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# NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

## Nyquist Stability Criteria

D Bishakh
Dr.
Bi h kh Bhattacharya
Bh tt h
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

## Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD

Module 2- Lecture 14

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

ThisLectureContains
Introduction to Geometric Technique for Stability Analysis

## Frequency response of two second order systems

Nyquist Criteria
Gain and Phase Margin of a system

## Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD

Module 2- Lecture 14

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

Introduction
In the last two lectures we have considered the evaluation of stability by
mathematical
th
ti l evaluation
l ti
off the
th characteristic
h
t i ti equation.
ti
R th test
Rouths
t t and
d
Kharitonovs polynomials are used for this purpose.
There are several geometric procedures to find out the stability of a system. These
are based on:
Nyquist Plot
Root Locus Plot and
Bode plot
The advantage of these geometric techniques is that they not only help in
checking the stability of a system, they also help in designing controller for the
y
systems.
JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
MHRD

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

NyquistPlotisbasedonFrequencyResponseofaTransferFunction.Consider
N
i t Pl t i b d
F
R
f T
f F ti
C id
twotransferfunctionsasfollows:

T1 ( s )

s5
s5
;
T
(
s
)

2
s 2 3s 2
s2 s 2

Thetwofunctionshaveidenticalzero.Whileforfunction1,thepolesareat1
and 2 respectively; for function 2 the poles are at +1 and 2 Let us excite both
and2respectively;forfunction2,thepolesareat+1and2.Letusexciteboth
responsesofthetwosystemsareplottedbelow:

StableFrequencyResponseofT1

UnstableFrequencyResponseofT2

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

## Frequency Domain Issues

Consider a closed loop system of plant transfer function G(s) and
Feedback transfer function H(s) respectively.
respectively
The closed loop transfer function corresponding to negative feedback
may be written as:
G ((ss )
T (s)
1 G (s) H (s)
Poles of 1+G(s)H(s) are identical to the poles of G(s)H(s)
Zeroes of 1+G(s)H(s) are the Closed Loop Poles of the Transfer
Function
If we
e ta
take
e a Co
Complex
p e Number
u be in tthe
e ss-plane
pa ea
and
d subst
substitute
tute itt into
to a
Function F(s), it results in another Complex Number which could be
plotted in the F(s) Plane.

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

Cauchy Criteria
Mapping:
A Clockwise contour in the s-plane results in
Clockwise contour in the F(s) plane if it
contains only zeros
A Clockwise contour in the s-plane results in
anti-Clockwise contour in the F(s) plane if it
contains only poles
If the contour in the s
s-plane
plane encloses a pole or a
zero, it results in enclosing of the origin in the F(s)
plane

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

Example:
p A Clockwise Contour in the s-plane
p
for G(s)
( ) = s-z1

Reference:Nise:ControlSystemsEngineering

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

## Example: A clockwise contour around a Right-half Plane Pole for a

function G(s) = 1/(s-p
1/(s p1 )

Reference:Nise:ControlSystemsEngineering

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

Nyquist
yq
Stability
y Criteria

Number
NumberofCounterclockwise(CCW)rotationN
of Counterclockwise (CCW) rotation N =P
Pc Zc (Pc
no.ofenclosedpolesof1+G(s)H(s)andZc no.ofenclosed
zeroes)
ForaContourinsplanemappedthroughtheentirerighthalf
o a o ou
s p a e apped oug
ee e g
a
planeofopenlooptransferfunctionG(s)H(s),thenumberof
closedlooppolesZc (sameastheopenloopzeros)inthe
righthalfplaneequalsthenumberofopenlooppolesPc in
therighthalfplaneminusthenumberofcounterclockwise
revolutionNaroundthepoint1ofthemapping.
Zc=Pc N

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

## Consider a plant transfer function G(s) as follows:

2

s 12s 24
G(s) 2
s 8s 15

For a unity
y feedback closed loop,
p, find using
g Nyquist
yq
Criteria
whether the system will be unstable at some values of K.
(Vary K from 0.5 to 10)

Module 2- Lecture 14

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

TheNyquist diagramcorrespondingtounityGainandtherootlocusare
shownbelowforyourreference.
Nyquist Diagram

Root Locus
0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2
Imaginary Axis (seconds-1)

0.4

Imaginary Axis

0.1

-0 1
-0.1

System: tf1
Gain: 0
0.51
51
Pole: -6.63
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0

0.1

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2
-0.3

-0.3
-0.4
-10

-0.4
04
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-8

-6

-4

-2

## Real Axis (seconds -11)

Real Axis

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NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Gain Margin
g

Thegainmarginisthefactorbywhichthegaincanberaisedsuchthat
thecontourencompassedtheunitypointresultingininstabilityofthe
system.
Followingthefigurebelow,gainmarginistheinverseofthedistance
shown in the figure.
showninthefigure.

Module 2- Lecture 14

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Phase Margin
g

ThePhaseMarginistheamountofphasethatneedstobe
g
p
whilethephaseis1800 .Thefigurebelowisshowingtheta
tobethephasemargin.

Oftencontrolengineersconsiderasystemtobe
0
q
y
p
g
.

Module 2- Lecture 14

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 2- Lecture 14

## Special References for this lecture

Control Engineering and introductory course, Wilkie, Johnson and Katebi,
PALGRAVE
Control Systems Engineering Norman S Nise, John Wiley & Sons
Modern Control Engineering K. Ogata, Prentice Hall

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MHRD

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