





%U|QVWHG/RZU\DFLGEDVHWKHRU\



2.2

Periodic Table and acidity of oxides

53

4.4

Conjugate acids and bases

76



/H&KkWHOLHUVSULQFLSOH



4.5

Conjugate acid/base pairs

76



)DFWRUVDIIHFWLQJHTXLOLEULXP







2.5

Solubility of carbon dioxide

55

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)
pH of salt solutions

2.6

Calculating gas volumes

56

4.7

Explaining pH of salts

78



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)
Decarbonation of a soft drink



4.8

Amphiprotic substances

79

4.9

79

Natural and industrial sources of sulfur


dioxide and nitrogen oxides

59

Neutralisation as a proton
transfer reaction

Chemical reactions that release


SO2 and NOX

2.8

 7LWUDWLRQWHFKQLTXHV



60

 )LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ7LWUDWLRQV




2.10 Formation and effects of acid rain

60

2.11 Evidence for changes in atmospheric


oxides of sulfur and nitrogen

61

 )
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of a domestic substance using
FRPSXWHUEDVHGWHFKQRORJ\
4.13 Neutralisation in accidents

89

2.12 Industrial origins of oxides


of sulfur and nitrogen

62

4.14 Buffers

90

3.

Acids and pH



2.9

5.

(VWHULFDWLRQ

93

63

5.1

Alkanols and alkanoic acids

93

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)
Using pH meters or probes



5.2

Melting and boiling points of


alkanols and alkanoic acids

95

3.2

Acids as proton donors

63



(VWHULFDWLRQ



3.3

Common acids

64

5.4

Naming esters

96

3.4

Naturally occurring acids and bases

64



8VHRIDFLGLQHVWHULFDWLRQ



3.5

The pH scale

65



5HX[LQJLQHVWHULFDWLRQ



3.6

Concentrated and dilute acids

66





3.7

Strong and weak acids

67

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)
3UHSDUDWLRQRIDQHVWHUE\UHX[



,RQLFHTXDWLRQVIRUDFLGLRQLVDWLRQ



5.8

Esters occurrence, production and uses

99

3.9

Modelling acids
molecular nature and ionisation

68

5.9

Esters uses in foods and cosmetics

99

Answers to The Acidic Environment

273

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

ix

The Acidic Environment

Notes
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Science Press

The Acidic Environment

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Chemical Monitoring and Management


Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

1.

The work of chemists

102

4.

Atmospheric chemistry and ozone

129

1.1

The work of chemists

102

4.1

129

1.2

Chemists roles and


chemical principles used

103

Composition and layered


structure of the atmosphere

4.2

Atmospheric pollutants

129

1.3

Collaboration between chemists

104

4.3

Ozone in the atmosphere

130

1.4

Monitoring a chemical reaction

104

4.4

Formation of coordinate covalent bonds

131

2.

Monitoring in industry
the Haber process

107

4.5

Coordinate covalent bonds


and Lewis structures

132

2.1

Industrial uses of ammonia

107

4.6

Allotropes of oxygen

132

2.2

Synthesis of ammonia

107

4.7

Oxygen allotropes properties

134

2.3

Synthesis of ammonia
DQHTXLOLEULXPUHDFWLRQ

107

4.8

Isomers of haloalkanes

134

4.9

Modelling haloalkanes

136

2.4

Synthesis of ammonia
an exothermic reaction

108

4.10 CFCs and halons in the atmosphere

137

Reaction rate and temperature

109

4.11 Changes in atmospheric


ozone concentrations

139

2.5


 KH+DEHUSURFHVVDQG/H&KkWHOLHUV
7
principle



4.12 Destruction of atmospheric ozone

141

4.13 Problems associated with use of CFCs

142

2.7

The Haber process and pressure

110

4.14 Replacements for CFCs

143

2.8

The Haber process a balancing act

110

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2.9

Development of the Haber process


DQGLWVVLJQLFDQFH

111

5.

Monitoring the water supply

145

5.1

Ions in water

145



'HWHUPLQLQJZDWHUTXDOLW\





)LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ:DWHUWHVWLQJ



5.4

Monitoring water for heavy metals


and eutrophication

150

5.5

The local water supply

152

5.6

Effectiveness of water management

154



0LFURVFRSLFPHPEUDQHOWHUV



2.10 The Haber process and catalysts

112

2.11 Monitoring the Haber process

113

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3.

Chemical analysis

115



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3.2

Monitoring ions in substances we use

118

3.3

Deducing ions present from test results

119



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)
content of lawn fertiliser



3.5

Analysing reliability of results

122

3.6

Atomic absorption spectroscopy

124

3.7

Interpreting data from AAS analysis

126

Answers to Chemical Monitoring and


Management

299

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

xi

Chemical Monitoring and Management

Notes
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Science Press

Chemical Monitoring and Management

xii

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Industrial Chemistry
Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page



 OHFWURO\VLVRIPROWHQDQGDTXHRXV
(
sodium chloride



4.4

Industrial production of sodium


hydroxide by electrolysis

183

4.5

The mercury, diaphragm and


membrane processes

184



5.

6DSRQLFDWLRQ

189



)LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ6DSRQLFDWLRQ 

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)
HTXLOLEULXPUHDFWLRQ





6DSRQLFDWLRQ



5.3

Fats and oils to make soap

190

2.3

Effects of changes on
HTXLOLEULXPUHDFWLRQV

163



/DERUDWRU\DQGLQGXVWULDOVDSRQLFDWLRQ 



7KHHTXLOLEULXPFRQVWDQW



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)
An emulsion, properties and uses






&DOFXODWLQJWKHHTXLOLEULXPFRQVWDQW .  







2QO\WHPSHUDWXUHFDQFKDQJH.



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)
Soap as an emulsion



$SSOLHGTXHVWLRQ



5.7

Soap structure and cleaning action

193

3.

Sulfuric acid

171

5.8

Soap as an emulsion

194

3.1

Industrial uses of sulfuric acid

171

5.9

194

3.2

Sulfuric acid ionisation

171

Anionic, cationic and


QRQLRQLFGHWHUJHQWV

3.3

Safety using sulfuric acid

171

3.4

Transport and storage of sulfuric acid

172

3.5

Extraction of sulfur

172

3.6

Indusrial production of sulfuric acid

174

3.7

Reaction conditions
production of SO2 and SO3

174



 DWHVRIUHDFWLRQDQGHTXLOLEULXP
5
production of SO2 and SO3



3.9

Industrial production of H2SO4


chemistry and output

176

1.

Resources and replacements

158

1.1

A natural resource (not a fossil fuel)

158

1.2

Shrinking world resources

159



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2.

Equilibrium and the


equilibrium constant

161



 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ0RGHOOLQJDQ
)
HTXLOLEULXPUHDFWLRQ



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 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
Reactions of H2SO4



3.11 Reactions of H2SO4


an oxidising and dehydrating agent

178

4.

Sodium hydroxide

179



*DOYDQLFDQGHOHFWURO\WLFFHOOV





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)
Electrolysis of sodium chloride



5.10 Soaps and synthetic detergents

195

5.11 Environmental impacts of


soaps and detergents

196

6.

The Solvay process

199

6.1

The Solvay process raw materials

199

6.2

Uses of sodium carbonate

199

6.3

The Solvay process


steps and chemistry

199

6.4

The Solvay process


environmental issues

201



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)
The Solvay process



6.6

Calculations involving
the Solvay process

202

6.7

Location of a chemical plant using


the Solvay process

204



$SSOLHGTXHVWLRQV



Answers to Industrial Chemistry

325

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

xiii

Industrial Chemistry

Notes
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Industrial Chemistry

xiv

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation


Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

1.

The ocean as an electrolyte

208

4.6

Cathodic protection

232

1.1

Minerals in oceans

208

4.7

233

1.2

Electron transfer in redox reactions

208

Cathodic protection
chemistry and uses

1.3

Redox reactions occur when ions


are free to move

209

4.8

Applications of cathodic protection

234

5.

Corrosion in a sunken ship

235

, PSDFWRI*DOYDQL'DY\)DUDGD\
and electron transfer reactions



5.1

Solubility of gases

235



*DVHVGLVVROYHGLQRFHDQV





:RUNRI*DOYDQL'DY\DQG)DUDGD\



5.3

Solubility of gases and depth of oceans

237



$SSOLHGTXHVWLRQ



5.4

Temperature and corrosion rates

237

2.

Ships of metal

213



Rusting of iron

213

 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
)
Rate of corrosion



2.1
2.2

Conditions for rusting

214

5.6

Predicting corrosion rates at depth

239



 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
)
Corrosion of iron and steel





$SSOLHGTXHVWLRQ



6.

Corrosion at depth

241

2.4

Composition and properties of steel

218



Composition, properties and uses


of a range of steels

219

 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ5DWHRI
)
corrosion and acidity



2.5

6.2

Acidity and corrosion rates

242

2.6

Iron and steel in ships

219

6.3

Corrosion at depth

243

2.7

Corrosion of active and


passivating metals

220



6XOIDWHUHGXFLQJEDFWHULDDQGFRUURVLRQ



7.

Electrolytic cells

221

Salvage, conservation and


restoration of artefacts

245

3.
3.1

Electrolysis anode and


cathode reactions

221

7.1

Artefacts from shipwrecks are saturated

245

7.2

Factors affecting electrolysis

224

Evaporation of a saturated
solution from artefacts

245

3.2


 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
)
Rate of electcrolysis



7.3

Electrolysis to remove salts


from artefacts

246

4.

Corrosion in a marine environment

227

7.4

History of ship construction


materials used

227

Electrolysis to clean and stabilise


metal artefacts

247

4.1

7.5

 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
)
Corrosion rate of metals and alloys



Chemical procedures to clean,


preserve and stabilise artefacts

247



7.6

Protection of metal hulls

228

RHVWRUDWLRQWHFKQLTXHVXVHG
in Australian projects



4.3


 LUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
)
Prevention of corrosion



Answers to Shipwrecks, Corrosion and


Conservation

345

4.5

Using the redox table


to predict corrosion

231



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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

xv

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

Notes
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Science Press

Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

xvi

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

DOT POINT
Production of Materials

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials

1. Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of
other substances.
1.1

Identify the industrial source of ethylene from the cracking of some of the fractions from the
UHQLQJRISHWUROHXP
1.1.1

Describe the composition of petroleum.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.1.2

When petroleum undergoes distillation, fractions are produced. Identify some of these.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.1.3
D 

'HQHIUDFWLRQDOGLVWLOODWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Use a diagram to show the industrial process of fractional distillation of petroleum.

(c)

Use a diagram to show the process of fractional distillation in the school laboratory.

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Production of Materials

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

1.1.4
(a)

Identify the IUPAC name for ethylene.

(b)

Construct the structural formula for ethylene.

(c)

Outline the main source of ethylene.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.1.5

Ethene is produced by the cracking of petroleum fractions. Describe the process of cracking.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.2

Identify that ethylene, because of the high reactivity of its double bond, is readily transformed
into many useful products.
1.2.1

Complete the following:

Ethylene (ethene) belongs to a homologous group of hydrocarbons called ........................................ .


All alkenes have a ........................................ bond as their functional group. This is called a covalent
bond because the carbon atoms ........................................ electrons. It is called a double bond because
the ........................................ atoms share ........................................ pairs of ........................................ .
1.2.2
(a)

Complete the following table to summarise the differences between the three series of
hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
Homologous series

General formula

Functional group

Alkane
CnH2n
CC

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials

(b)

1.2.3

Write molecular formulas for:


(i) ethane

.......................................................................................

(ii) ethene

.......................................................................................

(iii) ethyne

.......................................................................................

Ethane and ethene (ethylene) are both hydrocarbons, and they share a number of properties.
7KH\ERWKKDYHVPDOOQRQSRODUPROHFXOHVZLWKZHDNGLVSHUVLRQIRUFHVEHWZHHQWKHLU
molecules, they are both relatively insoluble in water, have low melting and boiling points
and they both burn readily in air or oxygen. Despite these similarities, ethene is used much
more extensively in industry than ethane. Account for this difference in use.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.2.4

Alkanes such as ethane undergo substitution reactions.

(a)

What is meant by a substitution reaction?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

8VHDQHTXDWLRQWRVKRZDQH[DPSOHRIDVXEVWLWXWLRQUHDFWLRQ

1.2.5

Alkenes such as ethene (ethylene) undergo addition reactions.

(a)

What is meant by an addition reaction?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

8VHDQHTXDWLRQZLWKVWUXFWXUDOIRUPXODVWRVKRZWKHDGGLWLRQRIK\GURJHQWRHWKHQH

F 

8VHDQHTXDWLRQZLWKVWUXFWXUDOIRUPXODVWRVKRZWKHDGGLWLRQRIFKORULQHWRHWKHQH HWK\OHQH 

Science Press

Production of Materials

Dot Point HSC Chemistry



, GHQWLI\GDWDSODQDQGSHUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRFRPSDUHWKHUHDFWLYLWLHVRI
appropriate alkenes with the corresponding alkanes in bromine water.
1.3.1

Describe the test you would use to distinguish an alkane such as ethane from an alkene such
DVHWKHQH HWK\OHQH  7KLVVKRXOGLQFOXGHWHVWUHVXOWVDQGHTXDWLRQV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.3.2

'XULQJ\RXUFRXUVH\RXSODQQHGDQGSHUIRUPHGDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRFRPSDUHWKH
reactivities of appropriate alkenes with the corresponding alkanes in bromine water.

(a)

Identify the chemicals you used and justify their choice.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Explain one safety precaution necessary when carrying out this experiment.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.4

Identify that ethylene serves as a monomer from which polymers are made.
1.4.1
D 

'HQHPRQRPHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

'HQHSRO\PHUDQGLGHQWLI\WKUHHH[DPSOHVRISRO\PHUV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Identify the term used to describe the process by which monomers are converted to a polymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials

1.4.2

-XVWLI\WKHFODVVLFDWLRQRIHWK\OHQH HWKHQH DVDPRQRPHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.5

1.4.3

Classify each of the following as either a monomer or a polymer.

(a)

starch .............................................................................

(b)

glucose

(c)

ethylene (ethene) ....................................................

(d)

polyethylene

.........................................................................

.............................................................

Identify polyethylene as an addition polymer and explain the meaning of this term.
1.5.1

'HQHZKDWLVPHDQWE\DQDGGLWLRQSRO\PHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.5.2
(a)

Identify the monomer used to manufacture the polymer called polyethylene.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6

E 

8VHDQHTXDWLRQWRVKRZWKDWSRO\HWK\OHQHLVDQDGGLWLRQSRO\PHU

(c)

Draw the structural formula for a part of a polyethylene molecule showing three monomer
units joined together.

Outline the steps in the production of polyethylene as an example of a commercially and


industrially important polymer.
1.6.1

Justify the statement that polyethylene is a commercially important polymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Science Press

Production of Materials

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

1.6.2

Outline the steps in the production of polyethylene.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.3
(a)

Explain what is meant by a free radical.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Explain how the formation of an ethene free radical assists in the formation of a polymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.4
(a)

Identify the type of catalyst used in the industrial production of polyethylene.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Describe the effect of this catalyst on the polymerisation process.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.5

8VHDRZFKDUWWRVKRZWKHLQGXVWULDOSURGXFWLRQRISRO\HWK\OHQHIURPHWK\OHQH

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials

1.6.6

, QLQGXVWULDOSURFHVVHVVXFKDVSRO\PHULVDWLRQTXDOLW\FRQWUROLVFDUULHGRXW,GHQWLI\WKUHH
factors that would need to be continually monitored and explain why this process is important
in the production of polyethylene.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.7

During the production of polyethylene it is important to monitor temperature of the reaction


vessel. Explain.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.7

Analyse information from secondary sources such as computer simulations, molecular model
kits or multimedia resources to model the polymerisation process.
1.7.1

Describe how you modelled the polymerisation process in class.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



,GHQWLI\WKHIROORZLQJDVFRPPHUFLDOO\VLJQLFDQWPRQRPHUV
 YLQ\OFKORULGH
 VW\UHQH
by both their systematic and common names.
1.8.1

Complete the following table to summarise information about the monomers vinyl chloride
and styrene.
Common name
of monomer

Systematic name
of monomer

Formula of
monomer

Name of
polymer

Vinyl chloride

Styrene
(Vinyl benzene)

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Production of Materials

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

1.9

Describe the uses of the polymers made from the above monomers in terms of their properties.
1.9.1

Use the following table to summarise some uses of the polymers made from the monomers
vinyl chloride and styrene.

Name of polymer

Structure of polymer

Uses

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Polystyrene

1.9.2

Complete the following table to link the uses of the different forms of the polymers shown to
properties that allow them to be used in these ways.

Name of
polymer

Use

PVC

Flooring and carpet


backing

PVC

Sheets for roofs and


skylights

Polyethylene

Natural gas pipes


Coating steel pipes

Polyethylene

Plastic bags and


Food containers

Polyethylene

Sheathing for wire


cables used for
phone and TV

Polystyrene

Disposable foam
cups

Polystyrene

Surfboards

Property that determines this use

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials

1.9.3

Assess the impact of the development of the production of polymers on society and on the
environment.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Science Press

Production of Materials

10

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

2. Some scientists research the extraction of materials from biomass to reduce our
dependence on fossil fuels.
2.1

Discuss the need for alternative sources of the compounds presently obtained from the
petrochemical industry.
2.1.1

What is meant by the petrochemical industry?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.1.2

Identify 10 chemicals presently produced by the petrochemical industry.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.1.3

Discuss the need for alternative sources of compounds presently manufactured by the
petrochemical industry.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.2

Use available evidence to gather and present data from secondary sources and analyse progress
in the recent development and use of a named biopolymer. This analysis should name the
VSHFLFHQ]\PH V XVHGRURUJDQLVPXVHGWRV\QWKHVLVHWKHPDWHULDODQGDQHYDOXDWLRQRIWKHXVH
or potential use of the polymer produced related to its properties.
2.2.1

'HQHWKHWHUPELRSRO\PHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.2.2
(a)

Identify a biopolymer which is produced commercially.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Describe the structure of this polymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

11

Production of Materials

(c)

Identify and give the formula of the monomer(s) used to manufacture this named biopolymer.

(d)

Identify the source of the monomer(s).

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.2.3

$QVZHUWKHIROORZLQJTXHVWLRQVDERXWWKHELRSRO\PHULGHQWLHGLQ4XHVWLRQ

D 

1DPHWKHVSHFLFHQ]\PH V RURUJDQLVP V XVHGWRV\QWKHVLVHWKLVELRSRO\PHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Analyse progress in the development of this biopolymer.

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(c)

Identify uses of this biopolymer.

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(d)

Identify properties of this biopolymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Choose one use of this biopolymer and relate this use to its properties.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Production of Materials

12

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

(f)

Analyse progress in the uses of this biopolymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.3

Explain what is meant by a condensation polymer.


2.3.1

Explain what is meant by a condensation polymer and identify three examples.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.4

Describe the reaction involved when a condensation polymer is formed.


2.4.1

8VHDQHTXDWLRQWRVKRZWKHIRUPDWLRQRIDFRQGHQVDWLRQSRO\PHU

2.4.2

Describe the reaction involved when a condensation polymer is formed.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.4.3

Compare condensation and addition reactions.


Condensation reactions

Addition reactions

Both involve .................................................... joining to form a long chain molecule.


No double bonds necessary

No small molecule produced

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

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Production of Materials

2.5

Describe the structure of cellulose and identify it as an example of a condensation polymer


found as a major component of biomass.
2.5.1
(a)

Describe the structure of glucose. Include a diagram in your answer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Describe the structure of cellulose. Include a diagram in your answer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Explain why cellulose is a condensation polymer.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.5.2

Cellulose is a condensation polymer found in biomass. Outline the importance of


this compound.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Production of Materials

14

Dot Point HSC Chemistry



, GHQWLI\WKDWFHOOXORVHFRQWDLQVWKHEDVLFFDUERQFKDLQVWUXFWXUHVQHHGHGWREXLOGSHWURFKHPLFDOV
and discuss its potential as a raw material.
2.6.1

Explain why cellulose is a suitable raw material for the production of petrochemicals.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.6.2

Discuss the potential of cellulose as a raw material in the manufacture of petrochemicals.

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

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Production of Materials

2.7

Applied question.
2.7.1

Ethene is a starting point for the petrochemical industry. At the present time, ethene is
produced from petroleum, however in the future it may be produced from cellulose in
biomass. Compare and evaluate these two methods of ethene production.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Production of Materials

16

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

3. Other resources, such as ethanol, are readily available from renewable resources such
as plants.
3.1

Describe the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene and identify the need for a catalyst in this
process and the catalyst used.
3.1.1
(a)

Write the structural formula of ethanol.

E 

-XVWLI\WKHFODVVLFDWLRQRIHWKDQRODVDQDONDQRO

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.1.2
(a)

What is meant by a dehydration reaction?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

&RQVWXFWDQHTXDWLRQWRLOOXVWUDWHWKHGHK\GUDWLRQRIHWKDQROWRHWK\OHQH

(c)

Describe the dehydration of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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3.1.3

Outline a reason for the use of a catalyst in the dehydration of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

17

Production of Materials

3.2

Describe the addition of water to ethylene resulting in the production of ethanol and identify the
need for a catalyst in this process and the catalyst used.
3.2.1

:ULWHDPROHFXODUHTXDWLRQWRVKRZWKHDGGLWLRQRIZDWHUWRHWK\OHQHWRSURGXFHHWKDQRO

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.2.2

Describe the addition of water to ethylene to produce ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.3

Process information from secondary sources such as molecular model kits, digital technologies
RUFRPSXWHUVLPXODWLRQVWRPRGHO
 WKHGHK\GUDWLRQRIHWKDQRO
 WKHDGGLWLRQRIZDWHUWRHWK\OHQH
3.3.1

Use structural formulas to model the following reactions:

(a)

dehydration of ethanol

(b)

addition of water to ethylene

3.3.2

Describe how you modelled one of the following reactions:


 WKHGHK\GUDWLRQRIHWKDQRO
 WKHDGGLWLRQRIZDWHUWRHWK\OHQH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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3.4

Process information from secondary sources to summarise the processes involved in the
industrial production of ethanol from sugar cane.
3.4.1

Outline the processes involved in the industrial production of ethanol from sugar cane.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.4.2

7KHIROORZLQJRZFKDUWVXPPDULVHVWKHLQGXVWULDOSURGXFWLRQRIHWKDQROIURPELRPDVV
organic biomass

crush and grind

dilute acid,
e.g. HCl

hydrolyse

Process A

more acid

solid residue

filtrate

hydrolyse

sugars in
acid solution

Ca(OH)2 to
neutralise acid

Process A

solid residue,
e.g. (CaSO4)

sugar solution

yeast or
bacteria

Process B

ethanol mixture

carbon dioxide

Process C

by-products
and wastes

ethanol

Identify the processes that occur at:


A

......................................................................................

......................................................................................

......................................................................................

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 HVFULEHDQGDFFRXQWIRUWKHPDQ\XVHVRIHWKDQRODVDVROYHQWIRUSRODUDQGQRQSRODU
'
substances.
3.5.1
(a)

Identify the type of bonding within a molecule of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Explain why ethanol is a polar molecule.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Identify the intermolecular forces between molecules of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Use a diagram to show a hydrogen bond between atoms in adjacent ethanol molecules.

3.5.2

Describe and account for the many uses of ethanol as a solvent for polar and
QRQSRODUVXEVWDQFHV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.6

Outline the use of ethanol as a fuel and explain why it can be called a renewable resource.
3.6.1

Outline the use of ethanol as a fuel.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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3.6.2

-XVWLI\WKHFODVVLFDWLRQRIHWKDQRODVDUHQHZDEOHUHVRXUFH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.6.3

Distinguish between the terms renew, reuse and recycle.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



,GHQWLI\WKH,83$&QRPHQFODWXUHIRUVWUDLJKWFKDLQHGDONDQROVIURP&WR&
3.7.1
D 

&RPSOHWHWKHIROORZLQJWDEOHWRUHYLVHWKHVWUXFWXUHDQGQRPHQFODWXUHRIWKHUVWHLJKW
alkanols.
Name of alkanol

Molecular formula

Structural formula

Methanol

HO

H
H
Propanol

C4H9OH

Pentanol

Hexanol

C7H15OH

Octanol

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(b)

Show the structural formulas of:


L  KH[DQRO



LL  SURSDQRO

, GHQWLI\GDWDVRXUFHVFKRRVHUHVRXUFHVDQGSHUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRGHWHUPLQHDQG
compare heats of combustion of at least three liquid alkanols per gram and per mole.
3.8.1
D 

,GHQWLI\WKHWKUHHOLTXLGDOFRKROV\RXXVHGZKHQSHUIRUPLQJDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
determine and compare heats of combustion of alkanols.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Use a labelled diagram to show the method you used.

(c)

Comment on the accuracy of your results.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(d)

Suggest ways you could improve the accuracy of your results.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Explain one safety precaution you applied when carrying out this experiment.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



 HQHWKHPRODUKHDWRIFRPEXVWLRQRIDFRPSRXQGDQGFDOFXODWHWKHYDOXHIRUHWKDQROIURP
'
UVWKDQGGDWD
'HQHWKHPRODUKHDWRIFRPEXVWLRQRIDFRPSRXQG

3.9.1

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.9.2

The following table shows the heats of combustion for a number of fuels.

(a)

Complete the following table by calculating the heat of combustion in kJ g1 for each of the
fuels shown.
Fuel

Hydrogen
Coke (carbon)

Formula

Heat of combustion
(kJ/mole)

H2

285

393

Methane

CH4

890

Ethane

C2H6

1560

Propane

C3H8

2220

Methanol

CH3OH

727

Ethanol

C2H5OH

1367

(b)

Heat of combustion
(kJ/gram)

Identify the fuel that would produce the most heat by the combustion of 1 g of fuel.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Consider which has the lower heat of combustion, ethanol or methanol. Using this
information, which would be more expensive to use as a fuel?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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3.9.3

 JURXSRI<HDUVWXGHQWVSHUIRUPHGDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQRIWKHKHDWRIFRPEXVWLRQRI
$
ethanol. They burned ethanol in a spirit burner, and used it to heat 100 mL of water, as shown
in the diagram below.
thermometer
lid
container
water

wick

fuel, e.g. ethanol


in spirit burner

The results they obtained were:


Initial temperature of 100 mL water = 22.6C
Final temperature of 100 mL water = 35.9C
Initial mass of spirit burner + ethanol = 235.56 g
Final mass of spirit burner + ethanol = 234.23 g


6SHFLFKHDWRIZDWHU 3 J kg1.1


Use these results to calculate the experimental molar heat of combustion of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.10

Process information from secondary sources to summarise the use of ethanol as an alternative
car fuel, evaluating the success of current usage.
3.10.1 Describe and evaluate the use of ethanol as a fuel in cars.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.10.2 Identify one secondary source you used to obtain this information and evaluate the validity of
the information obtained from this source.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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3.11

Assess the potential of ethanol as an alternative fuel and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of its use.
3.11.1 Assess the potential of ethanol as an alternative fuel and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of its use.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



 ROYHSUREOHPVSODQDQGSHUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRFDUU\RXWWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQRI
6
glucose and monitor mass changes.
3.12.1 '
 HVFULEHWKHUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ\RXFDUULHGRXWWRIHUPHQWJOXFRVHDQGPRQLWRU
mass changes.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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3.12.2
D 

:ULWHDQHTXDWLRQIRUWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQRIJOXFRVH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Identify a potential problem in the fermentation of glucose and outline the method you used
to overcome this problem.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Explain any mass changes that occur during fermentation.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.13

Describe conditions under which fermentation of sugars is promoted.


3.13.1 Describe conditions under which fermentation of sugars is promoted.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.14

Summarise the chemistry of the fermentation process.


3.14.1 Summarise the chemistry of the fermentation process.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.15

Present information from secondary sources by writing a balanced equation for the
fermentation of glucose to ethanol.
3.15.1 :ULWHDEDODQFHGHTXDWLRQIRUWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQRIJOXFRVHWRHWKDQRO
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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4. Oxidation-reduction reactions are increasingly important as a source of energy.




 HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRLGHQWLI\WKHFRQGLWLRQVXQGHUZKLFKDJDOYDQLFFHOO
3
is produced.
4.1.1

Identify the conditions under which a galvanic cell is produced.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.1.2
(a)

Describe a galvanic cell that you set up.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Identify any observations you made.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



 HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQDQGJDWKHUUVWKDQGLQIRUPDWLRQWRPHDVXUHWKHGLIIHUHQFH
3
in potential of different combinations of metals in an electrolyte solution.
4.2.1

 XULQJWKLVWRSLF\RXSHUIRUPHGDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQLQZKLFK\RXPHDVXUHGWKH
'
difference in potential of different combinations of metals in an electrolyte solution.

(a)

Identify two combinations of metals that you used in this investigation.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Identify the electrolytes you used.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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27

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(c)

For one of the pairs of metals used, draw a labelled diagram to show how you performed the
experiment.

(d)

Outline one possible source of error in this investigation and describe how you could
overcome this.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Outline one safety issue involved in the carrying out of this experiment and describe how you
would handle this issue.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I 

 HVFULEHZKDW\RXXVHGDVDVDOWEULGJHDQGLQGLFDWHWKHGLUHFWLRQRIRZRILRQVRYHUWKLV
'
salt bridge.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.3

Explain the displacement of metals from solution in terms of transfer of electrons.


4.3.1

Explain the displacement of metals from solution in terms of transfer of electrons.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4

Identify the relationship between displacement of metal ions in solution by other metals to the
relative activity of metals.
4.4.1

Identify the relationship between displacement of metal ions in solution by other metals to
the relative activity of metals.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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4.4.2

List the following metals in order of activity from most active to least active:
iron, magnesium, sodium, silver, zinc, lead, aluminium, calcium, copper.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4.3
(a)

A series of solutions is set up and pieces of metal are placed in each solution as shown in the
table below. Complete the table to show where displacement reactions will occur.
Solution

Metal added

Calcium chloride

Zinc

Zinc chloride

Calcium

Lead chloride

Magnesium

Lead chloride

Silver

(b)

Any displacement reaction

Which would cause the more vigorous displacement reaction, placing magnesium metal in
zinc nitrate or in silver nitrate solution? Explain.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

A piece of zinc is placed into a copper sulfate solution. The copper sulfate loses its blue
colour, copper is deposited on the bottom of the beaker and the zinc disappears. What can
you deduce about the relative reactivity of copper and zinc?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.5

Account for changes in the oxidation state of species in terms of their loss or gain of electrons.
4.5.1

Account for changes in the oxidation state of species in terms of their loss or gain of
electrons. (Hint: Show the connection between an increase or decrease in oxidation state
and the processes of oxidation and reduction.)

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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4.5.2

State the rules for working out oxidation states/numbers.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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4.6

4.5.3

Identify the oxidation states of the following:

(a)

Iron in FeSO4

..................................................................

(b)

Iron in FeCl3

....................................................................

(c)

Iron metal

(d)

Oxygen in CO2

(e)

The nitrate ion NO3 .......................................................

I 

0DQJDQHVHLQ.0Q24

..........................................................................
...............................................................

...............................................

Describe and explain galvanic cells in terms of oxidation/reduction reactions.


4.6.1

What is meant by a galvanic cell?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.6.2

'HQHWKHWHUPV

(a)

oxidation

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

reduction

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

redox reaction

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

oxidant

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

reductant

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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4.6.3

Explain galvanic cells in terms of oxidation/reduction reactions.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



2XWOLQHWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQRIJDOYDQLFFHOOVDQGWUDFHWKHGLUHFWLRQRIHOHFWURQRZ
4.7.1

Outline the construction of galvanic cells.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.7.2
D 

'HVFULEHWKHGLUHFWLRQRIHOHFWURQRZLQDJDOYDQLFFHOO

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Add arrows to show:


L  WKHRZRIHOHFWURQVLQWKHIROORZLQJJDOYDQLFFHOO
(ii) the movement of ions in the salt bridge
zinc
anode

copper
cathode

Cu2+(aq)
electrolyte,
e.g. ZnSO4

salt bridge electrolyte,


e.g. CuSO4

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'HQHWKHWHUPVDQRGHFDWKRGHHOHFWURGHDQGHOHFWURO\WHWRGHVFULEHJDOYDQLFFHOOV
4.8.1

'HQHWKHIROORZLQJWHUPV

(a)

electrode

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

electrolyte

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

anode

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

cathode

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.8.2
(a)

Identify the purpose of galvanic cells in society today.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

,QWHUPVRIR[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQH[SODLQWKHSXUSRVHRIVHSDUDWLQJWKHUHDFWLRQVLQWRWZRKDOIFHOOV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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4.9

Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the potential E requirement of named
electrochemical processes using tables of standard potentials and half equations.
4.9.1
(a)

What is meant by a standard reduction potential?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

'HQHDVWDQGDUGK\GURJHQKDOIFHOO,QFOXGHDGLDJUDPLQ\RXUDQVZHU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

F 

,GHQWLI\WKHLQVWUXPHQWXVHGWRPHDVXUHWKHSRWHQWLDOGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWZRKDOIFHOOV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.9.2
(a)

What is meant by the redox table?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Complete the following prose passage to describe the redox table.


In the redox table, forward reactions are written as ................................................................. reactions.
The higher the reduction potential the more easily the species is .............................................................. .
Oxidations are shown by .................................................................. the reactions and changing the sign.
Oxidising agents are on the .................................................................. side of the table, and they
increase in strength as you move .................................................................. the table.
The strongest oxidising agent is .................................................................. . Fluorine is most likely
to accept .................................................................. from another species, thus causing the oxidation
of that species.
Reducing agents are found on the right side of the table, the strongest reducing agent is at
the .................................................................. of the table.

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Potassium and barium are the strongest reducing agents, so they are the metals most likely
to .................................................................. electrons to another species, thus causing that species
to be .................................................................. .
A metal higher in the redox series will displace a metal .................................................................. from
a solution of its ions.
All metals above hydrogen will displace ............................................................. from a solution of its ions.
A reducing agent will react with an .................................................................. agent lower in the table.
4.9.3

8VHWKHUHGR[WDEOHLQWKHEDFNRIWKLVERRNWRDQVZHUWKHTXHVWLRQVEHORZ

(a)

What is the reduction potential for Fe2+ + 2e U Fe(s)?

(b)

Convert the following reduction reactions to oxidation reactions:


(i) Al3+ + 3e UAl(s)

1.68 V

(ii) Cu2+ + 2e U Cu(s)

+0.34 V

..................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

An iron electrode is placed in a beaker of aluminium sulfate solution. Another iron electrode
LVSODFHGLQFRSSHUVXOIDWHVROXWLRQ:ULWHHTXDWLRQVWRVKRZLQZKLFKEHDNHUDUHGR[UHDFWLRQ
is occurring.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

A galvanic cell is set up containing a copper electrode in copper sulfate solution connected to
a zinc electrode in zinc sulfate solution.
Calculate the E potential for this cell if standard conditions apply.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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 DWKHUDQGSUHVHQWLQIRUPDWLRQRQWKHVWUXFWXUHDQGFKHPLVWU\RIDGU\FHOORUOHDGDFLGFHOO
*
DQGHYDOXDWHLWLQFRPSDULVRQWRRQHRIWKHIROORZLQJ
 EXWWRQFHOO
 IXHOFHOO
 YDQDGLXPUHGR[FHOO
 OLWKLXPFHOO
 OLTXLGMXQFWLRQSKRWRYROWDLFGHYLFH HJWKH*UDW]HOFHOO
LQWHUPVRI
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 FRVWDQGSUDFWLFDOLW\
 LPSDFWRQVRFLHW\
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4.10.1
(a)

Draw a diagram of either a dry cell OR a lead acid cell and describe its chemistry.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Draw a diagram of either a button cell, fuel cell, vanadium redox cell, lithium cell OR a
OLTXLGMXQFWLRQSKRWRYROWDLFGHYLFH HJWKH*UDW]HOFHOO DQGGHVFULEHLWVFKHPLVWU\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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4.10.2 )RUWKHWZRFHOOVFKRVHQLQ4XHVWLRQFRPSOHWHWKHIROORZLQJWDEOHWRFRPSDUHWKHP
Dry cell or lead acid cell

Button cell, fuel cell, vanadium redox


cell, lithium cell, OR Gratzel cell

Cost and practicality

Impact on society

Environmental impact

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4.10.3 $VVHVVDGU\FHOORUDOHDGDFLGFHOOLQFRPSDULVRQWRRQHRIWKHIROORZLQJ


EXWWRQFHOO

IXHOFHOO

YDQDGLXPUHGR[FHOO

OLWKLXPFHOO

OLTXLGMXQFWLRQSKRWRYROWDLFGHYLFH HJWKH*UDW]HOFHOO 

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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37

Production of Materials

4.11

Applied question.
4.11.1 During the 19th and 20th centuries, fossil fuels were our main source of energy. However,
there are problems with the use of these fuels today. It seems likely that renewable resources
RIHQHUJ\DQGR[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQUHDFWLRQVZLOOEHFRPHLQFUHDVLQJO\LPSRUWDQWLQWKHVW
century as sources of energy.
Discuss this statement.
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Production of Materials

38

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5. Nuclear chemistry provides a range of materials.


5.1

Distinguish between stable and radioactive isotopes and describe the conditions under which a
nucleus is unstable.
5.1.1
D 

'HQHLVRWRSH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(b)

Distinguish between a stable and a radioactive isotope.

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(c)

Describe the conditions under which the nucleus of atoms is unstable.

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5.1.2

Complete the following table to compare alpha, beta and gamma radiation.
Alpha radiation

Structure

Beta radiation

Particles

Consist of
Charge

Electron from the nucleus


+2

Ionising ability
Penetration

Gamma radiation

Fair
Poor (2-10 cm in air)

Deection in
electric eld

Towards positive plate

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Production of Materials

5.1.3

Label the three types of radiation shown in the following diagram as alpha, beta or gamma
radiation.
negatively charged field
radioactive
source

positively charged field

5.1.4
(a)

Describe radioactive decay.

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E 

:KDWLVPHDQWE\WKHKDOIOLIHRIDUDGLRDFWLYHLVRWRSH"

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5.2

Process information from secondary sources to describe recent discoveries of elements.


5.2.1

Describe recent discoveries of elements.

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5.2.2

Identify two recently discovered elements and outline their method of production.

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Production of Materials

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

5.3

Describe how transuranic elements are produced.


5.3.1
(a)

What is meant by a transuranic element?

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E 

%ULH\RXWOLQHKRZWUDQVXUDQLFHOHPHQWVDUHSURGXFHG

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F 

'HVFULEHWKHSURGXFWLRQRIWZRWUDQVXUDQLFHOHPHQWV,QFOXGHHTXDWLRQV

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5.4

Describe how commercial radioisotopes are produced.


5.4.1
(a)

Identify some commercial radioisotopes.

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(b)

Describe how commercial radioisotopes are produced.

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41

Production of Materials

5.5

Identify instruments and processes that can be used to detect radiation.


5.5.1

Identify instruments that can be used to detect radiation.

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5.5.2

For two of the instruments named above, outline the processes involved.

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,GHQWLI\RQHXVHRIDQDPHGUDGLRLVRWRSH
 LQLQGXVWU\
 LQPHGLFLQH
5.6.1
(a)

Identify one use of a named radioisotope in industry.

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(b)

Identify one use of a named radioisotope in medicine.

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5.7

Describe the way in which the above named industrial and medical radioisotopes are used and
explain their use in terms of their chemical properties.
5.7.1

'HVFULEHWKHZD\LQZKLFKWKHUDGLRLVRWRSHVQDPHGLQ4XHVWLRQDUHXVHG

(a)

industrial radioisotope

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(b)

medical radioisotope

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

5.7.2

 RURQHRIWKHUDGLRLVRWRSHVGHVFULEHGLQ4XHVWLRQH[SODLQLWVXVHLQWHUPVRI
)
its properties.

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 VHDYDLODEOHHYLGHQFHWRDQDO\VHEHQHWVDQGSUREOHPVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHXVHRIUDGLRDFWLYH
8
LVRWRSHVLQLGHQWLHGLQGXVWULHVDQGPHGLFLQH
5.8.1

$QDO\VHEHQHWVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHXVHRIUDGLRDFWLYHLVRWRSHVLQLGHQWLHGLQGXVWULHV
and medicine.

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5.8.2

 QDO\VHSUREOHPVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHXVHRIUDGLRDFWLYHLVRWRSHVLQLGHQWLHGLQGXVWULHV
$
and medicine.

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43

Production of Materials

Notes
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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

DOT POINT
Answers

Science Press

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

249

Answers

Notes
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Science Press

Answers

250

Dot Point HSC Chemistry

Production of Materials
1.1.1

Petroleum consists of crude oil and natural gas. Petroleum contains a mixture of up to 300 hydrocarbons, as well as sulfur and
nitrogen compounds.

&UXGHRLO OLTXLGSHWUROHXP FRQWDLQVPDLQO\DONDQHVDQGDONHQHVIURP&WRDERXW&

 DWXUDOJDVLVDPL[WXUHRIPHWKDQH  HWKDQH  SURSDQHDQGEXWDQH  DQGVPDOOHUDPRXQWVRIRWKHU


1
DONDQHV,WPD\DOVRFRQWDLQQLWURJHQZDWHUYDSRXUFDUERQGLR[LGHDQGWUDFHVRIK\GURJHQVXOGH

1.1.2

Various, e.g. gases; petroleum ether; gasoline (petrol); kerosene; diesel; gas oil; lubrication oil and wax; bitumen

1.1.3

(a)

Process used to separate a mixture such as petroleum into its components, depending on the components having
different boiling points.

(b)
light gases

gasoline
fractionating
column
naptha
kerosene
gas oil
lubricating oils
residue

hot crude oil

(c)
thermometer
condenser

fractional
distillation
column
water
out

water
bath

water
in

hotplate
mixture with porous pot

1.1.4

(a)

Ethene

(b)
H
H
(c)

C=C

H
H

Petroleum and natural gas. In Europe and Japan, ethylene (ethene) is obtained from petroleum by fractional
distillation to produce fractions, followed by the cracking of some of the fractions.
In Australia and the USA, where natural gas is more readily available, we mostly pipe natural gas directly from its
source and crack the ethane, propane and butane to obtain ethylene (ethene).

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251

Production of Materials

1.1.5

Cracking is a process in which molecules of carbon compounds are broken down into smaller molecules with the help of heat
and/or catalysts.

,QRUJDQLFFDWDO\VWVVXFKDVDOXPLQDVLOLFDJHODUHXVHGLQWKHFUDFNLQJSURFHVV
Examples of cracking are:
C2H6 J &2H4(g) + H2(g)
C8H18 O &2H4(g) + C2H6(g)

1.2.1

alkenes, C=C , share, carbon, two, electrons

1.2.2

(a)

Homologous series

(b)

General formula

Functional group

Alkane

CnH2n+2

CC

Alkene

CnH2n

C=C

Alkyne

CnH2n2

CC

(i)

C2H6

(ii)

C2H4

(iii)

C2H2

1.2.3

(WKHQHLVPRUHUHDFWLYHWKDQHWKDQHEHFDXVHHWKHQHFRQWDLQVDGRXEOHFDUERQFDUERQERQGZKHUHDVHWKDQHRQO\KDVDVLQJOH
FDUERQFDUERQERQG7KHGRXEOHERQG & & LVPXFKPRUHUHDFWLYHWKDQWKHVLQJOH && ERQG

1.2.4

(a)

A reaction in which an atom is substituted for another already in the molecule, e.g. a hydrogen atom may be replaced
ZLWKDKDORJHQDWRP/LJKWHQHUJ\LVUHTXLUHG

(b)

Various, e.g.

H H

H H

A double bond is broken, and other atoms, or group of atoms, are added into the molecule.
H H

C H + H2

H
-

H C - C- H

H C
-

(b)

(a)

H - C - C- H + HCl
-

1.2.5

light

H - C - C- H + Cl2

H Cl

H H

H H
-

C H + Cl2

H C - C- H

H C

H H

H
-

(c)

Cl Cl
1.3.1

7RDVDPSOHRIWKHK\GURFDUERQDGGEURPLQHZDWHUZKLFKLVDUHGEURZQFRORXUDQGVHHLILWUHDFWV
An alkene, such as ethene, will undergo an addition reaction, even in the dark, and the bromine water will change from
UHGEURZQWRFRORXUOHVVYHU\TXLFNO\ Note: You must always state colour changes from to ...; it is not enough to say the
bromine water decolourises.)
An alkane, such as ethane, will undergo a substitution reaction with bromine water, but this reaction is very slow and only
occurs in the presence of light. This reaction may take several hours, or even days, to complete.
Br2(g) + H2O(l) U+2%U DT ++ DT %U DT

H C C H

H C C H + HOBr

OR

Br Br

H H
-

H H

H C - C- H
-

+ Br2

C C

H-

H H

H-

Alkene

Br OH

Alkane
-

H H

H - C - C - H + HOBr

H H
light

H H

H - C - C - H + H2O
Br H

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1.3.2

D 

9DULRXV\RXSUREDEO\XVHGF\FORKH[DQHDQGF\FORKH[HQHEHFDXVHWKH\DUHFRORXUOHVVDQGOLTXLGDWURRP
temperature. This allows you to readily see colour changes.

E 

9DULRXVHJ<RXPXVWFDUU\RXWWKLVH[SHULPHQWLQDIXPHFXSERDUGXVLQJYHU\VPDOOTXDQWLWLHVRIFKHPLFDOVDQG
wearing protective clothing including gloves and safety glasses.
These precautions are to avoid bromine water, cyclohexane and cyclohexene from coming into contact with the skin
and eyes or being inhaled.
Such precautions are essential as bromine water is toxic by all routes of exposure. It is a skin irritant, vapour irritant
and it is corrosive.

&\FORKH[DQHDQGF\FORKH[HQHDUHDOVRWR[LFE\DOOURXWHVRIH[SRVXUHDVZHOODVEHLQJKLJKO\DPPDEOH

1.4.1

(a)

A monomer is a small molecule, such as ethylene (ethene). Many monomer molecules can be joined together to form a
long chain molecule called a polymer.

(b)

A polymer is a large molecule consisting of a large number of identical small molecules (monomers) joined together,
for example plastics, rubber, synthetic textiles, starch, cellulose, protein and DNA in our genes.

(c)

Polymerisation.

1.4.2

Ethene is a small molecule. Many ethene molecules can be joined together to form a polymer such as polyethylene.

1.4.3

Monomers b, c Polymers a, d

1.5.1

A long chain molecule that can be formed from an addition reaction involving many molecules of one or more monomers with double bonds.

1.5.2

(a)

Ethylene (ethene)

(b)

ethylene

polyethylene

(ethene)

nCH2=CH2
catalyst

(where n is a large number)

(polyethene)
(CH2CH2)n

(c)
-

H H H H H H
-

C - C- C - C- C - CH H H H H H

1.6.1

Various in your answer you should include the following points:

 HVFULEHVRPHFRPPHUFLDOXVHVRISRO\HWK\OHQHDQGOLQNWKHVHXVHVWRLWVSURSHUWLHVHJ3RO\HWK\OHQHLVXVHGIRUPLON
'
bottles, detergent containers, food containers and garbage bins. It can be used for these purposes as it is insoluble in
water, inert, lightweight (low density), tough and strong.

 [SODLQHJ7KHVHSURGXFWVPXVWEHVWURQJVRWKH\GRQRWEUHDNHDVLO\LQHUWVRWKH\GRQRWGLVVROYHLQRUUHDFWZLWK
(
their contents; and light for ease of transport.

- XVWLI\WKHLPSRUWDQFHHJ7KXVSRO\HWK\OHQHLVLPSRUWDQWFRPPHUFLDOO\EHFDXVHLWVSURSHUWLHVPDNHLWVXLWDEOHIRUD
wide range of commercial uses.

1.6.2

Initiation A chemical called an initiator starts (initiates) the reaction by opening the double bond of an ethylene (ethene)
monomer. This forms an ethylene (ethene) free radical.
Propagation The monomers join, to form a chain.
Termination When free radical ethylene (ethene) chains combine, a complete polyethylene (polyethene) molecule is formed
and the process stops (it is terminated).

1.6.3

1.6.4

(a)

A species with an unpaired outer shell electron.

(b)

A free radical is very reactive because of the presence of an unpaired outer shell electron. Free radical ethene
molecules readily join together.

D 

7UDQVLWLRQPHWDOFDWDO\VWVDOVRFDOOHG=HLJOHU1DWWDFDWDO\VWV

(b)

Affects the rate of reaction and allows the process to be carried out at a lower temperature and pressure.
7KHVHFDWDO\VWVFDQDOVRDIIHFWWKHDUUDQJHPHQWRIXQLWVDWWDFKHGWRWKHPDLQFKDLQDQGWKXVWKHSRO\PHUV
physical properties such as density and stability to heat.

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253

Production of Materials

1.6.5
initiation
breaks
double
bonds

monomers

ethene free radicals

propagation
monomers
join

long chain molecules

complete polymer

termination

1.6.6

Factors Various, e.g. molecular weight, density, type and amount of additives and purity of the product.

 XDOLW\FRQWUROLVQHFHVVDU\WRHQVXUHWKHSURGXFWLQWKLVFDVHSRO\HWK\OHQHLVRIXQLIRUPKLJKTXDOLW\ZLWKWKHVDPH
4
FRPSRVLWLRQDQGDEVHQFHRILPSXULWLHVVRWKDWFXVWRPHUVZLOOIHHOFRQGHQWWKDWWKHSRO\HWK\OHQHZLOODOZD\VKDYHWKHVDPH
properties and so they will continue to purchase the product.

1.6.7

The reaction is exothermic, so heat is constantly being released. This heat may make the polymer decompose as it is formed,
decreasing the yield.

1.7.1

Various, e.g. you might have made models of ethene molecules, then broken the double bonds and joined them together.

1.8.1
Common name of monomer
Vinyl chloride

Systematic name of monomer

Formula of monomer

Chloroethene

H
H

Styrene
(Vinyl benzene)

Ethenylbenzene

H
H

C=C

Polyvinylchloride (PVC)

C=C

Name of polymer

Cl
Polystyrene

H
C6H5

1.9.1
Name of polymer

Structure of polymer

Polyvinylchloride (PVC)

H H
C C
H Cl

Polystyrene

Uses Various, e.g.


Containers, blister packaging, vegetable oil
bottles, electrical insulation, pipes and hoses,
vinyl ooring, records, outdoor furniture,
videos and credit cards

H H
C C

Fruit boxes, clothes hangers, packing foam,


foam egg cartons, meat trays, compact disc
and audiocassette cases, plastic cutlery, toys,
surfboards and hot drink cups

H C6H5 n
1.9.2
Name of
polymer

Use

Property that determines this use

PVC

Flooring and carpet backing

Soft and pliable


Low static electricity
Fire and water resistant

PVC

Sheets for roofs and


skylights

Rigid and strong


Will not dissolve in water or let water through

Polyethylene

Natural gas pipes


Coating steel pipes

Strong, insoluble in water


High resistance to chemical corrosion

Polyethylene

Plastic bags and food


containers

High tensile strength


Transparent or translucent
Soft and exible
Insoluble in water
Low reactivity with food
Low density

Polyethylene

Sheathing for wire cables


used for phone and TV

Electrical insulator
Flexible
Insoluble in water

Polystyrene

Disposable foam cups

Relatively cheap
Low density and keep their shape
Heat insulator
Not chemically active

Polystyrene

Surfboards

Cheap
Low density
Rigid
Not chemically active

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Dot Point HSC Chemistry

1.9.3

Various. In your answer you should include the following:

, GHQWLI\DWOHDVWWKUHHPDQXIDFWXUHGSRO\PHUVE\QDPHDQGVWDWHWKHIRUPXODRIHDFKHJSRO\HWK\OHQHSRO\VW\UHQH
and polyvinyl chloride.

 XWOLQHWKHPDQXIDFWXUHRIWKHVHSRO\PHUVLGHQWLI\WKHPRQRPHUVXVHGLQHDFKFDVHDQGLGHQWLI\WKHVWHSVLQWKH
2
production process initiation, polymerisation and termination.

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 HVFULEH%27+DGYDQWDJHVDQGGLVDGYDQWDJHVRIXVLQJWKHVHSRO\PHUV,QFOXGHHIIHFWVRQWKHHQYLURQPHQWDQGRQ
'
people, e.g.
Plastic cups are cheaper, less dense and safer than those made of glass. If they break, they are less likely to cause
damage especially to children. The use of plastic containers also helps to conserve beach sand as this is used in glass
production. If they are made from a polymer which can be recycled, then they are also environmentally friendly. Early
plastics could not be recycled which caused problems with their disposal and led to accumulation of wastes.
The development of polymers has also led to the production of cheap, disposable articles suitable for medical uses,
e.g. tubing and syringes. The use of these can greatly decrease the spread of infection among society, but has increased
the problems of waste disposal. Recently, the development of biodegradable polymers has helped to decrease the
problem of waste disposal.

 RXFRXOGDOVRLQFOXGHSUREOHPVLQWKHPDQXIDFWXUHRISRO\PHUVDQGWKHQHHGIRUSUHFDXWLRQVWREHWDNHQZKHQ
<
producing these chemicals, e.g.
Vinyl chloride is the monomer used to manufacture PVC. This chemical irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract,
causes liver damage and may be carcinogenic. It is highly toxic to marine life. Workers in industries using vinyl
FKORULGHVKRXOGZHDUSURWHFWLYHFORWKLQJDQGH\HSURWHFWLRQKDYHPDVNVDYDLODEOHLQFDVHRIOHDNVFKHFNIUHTXHQWO\
for leaks so as to avoid contamination of air or water. Some workers were affected adversely before the dangers of
using these chemicals were realised.

 KHQPDNHDQDVVHVVPHQWDERXWWKHLPSDFWRIWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHVHFKHPLFDOV<RXUDVVHVVPHQWVKRXOGEH
7
FRQVLVWHQWZLWKWKHHYLGHQFH\RXKDYHSUHVHQWHGDVPRVWO\IDYRXUDEOHRUXQIDYRXUDEOH<RXVKRXOGDOVRTXDOLI\WKH
impact, e.g. has it had a slight impact or a huge impact on society and has it had a slight impact or a huge impact on
the environment.

2.1.1

Industries that produce or use compounds which come from petroleum, e.g. production and use of fossil fuels, production of
polymers, lubricating oils.

2.1.2

Various, e.g. petrol, aviation fuel, diesel, candle wax, road tar, ethene, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, kerosene, lubricating
oils, synthetic fabrics.

2.1.3

Various, e.g. in your answer you should include the following:

'HQHSHWURFKHPLFDOLQGXVWU\

,GHQWLI\DYDULHW\RIFKHPLFDOVSURGXFHGE\WKHSHWURFKHPLFDOLQGXVWU\DQGWKHLUXVHV

3RLQWRXWWKDWWKHSHWUROHXPLQGXVWU\LVEDVHGRQWKHXVHRIIRVVLOIXHOVZKLFKDUHQRQUHQHZDEOHDQGPRVWDUHOLNHO\WR
run out within the next 100 years, some much sooner.

 LVFXVVWKHHIIHFWVRQRXUOLYHVLIZHFDQQRORQJHUSURGXFHVRPHRIWKHFKHPLFDOVZHFXUUHQWO\PDNHXVLQJIRVVLO
'
fuels and petroleum.

'UDZDFRQFOXVLRQHJWKDWLWLVLVQRWLPSRUWDQWZHLQYHVWLJDWHRWKHUVRXUFHVRIWKHVHFKHPLFDOV

2.2.1

 ELRSRO\PHULVDQDWXUDOO\RFFXUULQJORQJFKDLQFKHPLFDOPDGHRIUHSHDWLQJPRQRPHUXQLWV%LRSRO\PHUVDUHPDGHIURP
$
UHQHZDEOHUHVRXUFHVXVXDOO\SODQWVRUPLFURRUJDQLVPV([DPSOHVRIELRSRO\PHUVDUHFHOOXORVHVWDUFKFRWWRQSURWHLQVDQG
gluten.

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2.2.2

(a)

Various, e.g. Biopol

(b)

Biopol LVDSRO\K\GUR[\DONDQRDWH 3+$ ,WLVDFRSRO\PHUDVLWFRQVLVWVRIWZRPRQRPHUVK\GUR[\EXW\UDWHDQG


K\GUR[\YDOHUDWH

F 

K\GUR[\EXW\UDWH 

DQG

K\GUR[\YDOHUDWH
CH3
CH2 O

CH3 O
HO

CH C
CH2 OH

HO

CH C
CH2 OH

(d)

They occur naturally in bacteria such as Azobacter and Pseudomonas.

(a)

Bacteria, e.g. Alcaligenes eutrophus.

(b)

The polymer is presently produced industrially by bacteria (especially Alcaligenes eutrophus) growing in tanks with a
FDUERQEDVHGIRRGVRXUFH7KHSRO\PHULVWKHQLVRODWHGDQGSXULHG

 HFHQWO\DWWHPSWVWRSURGXFHWKHSRO\PHUPRUHHFRQRPLFDOO\KDYHXVHGJHQHWLFHQJLQHHULQJWHFKQLTXHVDQH[DPSOH
5
RIELRWHFKQRORJ\*HQHWLFDOO\HQJLQHHUHGEDFWHULDVXFKDVE. coli, can be used to produce PHA. The advantages are
faster growth, better yields, easier recovery and the production of less extra waste biomass. Also cheaper substrates
can be used to grow the bacteria, e.g. whey, molasses and agricultural wastes.

 HQHWLFDOO\HQJLQHHULQJSODQWVVXFKDVFUHVVDQGSRWDWRHVFDQDOVREHPDGHWRSURGXFHELRGHJUDGDEOHSODVWLFVUDWKHU
*
than storing starch.

2.2.3

Although these biopolymers are at present more expensive to produce than conventional plastics, they have the
advantage of being biodegradable, thus allowing better waste management, and of being made from renewable
crops rather than fossil fuels. The use of transgenic plants is expected to lower costs so this polymer becomes price
FRPSHWLWLYHZLWKWUDGLWLRQDOSHWUROHXPSURGXFHGSRO\PHUV

(c)

Various, e.g. a carrier for slow release of insecticides, herbicides or fertilisers; disposable containers for shampoo and
cosmetics, and disposable items such as razors, rubbish bags, disposable nappies, fast food utensils and plastic plates.

(d)

Similar to those of polypropylene, e.g. insoluble in water, permeable to oxygen, resistant to UV light, acids and bases,
soluble in chlorinated hydrocarbons, high melting point, high tensile strength and more dense than water. It is also
QRQWR[LFELRFRPSDWLEOHDQGELRGHJUDGDEOH

(e)

Various, e.g. medical applications such as the production of surgical pins and sutures.

 URSHUWLHVHJKLJKWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKLQVROXEOHLQZDWHUQRQWR[LFELRGHJUDGDEOH LWVSURGXFWVGHFRPSRVHQDWXUDOO\
3
and no surgery is needed to remove them) and it is biocompatible (the body does not react to this polymer or reject it
as a foreign object).

(f)

Uses of Biopol are varied, and more are continually being found. As it is biodegradable and biocompatible, it is
increasingly used for medical applications and the production of items which previously presented a disposal problem.
For medical applications, where biodegradability and biocompatability are important properties, there is often no
IRVVLOIXHOEDVHGDOWHUQDWLYH

2.3.1

A long chain compound formed when monomer molecules join together, forming a polymer, and releasing a small molecule
such as water. Examples are cellulose, nylon, polyester, cotton, cellophane, dacron.

2.4.1

Various, e.g.
CH2OH
O OH HO
HO

OH
OH

2.4.2

OH
OH

O OH HO
CH2OH

CH2OH
O OH HO

OH
OH

CH2OH
O

OH
OH

O OH
CH2OH

etc
O

OH
OH

OH
O

OH

CH2OH
O
O

OH

O
CH2OH
OH
section of a cellulose molecule

OH
O

OH

3H2O

O O
CH2OH

Small monomer molecules each release one or more atoms and the molecules join at that point. The released atoms combine
to form a new compound. For example, in the formation of cellulose, an H and an OH, released from adjoining monomers,
combine to form a molecule of water.

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2.4.3
Condensation reactions

Addition reactions

Both involve monomers joining to form a long chain molecule.

2.5.1

No double bonds necessary.

Monomer has double bond which breaks during polymerisation.

Polymer forms and also another small molecule.

No small molecule produced.

D 

*OXFRVH PROHFXODUIRUPXOD&6H12O6) is a ring structure. Five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom form the ring and
OH and H groups protrude above and below the ring. It also has a CH2 group out of the ring. In solution the ring can
open, forming a straight chain structure.

1 CHO

6 CH2OH
5
O

H
OH

2 CHOH

OH

H1
H

HO

3 CHOH

4 CHOH

H
OH

H1
OH

HO

5 CHOH

H
OH
Bglucose ring

6 CH2OH
5
O

H
OH
Aglucose ring

6 CH2OH

Open chain structure

(b)

Cellulose is a very long polymer containing about 2000 to 8000 glucose molecules in long chains. These glucose
molecules are strongly linked together by covalent bonds. Hydrogen bonding between the chains makes cellulose
chains linear, rigid, strong and resistant to chemical attack.
CH2OH
O
OH

OH
O

CH2OH
O

OH
O

O
OH

OH
O

OH

O
CH2OH
OH
Section of a cellulose molecule

OH
O O
CH2OH

F 

0RQRPHUVMRLQWRJHWKHUZLWKRXWWKHEUHDNLQJRIDGRXEOHERQGIRUPLQJFHOOXORVHDQGDZDWHUPROHFXOH 6HHHTXDWLRQ
IRU4XHVWLRQ

2.5.2

Cellulose is a polymer of the sugar glucose. It makes up the cell walls of plants and is the most abundant carbohydrate on
Earth. Cellulose is the main component of biomass and thus is a potentially important raw material for the production of
synthetic polymers.

2.6.1

3HWURFKHPLFDOVDUHFDUERQEDVHGFRPSRXQGVVRVXEVWDQFHVXVHGWRPDQXIDFWXUHSHWURFKHPLFDOVPXVWDOVREHFDUERQEDVHG
Also, being a major component of biomass, cellulose is a readily available renewable raw material for the production of
petrochemicals.

2.6.2

Your answer should include the following points:

&HOOXORVHLVDFDUERQEDVHGFRPSRXQGDVDUHSHWURFKHPLFDOV

&HOOXORVHLVUHDGLO\DYDLODEOH,WLVRQHRIWKHPDLQFRPSRQHQWVRIELRPDVV

%LRPDVVLVRUJDQLFPDWWHUSURGXFHGIURPSODQWV

 KHXVHRIIRRGFURSVWRPDNHSRO\PHUVSUHVHQWVHWKLFDOSUREOHPVDVWKHUHDUHSHRSOHVWDUYLQJLQPDQ\SDUWV
7
of the world.

 RWHQWLDOO\XVHIXOELRPDVVLQFOXGHVWKHZDVWHSODQWPDWWHUIURPDJULFXOWXUDOSURGXFWVVXFKDVVXJDUFDQHDQGFRUQ
3
FURSVZDVWHIURPIRUHVWU\VXFKDVVDZGXVWDQGZRRGFKLSDQGVHZDJH1RUPDOO\VXFKZDVWHVDUHGLIFXOWWRGLVSRVH
of, so using them to make substances such as polymers is desirable.

 XPXSHJ&HOOXORVHKDVKXJHSRWHQWLDOLQWKHPDQXIDFWXUHRISHWURFKHPLFDOVDVLWLVUHDGLO\DYDLODEOHLQKXJH
6
amounts and can be converted to petrochemicals thus reducing our reliance on petroleum. This is important as
petroleum supplies are running out.

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2.7.1

Various. Your answer should include the following:


Describe the production of ethene by the fractional distillation of petroleum and then the cracking of fractions.
Include equations for cracking, e.g. C16H 34(l) catalyst

heaat C8H16(l) + C8H18(l)


and C8H16(l) catalyst

heat C 2H 4(g) + C6H12(l)


Describe the composition of cellulose as consisting of chains of glucose monomers. Include formulas.
Describe the manufacture of ethene by:



K\GURO\VLVRIFHOOXORVHWRJOXFRVH

IHUPHQWDWLRQRIJOXFRVHWRSURGXFHHWKDQRO

GLVWLOODWLRQRIWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQPL[WXUHWRSURGXFHHWKDQRO

GHK\GUDWLRQRIHWKDQROXVLQJFRQFHQWUDWHGVXOIXULFDFLGDVDFDWDO\VWWRIRUPHWKHQH

yeast
Include equations, e.g. C6H12O 6(aq) enzymes

2C 2H 5OH(aq) + 2CO 2(g)

C 2H 5OH(aq) Hconc.

SO C2H 4(g) + H 2O(g)


2

Explain that cellulose is a renewable resource which is obtained from plant cell walls. If crops are used to manufacture ethanol
then it could be argued that these would be better used to feed people. However, it is also abundant in waste biomass, the plant
PDWHULDOOHIWRYHUDIWHUWKHFURS HJFRUQRUVXJDU KDVEHHQUHPRYHG+RZHYHUSHWUROHXPLVDQRQUHQHZDEOHIRVVLOIXHODQG
its supplies will eventually run out.
Explain that at the present time it is more cost effective to produce ethene from petroleum, however, as petroleum supplies
are reduced this will become more expensive. The cost of producing ethanol is relatively high at the present time as the
GLVWLOODWLRQVWHSUHTXLUHVDODUJHLQSXWRIHQHUJ\$VWHFKQRORJ\LPSURYHVDQGVRODUFHOOVEHFRPHPRUHHIFLHQWWKLVSURFHVV
will become less expensive.
Make a value judgement, e.g.
At present, the preferred method of manufacturing ethene is from petroleum. However, as the cost of its manufacture from
cellulose decreases this will become a viable alternative.


<RXUHYDOXDWLRQVKRXOGUHHFW\RXUYLHZVEXWLWPXVWPDWFK\RXUGLVFXVVLRQSRLQWV

3.1.1

(a)
-

H H
H C - C- OH
-

H H


E 

(WKDQROLVDQDONDQROEHFDXVHLWWVWKHIROORZLQJGHVFULSWLRQRIDONDQROV

,WVIRUPXOD &2H52+ WVWKHJHQHUDOIRUPXOD52+ZKHUH5VWDQGVIRUDVDWXUDWHGFDUERQFKDLQZLWK


formula CnH2n+1.

,WFRQWDLQVWKHIXQFWLRQDO2+ K\GUR[\O JURXS

3.1.2

(a)

A reaction in which a molecule of water is released as one product.

(b)
H

C OH
-

(c)

H
-

conc.
H2SO4
180oC

H
H
C=C
+
H
H

H2O

A molecule of water is removed (dehydration). A hydrogen atom and an OH group are removed from adjacent carbon
atoms to form a water molecule. To do this the ethanol is heated to between 100 and 200C with concentrated sulfuric
acid used as a catalyst.

3.1.3

The catalyst, concentrated sulfuric acid, speeds up the reaction.

3.2.1

C2H4(g) + H2O(l) C2H5OH(l)

3.2.2

Water is added to ethylene (ethene), using dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst.

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dehydration of ethanol
-

H H
H C C OH
-

H H

180C

C=C

addition of water to ethylene (ethene)


H

dilute
acid

H H
H C - C- OH
-

C=C

H H

(b)

conc.
H2SO4

(a)

3.3.1

3.3.2

Various, e.g. computer simulations or using a molecular model kit. Describe how you did this.

3.4.1

Ethanol can be produced by fermenting sugar in soluble forms such as sucrose and molasses from sugar cane, and fructose
IURPFRUQSODQWV,IFHOOXORVHLVSUHVHQWLWQHHGVWREHUVWK\GURO\VHGWRJOXFRVH
The sugars are fermented by enzymes produced by fungi such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

 ERXWRIWKHVXJDUSURGXFHGIURPSODQWPDWWHULVLQWKHIRUPRIxylose, a sugar that cannot be fermented by fungi. To


$
overcome this problem, genetically engineered E. coli bacteria are now being used instead of fungi as they can ferment both
glucose and xylose.
After fermentation the ethanol must be separated from the reaction mixture by distillation.

3.4.2

A Filtering, B Fermentation, C Distillation.

3.5.1

(a)

Covalent bonds.

(b)

Covalent bonds within the molecule are polar and do not balance each other out. Oxygen is more electronegative than
carbon or hydrogen atoms, so a dipole forms.

F 

'LVSHUVLRQ 9DQGHU:DDOV IRUFHVGLSROHGLSROHIRUFHVDQGK\GURJHQERQGV

(d)
H

H
C -H

HO

C -OH
-

H
-

H
= hydrogen bond

3.5.2

(WKDQROLVDVROYHQWIRUERWKSRODUDQGQRQSRODUVXEVWDQFHV,WLVXVHGDVDVROYHQWLQPHGLFLQHVHJFRXJKPL[WXUHVDQGLQ
many industrial processes, e.g. the production of perfumes, varnishes, adhesives and plastics. Ethanol is polar, so it is able to
GLVVROYHSRODUVXEVWDQFHVE\IRUPLQJGLSROHGLSROHIRUFHVRUK\GURJHQERQGVZLWKWKHP,WVFDUERQFKDLQDOORZVLWWRERQG
ZLWKDQGGLVVROYHQRQSRODUVXEVWDQFHV
Ethanol is very useful in dissolving substances that are not soluble in water and hence allowing these substances to become
VROXEOHLQZDWHUHWKDQROPL[WXUHV7KLVDOORZVPHGLFLQHVWKDWDUHQRWZDWHUVROXEOHWREHWDNHQDVDOLTXLG

3.6.1

Ethanol readily undergoes relatively complete combustion, in air or oxygen, releasing 1367 kJ of energy per mole of
ethanol burned.
C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)

 WKDQROLVPDLQO\XVHGDVDIXHOWRVXSSOHPHQWSHWUROVXSSOLHV,WLVPL[HGZLWKSHWUROXVXDOO\ZLWKQRPRUHWKDQHWKDQRO
(
to avoid engine damage.

3.6.2

Ethanol is a renewable resource because it is mainly produced by the fermentation of plant matter, such as the residues from
the production of corn and sugar cane. More crops can be grown to make more ethanol and replace that which is used.

3.6.3

Renew able to grow more and replace that which was used.
Reuse and recycle use a substance again, e.g. melt down aluminium cans and recast them to use again. Note that you cannot
reuse or recycle a fuel.

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259

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3.7.1

(a)
Name

Molecular formula

Structural formula

CH3OH

H
-

Methanol

C OH

H
C2H5OH

H H
-

Ethanol

H C C OH
-

H H
C3H7OH

H H
C

C OH
-

Propanol

H H H
H H

H H
-

C4H9OH

Butanol

H C C C C OH
-

H H H H
H H

H H H
-

C5H11OH

Pentanol

H C C C C C OH
-

H H H H H
H H H

H
-

H H

C6H13OH

Hexanol

H C C C C C C OH
-

H H H H H H
-

H H

H H H

H H

C7H15OH

Heptanol

H C C C C C C C OH
-

H H H H H H H
H

H H H H H H H
-

C8H17OH

Octanol

H C C C C C C C C OH
-

H H H H H H H
OH H
-

H OH H H H
-

LL  SURSDQRO SURSDQRO
-

L  KH[DQRO KH[DQRO 

H - C - C - C- H

H - C - C - C - C- C - C- H

H H

E 

H H H H H H

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3.8.1

D 

9DULRXVHJHWKDQROPHWKDQROSURSDQRO SURSDQRO

(b)

Various, e.g.

thermometer

container
water

wick

fuel, e.g. ethanol


in spirit burner

(c)

This experimental design provides extremely inaccurate results due to the large loss of heat to the environment hence it
is not suitable for measuring the actual heat of combustion. However, it can be used to compare heats of combustion of
different alkanols as they will all have the same order of inaccuracy as long as they are measured in exactly the same way.

G 

5HGXFHORVVRIKHDWWRWKHHQYLURQPHQWHJ8VHDPHWDOFDQUDWKHUWKDQDDVNDVWKLVZLOOFRQGXFWWKHKHDWWRWKHZDWHU
PRUHHIFLHQWO\LQVXODWHWKHFDQUHGXFHWKHJDSEHWZHHQWKHDPHDQGZDWHUFRQWDLQHUHQVXUHR[\JHQVXSSO\LVVXIFLHQW
WRDOORZIRUFRPSOHWHFRPEXVWLRQRIWKHDONDQROHQFORVHHTXLSPHQWWRSURWHFWIURPGUDXJKWVXVHDOLGRQWKHDVNRUFDQ

H 

 DULRXV$ONDQROVUHSUHVHQWDUHKD]DUGVR\RXVKRXOGKDYHDQH[WLQJXLVKHUKDQG\WRTXLFNO\SXWRXWDQ\UHVLIDQ
9
accident occurs. Check the school safety package for instructions regarding each of the alkanols you used and describe
JHQHUDOVDIHW\SURFHGXUHVDVZHOODVDQ\VSHFLFIRUHDFKIXHO8VHVDIHW\JRJJOHVWRSURWHFWH\HV

3.9.1

Molar heat of combustion is the heat energy, in joules or kilojoules, released by the combustion of 1 mole of a fuel.

3.9.2

(a)
Fuel

Formula

Heat of combustion
(kJ/mole)

Heat of combustion
(kJ/gram)

Hydrogen

H2

285

142.5

Coke (carbon)

393

32.8

Methane

CH4

890

55.6

Ethane

C2H6

1560

51.9

Propane

C3H8

2220

50.5

Methanol

CH3OH

727

22.7

Ethanol

C2H5OH

1367

29.7

(b)

Hydrogen

(c)

Methanol has the lower heat of combustion. Therefore methanol releases less energy per gram burnt than ethanol.
Thus methanol would be more expensive to use as a fuel.

3.9.3

193 kJ mol1

3.10.1

Various, e.g.
Ethanol is mainly used, mixed with petrol, as a fuel to supplement petrol supplies.
Brazil and the United States use ethanol as a supplement to reduce the purchase of foreign oil supplies and to reduce pollution
levels.

,QWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVHWKDQROLVPDQXIDFWXUHGPDLQO\E\IHUPHQWDWLRQRIFRUQDQGVXJDUFDQHUHVLGXHVDQGVDOHVRIHWKDQRO
JDVROLQHEOHQGVPDNHXSDERXWRIWKHWRWDOJDVROLQHIXHOVDOHVSHU\HDU
Sugar cane and wheat have been fermented in Australia to produce ethanol. However, in Australia there is increasing
acceptance of ethanol/petrol blends, e.g. E10.
The large scale production of ethanol is generally considered an uneconomic proposition, mainly because of the huge cost
RIGLVWLOODWLRQDQGWKHGLIFXOW\RIUHPRYLQJDOOZDWHUIURPWKHDOFRKRO+RZHYHUUHFHQWLQFUHDVHVLQIXHOSULFHVKDYHPDGH
the use of ethanol as a supplement to petrol more attractive. It would be expected that, in the future, as the price of petrol
increases, ethanol/petrol blends will be more widely valued and used in Australia.

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3.10.2

Various, e.g. you may have used information from websites set up by the government, a petrol company, an ethanol
manufacturer or an organisation such as the NRMA.
To assess the validity of this source of information, you would need to consider how reputable it is, e.g. is it a government
source or an established university. If the source is an environmental organisation or a petrol company or a company
manufacturing ethanol, then the information needs to be viewed as possibly biased. A range of different sources is essential to
compare the information obtained. The internet site should provide evidence for the reader to evaluate.

3.11.1

7RDQVZHUWKLVTXHVWLRQIXOO\\RXVKRXOGLQFOXGHWKHIROORZLQJ

6WDWHGHVFULEH$1'H[SODLQDWOHDVWWKUHHDGYDQWDJHV$1'GLVDGYDQWDJHVRIHWKDQRODVDIXHO VHHEHORZ 

,QFOXGHHTXDWLRQVZKHUHYHUSRVVLEOH

 DNHDQDVVHVVPHQWEDVHGRQWKHSRLQWV\RXKDYHLQFOXGHG$Q\DVVHVVPHQWLVFRUUHFWDVORQJDVLWLVEDVHGRQIDFWV,I
0
you say ethanol has huge potential as a fuel, you must have described more advantages than disadvantages. Consider:
Does ethanol have huge potential or little potential? Can it be used alone or only as an extender?

+HUHDUHVRPHH[DPSOHVRIZKDWLVPHDQWE\VWDWHGHVFULEHDQGH[SODLQ

Advantages of using ethanol:


Statement
Ethanol is produced from a renewable
source (unlike fossil fuels).

Description
Ethanol is produced by the fermentation of
biomass whereas other fuels are produced from
petroleum.

Explanation
Ethanol is produced by fermenting biomass this
comes from plants which are renewable as they
can be grown to replace the ones used.
Fermentation is by fungi such as the yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and genetically
engineered E. coli bacteria.

Ethanol burns more completely/


cleanly than fossil fuels.

Carbon dioxide neutral

C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)


Toxic carbon monoxide is reduced by 25-30%.

The oxygen in the ethanol molecule ensures


that less oxygen is needed to allow complete
combustion of the fuel.

Little or no carbon is produced so less is deposited


in the car and spark plugs last longer.

Ethanol is an excellent solvent, dissolving deposits


built up in the engine.

Net CO2 stays constant. The amount of CO2 used


to produce crops for ethanol production = CO2
produced when ethanol burns.

Carbon dioxide is produced when ethanol burns.


CO2 used in photosynthesis to make crops that will
later be converted to ethanol.
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g)

10% ethanol can be safely added to


petrol.

Ethanol acts as a petrol extender without damage


to engines.

No engine modication needed if only 10% added.


Makes petrol supplies last longer.

Disadvantages of using ethanol:


Statement

Description

Explanation

Ethanol has a lower heat of


1
combustion (29.7 kJ g ) than petrol
1
(47.9 kJ g ).

Combustion of ethanol produces less energy than


combustion of same amount of octane.

Car can travel further with the same amount


of octane than ethanol thus ethanol is more
expensive.

Existing car engines need to be


modied if > 10% ethanol used in fuel.

It is difcult to remove all water during distillation


of fermented biomass.

Water causes corrosion of engines and fuel lines.

Large areas of land needed.

Land is needed to grow crops to make ethanol.

This is a problem because land is also needed


to grow food crops and removal of forests is not
acceptable on ecological grounds.
(Note: Ethanol can now be produced from waste
left over from food crops which removes this
objection and means that it could be listed as an
advantage it gets rid of wastes from crops such
as sugar cane without having to burn off.)

Lots of energy is used in production


of ethanol.

Ethanol has to be distilled from the fermentation


mix.

This is a problem because distillation is energy


intensive energy is obtained by burning fossil
fuels and also costs are high, making ethanol
expensive.

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3.12.1

Various. Your answer should include a description of:

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PDNLQJXSRIWKHJOXFRVHVROXWLRQ

VWHULOLVDWLRQRIWKHHTXLSPHQW

KRZORQJWKHPL[WXUHZDVDOORZHGWRUHDFWDQGXQGHUZKDWFRQGLWLRQV

PDVVFKDQJHVDQGKRZ\RXPHDVXUHGWKHP

GLVWLOODWLRQWRVHSDUDWHWKHDOFRKROSURGXFHGIURPWKHUHDFWLRQPL[WXUH LQFOXGHDGLDJUDP

KRZ\RXSURYHGWKDWDOFRKROZDVSURGXFHG

<RXVKRXOGDOVRLQFOXGHDODEHOOHGGLDJUDPRI\RXUHTXLSPHQW

3.12.2

(a)

by yeast
C6H12O6 DT  fermentation

2C2H52+ DT &22(g)

(b)

Various, e.g.

(QVXULQJDOOHTXLSPHQWLVVWHULOHWREHJLQZLWKVRRWKHURUJDQLVPVGRQRWJURZLQWKHVXJDUVROXWLRQ
GHVFULEHKRZ\RXVWHULOLVHWKHHTXLSPHQW

'LIFXOW\RIGLVWLOOLQJDOFRKROSURGXFHGDVVRPHZDWHUERQGVWRWKHDOFRKROPROHFXOHV

7KHSUREOHPRIWKHDOFRKROSURGXFHGNLOOLQJ\HDVWFHOOVZKHQFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIDOFRKROUHDFKHVDERXW
so alcohol must be removed as it forms.

1HHGWRPDLQWDLQDFRQVWDQWWHPSHUDWXUHDV\HDVWJURZVEHVWDW&DQGGLHVLIWKHPHGLXPLVWRRKRW

(c)

Mass of reacting vessel and contents decreases as carbon dioxide gas is produced and this escapes from the container.

3.13.1

Maintain at a temperature of 37& RUDVQHDUDVSRVVLEOH UHPRYHDOFRKRODVLWLVSURGXFHGHQVXUHDOOHTXLSPHQWLVVWHULOH


before starting. Also to produce ethanol, respiration needs to be anaerobic so oxygen needs to be excluded as far as possible,
e.g. you may have boiled the water before starting to reduce the dissolved oxygen content.

3.14.1

Yeast cells (a fungus) grow in the sugar solution and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as products under anaerobic
FRQGLWLRQV(Q]\PHUHDFWLRQVDUHLQYROYHGVRFRQGLWLRQVVXLWDEOHIRUWKHHQ]\PHVDUHUHTXLUHGHJWHPSHUDWXUHRIC.

7KLVSURFHVVLQYROYHVPDQ\VWHSVEXWFDQEHVXPPDULVHGE\WKHHTXDWLRQ
by yeast
C6H12O6 DT  fermentation

2C2H52+ DT &22(g)

3.15.1

by yeast
C6H12O6 DT  fermentation

2C2H52+ DT &22(g)

4.1.1

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$ZLUHFRQQHFWVWKHWZRHOHFWURGHVWRDOORZWKHHOHFWURQVSURGXFHGWRRZIURPRQHWRWKHRWKHU

,IWKHWZRVROXWLRQVDUHLQVHSDUDWHFRQWDLQHUVDVDOWEULGJHFRQQHFWVWKHPWRPDLQWDLQWKH EDODQFHRIFKDUJH

 KHVDOWEULGJHLVVDWXUDWHGZLWKDVXEVWDQFHVXFKDVSRWDVVLXPQLWUDWHWKDWDOORZVLRQVWRRZIURPRQHFRQWDLQHUWR
7
the other but does not react with any ions in the solutions.

4.1.2

(a)

Various, e.g.
We took two beakers.
In one we put a solution of zinc sulfate with a strip of zinc (zinc electrode) in it.
In the other we put a copper sulfate solution and a strip of copper (copper electrode).
We connected the two electrodes to a wire and voltmeter.

:HVRDNHGDVWULSRIOWHUSDSHULQSRWDVVLXPQLWUDWHDQGSODFHGWKLVVRLWVHQGVGLSSHGLQWRWKHWZRVROXWLRQV

(b)

Various, e.g. A voltage was observed on the voltmeter.


If the salt bridge was not used, or if it was not in both solutions, there was no voltage (as the circuit is not complete).
Mention if gas is produced, an electrode wore away or a substance was deposited on an electrode.

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4.2.1

(a)

Various, e.g. magnesium and copper or copper and iron.

(b)

Various, e.g. for Mg and Cu you might have used magnesium sulfate for the Mg electrode and CuSO4 for the Cu electrode.

(c)

Various, e.g.
e

e
V

copper
electrode

magnesium
electrode
salt bridge
MgSO4 solution

(d)

CuSO4 solution

Various, e.g. salt bridge could dry out keep it moist.


Make sure salt bridge is immersed in both solutions.

(e)

Various, e.g. spilling or splashing of chemicals describe their toxicity if relevant.


Wear safety goggles and protective clothing to protect the eyes and skin from splashes of chemicals. Wash hands
thoroughly after using chemicals.

I 

9DULRXVHJIROGHGOWHUSDSHU RUDH[LEOHWXEHOOHGZLWKDEVRUEHQWSDSHU VRDNHGLQDVROXWLRQVXFKDVSRWDVVLXP


nitrate, with one end dipping into each electrolyte. Positive ions (cations) move to the cathode and negative ions
(anions) move to the anode.

4.3.1

Active metals will displace less active metal ions from solution; for example, zinc metal will displace copper ions from
solution of copper sulfate.
Zinc releases electrons from its outer shell, forming zinc ions and going into solution.
The electrons are accepted by the copper ions (in solution) so they become solid copper atoms.

:HFDQVKRZWKLVE\ZULWLQJWZRKDOIHTXDWLRQVDQGWKHQDGGLQJWKHPWRVHHWKHIXOOUHDFWLRQ
Zn (s) Zn2+ + 2e
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s)
Cu2+ DT =Q V  Zn2+ DT &X V

4.4.1

Active metals displace less active metals from solution. The greater the difference in activity between the two metals, the
more vigorous the displacement reaction.

4.4.2

Most active
Na

4.4.3

Ca

Least active
Mg

Al

Zn

Fe

Pb

Cu

Ag

(a)
Solution

Metal added

Any displacement reaction

Calcium chloride

Zinc

No reaction

Zinc chloride

Calcium

Calcium goes into solution, zinc is deposited

Lead chloride

Magnesium

Magnesium goes into solution, lead is deposited

Lead chloride

Silver

No reaction

(b)

Magnesium in silver nitrate. There is a greater difference in activity between magnesium and silver than between
magnesium and zinc.

(c)

Zinc must be more active than copper because the zinc has displaced the copper from solution.

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4.5.1

An increase in oxidation state occurs during oxidation.


Oxidation is the loss of electrons. For example:
Zn(s) Zn2+ DT H

2I DT  I2 DT H

Oxidation state of zinc changes from 0 to 2; it increases.


Oxidation state of iodine changes from 1 to 0; it increases.

A decrease in oxidation state occcurs during reduction.


Reduction is the gain of electrons. For example:
Ag+ DT H Ag(s)

Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl DT 

Oxidation state of silver changes from +1 to 0; it decreases.


2[LGDWLRQVWDWHRIFKORULQHFKDQJHVIURPWRLWGHFUHDVHV

4.5.2

8QFRPELQHGHOHPHQWVKDYHDQR[LGDWLRQVWDWHRI HJ1D +2 = 0).

,RQVKDYHDQR[LGDWLRQVWDWHHTXDOWRWKHFKDUJHRQWKHLULRQ HJ1D+ = +1, S2 = 2).

2[\JHQLQFRPSRXQGVKDVDFKDUJHRILQR[LGHVDQGLQSHUR[LGHV

+\GURJHQLQFRPSRXQGVKDVDFKDUJHRIZKHQFRPELQHGZLWKQRQPHWDOV HJLQ+2S) and 1 when combined


with metals (e.g. in NaH).

 KHR[LGDWLRQVWDWHRIDFRPSRXQGRUSRO\DWRPLFLRQLVWKHVXPRIWKHR[LGDWLRQVWDWHVRIDOOLWVDWRPV)RUD
7
compound the sum is 0.

2[LGDWLRQLQYROYHVDQLQFUHDVHLQR[LGDWLRQVWDWH

5HGXFWLRQLQYROYHVDGHFUHDVHLQR[LGDWLRQVWDWH

4.5.3

(a)

+2

(b)

+3

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

+7

4.6.1

$
 JDOYDQLF YROWDLFHOHFWURFKHPLFDO FHOOLVDQDUUDQJHPHQWRIFKHPLFDOVDQGHTXLSPHQWWKDWDOORZVDVSRQWDQHRXVUHGR[
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UHGXFWLRQLQWKHRWKHU(DFKKDOIFHOOFRQWDLQVDQHOHFWURGHLQDQHOHFWURO\WH

4.6.2

(a)

reaction that involves the loss of electrons

(b)

reaction that involves the gain of electrons

(c)

electron transfer reaction involving oxidation and reduction

(d)

a substance that causes oxidation and is itself reduced

(e)

a substance that causes reduction and is itself oxidised

4.6.3

, QDJDOYDQLFFHOOWKHUHDUHWZRKDOIFHOOV,QRQHKDOIFHOOWKHUHLVDVSRQWDQHRXVR[LGDWLRQUHDFWLRQDQGLQWKHRWKHUD
reduction reaction occurs. Oxidation occurs at the anode, releasing electrons. Reduction occurs at the cathode which gains
electrons. A wire connects the two electrodes so that electrons can transfer from the anode to the cathode.

4.7.1

7ZRKDOIFHOOVDUHVHWXSHDFKFRQWDLQLQJDQHOHFWURGHLQDQHOHFWURO\WHVROXWLRQ

$ZLUHFRQQHFWVWKHWZRHOHFWURGHVWRDOORZWKHHOHFWURQVSURGXFHGWRRZIURPRQHWRWKHRWKHU
A salt bridge, saturated with potassium nitrate, is set up so that it dips into both electrolytes.

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4.7.2

D 

(OHFWURQVRZIURPWKHDQRGH ZKHUHR[LGDWLRQRFFXUV WRWKHFDWKRGH ZKHUHUHGXFWLRQRFFXUV 

(b)
zinc
anode

copper
cathode

electrons
V
negative ions

positive
ions

electrolyte,
e.g. ZnSO4
Oxidation
Zn
Zn2+ +2e
Zn is a reductant

4.8.1

4.8.2

4.9.1

salt bridge

electrolyte,
e.g. CuSO4

Reduction
Cu
Cu2+ +2e
Cu2+ is an oxidant

(a)

A device which carries electric current into and out of a cell.

(b)

An electrolyte is a chemical that conducts electric current.

(c)

The electrode where oxidation occurs.

(d)

The electrode where reduction takes place.

(a)

To produce an electric current.

(b)

Release of electrons occurs during oxidation at the anode. These have to travel to the cathode. By having the anode
DQGFDWKRGHLQVHSDUDWHFHOOVZHFDQXVHWKHRZRIHOHFWURQVDVDVRXUFHRIHOHFWULFFXUUHQWYROWDJH

(a)

Standard reduction potential is a measure of the relative tendency of a substance to gain one or more electrons
FRPSDUHGWRWKHVWDQGDUGK\GURJHQKDOIFHOO
These are measured under standard conditions of 25C, 1 atmosphere pressure and using a 1 mol/L electrolyte
solution. The larger the E value, the greater the oxidising power of a substance.

E 

$KDOIFHOOFRQWDLQLQJDVWDQGDUGK\GURJHQHOHFWURGHDVVKRZQLQWKHGLDJUDPEHORZ
H2 gas

inert
metal
e.g. Pt

1 mol L1[H+]

(c)

Voltmeter

4.9.2

(a)

The redox table is a list of standard reduction potentials (E ). A copy of this table can be found at the back of this book.

E 

5HGXFWLRQUHGXFHGUHYHUVLQJOHIWGRZQXRULQHHOHFWURQVWRSJLYHXSUHGXFHGORZHUGRZQK\GURJHQR[LGLVLQJ

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4.9.3

(a)

0.44 volts

(b)

(i)

Al(s) U Al3+ + 3e
2+

Cu(s) U Cu + 2e

(ii)
(c)

+1.68 V

0.34 V

There is no reaction with iron in a solution of aluminium ions.


For the iron in copper sulfate solution, the reaction is as follows:

(d)

Cu2+ + 2e U Cu(s)

+0.34 V

Fe(s) U Fe2+ + 2e

+0.44 V

Cu

2+

Cu

2+

+ Fe(s) U Fe

2+

+ Cu(s)

+0.78 V

+ 2e U Cu(s)
2+

Zn(s) U Zn

(a)

= 0.78 volts

= 1.10 volts

+0.34 V

+ 2e

+0.76 V

Cu2+ + Zn(s) U Zn2+ + Cu(s)


4.10.1

+1.10 V

Various, e.g.
Diagram of lead acid cell:

H2SO4
and water

Pb anodes
PbO2 cathodes

Chemistry of lead acid cell:


Anode: lead plates
Pb Pb2+ + 2e
Cathode: lead(IV) oxide
PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O
Pb ions combine with sulfate ions and form lead sulfate.
Electrolyte: 6 mol L1 sulfuric acid
(b)

Various, e.g.
Diagram of lithium cell:
Electrolyte

Lithium

Anode contact
Seal

+
Positive electrode (mixture
used varies with type)

Separator Cathode contact/case

Chemistry of lithium cell:


Anode: lithium
Li  Li+ + e
Cathode: carbon
Reaction involves silver chromate or iodine, e.g.
I2 + 2e 2I
Electrolyte: lithium iodide

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4.10.2
Lead acid cell

4.10.3

Lithium cell

Cost and Practicality

Expensive, but long lasting.


Used as car batteries. Practical for this purpose as they do
not need to be portable.
They can be recharged. The reactions above are reversed
by the car generator forcing current back into the battery.
They work in a wide range of temperatures.

Expensive compared to other batteries. Used in cardiac


pacemakers, cellular phones, watches , computers and
cameras.
Practical for these uses as they are long-lasting,
rechargeable and high voltage.
Lithium batteries are very light and deliver more power
(about 3 V) than dry cell and alkaline batteries (1.5 V).

Impact on society

Their development meant that cars could be started much


more easily and reliably they did not have to be cranked.
They improved the capability of people to move around and
travel long distances.

The development of these long-lasting, rechargeable,


very light batteries that produce a constant, relatively high
voltage has led to the development of medical applications
such as cardiac pacemakers which have saved lives. Their
small size and portability have allowed the development of
smaller electronic devices such as cameras, watches and
phones. These have improved our ability to communicate
over distance.

Environmental
impact

Contains concentrated sulfuric acid (about 6 mol L ) which


must be disposed of safely as it is highly corrosive.
Also lead is a toxic heavy metal so must be disposed of
carefully.

Lithium must be transported and disposed of safely to


avoid environmental damage.

Various, e.g. a dry cell versus a button cell:


Dry cellsDUHXVHIXODQGTXLWHDGHTXDWHIRUVRPHSXUSRVHVHJLQWRUFKHVWR\VDQGUDGLRV7KHGU\FHOOZDVDQLPSURYHPHQW
RYHUHDUOLHUFHOOVDVLWFRQWDLQHGQROLTXLG+RZHYHUHYHQWXDOO\WKH]LQFFDVLQJPD\EHXVHGXSDQGDOORZWKHEDWWHU\WROHDN
Also, if used continuously, ammonia may be produced and cause the cell to burst.
The button cell UHSUHVHQWVLPSURYHPHQWVLQGHVLJQDVLWDOVRFRQWDLQVQROLTXLGLWLVVPDOOHUKDVDORQJHUVKHOIOLIHDQG
provides a more constant voltage for a longer period of time. These advantages have made possible the development of small
watches, hearing aids, microphones and calculators. The reduction in size of these appliances has made them more portable
and made them available to a greater percentage of the population. Hearing aids, which were previously bulky and obvious are
now smaller and more convenient.
At present the button cell is more expensive than the dry cell however, and it usually contains the heavy metal silver so must
be disposed of carefully to prevent environmental damage. Heavy metals such as silver are toxic and they can bioaccumulate.
Overall, the button cell is superior, its small size and constant voltage making possible the developments of small electronic
devices that would not otherwise be possible. Its cost limits its use slightly, however, with time and mass production, this
should decrease.

4.11.1

Various. In your answer you should include the following:


Outline the fossil fuels used in the 19th and 20th centuries to obtain energy include coal and petroleum (oil and gas).

,QFOXGHHTXDWLRQVVKRZLQJWKHFRPEXVWLRQRIWKHVHIXHOV0HQWLRQWKHVHDUHH[RWKHUPLFUHDFWLRQV
Discuss the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels including the production of pollutants and their effects, the
greenhouse effect (CO2DQGZDWHUYDSRXU PHUFXU\SROOXWLRQDFLGUDLQ,QFOXGHHTXDWLRQVWRLOOXVWUDWHWKHVHSUREOHPV
Explain that supplies of these fuels are running out and they are not renewable.

 HVFULEHVRPHUHQHZDEOHVRXUFHVRIHQHUJ\HJHWKDQRODQGWKHXVHRIELRPDVV,QFOXGHHTXDWLRQV<RXVKRXOGDOVRLQFOXGH
'
such sources as wind power and solar energy.

'HVFULEHZKDWLVPHDQWE\R[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQUHDFWLRQV

'HVFULEHWKHSURGXFWLRQRIHQHUJ\E\R[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQUHDFWLRQV

 [SODLQKRZR[LGDWLRQUHGXFWLRQUHDFWLRQVDUHXVHGLQWKHWZRFHOOVWKDW\RXVWXGLHG,QFOXGHGLDJUDPVDQGLGHQWLI\WKHDQRGH
(
FDWKRGHHOHFWURO\WHR[LGDQWDQGUHGXFWDQW,QFOXGHKDOIDQGIXOOUHGR[HTXDWLRQV
Sum up your ideas is it likely that renewable resources will replace fossil fuels during this century?

5.1.1

(a)

Isotopes are forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons in the atom and thus different atomic masses.
They have the same number of protons, and the same atomic number, as they are the same element. But their mass
numbers differ.

(b)

A stable isotope does not normally disintegrate.


An unstable isotope is said to be radioactive. It continuously emits alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation from its nucleus.

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(c)

The stability of isotopes is determined by the number of particles in the nucleus and also by the ratio of neutrons to
protons. For light elements, the stable neutron to proton ratio is approximately 1:1. For heavy elements the stable
neutron to proton ratio is approximately 1.5:1.

5.1.2
Alpha radiation

Beta radiation

Gamma radiation

Structure

Particles

Particles

Electromagnetic radiation

Consist of

2 protons and 2 neutrons


(same as a helium nucleus)

Electron from the nucleus

High frequency radiation

Charge

+2

Nil

Ionising ability

Good

Fair

Poor

Penetration

Poor (210 cm in air)

Fair (5 m in air, 2 mm in aluminium)

Very good (several cm of lead)

Deection in electric eld

Towards negative plate

Towards positive plate

Nil

alpha radiation

5.1.3

gamma rays
beta radiation

5.1.4

(a)

Radioactive atoms decay at random. The nucleus emits particles and/or energy in order to attain a stable structure.
7KHWLPHWDNHQIRUKDOIRIDVDPSOHRIDUDGLRLVRWRSHWRGHFD\LVFDOOHGLWVKDOIOLIH7KHGHFD\RIDUDGLRLVRWRSHLVD
nuclear, not a chemical, reaction.

E 

+DOIOLIHLVWKHWLPHWDNHQIRUKDOIRIWKHDWRPVLQDVDPSOHRIDUDGLRDFWLYHHOHPHQWWRGHFD\

5.2.1

7
 KHUVWHOHPHQWWRH[LVWRQO\LQWKHODERUDWRU\ZDVWHFKQHWLXP DWRPLFQXPEHU FUHDWHGLQE\ERPEDUGLQJ
PRO\EGHQXPZLWKGHXWHULXPQXFOHL'XULQJDQGDIWHU:RUOG:DU,,DQ$PHULFDQWHDPOHGE\*OHQQ6HDERUJFUHDWHGQHZ
HOHPHQWVLQDQDFFHOHUDWRULQFOXGLQJQHSWXQLXPWKHUVWHOHPHQWKHDYLHUWKDQXUDQLXPDQGSOXWRQLXPWKHHOHPHQWXVHGLQ
the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.

6LQFHWKHPLGVV\QWKHVLVRIHYHUKHDYLHUQHZHOHPHQWVKDVGHSHQGHGRQQHZJHQHUDWLRQVRISDUWLFOHDFFHOHUDWRUV

'XULQJWKHODVWGHFDGHDQXPEHURIQHZHOHPHQWVKDYHEHHQSURGXFHGDUWLFLDOO\HJKDVVLXP0DQ\UHFHQWGLVFRYHULHVDUH
elements that only exist for a fraction of a second.

5.2.2

Various, e.g.

(OHPHQWXQXQSHQWLXPLVRODWHGDIHZDWRPVRIWKUHHUDGLRDFWLYHLVRWRSHVLQXVLQJDF\FORWURQDQGWKHIXVLRQRI
QXFOHLRIFDOFLXPDQGDPHULFLXP 1RW\HWFRQUPHGE\,83$&
243
95

Am +

243
95

Am +

48
20

287
115

Ca l

48
20

Ca l

Uup + 41n

288
115

Uup + 31n

Element 108 hassium isolated a few atoms by a nuclear reaction involving the fusion of isotopes of bismuth and iron.
Hassium is radioactive and decays very rapidly.
208

Bi +

58

Fe

265

Hs + 1n

Element 109 meiterium isolated a few atoms by the fusion of isotopes of lead and iron. Meiterium is radioactive and
decays very rapidly.
208

5.3.1

Pb +

58

Fe

266

Mt + 1n

(a)

An element heavier than uranium, e.g. neptunium, americium.

(b)

Synthesised in a nuclear reactor or an accelerator.


During the past 20 years, transuranic elements have been created in nuclear reactors and by accelerator laboratories in
WKH8QLWHG6WDWHV*HUPDQ\DQG5XVVLD0RVWRIWKHUDGLRLVRWRSHVSURGXFHGLQWKLVZD\H[LVWIRURQO\DVKRUWWLPHDV
they are radioactive and spontaneously decay.
Nuclear reactors bombard targets with neutrons produced by uranium decay. For example neptunium and americium
are produced in this way.
Accelerators bombard target atoms with positive particles such as protons or nuclei of atoms such as helium or iron.
For example, meiterium and hassium were produced in this way.

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269

Production of Materials

(c)

Various, e.g.
In accelerators, e.g.:
Hassium produced by bombarding lead with iron.
208

Pb +

58

265

Hs + 1n

Fe

In nuclear reactors:


1HSWXQLXP ]  REWDLQHGE\QHXWURQERPEDUGPHQWRIXUDQLXP


238
92

U + 01 n

239
93

Np +

0
1

Americium obtained by neutron bombardment of plutonium.


239
94

5.4.1

D 

Pu + 2 01 n

241
95

Am +

0
1

9DULRXVHJFREDOWVWURQWLXPLRGLQHLRGLQH
(Note: You must be able to state name and mass number.)

(b)

Commercial radioisotopes are produced by accelerators and nuclear reactors.


An accelerator is a machine that allows particles (e.g. protons, helium nuclei or other nuclei) to be accelerated to high
VSHHGDQGUHGDWQXFOHLRIDWRPVZLWKFRQWUROOHGHQHUJLHVLQRUGHUWRVWXG\QXFOHDUUHDFWLRQVRUPDNHUDGLRLVRWRSHV
Cyclotrons are accelerators.

$FFHOHUDWRUVSURGXFHQHXWURQGHFLHQWLVRWRSHV HJLRGLQHXRULQH 
A nuclear reactor is a device that allows a uranium chain reaction to occur safely, releasing neutrons at a slow
and controlled rate. A target is bombarded with neutrons to produce a radioactive species with extra neutrons in the
QXFOHXVVRQXFOHDUUHDFWRUVSURGXFHQHXWURQULFKLVRWRSHV HJLRGLQHVWURQWLXPFREDOW 

5.5.1

*HLJHU0OOHUWXEHEDGJHVFRQWDLQLQJSKRWRJUDSKLFOPWKHUPROXPLQHVFHQWGRVLPHWHUVFLQWLOODWLRQFRXQWHU

5.5.2

Various, e.g.

*HLJHU0OOHUWXEH
This consists of a sealed glass tube with a thin mica window at one end. The gas inside the tube, often argon, is ionised by
UDGLDWLRQHQWHULQJWKHWXEH7KLVFDXVHVDFXUUHQWWRRZWKURXJKWKHDWWDFKHGFLUFXLWZKLFKKDVDUHFRUGLQJGHYLFHLQFOXGHG7KLV
device is most effective in detecting beta particles; it can also detect alpha particles if the source is within 2 cm of the window.
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
A TLD measures the amount of gamma radiation received over a period of time. It consists of a badge that contains crystals of
an inorganic salt that absorbs the radiation.
When these chemicals are heated, the energy they have gained from radiation is released as light. The intensity of the light
emitted on heating gives a measure of the radiation the person wearing the badge has received.

5.6.1

D 

9DULRXVHJ$PHULFLXPLVXVHGLQVPRNHDODUPV

E 

9DULRXVHJ7HFKQHWLXPPLVXVHGLQWKHGLDJQRVLVRIGLVHDVH

5.7.1

D 

 PHULFLXPLVXVHGLQVPRNHDODUPVZKHUHLWHPLWVDOSKDSDUWLFOHVDQGORZHQHUJ\JDPPDUD\VWRIRUP
$
237
4
QHSWXQLXP 241
95 Am l 93 Np + 2 He

When no smoke is present, the alpha particles ionise nitrogen and oxygen in the air in the detector.
When smoke is present, the smoke absorbs the alpha particles emitted, so the rate of ionisation drops and this sets off the alarm.


E 

7HFKQHWLXPPLVXVHGLQWKHGLDJQRVLVRIGLVHDVH,WLVLQMHFWHGDQGWKHORZHQHUJ\JDPPDUD\VLWHPLWVFDQEH
GHWHFWHGH[WHUQDOO\7HFKQHWLXPFDQVKRZEORRGRZDEQRUPDOLWLHVKHDUWGHIHFWVDQGWKHVL]HDQGORFDWLRQRI
cancerous growths. It can be attached to a range of biological carriers and thus can concentrate in a number of
different types of tissues and organs.

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5.7.2

7HFKQHWLXPPLVVXLWDEOHIRUXVHLQQXFOHDUPHGLFLQHEHFDXVHRILWVSURSHUWLHVVXFKDV

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exposure to radiation.

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, WFDQEHDWWDFKHGWRDUDQJHRIELRORJLFDOFDUULHUVDQGWKXVFDQFRQFHQWUDWHLQDQXPEHURIGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIWLVVXHV
and organs.

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DSURGXFWRIQXFOHDUVVLRQLQDQXFOHDUUHDFWRU

5.8.1

Various, e.g.

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5
checking the interior of solid objects for wear and cracks, analysis for forensic science and determining when containers are full.

5.8.2

One problem associated with the use of radioisotopes in industries and medicine is their effects on living cells.

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Because of these harmful effects, the use of radioactive isotopes must be carefully monitored.
Another problem is with security during transport and storage of radioactive substances and wastes.
Waste disposal is also a problem. At present radioactive wastes are stored pending agreement on safe disposal.

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Production of Materials

272

Dot Point HSC Chemistry